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Stages of Reading

Development
The Major Qualitative
Characteristics and How They
Are Acquired

Revised from a PPTX


by
Brenda Smith & LeeAnn Morris
Bridging the Gap: College Reading (9th ed.)
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From Cambridge University
fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a "sgtrane" mnid.
Cna yuo raed tihs?

Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can raed tihs.

I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I


was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid!
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch sdtuy at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy,
it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are,
the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be
in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you
can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.

Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter
by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and
I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! if you can raed
tihs psas it on!! 2
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Factors Influencing
Acquisition of Reading Ability

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Stage 0:
Pseudo Reading

Preschool
(ages 6 months to 6 years)

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Stage 0
l Major
Qualitative l Pretend reading
l Retells story from
Characteristics
pictures
and Masteries by
l Names alphabet
End of Stage letters
l Prints own name
l Plays with books,
pencils, paper

6
Stage 0
l Being read to by
someone who
responds to childs
interest
How
Acquired l Being provided with
books, paper, pencils,
letters, time

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Stage 0
l Most can understand
childrens picture
books and stories
read to them

Relationship l Can understand


of Reading thousands of the
words they hear by
to Listening age 6, but can read
few if any of them

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Stage 1:
Initial reading and
decoding

Grade 1 and beginning Grade 2


(ages 6 and 7)

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Stage 1
lMajor l Learns relation between
letters and sounds and
Qualitative between printed and
Characteristics spoken words
l Able to read simple text
and Masteries containing high-frequency
by End of words and phonically
regular words
Stage l Sounds out new one-
syllable words

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Stage 1
l Direct instruction and
practice in letter-sound
relationships
l Reading of simple stories
using simple phonic
How patterns and high
frequency words

acquired l Being read to at a higher


level to develop
advanced language
patterns, new words, and
ideas

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Stage 1
l Childs reading level
is much below the
language that is
understood when
heard

l At end of stage, most


Relationship of children understand
Reading to 6,000 or more words
but can read only
Listening about 600.
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Stage 2:
Confirmation and
Fluency

Grades 2 and 3
(ages 7 and 8)

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Stage 2
l Major
Qualitative l Reads simple stories
with increasing
Characteristics fluency
and Masteries by
End of Stage l Learns to consolidate
decoding, sight
vocabulary, &
meaning context to
read stories and
selections

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Stage 2
l Direct instruction in
advanced decoding
skills
l Wide reading w/
instructional and
independent materials
lHow acquired
l Being read to at
levels above their
own to develop
language, vocabulary
and concepts
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Stage 2
l About 3,000 words
can be read

l 9,000 or more words


in listening vocabulary

lRelationship of l Listening is still more


Reading to effective than reading
Listening
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Stage 3:
Reading for Learning the
New

Grades 4-8
(ages 9-13)

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Stage 3:
Phase A & B

A. Intermediate, grades 4-6

B. Junior high school, grades 7-9

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Stage 3
lMajor l For the first time, may be
responsible for reading
Qualitative independently to
-learn new ideas,
Characteristics -gain new knowledge,
and Masteries -experience new feelings
by End of and attitudes

Stage l Generally from one


viewpoint

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Stage 3
l Reading/studying
textbooks, reference
works, trade books,
newspapers, magazines
l Being exposed to
lHow Acquired unfamiliar vocabulary and
syntax
l Systematic study of
words
l Reacting to text through
discussions and writing
l Reading of more complex
fiction, non-fiction, etc.
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Stage 3
l At beginning, listening
comprehension is still
more effective than
reading
l By the end, reading
and listening are
about equal
lRelationship of l For good readers,
Reading to reading is more
efficient
Listening
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Stage 4:
Multiple Viewpoints

High school, grades 10-12


(ages 15-17)

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Stage 4
lMajor l Reading widely from
a broad range of
Qualitative complex materials--
Characteristics expository and
and Masteries narrative
by End of
Stage l Able to deal with
multiple viewpoints

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Stage 4
l Wide reading and study
of science and
humanities as well as
newspapers and
magazines
lHow Acquired
l Systematic study of
words and word parts

l Formal and creative


writing
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Stage 4
l Reading
comprehension is
better than listening
comprehension of
difficult material

lRelationship of l For poorer readers,


listening
Reading to comprehension may
Listening be equal to reading

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Stage 5:
Construction and
Reconstruction

College and beyond


(age 18+)

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Stage 5
lMajor l Reading is used for
ones own needs and
Qualitative purposes
Characteristics l Serves to integrate
and Masteries ones knowledge with
that of others to
by End of synthesize and create
Stage new knowledge
l It is rapid and efficient

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Stage 5
l Wide reading of ever
more difficult
materials

lHow Acquired l Writing papers, tests,


essays that call for
integration of varied
knowledge and points
of view

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Stage 5
l Reading is more
efficient than listening

lRelationship
of Reading to
Listening
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Implications:
l Stage 3 is necessary for the industrial workplace
l Stage 4 is an absolute for the informational age
l Many readers never get beyond Stage 3 and
most reading instruction ends before students
are adept at Stage 3 skills
l Most remediation is done in Stage 1 and Stage 2
as well as Stage 3A
l However, Stage 3A depends so heavily on
adequate Stage 1 & 2 skills that decoding and
fluency may be more important for older
students whose comprehension seems low
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