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ECE 308

Sampling of Analog Signals

Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude

Signals

Z. Aliyazicioglu

Cal Poly Pomona

ECE 308-3 1

Example: xa (t ) = 3cos100 t

1. Find the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing.

2. If Fs = 200 Hz, What is the discrete-time signal after sampling?

3. If Fs = 75Hz , What is the discrete-time signal after sampling?

4. What is the frequency F of a sinusoidal that yields sampling

identical to obtained in part c?

Solution:

a = 100 F = 50 Hz

The minimum sampling rate is Fs = 2 F = 100Hz

100 1

x(n) = xa (nT ) = 3cos n = 3cos n = 3cos2 n

100 2

ECE 308-3 2

1

Sampling of Analog Signals

Solution:

b If Fs = 200 Hz , the discrete-time signal is

100 1

x(n) = 3cos n = 3cos n = 3cos 2 n

200 2 4

x( n ) = 3cos

100

n = 3cos

4

n = 3cos 2

2 n = 3cos 2 1 n

3

75 3 3

c For the sampling rate Fs = 75 Hz ,

1

F = fFs = f 75 and f = in part in (c). Hence

3

75 So, the analog sinusoidal signal is

F= = 25Hz

3

ya (t ) = 3cos 2 Ft

= 3cos50 t

ECE 308-3 3

especially the frequency content of the signal, to select the

sampling period T or sampling rate Fs.

A TV signal is up to 5Mhz.

Any analog signal can be represented as sum of sinusoids of

different amplitudes, frequencies, and phases.

N

xa (t ) = Ai cos(2 Fi t + i )

i =1

frequency do not exceed the largest frequency Fmax

Fi < Fmax

ECE 308-3 4

2

The Sampling Theorem

Fs > 2 Fmax

1 F 1

fi = i

2 Fs 2

or in radians

i = 2 fi

ECE 308-3 5

Example: Consider an analog signal

xa (t ) = 3cos50 t + 10sin 300 t + 3cos100 t

Solution

F1 = 25Hz F2 = 150Hz F3 = 50Hz

Fmax = F2 = 150Hz

FN = 2 Fmax = 300 Hz

ECE 308-3 6

3

The Sampling Theorem

Example: The analog signal

xa (t ) = 3cos 2000 t + 5sin 6000 t 10cos12000 t

2. Using a sampling rate Fs = 5000 samples/s . What is the

discrete-time signal obtained after sampling?

3. What is the analog signal ya (t ) we can reconstruct from

the samples if we use ideal interpolation?

Solution

1. The frequencies of the analog signal are

F1 = 1 KHz F2 = 3 KHz F3 = 6KHz

ECE 308-3 7

2. For Fs = 5KHz n

x( n ) = xa (nT ) = xa

Fa

1 3 6

= 3cos 2 n + 5sin 2 n 10cos 2 n

5 5 5

1 2 1

= 3cos 2 n + 5sin 2 1 n 10cos 2 1 + n

5 5 5

1 2 1

= 3cos 2 n 5sin 2 n 10cos 2 n

5 5 5

1 2

= 7 cos 2 n 5sin 2 n

5 5

F

For Fs = 5KHz , the folding frequency is Fmax = s = 2.5KHz

2

Hence, F1 = 1 KHz is not effected by aliasing

F2 = 3 KHz is changed by the aliasing effect F2' = F2 Fs = 2 KHz

1 2 1

So that normalize frequencies are f1 = f2 = f3 =

5 5 5

ECE 308-3 8

4

The Sampling Theorem

Solution (cont)

ya (t ) = 7cos 2000 t 5cos 4000 t

ECE 308-3 9

signal by expressing each sample value as a finite number of digits,

is called quantization.

The error between continuous-valued signal and a finite set of

discrete value levels signal is called quantization error or

quantization noise.

>> t=0:0.01:10;

The output of quantizer is xq (n) = Q [ x(n) ] >> x=0.9.^t;

>> plot (t,x)

>> hold on

The quantizer error is eq (n) = xq (n) x( n) >> n=0:10;

>> x=0.9.^n;

>> stem(t,x,'r')

Example:

as

0.9n n0

x ( n) =

0 n<0

ECE 308-3 10

5

Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Signals

n xq (n) x ( n) eq (n)

1 0.9000 0.9000 0.0000

2 0.8000 0.8100 -0.0100

3 0.7000 0.7290 -0.0290

4 0.7000 0.6561 0.0439

5 0.6000 0.5905 0.0095

>> t=0:0.01:10; 6 0.5000 0.5314 -0.0314

>> x=0.9.^t; 7 0.5000 0.4783 0.0217

>> plot (t,x)

>> hold on

8 0.4000 0.4305 -0.0305

>> t=0:10; 9 0.4000 0.3874 0.0126

>> x=0.9.^t; 10 0.3000 0.3487 -0.0487

>> y=0.1*round(10*x);

>> stem(t,y,'r')

>> grid on

ECE 308-3 11

which discards the excess digits.

level.

Distance between two quantization level is called quantization

step size or resolution

If we use rounding process the quantization error is the range of

eq (n)

2 2

and L is number of quantization level, then

xmax xmin

=

L 1

ECE 308-3 12

6

Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Signals

In the example xmin = 0 , xmax = 1 , and, L = 11 , which leads to = 0.1 .

Note:

eq (n) decreases and the accuracy of the quantizer increases.

ECE 308-3 13

signal xa (t ).

ECE 308-3 14

7

Quantization of Sinusoidal Signal

The analog signal xa (t ) is almost linear between quantization levels.

The quantization error

eq (t ) = xa (t ) xq (t )

eq(t)

/2

- t

-/2 0

Here eq (t ) = t t

2

1 t 3 2

2 2

1 1 1 2

Pq = e (t )dt =

2

eq2 (t )dt Pq = t dt = =

2

q

0 0

2 2 3 0 12

ECE 308-3 15

2A

=

2b

Hence, the mean-square error power Pq for the signal xa (t ) is

4 A2 A2

Pq = 2b

=

(12)2 (3)22b

2

1 Tp A

( A cos t ) dt = 2

2

Px =

Tp 0

The ratio of the signal average power to the noise power is the

signal-quantization noise ratio (SQNR) gives

Px 3 2b

SQNR = = 2 In dB, SQNR(dB) = 10log10 SQNR = 1.76 + 6.02b

Pq 2

ECE 308-3 16

8

Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Some cases we may need to convert digital signal to analog

signal again.

The process of converting a digital signal into an analog signal is

called Digital-to-Analog (DAC).

All D/A converters use some kind of interpolation. A simple form

of D/A conversion is zero-order hold or staircase

approximation. Simply holds constant the value of one sample

until the next one is received.

ECE 308-3 17

Digital-to-Analog Conversion

A Linear interpolation is connect successive samples with strait-

line. It needs T second delay so that has knowledge about next

sample values.

high-order interpolation techniques.

ECE 308-3 18

9

Problem

Problem 1.7

An analog signal contains frequencies up to 10Khz.

a. What range of sampling frequencies allows exact

reconstruction of this signal from the samples?

b. Suppose that we sample this signal with a sampling

frequency Fs=8 KHz. Examine what happens to the

frequency F1=5Khz.

c. Repeat part (b) for a frequency F2=9Khz.

Fs = 8Khz. Fs

b Ffold = = 4 Khz.

2

So, F = 5 Khz will be alias of 3KHz

ECE 308-3 19

Problem

Problem 1.15 xa (t ) = sin 2 F0t < t <

F0

and x ( n ) = x ( nT ) = sin 2 n

Fs

Fs = 5 Khz. and F0 = 0.5 Khz. 0 n 99

Solution 1.15

>> n=0:99;

>> x=sin(2*pi*0.1*n);

>> stem (n,x)

ECE 308-3 20

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