You are on page 1of 55

Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.

br Jan2015 30-1

Curso Especializao Ingls

Fonologia
do
Ingls

January 2015
FALE-UFMG

Thas Cristfaro-Silva
www.letras.ufmg.br/cristofaro
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-2

O Ensino de Pronncia na Aula de Lngua Estrangeira

1. O ensino de pronncia: futuros professores e alunos

2. O papel da sonoridade na aquisio de lngua estrangeira

3. O sonho dourado de falar como nativo!

4. Escutando a prpria lngua

5. Exemplos:
1a. arte 1b. artes
2a. art () 2b. arts

3a. tarde 3b. tardes


4a. card () 4b. cards

6. Ensino de pronncia e smbolos fonticos: o uso de dicionrios!

7. Transcries fonticas (simbolizadas entre colchetes [xxx]) ou fonolgicas


(simbolizadas entre barras transversais /xxx/)?

8. Quantos e quais so os sons do ingls?

9. A gradualidade fontica e a particularidade de cada som em cada lngua

10. Aprendendo o diferente e aprendendo a categorizar o diferente

11. O papel do detalhe fontico na organizao do componente fonolgico (incluindo-se


aqui a lngua estrangeira).

O ensino de lngua estrangeira especfico de cada lngua e deve ser


gerenciado de maneira especfica e no globalizante!
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-3

Fontica e Fonologia
[] //
1. Leitura (letra-som) x Escrita (som-letra)
cassa caa
cela sela

2. Correspondncia letra-som:
cachorro 8L/6S
afta 4L/5S
advogando 9L/9S

3. graphemes: letra individual associada a um som


casa
three
allographs: seqncias diferentes de letras que representam o mesmo som
julho/Jlio; mgoa/gua.
mail, convey, hate, steak.
digraphs: seqncias de duas letras (iguais ou diferentes) geralmente representam um som
acha, carro, louco, cheiro.
book, issue, shoe.

4. Como identificar SONS. A relao entre fontica e fonologia

5. Leitura do texto transcrito foneticamente





]

6. Comparao de inventrios do portugus e ingls

7. O mecanismo de produo da fala: as consoantes e as vogais

8. O que uma consoante? O que diferencia as categorias C x V?

9. Explorando os limites do aparelho fonador


Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-4

Parmetros Articulatrios

1. cavidade oral
2. cavidade nasal
3. cavidade nasofaringal
4. cavidade faringal
5. lbio superior
6. dentes superiores
7. alvolos
8. palato duro
9. palato mole (vu palatino)
10. vula
11. lbio inferior
12. dentes inferiores
13. pice da lngua
14. lmina da lngua
15. parte anterior da lngua
16. parte mdia da lngua
17. parte posterior da lngua
18. epiglote
19. laringe
20. esfago
21. glote
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-5

anterior central posterior


no- no- no- Ditongos
arred arred arred
arred arred arred
Crescentes Decrescentes
alta
e o
mdia-alta

mdia-baixa
a
baixa
Nasais
anterior central posterior
no- no- no-
arred arred arred
arred arred arred
alta Nasais
mdia-alta
mdia-baixa
baixa

Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-6

Consoantes do Portugus

Smbolo Classificao do Segmento Consonantal Exemplo Ortogrfico


Oclusiva Bilabial Desvozeada capa, prata, plana, aspas
Oclusiva Bilabial Vozeada cabaa, brava, blasfemar, garbosa
Oclusiva Alveolar Desvozeada ataca, trava, atlas, carta, gasta
Oclusiva Alveolar Vozeada cada, ladra, rdua, esdrxula
Oclusiva Velar Desvozeada acata, cravo, escama, arca, aclama
Oclusiva Velar Vozeada agacha, grata, esgrima, larga, rasga
AfricadaAlveopalatal Desvozeada Tiago, tpica, mrtir, ativista
Africada Alveopalatal Vozeada tardia, diria, adiada, dica
Fricativa Labiodental Desvozeada fraca, afaga, flama, esfola, arfar
Fricativa Labiodental Vozeada rvore, livro, cavalo, esvair
Fricativa Alveolar Desvozeada assanhada, cachaa, gara, salsicha, casca,
paz, esta
Fricativa Alveolar Vozeada dezde, zero, exagera, rasa
Fricativa Alveopalatal Desvozeada marcha, xadrs, chuva, Caxias
Fricativa Alveopalatal Vozeada maraj, argila, janela, general
Fricativa Velar Desvozeada r, carta, marra, Israel, amar
Fricativa Velar Vozeada larga, corda, brbara
Fricativa Glotal Desvozeada r, carta, marra, Israel, amar
Fricativa Glotal Vozeada larga, corda, brbara
Nasal Bilabial Vozeada me, arma, esmola, lama
Nasal Alveolar Vozeada cana, Arnaldo, asno, nata
ou Nasal Palatal Vozeada assanha, cnhamo, lasanha
Tepe Alveolar Vozeado praa, sarar, gravador, mar
Vibrante Alveolar Vozeada r,, marra, Israel
Retroflexa Alveolar Vozeada carta, amar
Lateral Alveolar Vozeada plstica, lua, isl, orla
ou w Lateral Alveolar Vozeada Velarizada malvada, alar, anel, Brasil
ou Lateral Palatal Vozeada galha, malharia, alho
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-7

O Mtodo das Vogais Cardeais


Cristfaro-Silva. 1999. O Mtodo das Vogais Cardeais e as Vogais do Portugus Brasileiro
In: Revista de Estudos da Linguagem. 1999. Volume 8. Nmero 2. Belo Horizonte.
www.letras.ufmg.br/cristofaro (ir em publicaes)
[O artigo apresenta uma proposta de anlise do sistema voclico do portugus brasileiro baseada no Mtodo
das Vogais Cardeais (Abercrombie (1967, Jones (1980)). Inicialmente descrevemos em detalhes tal mtodo]

Figuras identificando a rea voclica no aparelho fonador


Encontra-se venda uma gravao dos sons adotados pelo Alfabeto Internacional de
Fontica. (http://www2.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA). Dentre estes sons temos a gravao das Vogais
Cardeais (e obviamente das consoantes tambm). Este material, elaborado pelo Professor
John Wells do University College London, pode ser obtido em fita cassete (U$12) ou em CD
(U$17) (http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/cassette.htm).

As Vogais Cardeais Primrias expressas em termos das principais caractersticas articulatrias:


(altobaixo); (anteriorposterior) e (arredondadono-arredondado)
Tomando como referncia os valores cardeais descritos acima, podemos identificar
qualquer segmento voclico de qualquer lngua. Podemos adotar um dos smbolos
apresentados para a vogal cardeal mais prxima vogal que pretendemos descrever ou
podemos utilizar um dos diacrticos abaixo para precisar a localizao de tal vogal na rea
voclica.
levantada qualidade mais alta abaixada qualidade mais baixa
retrada qualidade mais posterior avanada qualidade mais anterior
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-8

Diagrama das Vogais Cardeais Associao Internacional de Fontica


http://www2.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA/ipa.html

Combinaes formam ditongos, que em portugues podem ser orais ou nasais


Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-9

English Vowels
http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/hyfl/projektit/vokaalikartat_eng.html#italian_vowels

British English (monophthongs)


Each vowel type is exemplified with a keyword. Data from Deterding 1997, where the vowels
were obtained from a digital speech database consisting of the speech of five male speakers;
approximately 10 occurrences per vowel type.
Deterding, David (1997) The formants of monophthong vowels in Standard Southern British English
pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 27, 47-55.

http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/hyfl/projektit/vokaalikartat_eng.html#italian_vowels

American English vowels: Mean formant values of 33 male speakers for ten American English vowels.
The test words were of the form /hVd/ and each speaker produced the testwords twice. The keywords
were not includedin the data. Vowel length is not shown in the figure.
Data from: G. E. Peterson & H.L.Barney (1952) Control methods used in a study of the vowels. Journal
of the Acoustical Society of America, 24, 175-184
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-10

Consoantes e Vogais do Ingls

alveopalatal
labiodental
interdental

alveolar
bilabial
24

glotal
velar
CONSOANTES

Oclusivas vozeadas
desvozeadas
Africadas vozeadas
desvozeadas
Fricativas vozeadas
desvozeadas
Nasais vozeadas
Laterais vozeadas
Rtico vozeadas
Aproximante vozeadas

anterior central posterior


12 no-arredondada No-arredondada arredondada
VOGAIS
longa breve longa breve longa breve
alta
mdia ,
baixa

8 DITONGOS
Ditongo crescente Ditongo decrescente
terminado em terminado em



Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-11

Consoantes e Vogais do Ingls


Vogais Vogais longas Ditongos Ditongos Consoantes Consontes vozeadas (exceto )
curtas decrescentes crentralizados desvozeadas






ssw

12 vogais 8 ditongos 24 consoantes

44 sons
Thas Cristfaro-Silva2004
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-12

Informaes importantes
OUTROS SMBOLOS
Indica a vogal tnica: ''black'' k
. Indica o limite silbico: ''practice'' .
Representa os casos em que ocorre em: posio tona
final - como em ''happy'' hp.; ou quando seguido de
outra vogal (i+vogal) - como em ''react'' r.; ou em
alguns prefixos como ''be-, re'' - como em ''believe''
.. Nestes casos uma vogal breve/tensa - -
pronunciada.
Representa os casos em que ocorre seguido de outra
vogal (u+vogal) - como em ''cruel'' .. Nestes casos
uma vogal breve/tensa - - pronunciada.
O t-d que se tornam um tepe ou ''flap'' e tpico da
pronncia norte-americana ''city'' .

O ''schwa'' indica que uma vogal pode ser pronunciada


muito brevemente ou pode ser omitida: ''bottle'' . ou
.

Regra de formao de plural e 3 pessoa singular presente


Se o substantivo ou verbo termina... Plural e 3psp
em vogal, ditongo ou em consoante vozeada (exceto , , ) Adicione
em consoante desvozeada (exceto , , ) Adicione
em , , , , ou Adiciona

Regra de formao de passado e particpio passado


Se o verbo termina ... Pass e Particpio
Pass
em vogal, ditongo ou em consoante vozeada (exceto ) Adicione
em consoante desvozeada (exceto ) Adicione
em ou Adicione
Thas Cristfaro-Silva 2004
Em ingls:
Vogais longas so tensas (tense) e vogais breves so frouxas (lax).
Vogais longas podem ocorrer em final de slaba e de palavra em ingls .
Vogais breves no ocorrem em slabas abertas em ingls (ou seja, em finald e slaba
incluindo final de palavra) que equivalente a dizer queVogais breves sempre
ocorrem em slabas travadas em ingls.
As vogais em ingls so tipicamente orais mesmo quandoseguidas de consoantes
nasais.
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-13

Weak and Strong forms


Exemplo Forma Forma
a
forte Observao
fraca sobre as formas fracas
antes de consoantes
am aps I (am)
nos outros casos
an antes de vogais
and
are antes de consoantes
antes de vogais
as
at
be
but
can
usado antes de consoantes. A forma usada antes de
do vogais
does
for antes de consoantes

antes de vogais
from
aps
has
aps
nos demais casos
have aps I, we, you, they. Somente quando verbo auxiliar.

nos outros casos
had aps I, we, she, we, you, they. Somente quando verbo auxiliar.

nos outros casos
her
him
his
aps
is aps vogais e consoantes vozeadas, exceto , , . Aps
a forma forte sempre usada
must
of
shall
should
some quando 'some' quer dizer 'uma certa quantidade' ocorre a forma forte.
than
that quando indica, especificamente, algo usa-se a forma forte
the antes de consoantes. Antes de vogais, tende ocorrer a forma forte
them
to antes de consoantes. Antes de vogais, tende ocorrer a forma forte
us somente em ''Lets''
was
were
aps I, he, she, we, you, they
Will
aps consoantes exceto

aps vogais e
Would aps I, he, she, we, you, they

nos outros casos
you
your
Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-14

Better English Pronunciation


OConnor (1980: 7)

Letters are written , sounds are spoken. It is very useful



to have written letters to remind us of corresponding sounds,



but this is all they do; they cannot make us pronounce



sounds which we do not already know; they simply remind us.



In ordianry English spelling is not always easy



to know what sounds the letters stand for; for example, in the words city,
busy, women, pretty, village the letters



i, y, u, o, e and a all stand for the same vowel sound,


the one which occurs in sit.




Especializao Ingls Fonologia L1 - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br Jan2015 30-15

Exercises
Ex 01: Escreva o smbolo fontico inicial das palavras
1. cheiro 2. gato 3. janela
4. junto 5. cheque 6. chuva
7. couro 8. tipo 9. dica
10. cinema 11. girafa 12. rato

Ex 02: Indique o nmero de sons que ocorrem em cada uma das palavras abaixo:
03 1. sal 6. liquidao 11. impregna
2. casa 7. dogma 12. tardes
3. carro 8. cinto 13. quilo
4. pasta 9. quadro 14. tambm
5. gueto 10. xcara 15. goiaba

Ex 03: Classifique o som intervoclico nas palavras abaixo. Escreva o smbolo fontico correspondente. Siga o exemplo.
Palavra Smbolo Classificao
1. passa Fricativa alveolar desvozeada
2. cara
3. gata
4. bala
5. palha
6. banha
7. garra
8. casa
9. caj
10. acha

Ex 04: Escreva o smbolo fontico correspondente ao segmento inicial das palavras abaixo:
Palavra Smbolo Palavra Smbolo
1. chave 6. gato
2. tijolo 7. dia
3. jaca 8. lua
4. cama 9. xarope
5. gelo 10. rapaz

Ex 05: D um exemplo de palavra do portugus brasileiro que tenha o segmento classificado abaixo. Indique o
seu smbolo fontico
Segmento Smbolo Exemplo
1. Oclusiva bilabial desvozeada capricho
2. Tepe alveolar vozeado
3. Fricativa alveolar desvozeada
4. Fricativa alveopalatal desvozeada
5. Fricativa alveopalatal vozeada
6. Nasal bilabial vozeada
7. Fricativa labiodental desvozeda
8. Africada alveopalatal desvozeada
9. Oclusiva alveolar vozeada
10. Africada alveopalatal vozeada

Ex 06: Marque as consoantes que tenham a propriedade articulatria listada esquerda (3 em cada grupo).
a. vozeado f. fricativo
b. desvozeado g. lateral
c. nasal h. bilabial
d. oral i. alveolar
e. oclusivo j. velar
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex 07: Selecione uma das palavras abaixo cujo segmento inicial corresponda ao segmento listado abaixo.

lado cravo frio vaca tipo moa gado zero


a. Oclusiva velar vozeada gado
b. Africada alveopalatal desvozeada ________________
c. Fricativa labiodental vozeada ________________
d. Nasal bilabial voeada ________________
e. Lateral alveolar vozeada ________________
f. Fricativa labiodental desvozeada ________________
g. Fricativa alveolar vozeada ________________
h. Oclusiva velar desvozeada ________________

Ex 08: Para cada um dos segmentos listados abaixo escreva o correspondente vozeado. Siga o exemplo.

Ex 09:

Ex 10:

lua mala cena falha lata


cinema sol tarde chuva mame
ala canjica dado melo car
pulga doce salsa muda sal
pano droga cassino bola tropa
traa calota carro massa selo
grade soda caneta folha lama

Ex 11: Classifique as vogais tnicas orais do portugus de acordo com as categorias listadas abaixo. As vogais a
serem classificadsa so: ,,,,,,
Anterior
Central
Posterior
Alta
Mdia-alta
Mdia-baixa
Baixa

Ex 12: Nas palavras abaixo indique o smbolo fontico da vogal tnica.


1. bal 2. piv 3. japons
4. pav 5. mdico 6. poo
7. roa 8. pssaro 9. corda
10. pea 11. fossa 12. medo
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex 13:

l cem sabo sim bombom


hora rua canto mulher surda
rum pompom atum bem tom
placa moda cabelo anjo flor

Ex 14: Circule as palavras que terminam em som consonantal


1. system 5. cabagge 9. vulture 13. these
2. fox 6. coffee 10. cheese 14. orange
3. happy 7. ring 11. baby 15. cow
4. gender 8. blame 12. drama 16. service

Ex 15: Em cada grupo de palavras abaixo circule aquelas que satisfaam a condio pedida:
a. Termina em som consonantal
lady employee laugh drama piece house quite
b. Termina em som voclico
high snow assume him scene spy law
c. Termina em som consonantal
coffee late tough home niece unique one
d. Termina em som voclico
party plane star edge scene fly sigh

Ex 16: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo


1 niece 6 piece
2 bead 7 it
3 heavy 8 green
4 is 9 tree
5 meat 10 English

Ex 17: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo


1 fase 6 please
2 basic 7 rice
3 beauty 8 cough
4 of 9 young
5 fantasy 10 crisis

Ex 18: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 prices 6 hope
2 said 7 ready
3 says 8 trees
4 eggs 9 cars
5 sleeps 10 cups

Ex 19: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo



1 books 6 forks
2 door 7 true
3 good 8 bored
4 pot 9 God
5 boom 10 kisses
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex 20: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 boys 6 this
2 they 7 cheap
3 stay 8 these
4 thought 9 shame
5 rouge 10 Jane

Ex 21: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 love 6 bus
2 cow 7 water
3 ugly 8 does
4 bird 9 gold
5 just 10 cold

Ex 22: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 kings 6 man
2 rooms 7 men
3 noses 8 hanged
4 women 9 beers
5 woman 10 bears

Ex 23: D um exemplo em forma ortogrfica e fontica de cada um dos sons consonantais do ingls listados
abaixo:
som ortografia fontica som ortografia fontica



rouge [ru:]


















Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex 24: Transcreva ortograficamente os seguintes enunciados:


1) ____________________________________________
2) ________________________________
3) ________________________________________________
4) _____________________________________________

Ex 25: Circule ou marque um X nas palavras que tm o som listado na coluna da esquerda:
1. people built key busy sea
2. book shoe move pull soup would
3. love duck flood bug double
4. many ready says marry bye
5. pleasure jam sugar vision regime
6. boat house show know doubt
7. choice cage which edge nature
8. pack ghost orchestra come acquire
9. chew wolf too move look
10. f chef action social cause shoe laugh

Ex 26: Circule as palavras que tm a vogal listada na coluna da esquerda


1) bin, reach, fill, see, sea, sin
2) bet, dead, bed, fell, wet, led
3) bat, dad, card, lack, bad, last
4) duck, cup, nut, lost, luck, rum
5) last, tan, bat, card, ward, pass
6) dock, box, cod, cord, Paul, lack

Ex 27: As duas sentenas abaixo representam transcries que apresentam desvio de pronncia padro do
ingls. Faa as correces adequadas.
a) _________________________________

b) ___________________________________

Ex 28: Escolha UMA das opes como a transcrio fontica da palavra em forma ortogrfica. Marque-a com
um X ou circule-a.
1. bird
2. walk
3. mail
4. middle
5. night
6. never
7. family
8. dream
9. woman
10. complete

Ex 29: Escolha a uma das opes como a transcrio fontica da palavra em forma ortogrfica:
1. rich
2. search
3. fetch
4. bridge
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

5. surge
6. catch

Ex 30: D um exemplo de palavra para cada um dos sons listados abaixo (em transcrio fontica e ortogrfica)
Som Fontica Ortografia Som Fontica Ortografia









Ex 31: Escreva a forma ortogrfica e a forma fontica de 3a. psp e do passado dos verbos listados na tabela
abaixo (indique todo o verbo e a terminao verbal):
Fontica Ortografia Presente Passado

Ex 32: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo:


1. happy 2. small
3. science 4. thing
5. English 6. hat
7. house 8. fantasy
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

9. because 10. never


11. rice 12. ask
13. niece 14. slow
15. basic 16. these
17. was 18. study
19. street 20. money

Ex 33: Transcreva foneticamente as sentenas abaixo


a. He is just twelve years old.

b. They arrived very late for the meeting.

c. Ive been thinking about them in the past few days.

Ex 34: Em cada par de pronncia circule aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado de falante nativo.
Indique a forma ortogrfica que voc identificou.
Pronncia Ortogrfica
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ex 35: Em cada par de pronncia marque com um (x) xis aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado
de falante nativo. Na forma que no foi selecionada circule o(s) desvio(s) da pronncia nativa.

Ex 36: Em cada par de pronncia circule aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado de falante nativo.
Indique a forma ortogrfica que voc identificou.
Pronncia Ortogrfica
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Referncias
ABERCROMBIE, David. Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh University
Press. Edinburgh. 1967.fontica e fonologia do ingls
CRISTFARO-SILVA, Thas. O Ensino de Pronncia de Lngua Estrangeira. IN;
Em torno da Lingua(gem): questes e anlises. UESB. Vitria da Conquista.
CRISTFARO-SILVA, Thas. Pronncia do Ingls para Falantes do Portugus
Brasileiro. FALE. 2005.
CRISTFARO-SILVA, Thas. Fontica e Fonologia do Portugus.:roteiro de
estudos e guia de exerccios. Editora Contexto. 2001.
CRISTFARO-SILVA, Thas. (2000). O Mtodo das Vogais Cardeais e as Vogais
do Portugus Brasileiro. Revista de Estudos da Linguagem UFMG. Volume 8.
Nmero 2, jul-dez 1999.
LADEFOGED, Peter. A Course in Phonetics. 3rd. ed. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
1993.fontica e fonologia do ingls
O'CONNOR, J. D. Better English Pronunciation. 2nd ed. Cambridge Univesrity
Press. 1980.Excelente livro de pronncia do ingls
KREIDLER, Charles. The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book in Phonology.
Blackwell. 1989.Excelente livro de fonologia do ingls
WELL, J. Why phonetic transcription is important. Online. 2008.

Dicionrios
JONES, D. English Pronuncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. 1997 (1st ed
1917 by J. M.Dent &Sons Ltd.). 15th ed. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. CIDE (Cambridge International Dictionary of
English). 2000.
KENYON, J. S. & Knott. Pronouncing Dictionary of American English. G & C
Merrian & Co. 1953.
WELLS, John. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman. 1990.
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Instrues Praat

1) Para abrir o PRAAT: clicar no cone no seu explorer


Duas janelas:
Praat objects abre arquivos, faz gravaes, etc.
Praat picture imprime

Para gravar:
Na janela do praat objects, clique em new, record mono sound ou record stereo sound. Para salvar um som que voc
acabou de gravar clique em save to list, na caixa de gravao, depois selecione o som e v no menu Write, Write to
Wave file.

Para abrir um arquivo j existente:


Clique no menu read depois read from file.
Se for um som longo, clique no menu read, depois open long sound file.

Para editar:
Selecione o dado que voc quer editar na janela em branco, que aparece do lado esquerdo no praat objects. Clique em
edit. A aparece o som editado. Em cima o oscilograma, ou seja, a onda, e em baixo o espectrograma.

Espectrogramas:
Banda larga estrutura do formante
Banda estreita - harmnicos
Se o espectrograma no visvel no sound editor, clique em show spectrogram. O default o espectrograma visvel.
Voc pode ajustar os parmetros do espectrograma, clicando em Spectrogram settings ou Advanced spectrogram
settings. No spectrogram settings aparece uma janela com as opes:
View range
Window length define banda larga e banda estreita. Banda larga: 0,003 a 0,005 (depende do informante) Banda
estreita: 0,03
Dynamic range o default do praat 50 db. Se voc aumenta, as linhas escurecem, se diminui, clareiam. Se h um
sinal com muito rudo, a soluo diminuir (passar pra 30 ou 40 db).
- Voc pode pegar o valor da intensidade, do pitch ou dos formantes, clicando no menu correspondente a esses
parmetros. Se voc pedir show formants, vo aparecer pontos vermelhos indicando o lugar dos formantes.

Para editar
Para recortar uma palavra, primeiro voc seleciona a palavra. Depois voc salva. Para salvar, clique em file, write
selection to wav file, d um nome.wav, por exemplo, onda.wav e salve.
Para abrir novamente esse som. V ao praat objects, clique em open, depois em edit.

Para imprimir:
Para imprimir ou para inserir o espectrograma em algum documento do word, voc precisa transferi-lo para a janela
praat picture.

Para transferir a onda.


Selecione a onda. Clique em file, extract selection. O nome sound untitled aparece na janela do praat objects.
Selecione esse som. Clique em draw. Quando voc d ok, esse som aparece na janela do praat picture dentro da caixa
cor de rosa. O espao dessa caixa cor de rosa, ser o espao ocupado pela onda. A partir da voc pode imprimir,
clicando em print, ou criar um arquivo de figuras para inserir em qualquer documento do word.

Para criar um arquivo, clique em: Write to windows metafile. D um nome .emf, por exemplo, onda.emf.

Para transferir espectrograma.


No janela sound, onde est o espectrograma, v em spectrogram e extract visible spectrogram. No praat objects
aparece spectrogram untitled. Selecione, v janela do praat picture e defina o tamanho da caixa cor de rosa. Em
seguida, clique em paint. O espectrograma aparecer na janela do praat picture. Para imprimir clique em print. Para
salvar como uma figura do word, clique em file, write to windows meta file. D um nome .emf, por exemplo,
espectrograma.emf.
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

Resposta dos Exerccios da Apostila CEI - Thas Cristfaro Silva - 2014

Ex 01: Escreva o smbolo fontico inicial das palavras


13. [ cheiro 14. gato 15. janela
16. junto 17. cheque 18. chuva
19. couro 20. tipo 21. dica
22. cinema 23. girafa 24. rato

Ex 02: Indique o nmero de sons que ocorre em cada uma das palavras abaixo:
03 1.sal 09 ou 10 6. liquidao 07 ou 08 11. impregna
04 2. casa 05 ou 06 7. dogma 05 ou 06 12. tardes
04 3. carro 04 8. cinto 04 13. quilo
05 4. pasta 06 9. quadro 05 14. tambm
04 5. gueto 06 10. xcara 06 15. goiaba

Ex 03: Classifique o som intervoclico nas palavras abaixo. Escreva o smbolo fontico correspondente. Siga o exemplo.
Palavra Smbolo Classificao
1. passa Fricativa alveolar desvozeada
2. cara Tepe alveolar vozeado
3. gata Oclusiva alveolar desvozeada
4. bala Lateral alveolar vozeada
5. palha Lateral palatal vozeada
6. banha Nasal palatal vozeada
7. garra Fricativa glotal desvozeada
8. casa Fricativa alveolar vozeada
9. caj Fricativa alveopalatal vozeada
10. acha Fricativa alveopalatal desvozeada

Ex 04: Escreva o smbolo fontico correspondente ao segmento inicial das palavras abaixo
Palavra Smbolo Palavra Smbolo
1. chave 6. gato
2. tijolo 7. dia
3. jaca 8. lua
4. cama 9. xarope
5. gelo 10. rapaz

Ex 05: D um exemplo de palavra do portugus brasileiro que tenha os egmento classificado abaixo. Indique o seu smbolo
fontico
Segmento Smbolo Exemplo
1. Oclusiva bilabial desvozeada capricho
2. Tepe alveolar vozeado cara
3. Fricativa alveolar desvozeada seu
4. Fricativa alveopalatal desvozeada chave
5.Fricativa alveopalatal vozeada jogo
6. Nasal bilabial vozeada meu
7. Fricativa labiodental desvozeda foi
8.Africada alveopalatal vozeada cappuccino
9.Oclusiva alveolar vozeada dar
10. Africada alveopalatal vozeada dia

Ex 06: Marque as consoantes que tenham a propriedade articulatria listada esquerda (3 em cada grupo)
a. vozeado
b. desvozeado
Apostila CEI 2014 Thas Cristfaro Silva FALE-UFMG thaiscristofaro@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

c. nasal
d. oral
e. oclusivo
f. fricativo
g. lateral
h. bilabial
i. alveolar
j. velar

Ex 07: Selecione uma das palavras abaixo cujo segmento inicial corresponda ao segmento listado abaixo.
lado cravo frio vaca tipo moa gado zero
a. Oclusiva velar vozeada gado
b. Africada alveopalatal desvozeada tipo
c. Fricativa labiodental vozeada vaca
d. Nasal bilabial voeada moa
e. Lateral alveolar vozeada lado
f. Fricativa labiodental desvozeada frio
g. Fricativa alveolar vozeada zero
h. Oclusiva velar desvozeada cravo

Ex 08: Para cada um dos segmentos listados abaixo escreva o correspondente vozeado. Siga o exemplo.
x

Ex 09:


-----
-----

Ex 10:

lua mala cena falha lata


cinema sol tarde chuva mame
ala canjica dado melo car
pulga doce salsa muda sal
pano droga cassino bola tropa
traa calota carro massa selo
grade soda caneta folha lama

Ex 11: Classifique as vogais tnicas orais do portugus de acordo com as categorias listadas abaixo. As vogais a serem
classificadsa so: ,,,,,,
anterior ,, Mdia-alta ,
Central Mdia-baixa ,
Posterior ,, Baixa
Alta ,

Ex 12: Nas palavras abaixo indique o smbolo fontico da vogal tnica.


13. bal 14. piv 15. japons
16. pav 17. mdico 18. poo
Especializao Ingls Fonologia - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br 30-26

19. roa 20. ] pssaro 21. corda


22. pea 23. fossa 24. dedo

Ex 13:

l cem sabo sim bombom

hora rua canto mulher surda

rum pompom atum bem tom

placa moda cabelo anjo flor

Ex 14: Circule as palavras que terminam em som consonantal


1. system 5. cabagge 9. vulture 13. these
2. fox 6. coffee 10. cheese 14. orange
3. happy 7. ring 11. baby 15. cow
4. gender 8. blame 12. drama 16. service

Ex 15: Em cada grupo de palavras abaixo circule aquelas que satisfaam a condio pedida:
e. Termina em som consonantal
lady employee laugh drama piece house quite
f. Termina em som voclico
high snow assume him scene spy law
g. Termina em som consonantal
coffee late tough home niece unique one
h. Termina em som voclico
party plane star edge scene fly sigh

Ex 16: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo


1 niece 6 piece
2 bead 7 it
3 heavy 8 green
4 is 9 tree
5 meat 10 English

Ex 17: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo


1 phase 6 please
2 basic 7 rice
3 beauty 8 cough
4 of 9 young
5 fantasy 10 crisis

Ex 18: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 prices 6 hope
2 said 7 ready
3 says 8 trees
4 eggs 9 cars
5 sleeps 10 cups

Ex 19: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo



1 books 6 forks
2 door 7 true
3 good 8 bored
4 pot 9 God
5 boom 10 kisses
Especializao Ingls Fonologia - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br 30-27

Ex 20: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 boys 6 this
2 they 7 cheap
3 stay 8 these
4 thought 9 shame
5 rouge 10 Jane

Ex 21: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 love 6 bus
2 cow 7 water
3 ugly 8 does
4 bird 9 gold
5 just 10 cold

Ex 22: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo

1 kings 6 man
2 rooms 7 men
3 noses 8 hanged
4 women 9 biers
5 woman 10 bears

Ex 23: D um exemplo em forma ortogrfica e fontica de cada um dos sons consonantais do ingls listados abaixo:
som ortografia fontica som ortografia fontica

pot this
bus these
tea shoe
dad rouge
cow home
ugly shame
cheap no
just ring
thin love
the right
phone yes
very water
me toy
Tom book
you I
men busy
they door
it man
about does
bird beers
Especializao Ingls Fonologia - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br 30-28

now tour
cold bears

Ex 24: Transcreva ortograficamente os seguintes enunciados:


1. They came yesterday.
2. Thank you very much for your advice.
3. Yes, I mentioned it.
4. Whats her phone number.

Ex 25: Circule ou marque um X nas palavras que tm o som listado na coluna da esquerda:
11. people built key busy sea
12. book shoe move pull soup would
13. love duck flood bug double
14. many ready says marry bye
15. pleasure jam sugar vision regime
16. boat house show know doubt
17. choice cage which edge nature
18. pack ghost orchestra come acquire
19. chew wolf too move look
20. f chef action social cause shoe laugh

Ex 26: Circule as palavras que tm a vogal listada na coluna da esquerda


1) bin, reach, fill, see, sea, sin
2) bet, dead, bed, fell, wet, led
3) bat, dad, card, lack, bad, last
4) duck, cup, nut, lost, luck, rum
5) last, tan, bat, card, ward, pass
6) dock, box, cod, cord, Paul, lack

Ex 27: As duas sentenas abaixo representam transcries que apresentam desvio de pronncia padro do ingls. Faa as
correces adequadas.
a.
b.

Ex 28: Escolha UMA das opes como a transcrio fontica da palavra em forma ortogrfica. Marque-a com um X ou circule-a.
11. bird
12. walk
13. mail
14. middle
15. night
16. never
17. family
18. dream
19. woman
20. complete

Ex 29: Escolha a uma das opes como a transcrio fontica da palavra em forma ortogrfica:
1. rich
2. search
3. fetch
4. bridge
5. surge
6. catch
Especializao Ingls Fonologia - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br 30-29

Ex 30: D um exemplo de palavra para cada um dos sons listados abaixo (em transcrio fontica e ortogrfica)
Som Fontica Ortografia Som Fontica Ortografia

thin try

Mum enjoy

light now

joke say

that free

church bed

write bad

fact word

wrong is

home dog

Ex 31: Escreva a forma ortogrfica e a forma fontica de 3a. psp e do passado dos verbos listados na tabela abaixo (indique todo
o verbo e a terminao verbal):
Fontica Ortografia Presente Passado
snow
beg
please
decide
kiss
grab
aim
whistle
open
practice
help
depend
arrive
pick
push
taste
protect
enjoy
free
sniff

Ex 32: Transcreva foneticamente as palavras abaixo:


happy small
science thing
English hat
house fantasy
because never
rice ask
niece slow
basic these
was study
street money
Especializao Ingls Fonologia - CEI-FALE-UFMG Thas Cristfaro-Silva thaiscristofarosilva@ufmg.br 30-30

Ex 33: Transcreva foneticamente as sentenas abaixo


a. He is just twelve years old.

b. They arrived very late for the meeting.

c. Ive been thinking about them in the past few days.

Ex 34: Em cada par de pronncia circule aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado de falante nativo. Indique a forma
ortogrfica que voc identificou.
Pronncia Ortogrfica
1. thank you
2. very good
3. Yes, Im well.
4. Whats your name?

Ex 35: Em cada par de pronncia marque com um (x) xis aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado de falante
nativo. Na forma que no foi selecionada circule o(s) desvio(s) da pronncia nativa.

I love cakes.

This is my favourite toy.

Who is that man?

Im very concerned.

Thats very nice of you. Thank you!


I like you very much, my dear friends.

Ex 36: Em cada par de pronncia circule aquela que parece ser mais prxima a um enunciado de falante nativo. Indique a forma
ortogrfica que voc identificou.
Pronncia Ortogrfica
1. I was in London.
2. It is a miracle.
3. It is cold.
4. Im going home.
 

JOHN WELLS


Goals in teaching English pronunciation

1. Aims in language teaching

The current debate about the phonology of English as an international


language (EIL) should encourage us to think about our aims in
language teaching, and specifically in the teaching of English
pronunciation in the context of English for speakers of other
languages. Some of the questions we need to address are as follows.

Are we teaching EFL, ESL or EIL? that is, do we intend our


students to use English as a foreign language, as a second
language, or as an international language? Now the mere
formulation of this question exposes its absurdity. English in
Poland may not currently have any role as a second language
in the sense of a role such as it plays in India, Nigeria or
Singapore; but Polish learners of English will surely want to
be able to apply their learning of English both in an EFL
context and in an EIL context. They want to be able to apply
their acquired knowledge of English by participating
wherever English is used. It is not realistic to ask for a choice
between EFL and EIL: our students need both.
Do you and your students want to be able to interact with
native speakers? or only with non-native speakers? Will
they interact with the British, the Americans, the Australians,
the Irish, the English-speaking West Indians and the
Canadians? Or will they interact with those whose L1 is not
English, for example with the Japanese, the Scandinavians,
 

and the Arabs? Or indeed with those who will shortly be your
partners in the European Union the Italians, the Spanish, the
Austrians to the extent that they will be speaking English
with them rather than French, German or some other EU
language? Clearly, Polish learners will want to be able to
interact with both native speakers (NSs) and non-native
speakers (NNSs).
The teaching of English to speakers of other languages may
indeed have different aims in, for example, Britain, Nigeria,
and Japan respectively. In teaching English to immigrants in
Britain, the main aim is clearly to enable learners to interact
with British people, native speakers. In Nigerian primary
schools, it is to enable them to participate in the public life of
their country by interacting with other Nigerians. In Japan a
main focus might indeed be the use of English to
communicate with the Chinese or the Latin Americans.
What are the students personal aims and aspirations in
language learning? Different students in the same class of
school or university may well have rather different aims.
Some just want enough English to communicate at a basic
level, or indeed just enough to pass some examination. Others
aim to achieve the best they possibly can. We must cater for
both types and for those who fall somewhere between.
Speaking personally, I must say that my own aspiration in
learning languages is NS-like proficiency. I acknowledge that
I may be unlikely to attain it. But that doesnt stop me aiming
for it. I try to inspire my students with the same high ideal. If
it were suggested that I should not even aim so high, I should
feel short-changed.
 

2. English as an international language

What, then, are the characteristics of English as an International


Language? Arguably, it suffers from a number of design faults,
characteristics that make it unsuitable for this role newly imposed
upon it.
It has an elaborate and unwieldy vocabulary. Even among the
most basic and frequent words there are many sets of near-
synonyms such as ill vs. sick, big vs. large, small vs. little,
tricky to distinguish between. Where we have a single noun
king we have three related adjectives: kingly (of Germanic
origin), royal (French) and regal (Latin). They have subtly
different nuances, which may be fine for literature and literary
language, but are a superfluous burden for those who only
want to use the language for practical purposes. The verb
arrive has an associated noun arrival; but for depart the noun
is not *departal but departure. When the plan lands that is not
a *landal or a *landure but a landing; when it takes off again
that is not a *take-offal, *take-offure or *taking-off but a
simple take-off. This inconsistency in derivational
morphology (typical of English) is an unnecessary
complication for NNSs.
It has a complex syntax, although this is partly compensated
for by the simplicity of the inflectional morphology.
Its orthography is notoriously inconsistent and irregular. You
cannot safely predict the pronunciation from the spelling. Nor,
given the pronunciation, can you reliably infer the spelling.
Its phonetics is idiosyncratic, including various
characteristics that are unusual from the point of view of
universals: an large and elaborate vowel system, including
complex processses of length alternation and weakening
(compete-competitive-competition); a consonant system that
includes dental fricatives ([7, ']) and voiced sibilants ([z, =,
 

d=]), which are problematic for many learners; words stress


placement that is free, i.e. arbitrary and frequently
unpredictable; and an intonation system that seems to be more
complex and to have a much higher functional load than that
of most other languages.

It it because of such considerations that some (including me) have


argued that for international purposes we ought to use Esperanto,
rather than English. Given, however, that most people seem content
for English to play this role, what special provisions do we need to
make for EIL?

The Lingua Franca Core (LFC) approach can be represented


with oversimplification and rather unfairly as saying that we
should ignore the parts of English that NNSs tend to get wrong.
Jennifer Jenkins has made a number of proposals in The Phonology of
English as an International Language (Jenkins 2000). We shall
consider some of them in a moment. If we applied similar proposals
not to phonetics but to grammar, it would arguably mean ignoring
such difficult matters as the articles (coffeea coffeethe coffee), the
number system (singular vs. plural, dog vs. dogs), the distinction
between countable [C] and uncountable [U] (so that we could happily
talk of informations and furnitures), and the distinction in verbs
between progressive and non-progressive (are you smoking? vs. do
you smoke, which even fluent users of English in Scandinavia
typically ignore). In vocabulary we could stop worrying about false
friends such as actually and eventually, relatively international words
where the NS English meaning is out of line with the meaning in
other languages that have the word.

Many of the oddities of NNS pronunciation of English are due


to inappropriate inference from the spelling. The NS spoken form of
marvellous is [m$(r)v()ls]. NNSs who say [mavelus] or the like,
with [u] in the final syllable, are doing so purely on the basis of
(mis)interpreting the spelling. Native speakers pronounce climbing as
[kla,m,1] or [kla,m,n]. Nigerians who say [klaimbi1g], with [-b-],
do so because of spelling. For NSs, the past tense of look [l8k] is
 

looked [l8kt]. Nigerians typically treat the past tense as [d] and then
apply voicing assimilation, giving [lugd]. Arabs speaking English
often treat it as [,d], giving [l8k,d]. Arguably, both of these forms are
mispronunciations arising simply from defective teaching: no one has
ever taught such NNSs how the English regular past tense is
pronounced. There is no more reason to regard them as acceptable
than there is for *childs instead of children or *teached instead of
taught.

In cases where NSs make differences in pronunciation that are


not reflected in spelling, NNSs tend to ignore them. Although the
difference between the noun entrance [entrns] and the verb to
entrance [,ntr$ns] can be coped with, the difference between the verb
to separate [sepre,t] and the adjective separate [seprt, sep()r,t]
may be lost, as is that between the verb to document [-ment] and the
noun a document [-mnt]. South and southern have different vowels
for NSs ([sa87, s'()(r)n]), but often not for NNSs. There are many
other ways in which English spelling misleads NNSs, who unlike NSs
learn visually rather than auditorily. NSs pronounce front with the
STRUT vowel (RP [frnt]); NNSs often use the LOT vowel ([frcnt]),
purely because of the way it is written. There are two possible
remedies for this general problem (if it is indeed a problem): either we
must reform English spelling (and I might mention that I have just
become President of the Simplified Spelling Society) or teachers of
English to speakers of other languages must teach the pronunciation
of each word as well as its spelling. This implies teaching the use of
phonetic symbols, at least passively for reference.
 

3. Phonology of EIL?

Jenkinss proposals still require the mastery of a fair number of


difficult pronunciation points that are not in practice mastered by
many users of EIL.

The consonant [f], a major problem for Koreans, Filipinos and


others. Korean [ph] instead of [f] is likely to trigger a breakdown in
communication, as Jenkins shows; Korean [h] (their other L1
possibility) is hardly a better substitute. We have to teach the
articulatory difference between bilabial plosive [p] and labiodental
fricative [f]; we have to train the learner not only to produce the
difference but also to perceive it (the latter task being often
overlooked). There is no way to avoid drilling the learner with
minimal pairs such as porkfork, copycoffee.

Other consonantal differences that constitute serious problems


for some learners, but which Jenkins rightly insists must be mastered,
include [bv, rl, s6, sz, t6d=, jd=]. Failure to discriminate one or
two of these pairs can perhaps be condoned, given sufficient
redundancy in the context to disambiguate otherwise ambiguous
messages. We can readily cope with Swedish English in which every
/z/ becomes [s], provided that all the rest of the pronunciation is pretty
NS-like. But Japanese English in which [b-v] and [r-l] are confused,
together with various vowel confusions and phonotactic problems,
ends up unintelligible.

I am in favour of Jenkinss suggestion that l-vocalization


should be allowed, indeed encouraged for those learners for whom
dark /l/ constitutes a problem. There are millions of Londoners and
others who say [m,ok] for milk, [bob] for bulb, [bcto] or [bco] for
bottle, etc., and I see no reason why the French or the Cantonese
should not do likewise.

Allophonic reduction in vowel length (pre-fortis clipping, as


in right as compared with ride) helps intelligibility, but is difficult to
 

teach and learn. However phonemic vowel length differences,


perhaps better considered primarily as vowel quality differences, are
another matter. Jenkins is right to insist on mastery of the [i,]
distinction (leave vs. live, sheep vs. ship), which is made by all NSs.
Her wording also implies that the distinctions [u8] and [oc] are
equally required, and here I disagree. Millions of Scottish speakers of
English manage perfectly well without any difference between the
vowel of shoot and that of foot, and there are tens of millions of
Americans and Canadians for whom hawk and hock are
homophonous. These distinctions have a low functional load and are
not needed in EIL.

Jenkinss wording does not leave it entirely clear whether the


vowel oppositions /e-, -, o-8/ are required in the LFC, but I
assume that they are, despite constituting a considerable problem for
some NNSs. The difficulty with English // is that many languages
have only two vowels available for the three English vowels /e, , /
to be mapped onto. The consequence is that learners disregard either
the /e / distinction (Polish, Russian, German and Hungarian
learners, who tend to make bed and bad identical) or the / - /
distinction (Japanese and Spanish-speaking learners, who tend to
make bad and bud identical). In either case misunderstandings can
result.

It is to be emphasized that we are concerned here with the


vowel system rather than with the details of vowel realization. All
NSs distinguish bed bad bud, though the actual vowel qualities
used may vary widely. Listeners can tune in to such variability
without too much difficulty. There are six short vowels in most kinds
of English, representing the standard lexical sets KIT, DRESS, TRAP,
STRUT, LOT, FOOT (Wells 1982:ch. 2), as in bid, bed, bad, bud, cod,
good. There are NS accents that merge STRUT and FOOT (the north of
England, where cut and put rhyme) or TRAP and LOT (popular
Jamaican, where black and block sound identical). But no NS accent
merges DRESS and TRAP (/e - /, bedbad), a distinction that also
bears a high functional load. Nor is there any NS accent that merges
 

TRAP and STRUT (/ - /, badbud). These oppositions, difficult as


they may be for learners, are ones on which we must insist.

In teaching such vowel oppositions it is important not to


forget to teach the spelling-to-sound rules associated with them. For /e
/ there is a fairly reliable rule: if the spelling is e or ea, the sound
may be /e/ but never //; if the spelling is a, the sound may be //
but never /e/. Thus we have let, dress, when, very, never, dead, bread,
head, pleasure with /e/ and hat, cap, ran, stack, have, gather, tram,
dabble with //. The only exceptions are any and many, together with
ate if pronounced /et/ and the suffix ary if pronounced /-eri/. For / -
/ the rule is 100% reliable: if the spelling is a, the sound may be //
but never /e/; if the spelling is u, o or ou the sound may be / / but
never //. Thus we have hat, cap etc. again with //, and hut, cup,
run, stuck, love, mother, come, touch, trouble with //.

While there are various NS accents of English that manage


without the opposition between LOT and THOUGHT (dondawn, RP
/c - o/), there are none that dispense with that between THOUGHT and
GOAT (lawlow, RP /o - 8/). So here again we must insist that this
distinction be learnt. Again what is important is the systemic contrast
rather than any particular realization: clearly in an EIL context [o] is
as acceptable for GOAT as [8] or [o8].

From a comparative and historical perspective, the accents of


England (including RP), Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa are
unusual in having lost the distinction between the lexical sets
THOUGHT and FORCE, merging them as /o/ in homophones such as
flawfloor, caughtcourt, saucesource (as in Gimsons joke about
good chefs who, like good journalists, refuse to reveal their /sos,z/).
The resultant homophonic clashes do not cause serious problems, even
though Jenkinss proposals remedy them by restoring historical r as
appropriate.
 

Jenkins also insists on the mastery of the [] of the NURSE set


(or rather of its rhotic equivalent []). Whichever variant we select,
however, we are dealing with a sound-type that is from the point of
view of language universals highly marked, being vary rare indeed
among the languages of the world though fortunately, perhaps, the
widely spoken Mandarin Chinese does have a sound similar to
American []. There are many EIL learners for whom this vowel
remains problematic, not least the Japanese, who typically confuse
star and stir.

Let us turn now to the question of phonotactics: cases in


which it is not so much individual sounds that constitute a problem as
their combinations in particular positions in the syllable. Although
Poles have no difficulties with English consonant clusters, there are
many learners who do Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans for example
as well as speakers of Spanish. Thus an English word such as strong
may come out most easily as [estron] (Spaniards) or [s8t8rc]
(Japanese), with the difficult initial consonant cluster /str-/ resolved by
the addition of epenthetic vowels. Rather than add vowels, speakers of
Cantonese tend to omit consonants that are in positions they find
difficult, which has an even worse effect on intelligibility. In word-
initial position the clusters in such everyday words such as pray,
bread, train, queen, splash may offer a problem; so in word-final
position may the clusters in milk, lamp, left, fox and wasp (not to
mention its plural wasps).

Voiced obstruents are not a problem for speakers of Polish,


German, or Russian, but producing them in word-final position is.
Hence they must learn to produce voiced (or at least lenis) obstruents
in such words as rub, bad, big, love, rose, rage. Whether bed is
pronounced as [bet] (German) or [be] (Cantonese), in each case the
NS opposition between final /d/ and /t/ is lost.

A particular problem with consonants is that the L1 may have


phonological processes allophonic or assimilatory that are
inappropriate in English. However learners of English will tend to
apply them in English unless taught not to. Thus Korean learners, for
 

example, need to be warned against the Korean assimilatory processes


that turn pop music into po[m] music or Rugrats into Ru[1n]ats. Poles
should be discouraged from applying Polish-style voicing assimilation
such as makes ice dancing sound like eyes dancing and pick them up
like pig them up.

When we turn to suprasegmental matters, Jenkins rightly


insists on the importance of not accenting function words. There must
be a difference between a big one (e.g. when we are talking about
waves, a big wave: one is a function word) and a big one (which
might be a large figure one: one is a form word). She rightly insists
also on the importance of deaccenting repeated lexical items, or of
lexical items with the same semantic referent. Although this principle
applies in many other languages more or less as in English, there are
differences of detail: as pointed out by Ortiz-Lira, 1995, where the
English reply to Were already late might be I dont care if we are
late, with the repeated word late deaccented, the Spanish equivalent
would be Pero si ya estamos atrasados No me importa si estamos
atrasados with no such change in accent pattern.

In summary, my prioritizing recommendations for the teaching of


English pronunciation in an EFL/EIL context would be:
to concentrate on the matters that most impede intelligibility;
while encouraging fluency and confidence;
not to neglect the need to interact with NSs; arguably, we also
need to educate the NSs;
to exploit the findings of contrastive analysis to help pinpoint
likely areas of difficulty.

While contrastive analysis does not provide all the answers, it


goes a good way towards pointing us in the right direction. This
means, for instance, that Polish learners of English must pay particular
attention to those consonants that are not found (or not found as
phonemes, or found with very different phonetic realization) in their
L1: /7, ', 1, r, h/; to final obstruent vocing, and to aspiration; among
English vowels, to /, , , 8, e/, to pre-fortis clipping, to vowel
duration and to weakening.
 

Thank you [71k ju], or as we might say in the LFC [te1k ju veri
mat6].

References

Jenkins, Jennifer, 2000. The Phonology of English as an International


Language. Oxford University Press.
Lewis, Jack Windsor (ed.), 1995. Studies in General and English
Phonetics. London: Routledge.
Ortiz-Lira, Hctor, 1995. Nucleus placement in English and Spanish:
a pilot study. In Lewis 1995. Wells, J.C., 1982. Accents of
English. Three volumes. Cambridge University Press.
1

http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/whytranscription.htm June 2008

Why phonetic transcription is important


John Wells, UCL

This document uses Unicode to encode IPA phonetic symbols. If you cannot see a schwa here [
] on your screen, Windows
95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP users please download Lucida Sans Unicode free of charge and install it on your system, and/or install a newer
browser.

This talk was given at Seoul National University, Korea, in 1996 and published in Malsori (Phonetics), the Journal of the Phonetic Society of
Korea, No. 31-32:239-242, December 1996.

1. Introduction
In this talk I want to discuss the usefulness and importance of phonetic
transcription for people studying languages. Since most of you here are
phoneticians, you are presumably already convinced of this; I may be preaching
to the converted. Nevertheless, there are many language teachers who appear to
be far from converted, and I believe that certain arguments do need to be
spelled out.

The principal reason for using phonetic transcription is easily stated. When
we transcribe a word or an utterance, we give a direct specification of its
pronunciation. If ordinary spelling reliably indicated actual pronunciation,
phonetic transcription might be unnecessary; but often it does not.

This is obvious when we consider a language such as English, whose


spelling is blatantly irregular; or a language such as Chinese, with a non-
alphabetic orthography, whose written form generally does not give any direct
information about pronunciation (and of course this applies also to Chinese
characters used in writing Japanese or Korean). But even in languages with so-
called phonetic orthography, such as Swahili, Finnish or Korean hangl, there
may be sporadic mismatches between the sound and the spelling of words,
while there are almost always phonetic characteristics of continuous speech that
are not reflected in the orthography.

For the language learner, a passive acquaintance with phonetic


transcription enables him or her to extract precise and explicit information on
pronunciation from a dictionary, bilingual or monolingual.

Without this information, a learner risks being misled either by an


inadequately trained ear or by the dazzling effect of the ordinary spelling.

Nowadays learners of foreign languages ought to have ample opportunities


of hearing the language spoken, and not just by their teacher and their fellow-
pupils. Television, video tapes, cassettes and CDs give todays learners an
advantage which earlier generations did not have. However, mere exposure to
authentic language material, while it will certainly improve a learners
comprehension ability, is not sufficient to ensure a good productive command of
2

the language or a good pronunciation. Almost everyone can benefit from explicit
pronunciation teaching, in which the use of phonetic transcription has an
important role.

In what follows I shall concentrate on the teaching and learning of English;


but many of the points apply to other languages too.

2. The dictionary entry


A good dictionary gives information on a whole range of matters. As well as
telling you what a word means (by translation or otherwise), it should at least
give relevant information about its grammatical status and about its
pronunciation.

There are various ways of giving information about pronunciation:


respelling using orthographic conventions of the learners language, respelling
using orthographic conventions of the target language, or phonetic notation. All
of these can be regarded as types of phonetic transcription, though they may
well vary considerably in quality.

The easiest transcription system for the beginner is arguably a respelling


using the orthographic conventions of the first language: for example, showing
English pronunciation in a Korean-English bilingual dictionary by transcribing
English pronunciation into hangl, in a Japanese-English bilingual dictionary by
transcribing it into katakana, or in a Turkish-English bilingual dictionary by
writing it in Latin letters with Turkish spelling conventions. In its crudest form,
this has the major drawback of treating English as if its sound system were the
same as that of the learners first language. At the very least the transcription
system will need to be made more elaborate, and therefore more complicated,
by devising ways of symbolizing those sounds of English that are not found in
Korean, Japanese, or Turkish respectively. Obvious examples of such sounds are
the two th-sounds of English, the voiceless and voiced dental fricatives heard in
thin and this respectively; or the vowel sound of the word nurse (no matter
whether we take British RP or GenAm as our pronunciation model for English).

Respelling systems using English orthographic conventions are found


mainly in monolingual dictionaries aimed at native speakers. Such systems are
still generally in use in the United States, though I am gratified to say that in
Britain they have quite recently been displaced by transcriptions using the
International Phonetic Alphabet. They have to contend with various awkward
facts about traditional English spelling: for example, that there is no
a/ (as in mouth, now),
unambiguous way of spelling the diphthong sound /a
because both ou and ow, the obvious candidates, correspond to a different
diphthong in soul, own (not to mention still other possibilities for ou exemplified
in the words group, thought, could, cough, double, tourist, journey ). There is no
unambiguous way of showing the diphthongs of price, goat in traditional English
spelling; so respelling systems have to resort to special symbols involving the
letters i and o with a macron diacritic (, ). We can be proud that EFL
3

dictionaries have led the way in employing IPA notation, which is unambiguous
and systematic.

3. How is this word pronounced?


Every beginner needs to learn, for example, that the w in the English word
write has to be ignored. This word is pronounced identically with the much less
common word rite. We can show this by transcribing them: they are both
transcribed phonetically as /rrat/. Furthermore, there is yet another word
pronounced in the same way: right. All three words are homophones.

Strangely enough, there are many native speakers of English to whom facts
such as this are not self-evident. English people beginning the study of
phonetics sometimes imagine that words such as write and wrong begin with a
w-sound. Or they may believe that know ends with one (but not no). They are so
dazzled by their knowledge of the spelling that they hold quite mistaken views
about pronunciation. And there are learners of English as a foreign language
who get equally misled by the spelling.

Learners of English have to contend with the ambiguity inherent in many


spelling sequences. As you know, o plus consonant letter plus e usually
corresponds to BrE //, AmE /o/, as in home, nose, vote. But sometimes, as
in love, come the vowel is //; and in move it is /u/. Where the letter o denotes
a short vowel, the sound is usually BrE //, AmE //, as in lot, top. But in many
other cases it is //, as in front, monkey. In the case of the combination or the
sound is usually // (with or without a following r-sound depending on whether
we are taking non-rhotic RP or rhotic GenAm as our model), as in north, short,
core. But after the letter w we find a quite different vowel sound BrE //, AmE
// in work, word, world, and in BrE another one again, //, in worry. In
unstressed syllables the pronunciation is usually /, /), as in minor, tractor and
also in information, Oxford (even though many EFL learners wrongly believe
these words are pronounced with // in the second syllable).

There are various reading rules (spelling-to-sound rules) to help the


learner pass from the written form of an English word to the spoken form. (A
certain amount of information is available at each letter of the alphabet in my
LPD, Wells 1990/2000; for a very thorough survey, see Carney 1994). But these
rules are complicated and have many exceptions. In practice it is necessary to
learn the pronunciation of many words individually.

4. Ambiguous spelling
Some English spellings are entirely ambiguous. If you see the spelling
entrance, you will need the context to decide whether it denotes the way in,
pronounced /entrns/, or the verb meaning to fill with wonder and delight, to
/ntrns/. Other homographs (same spelling, different pronunciation and
meaning) include bass, bow, buffet, does, gill, lead, live, minute, putting, read,
resume, tear, tinged, wind, wound (Carney 1994: 397-399; Cruttenden 1994:
211-212). As soon as we transcribe them, we show the difference in
pronunciation.
4

There are also some tricky verb-noun and verb-adjective pairs. English has
nearly a hundred words of the type conduct, digest, incense, object, pervert ,
where the same spelling is used for a verb, with final stress, and for the related
noun, with initial stress. Associated with the stress difference there is often a
difference in vowel quality, because of the phenomenon of vowel reduction.

Tiresomely, there are many other English disyllabic verb-noun pairs where
both are pronounced alike, with no difference of stress: thus control, promise.

An important group of verb-adjective or verb-noun pairs are those ending


in -ate. The verb separate is pronounced /sepret/, as in the two friends
separated at the crossroads. Here, as you observe, the suffix has a strong vowel,
the diphthong /e/. But the corresponding adjective, spelt identically, is usually
pronounced /seprt/, as in we want separate bills, or (as an adverb) in they left
separately. Here the suffix has a weak vowel, in RP traditionally // but
nowadays more usually //. One consequence is that the structural description
for the process I call compression is now met, so that the basic three syllables
readily get reduced to two.

Similar considerations apply to many other words in -ate, including


advocate, appropriate, delegate, intimate, moderate, subordinate . Notice that
the main word stress remains in the same place in these cases. The same applies
to words in which -ment is attached to a bound form, including compliment,
document, increment, ornament: thus I paid her a complim//nt; I
e/nted her on her excellent work.
complim/e

Relevant here is the whole question of strong and weak forms of function
words (see e.g. Cruttenden 1994: 228-229). Words such as of, can, them have a
strong form with a strong vowel, /v, kn, em/, used mainly when accented,
and a weak form with a weak vowel, /v, kn, m/, used otherwise. This
alternation is not shown in spelling, but anyone who fails to apply it in casual
speech sounds very un-native-like.

Facts of this kind are not revealed in ordinary spelling, but are immediately
evident once we use a phonetic transcription.

5. Transcribing from an orthographic text


Ideally, then, every learner should learn the correct pronunciation of a word
at the same time as he incorporates it into his active vocabulary. Experience
shows, however, that even advanced students often fail in this task. Fluent
speakers of EFL may have an inaccurate impression of what the native-speaker
pronunciation of a word is; the inevitable corollary is that their own oral
production of it is flawed.

A useful exercise for more advanced learners is doing transcription, i.e.


transcribing an orthographic text, a passage of ordinary English prose, into
phonetic symbols (normally, into a phonemic version, perhaps including
intonation). In our phonetics classes at University College London we regularly
5

make both our native-speaker and our EFL students of phonetics do this kind of
exercise.

For ordinary weekly coursework the student can consult a pronouncing


dictionary whenever needed. Under examination conditions, however, the
exercise is done unseen, and the student must rely on memory alone. It is both
revealing and depressing to see how many errors of transcription are made even
by some quite advanced students. I take the following examples from one of our
best Spanish-speaking MA Phonetics students, who speaks English fluently and
idiomatically, as well as having an excellent grasp of phonetic theory. These are
some of her errors in the transcription of English words in a recent examination:

weather we instead of we
releasing rliz rlis
polluting plt plut
nuclear nklj njukli
chemicals kemkls kemklz

The first of these words, in the British Received Pronunciation we teach as


standard, ought to be transcribed /we/. The students use of /e
e/ must be a
false inference from the spelling. In fact, weather in RP is a homophone of
whether. The only position in which orthographic ea sometimes corresponds to
phonetic /e/ is when followed by r, as in bear, swear.

The distinction between /s


s/ and /z
z/ is difficult for learners who do not have
that phonemic contrast in their mother tongue. Unlike please, which does
z/, release has /s
contain /z s/. In pollute and nuclear, the spelling suggests only
/u/, not //; perhaps the student was misled by familiarity with the spoken
form of these words, in which however the relatively short duration of the vowel
is caused by pre-fortis clipping (Wells: 1990: 136), not by inherent shortness.

Even advanced students sometimes forget the phonetic rules for regular
plural and past tense formation in English. Although spelt with s, the plural
z/ if the preceding segment is voiced and non-sibilant.
ending is pronounced /z

Clearly someone who thinks they are pronounced as transcribed above


(wrongly) is not going to pronounce them correctly, and will have a noticeable
foreign accent.

6. Types of transcription
For the last part of this talk I would like to consider phonetic transcription
from a more general point of view. Beginners in phonetics often imagine that in
transcription we can use one symbol for each sound, a separate phonetic
symbol for each sound-type our ears or our machines can detect.

However this approach is not practical. What might appear to be the same
sound in two different languages usually turns out, on closer inspection, to
exhibit certain differences. Even within a given language, the same sound
6

usually comprises a fair number of different variants associated with different


positions in the word or different phonetic environments. This is what lies
behind the development, over the course of the past hundred years, of the
notion of the phoneme (or of more sophisticated phonological units). It also
explains why all phonetic transcription depends for its interpretation upon two
things: the transcribed text itself, but also the conventions for its interpretation
(Abercrombie 1964: 16-24; Jones, 1956: App. A).

The phonemic principle allows us to use the same transcription symbol for
all the variants of a given phoneme. We can write the same /tt/ in English /tp,
stp, lt, rtn, btl/, despite the clear differences in aspiration and type of
release. We can write the same /a/ in now, louder, mouth, outing, despite
differences in the duration of the diphthong. These differences, though real, are
a matter of conditioned variation, determined by phonetic context. Every
language has its own phoneme system and its own rules for allophonic variation.

The simplicity principle tells us to use the simplest phonetic symbol


consistent with the avoidance of ambiguity. Although a few languages
distinguish between dental and alveolar plosives, most do not. Although a few
distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated plosives, most do not. This
means that it is acceptable to use the same symbol /tt/ for a range of sound-
types in different languages: in English for what is typically an aspirated alveolar,
in French for an unaspirated dental, in Swedish for an aspirated dental, and in
Dutch for an unaspirated alveolar. The alternative is an explosion of complicated
symbols and dictionary entries full of difficult diacritics.

Until we have determined the phonemic structure of a language, we can


produce only an impressionistic transcription depending on our familiarity with
general-phonetic sound-types. Once we have worked out the phonemics, we can
use a systematic transcription, which will be simpler. This is what is appropriate
for dictionaries and language textbooks. When considering connected speech,
however, we need to take account of the features of connected speech, of the
phrase-level and sentence-level phonology: we can produce a phonotypical
transcription of how we expect a given sentence to sound, or alternatively an
impressionistic transcription of what was actually uttered on a given occasion.
Each has its uses.

References
x Abercrombie, D., 1964. English Phonetic Texts. London: Faber and Faber.
x Carney, Edward, 1994. A Survey of English Spelling. London and New York:
Routledge.
x Cruttenden, A. (ed.), 1994. Gimsons Pronunciation of English. London:
Edward Arnold.
x Jones, D., 1956. Outline of English Phonetics, 8th edn. Cambridge: Heffer.
x Wells, J.C., 1990, second edition 2000. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.
Harlow: Longman.