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Math TestCalculator

38 Questions

Turn to Section 4 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.

Directions

For questions 1 through 30, solve each problem, choose the best answer from the
choices provided, and fill in the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. For
questions 31 through 38, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid on
the answer sheet. Please refer to the directions before question 31 on how to enter
your answers in the grid. You may use scratch paper for scratch work.

Notes

1. The use of a calculator is permitted.

2. All variables and expressions used represent real numbers unless otherwise
indicated.

3. Figures provided in this test are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated.

4. All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.

5. Unless otherwise indicated, the domain of a given function f is the set of all real
numbers x for which f of x is a real number.

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Reference

Begin skippable figure descriptions.


The figure presents information for your reference in solving some of
the problems.

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Reference figure 1 is a circle with radius r. Two equations are presented below
reference figure 1.

A equals pi times the square of r.

C equals 2 pi r.

Reference figure 2 is a rectangle with length and width w. An equation is


presented below reference figure 2.

A equals w.

Reference figure 3 is a triangle with base b and height h. An equation is presented


below reference figure 3.

A equals one-half b h.

Reference figure 4 is a right triangle. The two sides that form the right angle are
labeled a and b, and the side opposite the right angle is labeled c. An equation is
presented below reference figure 4.

c squared equals a squared plus b squared.

Special Right Triangles


Reference figure 5 is a right triangle with a 30-degree angle and a 60-degree angle.
The side opposite the 30-degree angle is labeled x. The side opposite the 60-degree
angle is labeled x times the square root of 3. The side opposite the right angle is
labeled 2 x.

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Reference figure 6 is a right triangle with two 45-degree angles. Two sides are each
labeled s. The side opposite the right angle is labeled s times the square root of 2.

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Reference figure 7 is a rectangular solid whose base has length and width w and
whose height is h. An equation is presented below reference figure 7.

V equals w h.

Reference figure 8 is a right circular cylinder whose base has radius r and whose
height is h. An equation is presented below reference figure 8.
V equals pi times the square of r times h.

Reference figure 9 is a sphere with radius r. An equation is presented below


reference figure 9.
V equals four-thirds pi times the cube of r.

Reference figure 10 is a cone whose base has radius r and whose height is h.
An equation is presented below reference figure 10.
V equals one-third times pi times the square of r times h.

Reference figure 11 is an asymmetrical pyramid whose base has length and


width w and whose height is h. An equation is presented below reference
figure 11.

V equals one-third w h.

End skippable figure descriptions.

Additional Reference Information


The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.

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The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2 pi.

The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

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Question 1.
A musician has a new song available for downloading or streaming. The musician
earns $0.09 each time the song is downloaded and $0.002 each time the song is
streamed. Which of the following expressions represents the amount, in dollars,
that the musician earns if the song is downloaded d times and streamed s times?

A. 0.002 d, plus 0.09 s

B. 0.002 d, minus 0.09 s

C. 0.09 d, plus 0.002 s

D. 0.09 d, minus 0.002 s

Explanation for question 1.

Question 2.
A quality control manager at a factory selects 7 lightbulbs at random for inspection
out of every 400 lightbulbs produced. At this rate, how many lightbulbs will be
inspected if the factory produces 20,000 lightbulbs?

A. 300

B. 350

C. 400

D. 450

Explanation for question 2.

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Question 3 refers to the following equation.
l equals 24 plus 3.5 m

Question 3.
One end of a spring is attached to a ceiling. When an object of mass m kilograms
is attached to the other end of the spring, the spring stretches to a length of
l centimeters as shown in the preceding equation. What is m when l is 73 ?

A. 14

B. 27.7

C. 73

D.279.5

Explanation for question 3.

Questions 4 and 5 refer to the following information.


The amount of money a performer earns is directly proportional to the number of
people attending the performance. The performer earns $120 at a performance
where 8 people attend.

Question 4.
How much money will the performer earn when 20 people attend a performance?

A. $960

B. $480

C. $300

D. $240
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Explanation for question 4.

Question 5.
The performer uses 43% of the money earned to pay the costs involved in putting
on each performance. The rest of the money earned is the performers profit. What
is the profit the performer makes at a performance where 8 people attend?

A. $51.60

B. $57.00

C. $68.40

D. $77.00

Explanation for question 5.

Question 6.
When 4 times the number x is added to 12, the result is 8. What number results
when 2 times x is added to 7 ?

A. negative 1

B. 5

C. 8

D. 9

Explanation for question 6.


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Question 7 is based on the following equation.
y equals x squared, minus 6 x plus 8

Question 7.
The preceding equation represents a parabola in the x y-plane. Which of the
following equivalent forms of the equation displays the x-intercepts of the
parabola as constants or coefficients?

A. y minus 8, equals, x squared, minus 6 x

B. y plus 1, equals, parenthesis, x minus 3, close parenthesis,


squared

C. y equals, x, parenthesis, x minus 6, close parenthesis, plus 8

D. y equals, parenthesis, x minus 2, close parenthesis, times,


parenthesis, x minus 4, close parenthesis

Explanation for question 7.

Question 8.
In a video game, each player starts the game with k points and loses 2 points each
time a task is not completed. If a player who gains no additional points and fails to
complete 100 tasks has a score of 200 points, what is the value of k ?

A. 0

B. 150

C. 250

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D. 400

Explanation for question 8.

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Question 9.
A worker uses a forklift to move boxes that weigh either 40 pounds or 65 pounds
each. Let x be the number of 40-pound boxes and y be the number of 65-pound
boxes. The forklift can carry up to either 45 boxes or a weight of 2,400 pounds.
Which of the following systems of inequalities represents this relationship?

A. open bracket, 40 x plus 65 y is less than or equal to 2,400;


and, x plus y is less than or equal to 45.

B. open bracket, the fraction x over 40, plus, the fraction y over
65, is less than or equal to 2,400; and, x plus y is less than or
equal to 45.

C. open bracket 40 x plus 65 y is less than or equal to 45; and, x


plus y is less than or equal to 2,400.

D. open bracket, x plus y is less than or equal to 2,400; and


40 x plus 65 y is less than or equal to 2,400.

Explanation for question 9.

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Question 10.
A function f satisfies f of 2 equals 3 and f of 3 equals 5. A
function g satisfies g of 3 equals 2 and g of 5 equals 6. What

is the value of f of, g of 3?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 5

D. 6

Explanation for question 10.

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Question 11 refers to the following table.
Number of hours Tony plans to read the novel per day 3
Number of parts in the novel 8
Number of chapters in the novel 239
Number of words Tony reads per minute 250
Number of pages in the novel 1,078
Number of words in the novel 349,168

Question 11.
Tony is planning to read a novel. The preceding table shows information about the
novel, Tonys reading speed, and the amount of time he plans to spend reading the
novel each day. If Tony reads at the rates given in the table, which of the following
is closest to the number of days it would take Tony to read the entire novel?

A. 6

B. 8

C. 23

D. 324

Explanation for question 11.

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Question 12.
On January 1, 2000, there were 175,000 tons of trash in a landfill that had a
capacity of 325,000 tons. Each year since then, the amount of trash in the landfill
increased by 7,500 tons. If y represents the time, in years, after January 1, 2000,
which of the following inequalities describes the set of years where the landfill is
at or above capacity?

A. 325,000 minus 7,500, is less than or equal to y

B. 325,000 is less than or equal to 7,500 y

C. 150,000 is greater than or equal to 7,500 y

D. 175,000 plus 7,500 y, is greater than or equal


to 325,000

Explanation for question 12.

Question 13.
A researcher conducted a survey to determine whether people in a certain large
town prefer watching sports on television to attending the sporting event. The
researcher asked 117 people who visited a local restaurant on a Saturday, and
7 people refused to respond. Which of the following factors makes it least likely
that a reliable conclusion can be drawn about the sports-watching preferences of all
people in the town?

A. Sample size

B. Population size

C. The number of people who refused to respond

D. Where the survey was given

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Explanation for question 13.

Question 14 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure, titled Miles Traveled by Air Passengers in Country X, 1960 to 2005,
shows a graph of a scatterplot with the line of best fit. The horizontal axis is
labeled Year and the years appearing on it from left to right are from
1960 through 2010, in increments of 10 years. There are vertical gridlines at every
5 years. The vertical axis is labeled Number of miles traveled, in billions, and the
numbers appearing on it from bottom to top are from 0 to 600, in increments of
100 billion miles. There are horizontal gridlines at every 50 billion miles. The
scatterplot shows a cluster of data points that begins in the year 1960 at 30 billion
miles, extends upward and to the right, showing a pattern of line, and ends in 2005
at 590 billion miles. The line of best fit extends in the pattern that the cluster
shows. It starts from about 1961 at 0 miles and slants upward to the right, ending in
2010 at about 620 billion miles.

End skippable figure description.

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Question 14.
According to the line of best fit in the preceding scatterplot, which of the following
best approximates the year in which the number of miles traveled by air passengers
in Country X was estimated to be 550 billion?

A. 1997

B. 2000

C. 2003

D. 2008

Explanation for question 14.

Question 15.
The distance traveled by Earth in one orbit around the Sun is about
580,000,000 miles. Earth makes one complete orbit around the Sun in one year. Of
the following, which is closest to the average speed of Earth, in miles per hour, as
it orbits the Sun?

A. 66,000

B. 93,000

C. 210,000

D. 420,000

Explanation for question 15.

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Question 16 refers to the following table.
Results on the Bar Exam of Law School Graduates
Passed bar exam Did not pass bar exam
Took review course 18 82
Did not take review course 7 93

Question 16.
The preceding table summarizes the results of 200 law school graduates who took
the bar exam. If one of the surveyed graduates who passed the bar exam is chosen
at random for an interview, what is the probability that the person chosen did NOT
take the review course?

A. 18 over 25

B. 7 over 25

C. 25 over 200

D. 7 over 200

Explanation for question 16.

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Question 17.
The atomic weight of an unknown element, in atomic mass units (a mu), is
approximately 20% less than that of calcium. The atomic weight of calcium is
40 amu. Which of the following best approximates the atomic weight, in a mu, of
the unknown element?

A. 8

B. 20

C. 32

D. 48

Explanation for question 17.

Question 18.
A survey was taken of the value of homes in a county, and it was found that the
mean home value was $165,000 and the median home value was $125,000. Which
of the following situations could explain the difference between the mean and
median home values in the county?

A. The homes have values that are close to each other.

B. There are a few homes that are valued much less than the rest.

C. There are a few homes that are valued much more than the rest.

D. Many of the homes have values between $125,000 and $165,000.

Explanation for question 18.

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Questions 19 and 20 refer to the following information.
A sociologist chose 300 students at random from each of two schools and asked
each student how many siblings he or she has. The results are shown in the
following table.

Students Sibling Survey


Number of Lincoln Washington
siblings School School
0 120 140
1 80 110
2 60 30
3 30 10
4 10 10

There are a total of 2,400 students at Lincoln School and 3,300 students at
Washington School.

Question 19.
What is the median number of siblings for all the students surveyed?

A. 0

B. 1

C. 2

D. 3

Explanation for question 19.

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Question 20.
Based on the survey data, which of the following most accurately compares the
expected total number of students with 4 siblings at the two schools?

A. The total number of students with 4 siblings is expected to be equal at the


two schools.

B. The total number of students with 4 siblings at Lincoln School is expected to be


30 more than at Washington School.

C. The total number of students with 4 siblings at Washington School is expected


to be 30 more than at Lincoln School.

D. The total number of students with 4 siblings at Washington School is expected


to be 900 more than at Lincoln School.

Explanation for question 20.

Question 21.
A project manager estimates that a project will take x hours to complete, where
x is greater than 100. The goal is for the estimate to be within 10 hours of
the time it will actually take to complete the project. If the manager meets the goal
and it takes y hours to complete the project, which of the following inequalities
represents the relationship between the estimated time and the actual
completion time?

A. x plus y is less than 10

B. y is greater than x plus 10

C. y is less than x minus 10

D. negative 10 is less than y minus x, which is less than 10

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Explanation for question 21.

Questions 22 and 23 refer to the following information.

I, equals the fraction P over, 4 pi r squared, end fraction

At a large distance r from a radio antenna, the intensity of the radio signal I is
related to the power of the signal P by the preceding formula.

Question 22.
Which of the following expresses the square of the distance from the radio antenna
in terms of the intensity of the radio signal and the power of the signal?

A. r squared, equals, the fraction I P over 4 pi

B. r squared, equals, the fraction P over 4 pi, I

C. r squared, equals, the fraction 4 pi, I, over P

D. r squared, equals, the fraction I over 4 pi, P

Explanation for question 22.

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Question 23.
For the same signal emitted by a radio antenna, Observer A measures its intensity
to be 16 times the intensity measured by Observer B. The distance of Observer A
from the radio antenna is what fraction of the distance of Observer B from the
radio antenna?

A. 1 over 4

B. 1 over 16

C. 1 over 64

D. 1 over 256

Explanation for question 23.

Question 24 is based on the following equation.


x squared plus y squared, plus 4 x minus 2 y, equals
negative 1

Question 24.
The preceding is the equation of a circle in the x y-plane. What is the radius of the
circle?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

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D. 9

Explanation for question 24.

Question 25.
The graph of the linear function f has intercepts at the points with
coordinates a, comma 0, and 0 comma b, in the x y-plane. If a, plus
b equals 0 and a, does not equal b, which of the following is true about the
slope of the graph of f ?

A. It is positive.

B. It is negative.

C. It equals zero.

D. It is undefined.

Explanation for question 25.

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Question 26 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure presents the graph of the function f in the x y-plane. The graph is
labeled y equals f of x. The horizontal axis is labeled x, the vertical axis is
labeled y, and the origin is labeled O. There are evenly spaced horizontal and
vertical gridlines, in increments of 1 unit, along each axis. The graph consists of
4 connected line segments. The first line segment slants upward and to the right. It
starts at the point that is 4 units to the left of the y-axis and 1 unit above the x-axis,
and it ends on the y-axis, 3 units above the x-axis. The second line segment slants
downward and to the right. It starts where the first line segment ends, and ends at
the point that is 1 unit to the right of the y-axis and 1 unit above the x-axis. The
third line segment moves horizontally. It starts where the second line segment
ends, and ends at the point that is 3 units to the right of the y-axis and 1 unit above
the x-axis. The fourth line segment slants downward and to the right. It starts
where the third line segment ends, and ends at the point that is 4 units to the right
of the y-axis and 1 unit below the x-axis.

End skippable figure description.

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Question 26.
The complete graph of the function f is shown in the preceding x y-plane. Which
of the following are equal to 1 ?

I. f of negative 4

I I. f of three halves

I I I. f of 3

A. I I I only

B. I and I I I only

C. I I and I I I only

D. I, I I, and I I I

Explanation for question 26.

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Question 27 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure presents a graph. The horizontal axis is labeled Time, in minutes. The
vertical axis is labeled Temperature, in degrees Celsius. Numbers from 0 to 70,
in increments of 10, appear along both axes with gridlines extending from each
number. Sixteen points are plotted on the graph with eight circles and eight
squares. A key indicates that a square means insulated and a circle means
non-insulated. Each 10-minute interval has a pair of points plotted for insulated
and non-insulated as follows.

0 minutes: insulated, 60 degrees; non-insulated, 60 degrees.

10 minutes: insulated, 52 degrees; non-insulated 42 degrees.

20 minutes: insulated, 47 degrees; non-insulated 34 degrees.

30 minutes: insulated, 41 degrees; non-insulated 30 degrees.

40 minutes: insulated, 38 degrees; non-insulated 29 degrees.

50 minutes: insulated, 36 degrees; non-insulated 28 degrees.

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60 minutes: insulated, 33 degrees; non-insulated 28 degrees.

70 minutes: insulated, 31 degrees; non-insulated 28 degrees.

End skippable figure description.

Question 27.
Two samples of water of equal mass are heated to 60 degrees Celsius
parenthesis, degrees C, close parenthesis. One sample is poured into an insulated
container, and the other sample is poured into a non-insulated container. The
samples are then left for 70 minutes to cool in a room having a temperature of
25 degrees Celsius. The preceding graph shows the temperature of each
sample at 10-minute intervals. Which of the following statements correctly
compares the average rates at which the temperatures of the two samples change?

A. In every 10-minute interval, the magnitude of the rate of change of temperature


of the insulated sample is greater than that of the non-insulated sample.

B. In every 10-minute interval, the magnitude of the rate of change of temperature


of the non-insulated sample is greater than that of the insulated sample.

C. In the intervals from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes, the rates of


change of temperature of the insulated sample are of greater magnitude,
whereas in the intervals from 40 to 50 minutes and from 50 to 60 minutes, the
rates of change of temperature of the non-insulated sample are of
greater magnitude.

D. In the intervals from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes, the rates of


change of temperature of the non-insulated sample are of greater magnitude,
whereas in the intervals from 40 to 50 minutes and from 50 to 60 minutes, the
rates of change of temperature of the insulated sample are of greater magnitude.

Explanation for question 27.

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Question 28 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure presents a tilted square ABCD in the xy-plane. The horizontal axis is
labeled x, and the vertical axis is labeled y. There are evenly spaced horizontal
gridlines and evenly spaced vertical gridlines labeled negative 6 through 6, in
increments of 2 units, along both axes. Vertex A is 5 units to the left of the y-axis
and 2 units below the x-axis, vertex B is 1 unit to the left of the y-axis and 6 units
above the x-axis, vertex C is 7 units to the right of the y-axis and 2 units above the
x-axis, and vertex D is 3 units to the right of the y-axis and 6 units below the
x-axis. Point E is on diagonal AC, lies on the x-axis, and is 1 unit to the right of
the y-axis.

End skippable figure description.

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Question 28.
In the preceding x y-plane, A B C D is a square and point E is the center of the
square. The coordinates of points C and E are 7 comma 2, and
1 comma 0, respectively. Which of the following is an equation of the line that
passes through points B and D ?

A. y equals negative 3 x minus 1

B. y equals negative 3, parenthesis, x minus 1, close parenthesis

C. y equals negative one third x plus 4

D. y equals negative one third x minus 1

Explanation for question 28.

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Question 29 is based on the following system of equations.
y equals 3

y equals a, x squared, plus b

Question 29.
In the preceding system of equations, a and b are constants. For which of the
following values of a and b does the system of equations have exactly two
real solutions?

A. a, equals negative 2, b equals 2

B. a, equals negative 2, b equals 4

C. a, equals 2, b equals 4

D. a, equals 4, b equals 3

Explanation for question 29.

Question 30 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.

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The figure presents a polygon with six sides of equal length and six interior angles
of equal measure, and a square. The polygon and the square have one side in
common.

End skippable figure description.

Question 30.
The preceding figure shows a regular hexagon with sides of length a and a square
with sides of length a. If the area of the hexagon is 384 times the square
root of 3 square inches, what is the area, in square inches, of the square?

A. 256

B. 192

C. 64 times the square root of 3

D. 16 times the square root of 3

Explanation for question 30.

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Directions

For questions 31 through 38, solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid,
as described below, on the answer sheet.

1. Although not required, it is suggested that you write your answer in the boxes at
the top of the columns to help you fill in the circles accurately. You will receive
credit only if the circles are filled in correctly.

2. Mark no more than one circle in any column.

3. No question has a negative answer.

4. Some problems may have more than one correct answer. In such cases, grid only
one answer.

5. Mixed numbers such as three and one half must be gridded as 3.5 or

seven slash two. (If three, one, slash, two, is entered into the grid, it

will be interpreted as thirty one halves, not three and one half.)

6. Decimal answers: If you obtain a decimal answer with more digits than the grid
can accommodate, it may be either rounded or truncated, but it must fill the
entire grid.

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The following are four examples of how to record your answer in the spaces
provided. Keep in mind that there are four spaces provided to record each answer.

Examples 1 and 2

Begin skippable figure description.


Example 1: If your answer is a fraction such as seven-twelfths, it should be
recorded as follows. Enter 7 in the first space, the fraction bar (a slash) in the
second space, 1 in the third space, and 2 in the fourth space. All four spaces would
be used in this example.

Example 2: If your answer is a decimal value such as 2.5, it could be recorded as


follows. Enter 2 in the second space, the decimal point in the third space, and 5 in
the fourth space. Only three spaces would be used in this example.

End skippable figure description.

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Example 3

Begin skippable figure description.


Example 3: Acceptable ways to record two-thirds are: 2 slash 3, .666, and .667.

End skippable figure description.

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Example 4

Note: You may start your answers in any column, space permitting. Columns you
dont need to use should be left blank.

Begin skippable figure description.


Example 4: It is not necessary to begin recording answers in the first space unless
all four spaces are needed. For example, if your answer is 201, you may record 2 in
the second space, 0 in the third space, and 1 in the fourth space. Alternatively, you
may record 2 in the first space, 0 in the second space, and 1 in the third space.
Spaces not needed should be left blank.

End skippable figure description.

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Question 31.
A coastal geologist estimates that a certain countrys beaches are eroding at a rate
of 1.5 feet per year. According to the geologists estimate, how long will it take, in
years, for the countrys beaches to erode by 21 feet?

Explanation for question 31.

Question 32.
If h hours and 30 minutes is equal to 450 minutes, what is the value of h ?

Explanation for question 32.

Question 33.
In the x y-plane, the point with coordinates 3 comma 6 lies on the graph of

the function f of x equals, 3 x squared, minus b x, plus 12.


What is the value of b ?

Explanation for question 33.

Question 34.
In one semester, Doug and Laura spent a combined 250 hours in the tutoring lab. If
Doug spent 40 more hours in the lab than Laura did, how many hours did Laura
spend in the lab?

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Explanation for question 34.

Question 35 is based on the following equation.


a, equals 18 t plus 15

Question 35.
Jane made an initial deposit to a savings account. Each week thereafter she
deposited a fixed amount to the account. The preceding equation models the
amount a, in dollars, that Jane has deposited after t weekly deposits. According to
the model, how many dollars was Janes initial deposit? (Disregard the $ sign when
gridding your answer.)

Explanation for question 35.

Question 36 refers to the following figure.

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure presents a circle with center O touched by two lines, where one line
touches the circle at the single point, labeled L, on the upper right part of the circle,
another line touches the circle at the single point, labeled N, on the lower right part
of the circle, and the two lines intersect at point M outside and to the right of the

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circle. Radii O L and O N are drawn, and the angle formed by line segments L M
and N M is labeled 60 degrees.

End skippable figure description.

Question 36.
In the preceding figure, point O is the center of the circle, line segments L M and
M N are tangent to the circle at points L and N, respectively, and the segments
intersect at point M as shown. If the circumference of the circle is 96, what is the
length of minor arc LN ?

Explanation for question 36.

Questions 37 and 38 refer to the following information.


A botanist is cultivating a rare species of plant in a controlled environment and
currently has 3000 of these plants. The population of this species that the botanist
expects to grow next year, , N sub next year, can be estimated from the
number of plants this year, , N sub this year, by the following equation.

N sub next year,


equals, N sub this year, plus 0.2, parenthesis, N sub this year, close parenthesis,
times, brace, 1 minus the fraction, N sub this year over K, close brace.

The constant K in this formula is the number of plants the environment is able
to support.

Question 37.
According to the formula, what will be the number of plants two years from now if
K equals 4000 ? (Round your answer to the nearest whole number.)

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Explanation for question 37.

Question 38.
The botanist would like to increase the number of plants that the environment can
support so that the population of the species will increase more rapidly. If the
botanists goal is that the number of plants will increase from 3000 this year to
3360 next year, how many plants must the modified environment support?

Explanation for question 38.

Stop.

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section
only. Do not turn to any other section.

Answers and explanations for questions 1 through 38 are provided in the next
section of this document.

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Answers and Explanations for Questions 1
through 38

Explanation for question 1.


Choice C is correct. Since the musician earns $0.09 for each download, the
musician earns 0.09 d dollars when the song is downloaded d times. Similarly,
since the musician earns $0.002 each time the song is streamed, the musician earns
0.002 s dollars when the song is streamed s times. Therefore, the musician earns a
total of 0.09 d plus 0.002 s dollars when the song is downloaded
d times and streamed s times.

Choice A is incorrect because the earnings for each download and the earnings for
time streamed are interchanged in the expression.

Choices B and D are incorrect because in both answer choices, the musician will
lose money when a song is either downloaded or streamed. However, the musician
only earns money, not loses money, when the song is downloaded or streamed.

Explanation for question 2.


Choice B is correct. The quality control manager selects 7 lightbulbs at random for
inspection out of every 400 lightbulbs produced. A quantity of 20,000 lightbulbs is

equal to the fraction 20,000 over 400, which is equal to 50 batches of


400 lightbulbs. Therefore, at the rate of 7 lightbulbs per 400 lightbulbs produced,
the quality control manager will inspect a total of 50 times 7, equals
350 lightbulbs.

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Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from calculation errors or
misunderstanding of the proportional relationship.

Explanation for question 3.


Choice A is correct. The value of m when l is 73 can be found by substituting the
73 for l in l equals 24 plus 3.5 m and then solving for m. The
resulting equation is 73 equals 24 plus 3.5 m; subtracting 24 from
each side gives 49 equals 3.5 m. Then dividing each side of
49 equals 3.5 m by 3.5 gives 14 equals m. Therefore, when l is 73, m is 14.

Choice B is incorrect and may result from adding 24 to 73, instead of subtracting
24 from 73, when solving 73 equals 24 plus 3.5 m.

Choice C is incorrect because 73 is the given value for l, not for m.

Choice D is incorrect and may result from substituting 73 for m, instead of for l, in
the equation l equals 24 plus 3.5 m.

Explanation for question 4.


Choice C is correct. The amount of money the performer earns is directly
proportional to the number of people who attend the performance. Thus, by the
definition of direct proportionality, M equals k P, where M is the amount
of money the performer earns, in dollars, P is the number of people who attend
the performance, and k is a constant. Since the performer earns $120 when
8 people attend the performance, one can substitute 120 for M and 8 for P, giving
120 equals 8 k. Hence, k equals 15, and the relationship between
the number of people who attend the performance and the amount of money, in
dollars, the performer earns is M equals 15 P. Therefore, when 20 people

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attend the performance, the performer earns 15, parenthesis, 20,
close parenthesis, equals 300 dollars.

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect and may result from either misconceptions about
proportional relationships or computational errors.

Explanation for question 5.


Choice C is correct. If 43% of the money earned is used to pay for costs, then the
rest, 57%, is profit. A performance where 8 people attend earns the performer
$120, and 57% of $120 is 120 dollars times 0.57, equals
68 dollars 40 cents.

Choice A is incorrect. The amount $51.60 is 43% of the money earned from a
performance where 8 people attend, which is the cost of putting on the
performance, not the profit from the performance.

Choice B is incorrect. It is given that 57% of the money earned is profit, but 57%
of $120 is not equal to $57.00.

Choice D is incorrect. The profit can be found by subtracting 43% of $120 from
$120, but 43% of $120 is $51.60, not $43.00. Thus, the profit is
120 dollars minus 51 dollars 60 cents, equals 68 dollars
40 cents, not 120 dollars minus 43 dollars, equals
77 dollars.

Explanation for question 6.

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Choice B is correct. When 4 times the number x is added to 12, the result is
12 plus 4 x. Since this result is equal to 8, the equation 12 plus
4 x, equals 8 must be true. Subtracting 12 from each side of 12 plus 4 x,
equals 8 gives 4 x equals negative 4, and then dividing both sides of
4 x equals negative 4 by 4 gives x equals negative 1. Therefore,
2 times x added to 7, or 7 plus 2 x, is equal to 7 plus 2,
parenthesis, negative 1, close parenthesis, equals 5.

Choice A is incorrect because negative 1 is the value of x, not the value of


7 plus 2 x.

Choices C and D are incorrect and may result from calculation errors.

Explanation for question 7.


Choice D is correct. The x-intercepts of the parabola represented by
y equals x squared, minus 6 x, plus 8 in the x y-plane are the values
of x for which y is equal to 0. The factored form of the equation,
y equals, parenthesis, x minus 2, close parenthesis, times,
parenthesis, x minus 4, close parenthesis, shows that y equals 0 if and only if
x equals 2 or x equals 4. Thus, the factored form, y equals
parenthesis, x minus 2, close parenthesis, times, parenthesis, x minus 4, close
parenthesis, displays the x-intercepts of the parabola as the constants 2 and 4.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because none of these forms shows the
x-intercepts 2 and 4 as constants or coefficients.

Explanation for question 8.


Choice D is correct. Since a player starts with k points and loses 2 points each
time a task is not completed, the players score will be k minus 2 n after

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n tasks are not completed (and no additional points are gained). Since a player who
fails to complete 100 tasks has a score of 200 points, the equation
200 equals k, minus 100, parenthesis, 2, close parenthesis, must
be true. This equation can be solved by adding 200 to each side, giving
k equals 400.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect and may result from errors in setting up or
solving the equation relating the players score to the number of tasks the player
fails to complete. For example, choice A may result from subtracting 200 from the
left-hand side of 200 equals k, minus 100, parenthesis, 2, close
parenthesis, and adding 200 to the right-hand side.

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Explanation for question 9.
Choice A is correct. Since x is the number of 40-pound boxes, 40 x is total weight,
in pounds, of the 40-pound boxes; and since y is the number of 65-pound boxes,
65 y is total weight, in pounds, of the 65-pound boxes. The combined weight of the
boxes is therefore 40 x plus 65 y, and the total number of boxes is
x plus y. Since the forklift can carry up to 45 boxes or up to 2,400 pounds, the
inequalities that represent these relationships are 40 x plus 65 y,
is less than or equal to 2,400 and x plus y is less than or equal to 45.

Choice B is incorrect. The second inequality correctly represents the maximum


number of boxes on the forklift, but the first inequality divides, rather than
multiplies, the number of boxes by their respective weights.

Choice C is incorrect. The combined weight of the boxes, 40 x plus 65 y,


must be less than or equal to 2,400 pounds, not 45; the total number of boxes,
x plus y, must be less than or equal to 45, not 2,400.

Choice D is incorrect. The second inequality correctly represents the maximum


weight, in pounds, of the boxes on the forklift, but the total number of boxes,
x plus y, must be less than or equal to 45, not 2,400.

Explanation for question 10.


Choice B is correct. It is given that g of 3, equals 2. Therefore, to find

the value of f of g of 3, substitute 2 for g of 3:

f of g of 3, equals, f of 2, which equals 3.

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Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from misunderstandings about
function notation.

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Explanation for question 11.
Choice B is correct. Tony reads 250 words per minute, and he plans to read for
3 hours, which is 180 minutes, each day. Thus, Tony is planning to read
250 times 180, equals 45,000 words of the novel per day.

Since the novel has 349,168 words, it will take Tony the fraction
349,168 over 45,000, is approximately equal to 7.76 days of reading to finish the
novel. That is, it will take Tony 7 full days of reading and most of an 8th day of
reading to finish the novel. Therefore, it will take Tony 8 days to finish the novel.

Choice A is incorrect and may result from an incorrect calculation or incorrectly


using the numbers provided in the table.

Choice C is incorrect and may result from taking the total number of words in the
novel divided by the rate Tony reads per hour.

Choice D is incorrect and may result from taking the total number of words in the
novel divided by the number of pages in the novel.

Explanation for question 12.


Choice D is correct. Since there were 175,000 tons of trash in the landfill on
January 1, 2000, and the amount of trash in the landfill increased by 7,500 tons
each year after that date, the amount of trash, in tons, in the landfill y years after
January 1, 2000, can be expressed as 175,000 plus 7,500 y. The
landfill has a capacity of 325,000 tons. Therefore, the set of years where the
amount of trash in the landfill is at (equal to) or above (greater than) capacity is
described by the inequality 175,000 plus 7,500 y, is
greater than or equal to 325,000.

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Choice A is incorrect. This inequality does not account for the 175,000 tons of
trash in the landfill on January 1, 2000, nor does it accurately account for the
7,500 tons of trash that are added to the landfill each year after January 1, 2000.

Choice B is incorrect. This inequality does not account for the 175,000 tons of
trash in the landfill on January 1, 2000.

Choice C is incorrect. This inequality represents the set of years where the amount
of trash in the landfill is at or below capacity.

Explanation for question 13.


Choice D is correct. Survey research is an efficient way to estimate the preferences
of a large population. In order to reliably generalize the results of survey research
to a larger population, the participants should be randomly selected from all people
in that population. Since this survey was conducted with a population that was not
randomly selected, the results are not reliably representative of all people in the
town. Therefore, of the given factors, where the survey was given makes it least
likely that a reliable conclusion can be drawn about the sports-watching
preferences of all people in the town.

Choice A is incorrect. In general, larger sample sizes are preferred over smaller
sample sizes. However, a sample size of 117 people would have allowed a reliable
conclusion about the population if the participants had been selected at random.

Choice B is incorrect. Whether the population is large or small, a large enough


sample taken from the population is reliably generalizable if the participants are
selected at random from that population. Thus, a reliable conclusion could have
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been drawn about the population if the 117 survey participants had been selected at
random.

Choice C is incorrect. When giving a survey, participants are not forced to respond.
Even though some people refused to respond, a reliable conclusion could have
been drawn about the population if the participants had been selected at random.

Explanation for question 14.


Choice C is correct. According to the graph, the horizontal line that represents
550 billion miles traveled intersects the line of best fit at a point whose horizontal
coordinate is between 2000 and 2005, and slightly closer to 2005 than to 2000.
Therefore, of the choices given, 2003 best approximates the year in which the
number of miles traveled by air passengers in Country X was estimated to be
550 billion.

Choice A is incorrect. According to the line of best fit, in 1997 the estimated
number of miles traveled by air passengers in Country X was about 450 billion, not
550 billion.

Choice B is incorrect. According to the line of best fit, in 2000 the estimated
number of miles traveled by air passengers in Country X was about 500 billion, not
550 billion.

Choice D is incorrect. According to the line of best fit, in 2008 the estimated
number of miles traveled by air passengers in Country X was about 600 billion, not
550 billion.

Explanation for question 15.

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Choice A is correct. The number of miles Earth travels in its one-year orbit of the
Sun is 580,000,000. Because there are about 365 days per year, the number of

miles Earth travels per day is the fraction 580,000,000


over 365, is approximately equal to 1,589,041. There are 24 hours in one day, so

Earth travels at the fraction 1,589,041 over 24, is


approximately equal to 66,210 miles per hour. Therefore, of the choices given,
66,000 miles per hour is closest to the average speed of Earth as it orbits the Sun.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and may result from calculation errors.

Explanation for question 16.


Choice B is correct. According to the table, there are 18 plus 7, equals
25 graduates who passed the bar exam, and 7 of them did not take the review
course. Therefore, if one of the surveyed graduates who passed the bar exam is
chosen at random, the probability that the person chosen did not take the review

course is 7 over 25.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect. Each of these choices represents a different


probability from the conditional probability that the question asks for.

Choice A represents the following probability. If one of the surveyed graduates


who passed the bar exam is chosen at random, the probability that the person

chosen did take the review course is 18 over 25.

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Choice C represents the following probability. If one of the surveyed graduates is
chosen at random, the probability that the person chosen passed the bar exam is

the fraction 25 over 200.

Choice D represents the following probability. If one of the surveyed graduates is


chosen at random, the probability that the person chosen passed the exam and took

the review course is the fraction 7 over 200.

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Explanation for question 17.
Choice C is correct. To find the atomic weight of an unknown element that is
20% less than the atomic weight of calcium, multiply the atomic weight, in amu, of
calcium by parenthesis, 1 minus 0.20, close parenthesis:
parenthesis, 40, close parenthesis, times,
parenthesis, 1 minus 0.20, close parenthesis, equals, parenthesis, 40, close
parenthesis, times, parenthesis, 0.8, close parenthesis, which equals 32.

Choice A is incorrect. This value is 20% of the atomic weight of calcium, not an
atomic weight 20% less than the atomic weight of calcium.

Choice B is incorrect. This value is 20 amu less, not 20% less, than the atomic
weight of calcium.

Choice C is incorrect. This value is 20% more, not 20% less, than the atomic
weight of calcium.

Explanation for question 18.


Choice C is correct. The mean and median values of a data set are equal when
there is a symmetrical distribution. For example, a normal distribution is
symmetrical. If the mean and the median values are not equal, then the distribution
is not symmetrical. Outliers are a small group of values that are significantly
smaller or larger than the other values in the data. When there are outliers in the
data, the mean will be pulled in their direction (either smaller or larger) while the
median remains the same. The example in the question has a mean that is larger
than the median, and so an appropriate conjecture is that large outliers are present
in the data; that is, that there are a few homes that are valued much more than the
rest.

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Choice A is incorrect because a set of home values that are close to each other will
have median and mean values that are also close to each other.

Choice B is incorrect because outliers with small values will tend to make the
mean lower than the median.

Choice D is incorrect because a set of data where many homes are valued between
$125,000 and $165,000 will likely have both a mean and a median between
$125,000 and $165,000.

Explanation for question 19.


Choice B is correct. The median of a data set is the middle value when the data
points are sorted in either ascending or descending order. There are a total of
600 data points provided, so the median will be the average of the 300th and
301st data points. When the data points are sorted in order:

1. Values 1 through 260 will be 0.

2. Values 261 through 450 will be 1.

3. Values 451 through 540 will be 2.

4. Values 541 through 580 will be 3.

5. Values 581 through 600 will be 4.

Therefore, both the 300th and 301st values are 1, and hence the median is 1.

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Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from either a calculation error or
a conceptual error.

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Explanation for question 20.
Choice C is correct. When survey participants are selected at random from a larger
population, the sample statistics calculated from the survey can be generalized to
the larger population. Since 10 of 300 students surveyed at Lincoln School have
4 siblings, one can estimate that this same ratio holds for all 2,400 students at
Lincoln School. Also, since 10 of 300 students surveyed at Washington School
have 4 siblings, one can estimate that this same ratio holds for all 3,300 students at

Washington School. Therefore, approximately 3 the fraction 10

over 30, times 2,400, equals 803 students at Lincoln School and
the fraction 10 over 30, times 3,300, equals 110 students at Washington School are
expected to have 4 siblings. Thus, the total number of students with 4 siblings at
Washington School is expected to be 110 minus 80, equals 30 more
than the total number of students with 4 siblings at Lincoln School.

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect and may result from either conceptual or
calculation errors. For example, choice A is incorrect; even though there is the
same ratio of survey participants from Lincoln School and Washington School with
4 siblings, the two schools have a different total number of students, and thus, a
different expected total number of students with 4 siblings.

Explanation for question 21.


Choice D is correct. The difference between the number of hours the project takes,
y, and the number of hours the project was estimated to take, x, is the
absolute value of y minus x, end absolute value. If the goal is met, the difference is
less than 10, which can be represented as the absolute value of y minus
x, end absolute value, is less than 10 or negative 10, is less than
y minus x, which is less than 10.

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Choice A is incorrect. This inequality states that the estimated number of hours
plus the actual number of hours is less than 10, which cannot be true because the
estimate is greater than 100.

Choice B is incorrect. This inequality states that the actual number of hours is
greater than the estimated number of hours plus 10, which could be true only if the
goal of being within 10 hours of the estimate were not met.

Choice C is incorrect. This inequality states that the actual number of hours is less
than the estimated number of hours minus 10, which could be true only if the goal
of being within 10 hours of the estimate were not met.

Explanation for question 22.

Choice B is correct. To rearrange the formula I, equals, the fraction P


over 4, pi r squared, end fraction in terms of r squared, first multiply each side

of the equation by r squared. This yields r squared, I, equals, the

fraction P over 4 pi. Then dividing each side of r squared, I, equals, the

fraction P over 4 pi by I gives r squared, equals the fraction P over


4 pi, I.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from algebraic errors during
rearrangement of the formula.

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Explanation for question 23.
Choice A is correct. If I sub A is the intensity measured by Observer A from a
distance of r sub A, and I sub B is the intensity measured by Observer B
from a distance of r sub B, then I sub A, equals, 16 I sub B.

Using the formula I equals, the fraction P, over 4 pi r squared, end

fraction, the intensity measured by Observer A is I sub A, equals,


the fraction P, over 4 pi r, sub A, squared, end fraction, which can also be written

in terms of I sub B as I sub A, equals, 16 I sub B,


which equals 16, times, parenthesis, the fraction P, over 4 pi r, sub B, squared, end
fraction, close parenthesis. Setting the right-hand sides of these two equations

equal to each other gives the fraction P, over 4 pi r,


sub A, squared, end fraction, equals 16 times, parenthesis, the fraction P, over
4 pi r, sub B, squared, end fraction, close parenthesis, which relates the distance of
Observer A from the radio antenna to the distance of Observer B from the radio

antenna. Canceling the common factor the fraction P over 4 pi and rearranging
the equation gives r, sub B, squared, equals 16 r, sub A, squared.
Taking the square root of each side of r, sub B, squared, equals 16 r,
sub A, squared gives r, sub B, equals 4 r, sub A, and then dividing each

side by 4 yields r, sub A, equals, one fourth r, sub B. Therefore, the

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distance of Observer A from the radio antenna is one fourth the distance of
Observer B from the radio antenna.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and may result from errors in deriving or using

the formula the fraction P, over 4 pi r, sub A, squared,


end fraction, equals, parenthesis, 16, close parenthesis, times, parenthesis, the
fraction P over 4 pi r, sub B, squared, end fraction, close parenthesis.

Explanation for question 24.


Choice A is correct. The equation of a circle with center with coordinates
h comma k, and radius r is parenthesis, x minus h,
close parenthesis, squared, plus, parenthesis, y minus k, close parenthesis, squared,
equals r squared. To put the equation x squared plus
y squared, plus 4 x, minus 2 y, equals negative 1 in this form, complete the square as
follows:

x squared plus y squared, plus 4 x minus 2 y, equals


negative 1, which is

parenthesis, x squared plus 4 x, close parenthesis, plus,


parenthesis, y squared minus 2 y, close parenthesis, equals, negative 1, and then

parenthesis, x squared plus 4 x plus 4,


close parenthesis, minus 4, plus, parenthesis, y squared minus 2 y plus 1, close
parenthesis, minus 1, equals, negative 1, which is equivalent to

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parenthesis, x plus 2, close parenthesis, squared,
plus, parenthesis, y minus 1, close parenthesis, squared, minus 4, minus 1,
equals negative 1, and finally

parenthesis, x plus 2, close parenthesis, squared, plus


parenthesis, y minus 1, close parenthesis, squared, equals 4, which equals
2 squared.

Therefore, the radius of the circle is 2.

Choice C is incorrect because it is the square of the radius, not the radius.

Choices B and D are incorrect and may result from errors in rewriting the given
equation in standard form.

Explanation for question 25.


Choice A is correct. In the x y-plane, the slope m of the line that passes through the
points with coordinates x sub 1 comma y sub 1, and with

coordinates x sub 2 comma y sub 2, is given by the formula


m equals, the fraction whose numerator is y sub 2, minus y sub 1, and whose
denominator is x sub 2, minus x sub 1. Thus, if the graph of the linear function f
has intercepts at the point with coordinates a, comma 0, and the
point with coordinates zero comma b, then the slope of the line that is the graph of

y equals f of x is m equals the fraction whose numerator


is 0 minus b, and whose denominator is a, minus 0, which equals the negative
fraction b over a. It is given that a, plus b equals 0, and so

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a, equals negative b. Finally, substituting negative b for a in

m equals the negative fraction b over a gives m equals the negative


fraction b over negative b, which equals 1, which is positive.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and may result from a conceptual


misunderstanding or a calculation error.

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Explanation for question 26.
Choice D is correct. The definition of the graph of a function f in the x y-plane is

the set of all points with coordinates x comma, f of x. Thus, for


negative 4 is less than or equal to a, which is less than or equal to 4, the
value of f of a , is 1 if and only if the unique point on the graph of f with
x-coordinate a has y-coordinate equal to 1. The points on the graph of f with

x-coordinates negative 4, comma, three halves, and 3 are, respectively,

the point with coordinates negative 4 comma 1, the point with


coordinates three halves comma 1, and the point with coordinates
3 comma 1. Therefore, all of the values of f given in I, II, and III are equal to 1.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they each omit at least one value of x
for which f of x equals 1.

Explanation for question 27.


Choice D is correct. According to the graph, in the interval from 0 to 10 minutes,
the non-insulated sample decreased in temperature by about 18 degrees
Celsius, while the insulated sample decreased by about 8 degrees Celsius; in
the interval from 10 to 20 minutes, the non-insulated sample decreased in
temperature by about 9 degrees Celsius, while the insulated sample decreased
by about 5 degrees Celsius; in the interval from 40 to 50 minutes, the
non-insulated sample decreased in temperature by about 1 degree Celsius,
while the insulated sample decreased by about 3 degrees Celsius; and in the
interval from 50 to 60 minutes, the non-insulated sample decreased in temperature
by about 1 degree Celsius, while the insulated sample decreased by about
2 degrees Celsius. The description in choice D accurately summarizes these
rates of temperature change over the given intervals. (Note that since the two

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samples of water have equal mass and so must lose the same amount of heat to
cool from 60 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius, the faster cooling
of the non-insulated sample at the start of the cooling process must be balanced out
by faster cooling of the insulated sample at the end of the cooling process.)

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect. None of these descriptions accurately compares


the rates of temperature change shown in the graph for the 10-minute intervals.

Explanation for question 28.


Choice B is correct. In the x y-plane, the slope m of the line that passes through the
points with coordinates x sub 1, comma, y sub 1, and the point

with coordinates x sub 2, comma, y sub 2, is m equals, the fraction


whose numerator is y sub 2 minus y sub 1, and whose denominator is x sub 2
minus x sub 1. Thus, the slope of the line through the points C with

coordinates 7 comma 2 and E with coordinates 1 comma 0 is the


fraction with numerator 2 minus 0, and denominator 7 minus 1, end fraction, which

simplifies to two sixths equals one third. Therefore, diagonal A C has a

slope of one third. The other diagonal of the square is a segment of the line that
passes through points B and D. The diagonals of a square are perpendicular, and so
the product of the slopes of the diagonals is equal to negative 1. Thus, the
slope of the line that passes through B and D is negative 3, because

one third, parenthesis, negative 3, close parenthesis, equals negative 1.


Hence an equation of the line that passes through B and D can be written as
y equals, negative 3 x plus b, where b is the y-intercept of the line.
Since diagonal B D will pass through the center of the square, E with

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coordinates 1 comma 0, the equation 0 equals negative 3,
parenthesis, 1, close parenthesis, plus b holds. Solving this equation for b gives
b equals 3. Therefore, an equation of the line that passes through points B
and D is y equals, negative 3 x plus 3, which can be rewritten as
y equals negative 3, parenthesis, x minus 1, close parenthesis.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from a conceptual error or a
calculation error.

Explanation for question 29.


Choice B is correct. Substituting 3 for y in y equals a, x squared
plus b gives 3 equals a, x squared plus b, which can be rewritten as
3 minus b equals a, x squared. Since y equals 3 is one of the
equations in the given system, any solution x of 3 minus b equals
a, x squared corresponds to the solution x comma 3 of the given system.
Since the square of a real number is always nonnegative, and a positive number has
two square roots, the equation 3 minus b equals a, x squared will have
two solutions for x if and only if (1) a is greater than 0 and b is less
than 3, or (2) a is less than 0 and b is greater than 3. Of the values for
a and b given in the choices, only a, equals negative 2, b equals 4
satisfy one of these pairs of conditions.

Alternatively, if a, equals negative 2 and b equals 4, then the second


equation would be y equals negative 2 x squared, plus 4. The graph
of this quadratic equation in the x y-plane is a parabola with y-intercept with
coordinates 0 comma 4, that opens downward. The graph of the first equation,
y equals 3, is the horizontal line that contains the point with
coordinates 0 comma 3. As shown below, these two graphs have two points of

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intersection, and therefore, this system of equations has exactly two real solutions.
(Graphing shows that none of the other three choices produces a system with
exactly two real solutions.)

Begin skippable figure description.


The figure presents the graph of a line and a parabola in the x y-plane. The
horizontal axis is labeled x, the vertical axis is labeled y, and the origin is
labeled O. Numbers negative 2 through 2, in increments of 1, appear along the
x-axis, and there are vertical grid lines at those numbers. Numbers 1 through 4, in
increments of 1, appear along the y-axis, and there are horizontal grid lines at those
numbers. The line is a horizontal line with y equals 3. The parabola is a curve that
is symmetric with respect to the y-axis and opens downward with its highest point
on the y-axis at 4. The curve increases as it moves from left to right, crossing the
line with y equals 3, until it reaches the y-axis at 4. Then it starts decreasing,
crossing the line with y equals 3, and continues to decrease as it moves to the
right. The line and the parabola intersect at two points, one to the left of the y-axis
and one to the right of the y-axis.

End skippable figure description.

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Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from calculation or conceptual
errors.

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Explanation for question 30.
Choice A is correct. The regular hexagon can be divided into 6 equilateral triangles
of side length a by drawing the six segments from the center of the regular
hexagon to each of its 6 vertices. Since the area of the hexagon is
384 times the square root of 3 square inches, the area of each equilateral triangle

will be the fraction with numerator 384 times the square root of 3,
and denominator 6, equals, 64 times the square root of 3 square inches.

Drawing any altitude of an equilateral triangle divides it into two


30 degree-60 degree-90 degree triangles. If the side length of the equilateral
triangle is a, then the hypotenuse of each 30 degree-60 degree-
90 degree triangle is a, and the altitude of the equilateral triangle will be the side
opposite the 60 degree angle in each of the 30 degree-60 degree-

90 degree triangles. Thus, the altitude of the equilateral triangle is the


fraction the square root of 3 over 2, end fraction, times, a, and the area of the

equilateral triangle is one half, parenthesis, a, close


parenthesis, times, parenthesis, the fraction the square root of 3 over 2, end
fraction, times, a, close parenthesis, equals, the fraction the square root of 3, over
4, end fraction, times, a, squared. Since the area of each equilateral triangle is
64 times the square root of 3 square inches, it follows that

a, squared equals, the fraction 4 over the square root of 3,


times, parenthesis, 64 times the square root of 3, close parenthesis, equals
256 square inches. And since the area of the square with side length a is
a, squared, it follows that the square has area 256 square inches.

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Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and may result from calculation or conceptual
errors.

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Explanation for question 31.
The correct answer is 14. Since the coastal geologist estimates that the countrys
beaches are eroding at a rate of 1.5 feet every year, they will erode by 1.5 x feet in
x years. Thus, if the beaches erode by 21 feet in x years, the equation

1.5 x equals 21 must hold. The value of x is then the fraction 21 over 1.5,
which equals 14. Therefore, according to the geologists estimate, it will take
14 years for the countrys beaches to erode by 21 feet.

Explanation for question 32.


The correct answer is 7. There are 60 minutes in each hour, and so there are
60 h minutes in h hours. Since h hours and 30 minutes is equal to 450 minutes, it
follows that 60 h plus 30, equals 450. This equation can be

simplified to 60 h equals 420, and so the value of h is


the fraction 420 over 60, equals 7.

Explanation for question 33.


The correct answer is 11. It is given that the function f of x passes through
the point with coordinates 3 comma 6. Thus, if x equals 3, the value
of f of x is 6 (since the graph of f in the x y-plane is the set of all points

with coordinates x, comma, f of x. Substituting 3 for x and 6 for


f of x in f of x equals, 3 x squared, minus b x, plus 12, gives

6 equals, 3, parenthesis, 3, close parenthesis, squared,


minus b, parenthesis, 3, close parenthesis, plus 12. Performing the operations on
the right-hand side of this equation gives
6 equals, 3, parenthesis, 9, close
parenthesis, minus 3 b plus 12, equals, 27 minus 3 b plus 12, which equals, 39
minus 3 b. Subtracting 39 from each side of 6 equals 39 minus 3 b,
gives negative 33 equals negative 3 b, and then dividing each side of

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negative 3 b equals negative 33 by negative 3 gives that the value
of b is 11.

Explanation for question 34.


The correct answer is 105. Let D be the number of hours Doug spent in the
tutoring lab, and let L be the number of hours Laura spent in the tutoring lab.
Since Doug and Laura spent a combined total of 250 hours in the tutoring lab, the
equation D plus L equals 250 holds. The number of hours Doug spent
in the lab is 40 more than the number of hours Laura spent in the lab, and so the
equation D equals L plus 40 holds. Substituting L plus 40 for D
in D plus L equals 250 gives parenthesis, L plus
40, close parenthesis, plus L, equals 250, or 40 plus 2 L equals 250.
Solving this equation gives L equals 150. Therefore, Laura spent
105 hours in the tutoring lab.

Explanation for question 35.


The correct answer is 15. The amount, a, that Jane has deposited after t fixed
weekly deposits is equal to the initial deposit plus the total amount of money Jane
has deposited in the t fixed weekly deposits. This amount a is given to be
a, equals 18 t plus 15. The amount she deposited in the t fixed weekly
deposits is the amount of the weekly deposit times t; hence, this amount must be
given by the term 18t in a, equals 18 t plus 15 (and so Jane must have
deposited 18 dollars each week after the initial deposit). Therefore, the amount of
Janes original deposit, in dollars, is a, minus 18 t equals 15.

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Explanation for question 36.
The correct answer is 32. Since segments L M and M N are tangent to the circle at
points L and N, respectively, angles O L M and O N M are right angles. Thus, in
quadrilateral O L M N, the measure of angle O is
360 degrees minus, parenthesis, 90 degrees plus 60 degrees plus 90 degrees, close
parenthesis, equals, 120 degrees. Thus, in the circle, central angle O cuts off

the fraction 120 over 360, equals one third of the circumference; that is,

minor arc L N is one third of the circumference. Since the circumference is

96, the length of minor arc L N is one third times 96, equals 32.

Explanation for question 37.


The correct answer is 3284. According to the formula, the number of plants

one year from now will be 3,000 plus 0.2,


parenthesis, 3,000, close parenthesis, times, parenthesis, 1 minus the fraction 3,000
over 4,000, close parenthesis, which is equal to 3150. Then, using the formula
again, the number of plants two years from now will be

3,150 plus 0.2, parenthesis, 3,150, close parenthesis,


times, parenthesis, 1 minus the fraction, 3,150 over 4,000, close parenthesis, which
is 3283.875. Rounding this value to the nearest whole number gives 3284.

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Explanation for question 38.
The correct answer is 7500. If the number of plants is to be increased from 3000
this year to 3360 next year, then the number of plants that the environment can

support, K, must satisfy the equation 3,360


equals 3,000 plus 0.2, parenthesis, 3,000, close parenthesis, times, parenthesis, 1
minus the fraction, 3,000 over K, close parenthesis. Dividing both sides of this

equation by 3000 gives 1.12 equals, 1 plus 0.2, times,


parenthesis, 1 minus the fraction 3,000 over K, close parenthesis, and therefore, it

must be true that 0.2, times, parenthesis, 1 minus the


fraction 3,000 over K, close parenthesis, equals 0.12, or equivalently,

1 minus the fraction 3,000 over K, equals 0.6. It follows that

the fraction 3,000 over K, equals 0.4, and so


K equals the fraction, 3,000 over 0.4, equals 7,500.

Stop. This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 1
through 38.

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