I
ul
functions called RWG [7]. Since the RWG basis functions
are supported by a triangular mesh, an arbitrary surface S' 5
has to be meshed with triangles, Fig. l(b). 10
proportionate selection (roulettewheel selection). In this a substrate of dielectric constant E1 = 2.2. To account
way the probability of each chromosome to be selected for the effect of the dielectric, we reduce the size of
is proportional to its score value. The scoring scheme antenna element inside the dielectric by 35%. Additional
is chosen according to the return loss. In particular, we superstrate layers with permittivities E2 = 75, E3 = 25 and
score the return loss assigning a weightscore (a positive E4 = 9, respectively are used to maximize the radiation
number) to every frequency point, as it is shown in Table I. efficiency in the upper halfplane (Fig. 3). The thicknesses
The total score for each structure is calculated by summing are chosen in a way that the excitation of surface waves is
the score at every frequency point. To higher scores, is minimized. The overall behavior of the surface waves is
assigned a low probability to be chosen as a parent. similar to the single layer case. The lower dominant mode
According to this criterion, the GA process is guided to is the TM1. The lower higher order modes are the TE,
converge to a structure that has a return loss below 12 dB and TM2 [1].
or 15 dB or 20 dB. Indeed, the score for those values of
return loss are very small (between 0 and 3). V. RESULTS AND VALIDATION
One of the most severe problems of this approach is
In the following, we discuss the numerical computations
that the computation time is proportional to the number
of the input impendence, the radiation pattern and the
of frequency points. In order to reduce the number of
frequency points, the structure is first optimized at the phase center of the antenna.
range 1.5 GHz to 11.5 GHz using 21 frequency points,
A. Input impedance
or 500 MHz spacing. The size of the rectangle cell is
0.3 cm x 0.3 cm. This size corresponds to 0.015A and The input impedance is computed by MoM and the
0.115A at the lowest and highest frequency optimization, results are compared with these obtained with CST Mi
respectively. After achieving the results, considering the crowave Studio. In Fig. 4, we can see that the real and
scaling properties of antennas, the optimized result will the imaginary part of the input impedance are centered
be scaled down by a factor of two and examined for the around 80 Q and 0 Q respectively within a frequency band
range 326 GHz. Fig. 2 shows the best generated structure of 3 26 GHz. A good agreement of the results obtained
and its return loss. with both methods is observed. The computation time with
the MoM is by a factor 50 lower than with CST microwave
IV. SUBSTRATE SUPERSTRATES CONFIGURATION studio.
For the use of the generated antenna element in UWB
arrays, an important challenge is to achieve a unidirec B. Antenna phase center
tional radiation pattern (+y) without ground plane as
shown in Fig. 3. It is well known, that the presence The stability of the phase center is investigate by means
of the ground plane deteriorates the performance of the of directional transfer functions [3]. The directional trans
antenna at higher frequencies. In this work we propose fer function also depends on the elevation angle 0 (Fig. 5).
the application of a substratesuperstrate configuration to The phase is plotted as function of 0 and the frequency.
achieve a unidirectional radiation pattern. The antenna A linear behavior can be observed up to approximately
element is embedded into a dielectric multilayer structure 25 GHz.
as shown in Fig. 3.
It is already understood [8] that choosing properly the C. Radiation Pattern
value of the dielectric permittivity or permeability and the Fig. 6 shows a 3D view of the antenna radiation pattern.
thicknesses one can enhance gain and improve radiation As we can see the influence of the substratesupertestrates
efficiency. In this case, to achieve a directional radiation tends to generate a unidirectional radiation characteristic
pattern, we place the radiating element in the middle of intermediate and high frequencies.
2026
150f
n
"0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Frequency [GHz]
f. . . . .
r, n e
6 GHz
0 
0
50 (a) Radiation pattern at (b) Radiation pattern
N + MoM
_1 
E 00
6 GHz. at 12 GHz.
CST
.4 En_
15
I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Frequency [GHz]
4 4
f = 1GHz
500 f = 3.9GHz
a (c) Radiation pattern at (d) Radiation pattern at
" 1000. f = 6.8GHz 18 GHz. 21 GHz.
f = 9.7GHz
.......................
'a
R 2500

0f = 18.4GHz
..
0~ f = 21.3GHz
X= 3000
u,
f = 24.2GHz [4] H. G. Schantz, "Introduction to ultra wideband antennas," IEEE
   4
4f = 27.1GHz UWBST Conference Proceedings, 2003.
3500. [5] Z. N. Chen, X. H. Wu, H. F. Li, and M. Y W. Chia, "Consideration
 bf = 30GHz
for source pulses and antennas in UWB radio systems," IEEE Trans.
4000L0 10 20 30 40 50 Antennas Propagat., vol. 52, No. 7, pp. 17391748, Jul. 2004.
Elevation Angle 0 [degree] [6] T. DoHong and P. Russer, " Wideband Smart Antenna Array
Applications ," IEEE Microwave Magazine, pp. 5767, March 2004.
Fig. 5. In figure the phase behavior of the antenna in space and frequency [7] S. M. Rao, D. R. Wilton, and A. W. Glisson, "Electromagnetic
is shown. scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape," IEEE Trans. Antennas
Propagat., vol.AP30, pp. 409418, May 1982.
[8] N.G. Alexopoulos and D. R. Jackson, "Fundamental superstrate
(cover) effects on printed circuit," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Prop
VI. CONCLUSIONS agat., vol. AP32, pp.807816, Aug. 1984.
[9] D. R. Jackson and N.G. Alexopoulos, "Gain enhancement methods
A novel antenna for UWB intelligent antenna systems for printed circuit antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat.,
has been presented. The planar antenna element has been vol. AP33, No. 9, pp. 976987, Sept. 1985.
designed by the combination of a genetic algorithm and [10] F. J. Villegas, T. Cwik, Y RahmatSamii and M. Manteghi, "A
parallel electromagnetic geneticalgorithm (EGO) application for
the electric field integral equation method. We have shown patch antenna design," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol.52, No.
that a UWB antenna element embedded in a dielectric 9, pp. 24242435, Sept. 2004.
substratesuperstrates structure exhibits impedance band
width, unidirectional radiation characteristics and constant
phase center from 3 to 25 GHz.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to acknowledge Rohde & Schwarz
company for the support to the work.
REFERENCES
[1] P. Russer, Electromagnetics, Microwave Circuit and Antenna Design
for Communications Engineering, Artech House, Boston, 2003.
[2] R. A. Scholtz, D. M. Pozar and W. Namgoong,"Ultrawideband
radio," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, vol. 3, pp.
252272, 2005.
[3] W. Sorgel and W. Wiesbeck, "Influence of the antennas on the
ultrawideband transmission," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal
Processing, pp. 296305, 2005.