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HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PRESS

with

POLITICS AND INFLUENCE


IN ORGANIZATIONS

JEFFREY PFEFFER
Graduate School of Business
Stanford U niversity

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PRESS


Boston, Massachusetts


-

2007
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Harvard Business School Press.
All rights rcserved.
Russian languagc cdition pulishcd Williams Puiishing House according to the Agrcement with
R&l Enterprises International, Copyright 2007.
Authorized translation from English language edition puhlished Havard Business School Press,
Copyright 2006.

ISBN 978-5-8459-0933-6 (.) "", 2007


ISBN 0-8758-4440-5 (.) J effrey Pfeffer, 1992

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1
1 . Randy Shilts, d the d Played : Politics, People, d the AIDS
Epidemic (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1 987).
2. Ibid., 207.
3. Ibid., 220.
4. Ibid., 308.
5. Ibid., 4 1 1 .
6. Ibid. , 599.
7. Douglas . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumling the Future: How
Xerox Iveted, Then Ignored, the First Persoal Computer (New York:
William Morrow, 1988).
8. Richard . Nixon, Leaders (New York: Warner Books, 1982 }, 5.
9. Norton . Long, "The Administrative Organization as Political System",
Cocepts d Issues i Administrative Behavior, eds. S. Mailick and
E.H.Van Ness (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hail, 1 962}, 1 1 0.
1 . Nixon, Leaders, 330.
1 1 . John W. Gardner, Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1990).
1 2 . Michael . Hannan and john Freeman, Orgaizatioal Ecology (Cam
bridge, : Harvard University Press, 1989).
13. Gardner, Leadership, 55-57.
14. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking
Charge (New York: Harper and Row, 1 985}, 6.
15. Ibid., 1 5- 1 7.
1 6. Nixon, Leaders, 324.
452

17. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, "Power Failure in Management Circuits",


Hamard Business Review 57 Uuly-August 1 979): 65.
18.Jeffrey Gandz and Victor V. Murray, "The Experience of Workplace
Politics", Academy of Managementjoumal 23 ( 1 980): 237-25 1 .
1 9. Tim Reiterman with John Jacobs, Raven: The Untold Story of the Rev.
jimjones and His People (New York: .. Dutton, 1 982) , 305-307.
20. Nixon, Leaders, 326.
2 1 . Abraham Zaleznik and Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, Power and the
Corporate Mind (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975), 1 09.
22. Henry Kissinger, h White House Years ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1 979),
39.
23. Elliot Aronson, The Social Animal ( San Ftancisco: W.H . Freeman,
1 972), chapter 4; Barry . Staw, " Rationality and Justification
in Organization Life", Research in Organizational Behavior, eds.
.. Staw and L. L. Cummings ( Greenwich, : JAI Press, 1 980),
vol. 2, 45-80; Gerald R. Salancik, "Commitment and the Control
of Organizational Behavior and Belief'', New Directions in Organiza
tional Behavior, eds. Barry . Staw and Gerald R. Salancik ( Chicago:
St. Clair Press, 1977), 1 -54.
24. Leon Festinger, Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1957).
25. Nixon, Leaders, 329.
26. Alok . Chakrabarti, "Organizational Factors in Post-Acquisition
Perfomance", IEEE Transactions Engineering Management 37 ( 1 990):
259-268.
27. Ibid., 259.
28. Ibid., 266.
29. D. Purkayastl1a, "Note on the Motorcycle Industry- 1 975", #578-2 10.
Boston: Harvard Business School, 1 98 1 .
30. Richard . Pascale, "Perspectives on Strategy: The Real Story Behind
Honda's Success", Califomia Management Review 26 ( 1 984): 5 1 .
3 1 . Ibid., 54.
32. Ibid., 55.
4 53

33. Wi lliam . Pasmore, Designing Effective Organizations: The


Sociotechnical Systems Perspective (New York: John Wiley, 1988) ;
David L, Bradford and Allan R. Cohen, Managingfor Excellence (New
York: John Wiley, 1984).
34. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of E.F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1989), 98.
35. Ibid., 1 2 1 .
36. Thomas j. Peters and Robert . Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence
( . -

" " , 2005 ); Terrence Deal and Allan


. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures ( Reading, : Addison-Wesley,
1 982); Stanley Davis, Managing Corporate Culture ( Cambridge, :
Ballinger, 1984).
37. Richard . Pascale, "The Paradox of 'Corporate Culture': Reconciling
Ourselves to Socialization", Califomia Management Review 26 ( 1 985):
26-4 1 ; Charles O'Reilly, "Corporations, Culture, and Commitment:
Motivation and Social Control in Organizations ", Califomia
Management Review 3 1 ( 1 989): 9-25.
38. Sanford . Dornbusch, "The Military Academy as an Assimilating
Institution", Social Forces 33 ( 1 955): 3 1 6-32 1 .
39. Richard Harvey Brown, "Bureaucracy as Praxis: Toward Political
Phenomenology of Formal Organizations", Administrative Science
Quarterly 23 ( 1978): 365-382.
40. Janice Lodahl and Gerald Gordon, "The Structure of Scientific Fields
and the Functioning of University Graduate Departments", American
Sociological Review 37 ( 1 972): 57-72.
4 1 . Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2d ed.
( Chicago: U niversity of Chicago Press, 1970).
42. lrving L. Janis, Victims of Groupthink ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1972).
43. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The End of lnnocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1989). 8 1 .
44. Ibid., 85.
45. Ibid., 97.
454

46. Thomas J. Peters, "Symbols, Patterns, and Settings: An Optimistic


Case for Getting Things Done", Organizational Dynamics 7 ( 1978):
3-23.
47. Jeffrey Pfeffer, Power in Organizations ( Marshfield, : Pitman
Pulisblng, 1 98 1 ) ; Kanter, "Power Failure in Management Circuits";
Richard . Emerson, "Power- Dependence Relations", American
Sociological Review 27 ( 1 962 ): 3 1 -4 1 .

1 . John . Kotter, "Power, Success, and Organizational Effectiveness",


Organizational Dynamics 6 , no. 3 ( 1 978): 27-40; and Power and
Influence: Beyond Fomzal Authority (New York: Free Press, 1 985).
2. Martin Patchen, "The Locus and Basis of Influence in Organizational
Decisions", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 1 1
( 1 974): 1 95-22 1 .
3. Jeffrey Gandz and Victor V. Murray, "The Experience of Workplace
Politics", Academy of Management]oumal 23 ( 1980): 237-25 1 .
4. Dan L. Madison et al, "Organizational Politics: An Exploration of
Managers' Perceptions", Human Relations 33 ( 1980): 79- 100.
5. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The Extemal Control of Organiza
tions: Resource Dependence Perspective (New York: Harper and Row,
1 978), 40.
6. Douglas . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumling the Future: How
Xerox Invented, hen Ignored, the First Personal Computer (New York:
William Morrow, 1 988), 14.
7. Ibid., 148.
8. . Ann Welsh and . Allen Slusher, "Organizational Design as Context
for Political Activity", Administrative Science Quarterly 3 1 ( 1 986):
389-402.
9. Rosabeth . Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York:
Basic Books, 1977).
10. Gerald R. Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "The Bases and Use of Power
in Organizational Decision Making: The Case of University",
Administrative Science Quarterly 19 ( 1 97 4 ): 453-4 73.
4 55

1 1 . Frederick S. Hills and Thomas . Mahoney, "University Budgets and


organizational Decision Making", Administrative Science Quarterly 23
( 1 978): 454-465.

1 2 . jeffrey Pfeffer and William L. Moore, " Power in University Budgeting:


Plication and Extension", Administrative Science Quarterly 25 ( 1 980):
637-653.

1 3. Ibid., 650-65 1 .

14. james D . Thompson and Arthur Tuden, "Strategies, Structures


and Processes of Organizational Decision", Comparative Studies in
Admiistratio, eds. J.- D. Thornpson et al. ( Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1 959): 195-2 1 6.

1 5. David Halberstarn, The Reckonig (New York: Wil liam Morrow,


1 986).

1 6. Patrick Wgright, Clear Day You See General Motors (Grosse


M I: Wright Enterprises, 1 979), 33.

1 7. Salancik and Pfeffer, "Bases and Use of Power."

1 8. C hris Argyris, Behind the Front Page ( San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,


1 974).

1 9. D iana Tillinghast, "The Los Angeles


Times: Weakening of Territorial
I mperative", Newspaper Researchjoumal 1 ( 1 980): 1 8-26.

20. Herbert . Meyer, " Shootout at the johns- Mansville Corral", Fortue
( October 1 976): 1 46- 1 54.

2 1 . Ibid., 1 54.

22. H ugh D . M enzies, "The Boardroom Battle at Bendix" , Fortune


Qanuary 1 1 , 1982): 54-64.

23. john . Kotter, The General Managers (New York: Free Press, 1 982),
" Power, Success, and Organizational Effectiveness", and Power d
Influece.

1 . Andrew . Pettigrew, Politics of Organizational Decisio-Making


( London: Tavistock, 1 973), 240.

2. David Krackhardt, ''Assessing the Pol itical Landscape: Structure,


Cognition and Power in Organizations" , Administrative Science
Quarterly 35 ( 1990): 342-369.
456

3. J effrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, '1\.dministrator Effectiveness:


The Effects of Advocacy and Information on Resource Allocations",
Human Relations 30 ( 1 977): 64 1 -656.
4. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of E.F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1 989), 52-53.
5. Ibid., 5 1 -52.
6. Ibid., 2 1 5.
7. Henri Tajfel and joseph . Forgas, "Social Categorization: Cognitions,
Values and Groups", Social Cognition: Perspectives Everyday
Understanding, ed. j oseph . Forgas (New York: Academic Press, 1981 ),
1 1 3- 1 40.
8. Marilynn . Brewer and Roderick . Kramer, "The Psychology of
Intergroup Attitudes and Behavior", Annual Review of Psychology 36
( 1 985): 2 1 9-243.
9. Charles Perrow, "Departmentai Power and Perspectives in Industrial
Firms", Power in Organizations, ed. Mayer . Zald (Nashville, N:
Vanderbilt University Press, 1970), 59-89.
1 0. C.R. Hinings et al., "Structural Conditions of Intraorganizational
Power", Administative Science Quarterly 19 ( 1 974): 22-44.
1 1 . jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, "Organizational Decision
Making as Political Process: The Case of U niversity Budget",
Administrative Science Quarterly 19 ( 1 974): 1 35- 1 5 1 ; jeffrey Pfeffer
and William L. Moore, " Power in U niversity Budgeting: Replication
and E xtension", Administrati<Je Science Quarterly 25 ( 1 980): 637-653.
1 2. Martin Patchen, "The Locus and Basis of Influence in Organizational
Decisions", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 1 1
( 1 974): 1 95-22 1 .
13. Nelson W. Polsby, "How to Study Community Power: The Pluralist
Alternative",]ou rnal of Politics 22 ( 1 960): 474-484.
14. Pfeffer and Salancik, "Organizational Decision Making"; Pfeffer and
Moore, "Power in University Budgeting. "
1 5. Stevens, Sudden Death, 1 60.
16. T. L. Whisler et al., Centralization of Organizational Control: An
Empirical Study of lts Meaning and Measurement" joumal of Business
,

40 ( 1 967): 1 0-26.
457

1 7. Michael Lewis, Liar's Poker: Rising through the Wreckage Wall Street
(New York: Penguin, 1990), 59.
18. john R.P. French, Jr., and Bertram Raven, "The Bases of Social Power",
Group Dynamics, eds. Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, 3rd ed.
(New York: Harper and Row, 1 968), 259-269; Patchen, " Locus and
Basis of Influence", 2 1 0.
1 9. Stevens, Sudden Death.

4
1 . Michael L. Tushman, William . Newman, and Elaine Romanelli,
" Convergence and U pheaval: Managing the U nsteady of
Organizational Evolution", Califomia Management Review 29 ( 1 986):
29-44.
2. R.E. Nisbett and L. Ross, Inferences: Strategies and Shortcomings
of Socialjudgment (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Half, 1980).
3. Linda . Ginzel, "The Impact of Biased Feedback Strategies on
Performance Judgments", Research Paper # 1 1 02 ( Palo Alto, :
Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 1990).
4. Ibid., 26.
5. Robert W. Allen et al., "Organizational Politics: Tactics and Charac
teristics of lts Actors", Califomia Management Revie 22 ( 1979): 77-83.
6. David G. Winter, "Leader Appeal, Leader Performance, and the Motive
Profiles of Leaders and Followers: Study of American Presidents
and Elections",joumal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 ( 1 987):
196-202.
7. Ibid., 200.
8. Christopher . Achen, The Statistical Analysis of Quasi-Experiments
( Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 1 986).
9. Andrew . Pettigrew, Politics of Organizational Decision -Making
(London: Tavistock, 1 973), 1 7.
10. Ibid., 3 1 .
1 1 . D.J . Hickson et al., " Strategic Contingencies' Theory of Intraorganiza
tional Power", Administrative Science Quarterly 1 6 ( 1 97 1 ): 2 1 6-229.
458

12. Martin Patchen, "The Locus and Basis of I nfluence in Organizational


Decisions", Organizational Behavior and Human Perfonnance 1 1
( 1 974): 209.
13. Ibid., 2 13.
14. George Strauss, "Tactics of Lateral Relationship: The Purchasing
Agent", Administrative Science Quarterly 7 ( 1 962 ) : 1 6 1 - 1 86.
15. Michael L. Tushman and Elaine Romanelli, " Uncertainty, Social
Location and Influence in Decision Making: Sociometric Analysis",
Management Science 29 ( 1 983): 1 2 -23.
16. Gerald R. Salancik, J effrey Pfeffer, and j. Patrick Kelly, " Contingency
Model of Influence in Organizational Decision Making" , Pacific
Sociological Review 2 1 ( 1 978): 239-256.
17. Ibid., 253.
18. Bernard . Bass, "Evolving Perspectives on Charismatic Leadership",
Charismatic Leadership, eds. Jay . Conger, Rabindra N. Kanungo and
Associates ( San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1 988), 40-77.
19. Robertj. House, William D. Spangler, and james Woycke, "Personality
and Charisma in the U .S. Presidency: Psychological Theory of
Leadership Effectiveness", unpublished , Wharton School, University
of Pennsylvania, 1989.
20. Ibid.; Robert ]. House, '' 1 976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership"
Leadership: The Cutting Edge, eds. J . G. Hunt and L.L. Larson
(Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1 977).
2 1 . House, Spangler, and Woycke, "Personality and Charisma."
22. Nancy . Roberts and Raymond Trevor Bradley, "Limits of Charisma"
Charismatic Leadership, eds. jay . Conger, Rabindra N. Kannngo and
Associates (San Francisco: jossey- Bass, 1988), 253-275.
23. Ibid., 254.
24. Ibid., 260.
25. Ibid., 263.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid., 264.
28. Ibid., 269.
29. Ibid.
30. Ibid., 268.
459

1. Robet . , The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New
York (New k: Random House, 1 974).
2. Robert . , h Path to Power: h Years of Lyndonjohnson (New
k: Alfred . Knopf, 1982), 26 1 .
3 . Ibid., 263.
4. Ibid., 264-265.
5. David Halbestam, h Reckoning (New York: William w, 1986);
Mayann Kelle, Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for
Recovery of General Motors (New k: William w, 1989).
6. Douglas . Smith and Robet . Alexander, Fumhling the Future: How
Xerox Invented, hen Ignored, the First Personal Computer (New k:
William w, 1 988).
7. Holland, When the Machine Stopped (Boston: Harvad Business
School Pess, 1989).
8. J effrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The External Control of
Organizations: Resource Dependence Perspective (New k: Harper
and Row, 1 978), 48-49.
9. Richad . Edwards, Contested Te-ain: The Transformation of the
Workplace in the Twentieth Century (New York: Basic Books, 1979).
1 . Sanford . J , Employing Bureaucracy: Managers, Unions, and the
Transformation of Work in American Industry, 1900- 1 945 (New k:
Columbia Univesity Press, 1 985).
1 1 . John . Barry, The Ambition and the Power (New York: Viking, 1989).
1 2. Ibid., 68.
13. Ibid., 69.
14. Ibid., 70.
15. Ibid.
1 6. Richard . E merson, "Powe- Dependence Relations", American
Sociological Review 27 ( 1 962): 3 1 -4 1 ; Peter . Blau, Exchange and
Power in Social Life (New York: john Wiley, 1964).
17. Otto . Davis, ... Dempster, and Aaron Wildavsky, " Theory of
the Budgeting Process", American Political Science Review 60 ( 1 966):
460

529-547; Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, "Organizational


Decision Making as Political Process: The Case of U niversity
Budget", Administrative Science Quarterly 1 9 ( 1 974): 1 35- 1 5 1 ; Jeffrey
Pfeffer and William L. Moore, "Power in U niversity Budgeting:
Replication and Extension", Administrative Science Quarterly 25
( 1 980): 637-653.
18. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, " Choices, Values, and Frames",
American Psychologist 39 ( 1984): 34 1 -350.
19. Gerald R. Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "The Bases and Use of Power
in Organizational Decision Making: The Case of Uni versity",
Administrative Science Quarterly 19 ( 1 974): 1 35 - 1 5 1 ; Pfeffer and
Moore, "Power in University Budgeting."
20. Janice Lodahl and Gerald Gordon, "Funding the Sciences in U niversity
Departments", Educational Record 54 ( 1 973): 74-82.
2 1 . Paul J. DiMaggio and Walter W. Powell, "The Iron Cage Revisited:
Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational
Fields", American Sociological Review 48 ( 1 983): 147- 1 60.
22. Robert . Gandossy, Bad Business: The Scandal and the Seduction
of the Estahlishment (New York: Basic Books, 1985), 5.
23. Ibid., 1 1 .
24. Ibid., 38-39
25. Ibid., 39.
26. Ibid., 4 1 .
27. Ibld., 44.
28. Ibid., 52.
29. Ibid., 53.
30. Ibid., 2 1 5.
3 1 . Jeffrey Pfeffer and Alison Konrad, "The Effects of Individual Power on
Earnings", Work and Occupations (in press, 199 1 ).
32. Halberstam, The Reckoning.
33. Ibid., 136.
34. Ibid., 14 1 .
35. Ibid., 1 48.
46 1

36. Ibid., 1 56.


37. Ibid., 1 83.
38. Barry, The Ambitio d the Power, 18.
39. Bryan Burrough and John Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of
RJR Nabisco (New York: Harper and Row, 1990), 35.
40. Barry, The Ambitio d the Power, 7 1 .
4 1 . Ibid., 76.
42. Ibid., 84.
43. ]. Patrick Wright, Clear Day Yow See Geeral Motors (Grosse
Point, MI; Wright Enterprises, 1 979), 4 1 .
44. Donald L. Helrnich and Warren . Brown, "Successor and
Organizational Change in the Corporate Enterprise", Admiistrative
Science Quarterly 1 7 ( 1972): 37 1 -38 1 .
45. Alvin W. Gouldner, "The Norrn of Reciprocity: Prelirninary State-
rnent", America Sociological Review 25 ( 1 960): 1 6 1 - 178.
46. , The Power Broker.
47. Burrough and Helyar, Barbarias at the Gate, 63.
48. Ibid., 37.
49. Hugh D. Menzies, "The Boardroom Battle at Bendix", Fortune Oanua-
ry 1 1 , 1982 ): 62.
50. Burrough and Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate, 63.
5 1 . Ibid., 64.
52. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The d of Innocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1 989), 132.
53. Ken Auletta, "Power, Greed and Glory on Wall Street: The Fall of
Lehrnan Brothers", New York Times Magazine (February 17, 1985): 34.

6
1 . Linton . Freeman, " Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clari
fications", Social Networks 1 ( 1979 ): 2 1 5-239; Daniel J. Brass, "Being
in the Right Place: Structural Analysis of Individual Influence in an
Organization", Admiistrative Sciece Quarterly 29 ( 1 984): 51 8-539.
462

2. Freeman, "Centrality in Social Networks".


3. Alex Bavelas, "Communication Patterns in Task Oriented Groups",
joumal of Acoustical Society of America 22 ( 1950): 725-730; Harold
J. Leavitt, "Effects of Certain Cornmunication Patterns on Group
Performance",joumal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46 ( 1 95 1 ):
38-50.
4. Kenneth D. Mackenzie, Theory of Group Structures (London: Gordon
and Breach, 1 975).
S. Jay R. Galbraith, Designing Complex Organizations ( Reading, :
Addison-Wesley, 1 973).
6. Ibid.
7. Hickson et al., " Strategic Contingencies' Theory of Intraorganizational
Power", Administrative Science Quarterly 16 ( 197 1 ): 2 1 6-229.
8. Andrew . Pettigrew, " Information Control as Power Resource",
Sociology 6 ( 1 972): 1 90- 19 1.
9. Brass, "Being in the Right Place", 5 1 9.
1 . Ibid., 525.
1 1 . Ibid., 532.
1 2. David Krackhardt, ''l\.ssessing the Political Landscape; Structure,
Cognition and Power in Organizations", Administrative Science
Quarterly 35 ( 1 990): 342-369.
13. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Alison Konrad, "The Effects of Individual Power on
Earnings", Work and Occupations (in press, 1 99 1 ).
1 4. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1 989), 244-245.
1 5. Ibid., 298.
1 6. Robert . Caro, h Path to Power: The Years of Lyndonjohnson (New
York: Alfred . nopf, 1982 ), 266.
17. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of E.F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1989), 1 6 1 .
1 8. Henry Kissinger, The White House Years ( Boston: Little, Brown,
1979), 47.
1 9. David Halberstam, h Reckoning (New York: William Morrow, 1 986);
Neil Fligstein, "The Intraorganizational Power Struggle: Rise of
463

Finance Personnel to Leadership in Large Corporations, 19 19-


1979", America Sociological Review 52 ( 1 987): 44-58.
20. Maryann Keller, Rude Awakeig: The Rise, Fall, d Struggle for
Recovery of Geeral Motors (New York: William Morrow, 1989), 58.
2 1 . Ibid., 60-6 1 .
22. Festinger, S. Schacter, and . Back, Social! Pressures i Iformal
Groups (Stanford, : Stanford University Press, 1950).
23. john . Kotter, " Power, Success, and Organizational Effectiveness",
Orgaizatioal Dyamics 6, no. 3 ( 1 978): 27-40.
24. Christopher Byron, h Faciest Dive (New York: W.W Norton, 1986).
25. Patrick Wright, Clear Day You See Geeral Motors ( Grosse
point, MI: Wright Enterprises, 1979).
26. Rosabeth . Kanter, d Wome of the Corporatio (New York:
Basic Books, 1977).

1 . New York Times Guly 15, 1978): 23.


2. Sally Bedell Smith, / All His Glory: The Life of William S. Paley (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1 990), 397.
3. David Mechanic, "Sources of Power of Lower Participants in Complex
Organizations", Admiistrative Science Quarterly 7 ( 1 962): 349-364.
4. john W Gardner, Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1990), 24.
5. Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority (New York: Harper and Row,
1974).
6. Weber, The Theory of Social d Ecoomic Orgaizatio (New
York: Free Press, 1947).
7. Steven Bach, Fial Cut: Dreams and Disaster in the Making of Heavens
Gate (New York: William Morrow, 1985), 54.
8. Lynne G. Zucker, "The Role of Institutionalization in Cultural
Persistence", America Sociological Review 42 ( 1 977): 726-743.
9. R.C. Jacobs and D.T. Campbell, "The Perpetuation of an Arbitrary Tra
dition Through Successive Generations of Laboratory Microculture",
joumal of Abormal d Social Psychology 62 ( 196 1 ): 649-658.
464

1 0. Zucker, "The Role of Institutionalization", 732.


1 1 . Ibid., 732-733.
1 2.]. Sterling Livingston, " Pygmalion in Management", Harvard
Business Review 47 Q uly-August 1969): 8 1 -89; W. Peter Archibald,
''l\lternative Explanations for Self-Fulfilling Prophecy", Psychological
Bulletin 8 1 ( 1 974): 74-84.
1 3. Mark Snyder, "Self- Fulfilling Stereotypes", Psychology Today 1 6 Quly
1982): 60-68.
14. Uoyd . Strickland, "Surveillance and Trust" , ]oumal of Personality
26 ( 1958): 200-2 1 5.
15. Rosabeth . Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York:
Basic Books, 1 977).
1 6. David . Berlew and D ouglas . Hall, "The Socialization of Managers:
Effects of Expectations on Performance", Administrative Science
Quarterly 1 1 ( 1966): 207-223.
1 7. Maryann Keller, Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for
Recovery of General Motors (New York: WHliam Morrow, 1 989), 66-67.
18. Ibid., 67.
19. Smith, In All His Glory, 1 50.
20. Ibid., 1 52.
2 1 . Ibid., 1 53.
22. Ibid., 1 56.
23. Henry issinger, The White House ars (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 47.
24. Ibid., 4 7.
25. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 79.
26. Ibid., 80.
27. M.J. Lerner and .. Simmons, "Observer's Reaction to the 'Innocent
Victim': Compassion or Rejection?" ]oumal of Personality and Social
Psychology 4 ( 1 966): 203-2 10.
28. John , Barry, h Ambition and the Power (New York: Viking, 1 989)
154.
465

29. joseph W. Harder, Play for : Salary Determination and the Effects
of Over- and Under-Reward Individual Perfonnance in Professional
Sports ( Stanford, : Stanford University, unpulished doctoral dis
sertation, 1 989).
30. Robert . Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New
York (New York: Random House, 1974), 463.
3 1 . James G. March and john . Olsen, Ambiguity and Choice in Organiza
tions ( ergen, Norway: Univcrsitetsforlaget, 1976).
32. Gardner, Leadership, 8.
33. Martha S. Feldman and james G. March, "Inforrnation in Organizations
as Signal and Symbol", Administrative Sciece Quarterly 26 ( 1 98 1 ):
1 7 1 - 1 86.

1 . Michael Lewis, Liar's Poker: Rising through the Wreckage Wall Street
(New York: Penguin, 1 990), 6 1 .
2 . William L. Moore and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "The Relationship Between
Departmental Power and Faculty Careers on Two Campuses: The
Case for Structural Effects on Faculty Salaries", Research in Higher
Educatio 1 3 ( 1 980): 29 1 -306.
3. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Alison Davis- Blake, "Understanding Organizational
Wage Structures: Resource Dependence Approach", Academy of
Management]oumal 30 ( 1 987): 437-455.
4. John . Sheridan et al., "Effects of Corporate Sponsorship and Depart
mental Power on Career Tournamentsn, Academy of Management
]oumal 33 ( 1 990): 578-602.
5. J ohn , Barry, The Ambition and the Power (New York: Viking,
1989), 29.
6. Janice Lodahl and Gerald Gordon, "The Structure of Scientific Fields
and the Functioning of University Graduate Departments", American
Sociological Review 37 ( 1 972): 57-72.
7. Janice Lodahl and Gerald Gordon, "Funding the Sciences in University
Departments", Educational Record 54 ( 1 973): 74-82.
466

8. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Wil liam L. Moore, "Power in University Budgeting:


Replication and Extension", Administrative Science Quarterly 25
( 1980): 637-653.
9. Rosabeth . Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York:
Basic Books, 1 977).
10. Gerald R. Salancik, Barry . Staw, and Louis R. Pondy, 'dmi
nistrative Turnover as Response to Unmanaged Organizational
Interdependence, Academy of Managementjournal 23 ( 1 980): 422-
437;Jeffrey Pfeffer and William L. Moore, 'verage Tenure of Academic
Department Heads: The Effects of Paradigm, Size, and Departmental
Demography", Administrative Science Quarterly 25 ( 1 980): 387-406.
1 1 . Alison . Konrad and jeffrey Pfeffer, "Do You Get What You Deserve?
Factors Affecting the Relationship Between Productivity and ",
Administrative Science Quarterly 35 ( 1 990): 258-285.
12. Janice . Beyer and Thomas . Lodahl, ' Comparative Study of
Patterns of Influence in United States and English Universities",
Administrative Science Quarterly 2 1 ( 1 976): 1 04- 1 29.
13. Pfeffer and Moore, 'verage Tenure of Academic Department Heads";
Salancik, Staw, and Pondy, 'dministrative Turnover."
14. D.J . Hickson et al., Strategic Contingencies' Theory of Intraorga
nizational Power", Administrative Science Quarterly 1 6 ( 1 97 1 ): 2 16-229
15. Setsuo Miyazawa, "Legal Departments of japanese Corporations in
the United States: Study on Organizational Adaptation to Multiple
Environments", University Law Review 20 ( 1986): 97- 1 62.
1 6. Ibid., 135.
17. Ibid., 1 26.
18. John Dean, Blind Ambition (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1 976), 30.
19. Ibid., 38.
20. Ibid., 40.
2 1 . Richard . Emerson, "Power-Dependence Relations", American
Sociological Review 27 ( 1 962 ): 3 1 -4 1 ; Peter . Blau, Exchange and
Power in Social Life (New York: john Wiley, 1 964).
22. Michel Crozier, h Bureaucratic Phenomenon ( Chicago: U niversity of
Chicago Press, 1 964 ).
467

23. Robert . Caro, The Power Broker; Robert Moses d the Fall of New
York (New York: Random House, 1 974), 4 64.
24. Ibid., 464-465.
25. Hickson et al" '' Strategic Contingencies' Theory"; C.R. Minings et al.,
"Structural Conditions of Intraorganizational Power", Admiistrative
Sciece Quarterly 1 9 ( 1 974): 2 1 6-229.

1 . john . Kotter, The Geeral Maagers (New York: Free Press, 1982).
2. Hedrick Smith, The Power Game: How Washigto Works (New York:
Ballantine, 1 988), 6 1 -62.
3. Robert Caro, The Path to Power: The Years of Ld ]hs (New
York: Alfred . Knopf, 1 982 ), 2 1 8.
4. Ibid., 226.
5. Ibid., 235.
6. Robert Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses d the Fall of New York
(New York: Random House, 1974), 227.
7. Sally Bedell Smith, ! All His Glory: The Life of William S. Paley (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1 990), 394.
8. john W. Gardner, Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1990), 48.
9. Robert Caro, Means ofAscet: The Years of Lydojohso (New York:
Alfred . Knopf, 1990).
1 . Caro, The Path to Power.
1 1. Caro, The Power Broker, 229.
1 2. Kotter, The Geeral Maagers.
1 3. Smith, ! All His Glory, 395.
14. john . Barry, The Amhitio and the Power (New York: Viking, 1989), 20.
15. Douglas . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumlig the Future: How
Xerox Iveted, Then Igored, the First Persoal Computer (New York:
William Morrow, 1 988), 50.
16. Ibid., 1 3 1 - 1 32.
17. Gardner, Leadership, 1 .
468

1 8.Jeanne . Brett, Stephen . Goldberg, and Williarn L. Ury, "Designing


Systems for Resolving Disputes in Organizations", American
Psychologist 45 ( 1 990): 1 62- 1 70; Roger Fisher and Wi lliam Ury,
Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreements Without Giving In ( Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 198 1 ).
19. . Bazerrnan and Margaret . Neale, "Heuristics in Negotiation:
Lim itations to Dispute Resolution Effectiveness", Negotiating in
Organizations, eds. .. Bazerrnan and R.J. Lewicki (Beverly Hills,
: Sage, 1983). 5 1 -67.
20. Gardner, Leadership, 50-5 1 .
2 1 . Barry, The Ambition and the Power, 1 2.
22. Paul Clancy and Shirley Elder, TIP: Biography of Thomas . O'Neill-
Speaker of the House (New York: Macmillan, 1 980), 4.
23. Srnith, In All His Glory, 39 1 .
24. Ibid.
25. Iid., 404.
26. Caro, " Search for Coke Stevenson", The New Thrk Times Book Re
view (February 3, 1 99 1 ), 28.
27. Gardner, Leadership, 53.
28. Aaron B ernstein, Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction f
Eastem Airlines (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1 990), 1 67.
29. Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis, Studies in Machiavellianism
(New York: Academic Press, 1 970), 3 1 2.
30. Gerald R. Salancik and J effrey Pfeffer, "Who Gets Power - and How
They Hold on to It: Strategic- Contingency Model of Power",
Organizational Dynamics 5 ( 1977): 3-2 1 .
3 1 . James D. Thompson and Arthur Tuden, "Strategies, Structures and
Processes of Organizational Decision ", Cornparative Studies in
Adrninistration, eds. J.D. Thompson et al. ( Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1959), 195-2 16.
32. Robert L. han et al., Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflictand
Ambiguity (New York: john Wiley, 1 964).
33. Thomas . Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1963), 1 3.
469

34. Hedrick Smith, The Power Game: How Washington Works (New York:
Ballantine, 1 988), 6 1 .
35. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 30.
36. Caro, The Power Broker, 448.
37. Ibid., 449
38. Ibid., 448.
39. Bryan Burrough and john Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of
R]R Nabisco (New York: Harper and Row, 1 990), 19.
40. Ibid., 2 1 .
4 1. Ibid., 34.
42. Ken Auletta, "Power, Greed and Glory on Wall Street: The Fall of
Lehman Brothers", The New York Times Magazine ( February 1 7, 1985).
43. Ibid., 36.
44. Smith, In All His Glory, 408.
45. Laton McCartney, Friends in High Places: h Bechtel Story (New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1 988), 1 70.
46. Ibid.
47. Ibid., 1 72.
48. Ibid., 1 79.
49. Ibid.
50. Ibid., 1 80.

1 0

1 . Robert . Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 2 d ed. (Glenview,


IL: Scott, Foresman, 1 988).
2. Ibid.
3. Douglas . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumhling the Future: How
Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer (New York:
William Morrow, 1 988).
4. Gerald R. Salancik, " Comrnitment and Control of Organizational
Behavior and Belief' , New Directions in Organizational Behavior,
470

eds. Barry . Staw and Gerald R. Salancik ( Chicago: St. Clair Press,
1977).
5. Daryl J. Bern, "Self-Perception Theory", A dvances in Experimental
Social Psychology, ed. Leonard Berkowitz, vol. 6 (New York: Academic
Press, 1972), 1 -62.
6. . Aronson and J. Mills, "The Effect of Severity of I nitiation Liking
for Group", ]oumal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59 ( 1 959):
1 77.
7. john W. Gardner, Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1 990).
8. Barry . Staw and J erry Ross, "Commitment in an Experimenting
Society: An Experiment the Attribution of Leadership from
Administrative Sc enarios", ]o umal of Applied Psychology 65 ( 1 980):
249-260.
9. Steven Bach, Final Cut: Dreams and Disaster in the Making of Heaven 's
Gate (New York: William Morrow, 1 985), 1 8 1 .
1 0. Ibid., 187.
1 1 . Ibid., 189.
12. Ibid., 1 9 1 .
1 3. Ibid., 192.
14. Ibid., 196.
1 5. Tracy Kidder, Soul of New Machine (Boston: Atlantic- Little, Brown,
198 1 ), 65-66.
1 6. Christopher Matthews, Hardball: How Politics Is Played - old One
Who Knows The Game (New York: Summit Books, 1988), 60.
1 7. Ibid., 62-63.
1 8. Aaron Bernstein, Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction of
Eastem Airlines (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990), 1 33.
19. Ibid., 1 34.
20. Ibid., 1 36.
2 1 . Ibid., 137.
22. jack W. Brehm, Theory of Psychological Reactance (New York:
Academic Press, 1966).
47 1

23. Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 232.


24. Ibid.
25. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1 989), 78.
26. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 78.
27. Ibid., 4 1 0.
28. Ibid., 245.

1 1

1. Leon Festinger, '' Theory of Social Comparison Processes", Human


Relations 7 ( 1954): 1 1 7- 1 40.
2. Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hatfield Walster, Interpersonal Attraction
( Reading, : Addison-Wesley, 1 969); D. Byrne, Attitudes and
Attraction", Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Leonard
Berkowitz, vol. 4 (New York: Academic Press, 1 969), 35-89.
3. Robert . Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, zd ed. ( Glenview
IL: Scott, Foresman, 1 988), 1 1 2.
4. Ibid., 1 23.
5. Bibb Latane and J ohn . Darley, "Group Inhibition of Bystander
Intervention in Emergencies, ''joumal of Personality and Social
Psychology 10 ( 1968): 2 15-22 1 .
6. joseph . White and Gregory . Patterson, "GM Begins Quest to Wm
Back Consumer Confidence", h Wall Street]oumal ( 4, 1990): 1
7 . Robert . Gandossy, Bad Business: The Scandal and the Seduction
of the Estahlishment (New York: Basic Books, 1 985), 1 1 .
8. lbid., 12- 13.
9. Steven Bach, Final Cut: Dreams and Disaster in the Making of Heaven 's
Gate (New York: William Morrow, 1985).
1 0. Ibid., 76-77.
1 1 . Christopher Byron, The Fanciest Dive (New York: W.W. Norton,
1 986).
4 72

12. Seymour . Hersh, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White
House (New York: Summit Books, 1983).
13. Ibid., .24.
14. Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 1 57.
15. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1 989), 274.
1 6. Ibid., 276.
17. jerry Ross and Kenneth R. Ferris, " Interpersonal Attraction and Orga
nizational Outcomes: Field Examination", Administrative Science
Quarterly 26 ( 198 1 ): 6 1 7-632.
18. M.G. Efran and E.WJ. Patterson, "The Politics of Appearance", Uni
versity of Toronto, 1976.
1 9. Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 1 62. Cialdini also cites P. L.
Benson, S.A. Karabenic, and R.M. Lerner, "Pretty Pleases: The Effects
of Physical Attractiveness on Race, Sex, and Receiving Help" ,joumal
of Experimental Social Psychology 1 2 ( 1 976): 409-4 1 5; and S. Chaiken,
"Communicator Physical Attractiveness and Persuasion, joumal of
Personality and Social Psychology 37 ( 1 979): 1387-1397.
20. Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice.
2 1 . Bryan Buough and John Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of
R]R Nabisco (New York: Harper and Row, 1 990), 69.
22. Camille . Wortman and Joan . Linsenmeier, " lnterpersonal
Attraction and Techniques of lngratiation in Organizational Settings,
New Directions in Organizational Behavior, eds. Barry . Staw and
Gerald R. Salancik ( Chicago: St. Clair Press, 1 977), 133- 1 78.
23. Robert . Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New
York (New York: Random House, 1974), 454.
24. Ibid., 455.
25. Ibid., 457.
26. Ibid., 458.
27. Gandossy, Bad Business, 19.
28. Ibid., 26.
29. Laton McCartney, Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story (New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1988), 1 56.
473

30. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of E.F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1 989), 8 1 .
3 1 . Ibid., 82-83.
32. Ibid., 84.
33. Sherif et al., Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers' Cave
Experiment (Norman: University of Oklahoma Institute of Intergroup
Relations, 196 1 ).
34. Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 1 7 1 .
35. Ibid., 1 72.
36. Fritz Heider, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (New York:
John Wiley, 1958).
37. Arlie H ochschild, The Managed Heart (Berkel ey: University of
California Press, 1 983).
38. Ibid., 96-97.
39. Anat Rafaeli and Robert I. Sutton, "The Expression of Emotion in
Organizational Life", Research in Organizational Behavior, ed. Barry
. Staw, vol. 1 1 (Greenwich, CT; JAI Press, 1 989), 1 5- 1 6.
40. Robert 1. Sutton and Anat Rafaeli, "Untangling the Relationship
Between Displayed Emotions and Organizational Sales: The Case of
Convenience Stores", A cademy of Management joumal 3 1 ( 1 988):
465.
4 1 . Anat Rafaeli and Robert 1. Sutton, "Expression of Emotion as Part of
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42. R.O. Arther and R. R. Caputo, Interrogation for Investigators (New
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43. K.L. Tidd and j.S. Lockard, "Monetary Significance of the Affiliative
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46. Rafaeli and Sutton, "Expression of Ernotion", 3 1 .
474

1 2

1 . Thomas . Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict (New York: Oxford


University Press, 1 963).
2. Peter W. Bernstein, "Upheaval at Bendix", Fortune (November 1,
1980): 48-56.
3. Ibid., 52-53.
4. Hugh D . Menzies, "The Boardroom B attle at Bendix", Fortune
Qanuary 1 1 , 1 982): 56.
5. Ibid., 60.
6. Ibid., 62.
7. Ibid.
8. Horwitch, "Managing t U.S. Supersonic Transport Program ( )",
678-949. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1 977.
9. Robert . Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New
York (New York: Random House, 1 974), 203.

10. Aaron Bernstein, Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destmction of


Eastem Airlines (New York: Simon and Sch uster, 1 990), 84-85.
1 1. Barry Schwartz, "Waiting, Exchange, and Power: The D istribution
of Time in Social Systems", Americanjoumal of Sociology 79 ( 1974):
843-844.
1 2. Ibid., 844.
1 3. Ibid., 857.
1 4. Ibid., 859.
15. Bryan Burrough and john Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of
R]R Nabisco (New York: Harper and Row, 1 990), 24.
1 6. Chicago Daily News ( December 27, 1 972): 4.
1 7. Seymour . Hersh, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White
House (New York: Summit Books, 1983), 44.
1 8.joumal of the House, Alabama State Legislature ( 1 977): 2698.
19. Bernstein, Grounded, 42.
20. Gerald R. Salancik, "Commitment and the Control of Organizational
Behavior and Belief', New Directions in Oganizational Behavior, eds.
475

Barry . Staw and Gerald R . Salancik ( Chicago: St. Clair Press, 1977),
1 -54.
2 1 . Peter Bachrach and Morton S. Baratz, "Two Faces of Power", American
Political Science Review 56 ( 1962): 947-952.
22. Neil Fligstein, "The Intraorganizational Power Struggle: Rise of
Finance Personnel to Leadership in Large Corporations, 1 9 19-
1979", American Sociological Review 52 ( 1987): 44-58.
23. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1972), 435-436.
24. Ibid., 437.

13

1. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 285.
2. Ibid., 53.
3. John W. Meyer and Brian Rowan, "Institutional Organizations: Formal
Structure as Myth and Ceremony", American joumal of Sociology
83 ( 1 977) 340-363; Meyer and W. Richard Scott, Organizational
Environments: Ritual and Rationality (Beverly Hills. : Sage, 1983).
4. Martha S. Feldman andjames G. March, " Information in Organizations
as Signal and Symbol", Administrative Science Quarterly 26 ( 1 98 1 ):
1 7 1 - 186.
5. Fred . ramer, " Policy Analysis as Ideology", Puhlic Administrative
Review 35 ( 1975): 509.
6. Richard . Cyert, Herbert . Simon, and Donald . Trow, "Observation
of Business Decision", journal of Business 29 ( 1 956): 237-248.
7. Donald Frey, "The Teenies' Challenge to the Bean Counters", The
Streetjournal Quly 1 6, 1 990): 1 2.
8. Maryann Keller, Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for
Recovery of General Motors (New York: William Morrow, 1 989), 2 1 6.
9. Ibid., 1 05.
1 0. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and FaZl of E. F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1 989), 277.
476

1 1 . Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest, 304-305.


12. Ibid., 562-563.
13. . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumhling the Future: How Xerox
Invented, hen Ignored, the First Personal Computer (New York:William
Morrow, 1 988).
14. Ibid., 134.
15. Ibid., 2 1 8.
16. Thomas J ohnson and Robert S, Kaplan, Relevance Lost: The Rise
and FaZZ of Management Accounting ( Boston: Harvard Business School
Press, 1987).
17. Christopher Byron, The Fanciest Dive (New York: WW Norton, 1 986),
56-57.
18. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The External Control of
Organizations: Resource Dependence Perspective (New York: Harper
and Row, 1978).
19. Gerald R. Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer, "The Bases and Use of Power
in Organizati onal Decision Making: The Case of University",
Administrative Science Quarterly 19 ( 1974): 462-463.
20. Rosabeth . Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York:
Basic Books, 1 977).
2 1 . David Halberstam, The Reckoning (New York: William Morrow, 1 986);
Holland, When the Machine Stopped ( Boston: Harvard Business
School Press, 1 989).
22. jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, ']\dministrator Effectiveness:
The Effects of Advocacy and Information on Resource Allocations",
Human Relations 30 ( 1 977): 64 1 -656.
23. N. Dixon, the Psychology of Military Incompetence (New York:
BasicBooks, 1976), 147.
24. Smith and Alexander, Fumhling the Future.
25. Meyer and Rowan, "lnstitutional Organizations."
26. Smith and Alexander, Fumhling the Future, 1 90.
27. Byron, The Fanciest Dive, 27 4-27 5.
28. Ibid., 277.
4 77

1 4

1. Maryann Keller, Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for
Recovery of General Motors (New York: William Morrow, 1989), 50.
2. John . Barry, The Ambition and the Power (New York: Viking,
1 989), 67.
3. Ibid., 99.
4. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 1 05.
5. Barry, The Ambition and the Power, 78.
6. Ibid., 8 1 .
7. Ibid., 82.
8. Ibid., 83.
9. Ibid.
10. Philip Selznick, TV and the Grass Roots (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1 949).
1 1 . Seymour . Hersh, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White
House (New York: Summit Books, 1 983), 29.
1 2. Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown,
1 979), 42.
13. Hersh, The Price of Power, 35.

1 5

1 . Richard . Nixon, Leaders (New York: Warner Books, 1982), 4.


2. Jeffrey Pfeffer, Power in Organizations ( Marshfield, : Pitman
Pulishing, 198 1 ).
3. Murray Edelman, The Symbolic Uses of Politics (Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 1964 ), 39.
4. Ibid., 1 24.
5. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972 ), 2 1 7.
6. Edelman, The Symbolic Uses of Politics, 1 2.
478

7. Herbert Stein, "Confessions of Addict", The Wall Street]oumal


( October 2, 1 989): 14.
8. Ibid.
9. C.W. Morris, Signs, Language and Behavior (New York: Prentice-Hal],
1 949), 2 14.
1 . Mernam-Webster, Inc., Webster's Third New Intemational Dictionary
(Springfield, : Merriam-Webster, Inc., 198 1 ), 2619-2620.
1 1 . Kar] . Weick, " Cognitive Processes in Organizations", Research in
Organizational Behavior, ed. Barry . Staw, vo]. 1 ( Greenwich, :
JAI Press, 1 979), 42.
1 2. Thomas J. Peters, "Symbols, Patterns, and Settings: An Optirnistic Case
for Getting Things Done", Organizational Dynamics 7 ( 1978): 10.
1 3. Nixon, Leaders, 4.
14. Louis R. Pondy, " Leadership Is Language Game", Leadership:
Where Else We Go ?, eds. Morgan W. McCall, J r., and Michae] .
Lombardo ( Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1 978), 94-95.
1 5. Christopher Byron, The Fanciest Dive (New York: W.W. Norton,
1 986), 63.
1 6. Ibid., 64-65.
17. Frank Rose, West f Eden: The End f Innocence at Apple Computer
(New York: Viking Penguin, 1989), 1 24- 1 30.
18. Ibid., 1 30.
1 9. Ibid., 1 3 1 .
20. Robert . Caro, The Path to Power: The 1-ears of Lyndonjohnson (New
York: Alfred . Knopf, 1 982), 235.
2 1 . Ibid., 236.
22. Edelman, The Symbolic Uses of Politics, 1 23.
23. Ibid., 78.
24. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of EF. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1 989), 1 9 1 .
25. Ibid., 1 94.
479

26. ]. Patrick Wright, Clear Day Thu See General Motors ( Grosse
Point, M I: Wright Enterprises, 1 979), 39.
27. Ibid., 44.
28. Marc R. Reinganum, "The Effect of Executive Succession
Shareholder Wealth", Admiistrative Sciece Quarterly 30 ( 1 985);
46-60; Stewart D. Friedman and Harbir Singh, " Succession
and Stockholder: The Influence of Organizational Context and Event
Content", Academy of Maagement]oumal 32 ( 1989): 7 18-744.
29. Mayer N. Zald, "Who Shali Rule? Political Analysis of Succession
in Large Welfare Organization", Pacific Sociological Review 8 ( 1 965):
52-60.
30. Wright, Clear Day, 1 6- 1 8.
3 1 . Rose, West of d, 139.
32. john . Barry, The Ambitio d t he Power (New York: Viking,
1 989), 77.
33. Rose, West of d, 98.

1 6

1 . John . Barry, h Ambitio d the Power (New York: Viking, 1989 ) , 5.


2 . Nicholas Lemann, "The Split: True Story of Washington Lawyers",
Washigto Post Magazie ( March 23, 1 980): 20.
3. Ibid., 19.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid., 20.
6. Thomas Kessner, Fiorello . La Guardia d the Making of Modem
New York (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989), 570.
7. David Halberstam, The Best d the Brightest (New York: Random
House, 1 972), 5 1 1 .
8. Alison Leigh Cowan, "The Partners Revolt at Peat Marwick", New
York Times (November 1 8, 1 990).
9. Ibid., 1 .
1 0. Ibid.
480

1 1 . Robert . Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New
Thrk (New York: Random House, 1 974), 998.

1 2. Ibid., 986.

1 3. Ibid., 996.

14. Ibid., 1 003.

1 5. Ken Auletta, "The Fal l of Lehman Brothers: The Men, The Money,
The Merger", New York Times Magazine ( February 24, 1 985): 37.

1 6. Ibid., 40.

1 7. Ibid.

1 8. Sally Bedell Smith, In All His Glory: The Life of William S. Paley (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1 990).

1 7

1 . Richard . Pascale, Managing the Edge (New York: S imon and


Sch uster, 1 990).

2. Robert . B urgelman, " Intraorganizational Ecology of Strategy


Making and Organizational Adaptation: Theory and Field Research",
Organization Science ( in press).
3. Bryon Burrough and John Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of
RJR Nabisco (New York: H arper and Row, 1 990), 32.

4. Ibid., 33.

5. Maryann Kel ler, Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for
Recovery of General Motors (New York: William Morrow, 1 989), 228.
6. Milgrom and J ohn Roberts, 'n Economi c Approach to I nfluence
Activities in Organizations", American]oumal of Sociology 94 (supple
ment, 1 988): S 1 56-S 1 57.

7. Mark Stevens, Sudden Death: The Rise and Fall of E.F. Hutton (New
York: Penguin, 1 989), 1 60.

8. Ibid., 2 1 9.

9. Douglas . Smith and Robert . Alexander, Fumhling the Future: How


Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer (New York:
William Morrow, 1 988) , 1 44.
48 1

1 0. Frank Rose, West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer


(New York: Viking Penguin, 1 989), 92.
1 1 . Nick Kotz, Wild Blue Yonder: Money, Politics, and the B-i Bomber (New
York: Pantheon Books, 1988).
1 2. Ibid., 1 1 .
1 3. Ibid., 1 4.
1 4. jeffrey Pfeffer, Power in Organizations ( Marshfield, : Pitman
Pu lishing, 1 98 1 ).
1 5. Pascale, Managing the Edge, 1 6.
1 6. Ibid.
1 7. Kathleen . Eisenhardt and L.j. Bourgeois, " Politics of Strategic
Decision Making in High-Velocity Environments: Toward Midrange
Theory", Academy of Managementjournal 3 1 ( 1 988): 737-770.
18. Ibid., 7 42-7 43.
19. Ibid., 760.
20. Harvey . Sapolsky, The Polaris System Development ( Cambridge,
: Harvard University Press, 1 972), 232.
2 1 . Ibid., 242.
22. Ibid., 244.
23. Ibid., 246.
24. Finn Borum, '' Power-Strategy A]ternative to Organization Develop
ment", Organization Studies 1 ( 1980): 1 23- 146.
25. lbid., 1 29.

18

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3. D avid Ha]berstam, The Reckoning (New York: William Morrow,
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4. Ibid., 9 1 .
482

5. Robert . , Means of Ascent: The Years of Lyndonjohnson (New


York: Alfred . Knopf, 1 990), xix-xx.
6. Ibid., xxi.

7. Richard . Nixon, Leaders (New York: Warner Books, 1 982), 345.


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American Express 408 E.F. Hutton 74, 82, 86, 96, 157, 287,
Ampex 24 330, 379, 382, 4 1 7
Apple Computer 24, 47, 66, 79, 83, 96, Eastern Airlines 23 1 , 262, 289, 307, 346
1 2 1 , 146, 155, 1 65, 265, 280, 33 1 ,
350, 373, 384, 385, 393, 4 1 1 F
Apple 11 1 2 1, 281 Ford 1 69, 204, 2 1 6, 323, 327, 334, 366,
393, 400, 440
Apple Macintosh 24
Ford Motor n 65

G
Bechtel 240, 286
General Motors 66, 78, 120, 143, 1 60,
Bendix 69, 300
1 69, 1 83, 1 84, 204, 2 1 6, 2 1 9, 236, 274,
316
British Steel Corporation 328, 346, 351, 38 1 , 385, 400, 4 1 1 , 4 1 9
Burgmaster Machine Tools 1 2 1
Business Week 373
Harley- Davidson 41
337
Cadillac 328 Honda 42
CBS 2 19, 224, 228, 239
C hevrolet 165, 440 1
Conrail 70 IBM 47, 66, 288, 373, 393
Industrial Bank ofjapan 139
D I 235
Disney World 29 1
Du Pont 1 20 J
johns-Manville Corporation 68
500

s
Kodak 345 Salomon Brothers 89, 1 95
Korf 316 San Francisco Examiner 35
sos 48
L
Standard Brands 1 4 1 , 236, 3 1 0
Lehman Brothers 133, 147, 238, 330,
Stanford University Hospital 22, 205
407, 4 1 7
Suzuki 4 1
Lincoln Electric1 60
Syntex 54, 95
Los Angeles Times 67
System Development Corporation 69


Macintosh 24, 1 2 1 , 1 56, 288, 350
Manville 69
Time Inc 278, 336, 344, 345, 372
Toyota 4 1 1
Mary Cosmetics 28 1
Transamerica 1 77, 257, 277
87, 159, 1 63, 253, 282, 336, 340,
372, 393
u
Microsoft 48
United Artists 1 77, 255, 277
N
w
Naisco 1 4 1 , 144, 145, 236, 239, 283
Wall Street journal 274, 370
New United Motors 78
Washington Post 340
New York Times 67, 235
Nissan 138, 139
Xerox 24, 53, 60, 66, 94, 95, 1 20, 136,

2 1 6, 225, 249, 334, 343, 344, 345,
Leasing 275, 285 383, 4 1 1 , 420
Leasing Services 132

Yamaha 41
Pacific Gas and Electric 84, 86, 2 1 3,
2 1 6, 435
Pacific Telephone 67 431
Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) 24, 53, 280
60, 250, 343, 344, 345 1 4 1 , 143
Pan American Airlines 29 1 , 305, 395
Pepsico 265, 393 21
324, 336, 37 1 , 423, 433
R
RAND Corporation 69

21
50 1

55, 56, 62, 63, 77, 80,


1 0 1 , 1 03, 1 05, 1 53, 1 54, 1 79, 197,
59
206, 252, 274, 282, 293, 3 1 9, 338, 430
25, 30, 3 1 , 32, 67, 79, 1 49, 326 32, 81, 1 03, 1 07, 1 99
394, 4 1 5, 423, 426 1 50, 1 7 4, 1 82
4 1 1
51, 1 95, 3 18
82, 89, 90
73, 99, 1 08, 1 2 1 ,
1 70, 1 80
76
92
82, 90, 9 1 , 206
1 4 1 , 146
394 344
88 92
355 425
443
177
332, 343
328, 426
349
1 50
1 1 1 , 1 15
1 1 6, 1 2 1 , 1 24, 1 54, 1 69, 2 1 6,
335
349, 355, 356, 4 1 7
229
26, 65, 76, 78, 232, 396, 398,
m 337 420, 434
326 233
443 358, 380

46, 334
23
166
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335, 336, 4 1 1
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33 1 220, 223
1 05, 1 1 0, 181

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62
329
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337
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36
27 1, 279, 284,
278 289, 290, 387
344 433
1 78 254
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502


1 50, 350 25 1 , 254

1 99, 20 1 , 399
349, 4 1 5, 448 202
1 50, 1 58, 1 62, 1 65
394 1 53, 1 67
25, 32 153
1 70, 1 72, 349, 354 64
1 70 313
1 06
335
303
26, 32, 33, 5 1 , 229 294
355, 393
368 355
369, 375
314
335 292
383, 396
403 264
345
27 1 , 274, 275 343
335 336

266
249 352
263 27, 29
25 1
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28 1


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335
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350 355, 402
170, 1 8 1
62, 67, 88, 106, 1 1 7, 1 28, 135,
136, 193, 320, 355 1 1 0, 404
62, 63, 73,
79, 1 2 1 , 200, 338, 342, 4 17
366 342
278 1 64
343 378
503


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367 22
1 92
300

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