You are on page 1of 14

BRITISH STANDARD BS 5640-2:

1978
IEC 597-2:
1977

Aerials for the


reception of sound
and television
broadcasting in
the frequency
range 30 MHz
to 1 GHz

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Part 2: Methods of measurement of
electrical performance parameters

UDC 621.396.67

Copyright British Standards Institution


Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

Cooperating organizations

The Electronic Equipment Standards Committee, under whose direction this


British Standard was prepared, consists of representatives from the following
Government department and scientific and industrial organizations:
--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

British Broadcasting Corporation*


British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association (BEAMA)
British Radio Equipment Manufacturers Association
Cable and Wireless Limited
Cable Television Association of Great Britain
Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Plumbing Union
Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales
Electronic Components Industry Federation*
Electronic Engineering Association*
Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers*
Ministry of Defence
Post Office*
Scientific Instrument Manufacturers Association

The organizations marked with an asterisk in the above list, together with the
following, were directly represented on the committee entrusted with the
preparation of this British Standard

Aerial Manufacturers Association


British Aerial Standards Council
Confederation of Aerial Industries
Home Office
Independent Broadcasting Authority

This British Standard, having


been prepared under the
direction of the Electronic
Equipment Standards
Committee, was published
under the authority of the
Executive Board on Amendments issued since publication
30 November 1978

BSI 04-2000
Amd. No. Date of issue Comments

The following BSI references


relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference EEL/25/4
Draft for comment 76/20789 DC

ISBN 0 580 10434 6

Copyright British Standards Institution


Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

Contents

Page
Cooperating organizations Inside front cover
National foreword ii
1 Scope 1
2 Object 1
3 Methods of measurement 1
4 Measuring site 3
5 Measuring procedures 4
6 Reference aerials (under consideration) 5
Figure 1 Example of circuit arrangement for gain
measurements, with the aerial under test used as
a receiving aerial, disposition p), or as a transmitting
aerial, disposition q) 6
--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 2 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring


system loss 7
Figure 3 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring
cable attenuation 7
Figure 4 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring
system loss 8
Figure 5 Variation of the voltage Vr with the relative
aerial height h/2 8
Publications referred to Inside back cover

Copyright British Standards Institution


BSI 04-2000 i
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

National foreword

This British Standard has been prepared under the direction of the Electronic
Equipment Standards Committee. It is identical with Publication 597-2 Aerials
for the reception of sound and television broadcasting in the frequency
range 30 MHz to 1 GHz Part 2 Methods of measurement of electrical
performance parameters, published by the International Electrotechnical

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Commission (IEC).
Terminology and conventions. The text of the International Standard has
been approved as suitable for publication, without deviation, as a
British Standard. Some terminology and certain conventions are not identical
with those used in British Standards; attention is especially drawn to the
following.
Wherever the word standard appears, referring to this standard, it should be
interpreted as British Standard.
Cross-reference. For the following International Standard referred to in the
text, there is a corresponding British Standard; this is as given below:
International Standard Corresponding British Standard
IEC 597-1:1977 BS 5640 Aerials for the reception of sound and
television broadcasting in the frequency range 30 MHz
to 1 GHz
Part 1:1978 Electrical and mechanical characteristics
(Identical)
NOTE The reference to IEC 107:1960, for which there is no corresponding British Standard,
constitutes informative matter only and since no mandatory requirements are involved, the validity
of this British Standard is not affected.
However, the method of measurement referred to in 3.1 of this British Standard is described under
section forty (clauses 115 and 116) of the second edition of IEC Publication 107-1:1977. It is intended
to revise BS 3549:1963 Methods for measuring and expressing the performance of television receivers
to align with this new edition of IEC 107-1.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.

Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity


from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i and ii,
pages 1 to 8, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the
inside front cover.

ii BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

1 Scope Gain shall be measured by either the substitution


method, Sub-clause 3.2.1 a) and b), or by the
This standard applies to linearly polarized aerials
reciprocity (identical aerials) method,
for domestic use in the frequency range 30 MHz
Sub-clause 3.2.2.
to 1 GHz.
3.2.1 Gain measurements by the substitution
2 Object method
This standard specifies the conditions and methods a) The aerial together with its mounting system,
of measurement of electrical performance shall be placed on a site as indicated in Clause 4
parameters of aerials for the reception of sound and and exposed to an incident plane electromagnetic
television broadcasting. wave, having a polarization corresponding to the
design of the aerial. The aerial output power
3 Methods of measurement delivered to the specified resistive load shall be
compared with the power from a substituted
3.1 Reflection coefficient reference dipole or transfer standard aerial.
For most purposes, either the magnitude of the b) The aerial, together with its mounting system,
reflection coefficient or the standing wave ratio as a shall be placed on a site as indicated in Clause 4
function of frequency for the range for which the and connected to a radio frequency source with an
aerial has been designed, will give sufficient impedance equal to the specified resistive load.
information. The power delivered to the terminals of this
The one may be derived from the other or they may aerial, to produce a certain field strength at a
be independently determined from the aerial distant receiving aerial, shall be compared with
impedance either by calculation or by reading a the power which must be supplied to a reference
Smith impedance chart. The same precautions as dipole or transfer standard aerial to produce the
indicated in Sub-clause 4.2 shall be taken into same field strength at the same distant receiving
account. aerial.
The reflection coefficient can be calculated from In using the above methods a) or b) a resonant
measurements made by means of, for example, a half-wave dipole will normally be used as a
slotted line, a frequency sweep method reference aerial in measuring gain, but it is
(see IEC Publication 107, Recommended Methods of frequently necessary to use a more directional aerial
Measurement on Receivers for Television Broadcast and this has been defined in Sub-clause 3.13 of IEC
Transmissions, Sub-clause 3.5) or a reflectometer Publication 597-1. A transfer standard aerial must
method. have accurately known and consistently
3.1.1 Graphical presentation reproducible gain, directivity and cross-polarization
characteristics. It must be completely specified in
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient or the dimensional working drawings, with full
standing wave ratio (SWR) or return loss ratio mechanical specification to permit it to be
(RLR) shall be given as a function of frequency, the reproducibly constructed whenever required.
measured points being clearly indicated. The
Where an unbalanced transmission system is used,
specified resistive load for which the aerial has been
a suitable balance to unbalance transformation
designed shall be stated.
shall be made between the dipole and the
3.2 Gain transmission system; the transformation loss shall
Gain shall be expressed as defined in Sub-clause 3.2 be taken into account.
of IEC Publication 597-1, Aerials for the Reception The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of the
of Sound and Television Broadcasting in the reference aerial to the transmission system shall
Frequency Range 30 MHz to 1 GHz, not exceed 0.1 at the measuring frequencies.
Part 1: Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics, 3.2.2 Gain measurement by the reciprocity
and calculated from measurements made on site as method
detailed in Sub-clause 4.1.
Two identical aerials of the type to be tested are
By the law of reciprocity, an aerial (other than an
necessary. One is used as the transmitting aerial
active receiving aerial) will exhibit equivalent
and the other as the receiving aerial. Each aerial is
characteristics whether it be tested as a receiving or
mounted with its designed mounting system on a
as a transmitting aerial. Either method may be used
mast as described is Sub-clause 5.1. During each
when measuring gain and directivity.
measurement both aerials are at the same height
above the ground, facing each other.

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
1
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

With the following notation: 3.3.1 Graphical presentation


As = the measured loss, in decibels The directivity pattern may be presented as a polar
Gi = the gain, in decibels, relative to an isotropic diagram, using a decibel scale relative to maximum
aerial measured voltage. However, a linear voltage scale
can be used, and in either case the pattern can be
d = the distance between the phase centres of the displayed in cartesian co-ordinates if required. The
two aerials measured points shall be clearly indicated on the
2 = the wavelength corresponding to the graph, down to the specified percentage of the main
measuring frequency lobe, the percentage being stated.
Gd = the gain, in decibels, relative to a half-wave When a continuous plot has been made, this shall be
dipole stated.
it can be shown that, provided the influence of The measuring frequency and the orientation of the
ground reflections is negligible, the measured loss aerial with respect to the directivity pattern shall be
between these two aerials is equal to: clearly indicated on the diagram.
3.4 Directivity protection
The directivity protection, as detailed in
In practice, d can be assumed to be approximately Sub-clause 3.3 of IEC Publication 597-1, shall be
equal to the distance between the feed-points of the determined from the directivity pattern made for
two aerials. The gain relative to an isotropic aerial the frequency range specified in Sub-clause 3.6.2 of
can therefore be evaluated from a loss measurement that publication.
as follows: 3.5 Cross-polarization protection
In measurements on cross-polarization protection,
the orthogonal component of radiation from the
transmitting aerial is significant and cannot be
Relative to a half-wave dipole, the gain will be: ignored.
Measuring procedures for cross-polarization
protection, both in the direction of maximum gain,
and as a cross-polarization directivity protection
3.2.3 Graphical presentation pattern for other directions of azimuth are
Gain shall be presented in graphical form as a considered in Sub-clause 5.3.
gain-frequency plot in the bandwidth of interest. 3.6 Impedance
Any discrete measuring frequencies shall be clearly The impedance of the aerial together with its
indicated on the graph, and the specified resistive mounting system can be measured by any suitable
load shall be stated. method. Baluns may be needed when dealing with
The type and location of the reference aerial used in symmetrical aerials.
the measurement shall be stated on the graph. 3.6.1 Graphical presentation
The gain, as defined in Sub-clause 3.2 of IEC The impedance of the aerial shall preferably be
Publication 597-1, shall be determined using a plotted on a Smith impedance chart with the
loss-less half-wave dipole as the reference, and shall frequency as parameter, the measured points being
be expressed in decibels. clearly indicated.
NOTE If by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser
the gain is expressed, as indicated in the note to Sub-clause 3.2
This impedance shall be referred to the specified
of Publication 597-1, in any other way, or using any other resistive load for which the aerial has been
reference standard, or in reference to any directions of azimuth designed.
other than that of the main lobe, these facts shall be clearly
stated on the graph and in the performance data sheet. 3.7 Feeder pick-up measurements
3.3 Directivity pattern Under consideration.
The measurement of directivity pattern shall be NOTE It is recommended that coaxial cables be connected to
aerial terminal devices through a balun in order to minimize
made on a site as specified in Sub-clause 4.1 in a feeder pick-up.
uniform electromagnetic field, with a polarization
corresponding to that of the aerial during
--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

measurement.

2 BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

4 Measuring site b) for the influence of the ground reflection being


hardly noticeable over a certain part of the curve.
A suitable measuring site shall be of sufficient size
NOTE Errors may also be caused by residual cross-polarization
and have surroundings which are substantially free or be due to interaction between the aerial and its transmission
from reflecting objects. It should be noted that the line. Care should be taken to keep these effects to a minimum.
dimensions of the site will be comparatively large The ratio of response of the aerial under test to the
when measurements are to be made at the lower direct wave and to the ground-reflected wave shall
frequencies and when high gain or physically large not exceed the corresponding ratio for the reference
aerials are being tested. aerial by more than 0.5 dB for horizontal
4.1 Gain and directivity pattern measurement polarization and 1 dB for vertical polarization. The
The following applies to those measurements of gain angle between the direct and the ground-reflected
and directivity where the aerial to be measured is waves shall therefore be small enough to fulfil this
used as a receiving aerial. condition, unless the following measures have been
taken in order to reduce the ground-reflected wave:
In order to avoid errors in the measurements due to
excessive variations in phase and amplitude in the a) the use of a transmitting aerial with high
space occupied by the aerial under test, the directivity in a vertical plane;
minimum distance between the aerials shall be b) the use of diffracting fences, between the
determined from one of the two following transmitting aerial and the receiving aerial;
requirements. The requirement which specifies the c) the use of an angle of incidence at the ground
greater distance shall be met. corresponding to the pseudo-Brewster angle, in
a) The variation in phase at the measuring site, the case of vertical polarization; this angle is
in a plane perpendicular to the direction of normally between 10 and 17.
propagation, occurring across a distance equal to d) the use of a slant range when the source aerial
the greatest physical dimension of the aerial is placed near the ground and the test aerial is
under measurement, shall not exceed ;/8 elevated.
radians. To achieve this requirement, the When directivity patterns are to be measured, it will
distance between the two aerials shall be also be advantageous to use a transmitting aerial
at least , where b1 and b2 are the which has a high directivity in a horizontal plane in
largest dimensions of the transmitting and order to prevent the influence of reflections from
receiving aerials respectively and is the surrounding objects.
wavelength.
4.2 Impedance and reflection coefficient
b) The swept volume occupied by the aerial when
measurement
its mast is rotated shall be extended by at least
one half wavelength in all directions and explored To minimize the influence of large reflecting objects,
by a probe dipole not longer than one half including ground, on the impedance of the aerial,
wavelength and orientated for the polarization in the distance from any point of the aerial under
use. measurement at an angle to those objects shall be
The magnitude of the electromagnetic field shall be not less than:
maintained constant within 1 dB at frequencies
below 300 MHz and within 0.5 dB at frequencies
above 300 MHz over this swept volume. whichever is the greater.
NOTE Care shall be taken during this probing to ensure that
the dipole is kept perpendicular to the direction of transmission In these formulae:
and that the influence of cables and apparatus on the G = the gain, expressed as a numerical ratio,
measurements is kept to a minimum.
of the aerial under measurement, relative
The variation in observed signal level shall always to a half-wave dipole
be stated on gain and directivity graphs; this could
be done, as an example, by plotting on a graph the = the angular displacement from the
direction of the main lobe
signal strength as a function of the height of the
aerial. e = the ratio between the induced voltage at
angle to the induced voltage at = 0
In this graph a straight line parallel to the abscissa
which is the direction of the main lobe
can be drawn, representing the average value.
= the wavelength in metres
Figure 5, page 8, gives two examples of curves which
may be obtained: b = the largest dimension of the aerial under
measurement, in metres
a) for the influence of the ground reflection being
very noticeable;

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
3
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

C1 and C2 are constants which depend on the In making measurements of gain or


accuracy desired cross-polarization protection by the reciprocity
method, using a pair of identical aerials, the
The following table indicates the values for C1 and
following additional precautions shall be observed
C2, if the percentage of error, arising from the
in preparing the measuring site, and the aerials for
presence of large reflecting objects, is not to exceed
test.
the value specified in the first column.
The aerials to be measured shall be mounted with
Required accuracy C1 C2 their designed mounting on two identical
10 % 1.2 0.5 (e.g. telescopic) masts and facing each other. The
heights of the aerials above the ground shall be
5% 2.4 0.8
adjustable and calibrated so that both aerials are at
3% 4.0 1.3 the same height above the ground. The minimum
NOTE 1 These values are not valid when resonance effects,
height above the ground shall be at least 2 .
caused by multiple surface reflections, occur in the space around The distance d between the two aerials shall be
the aerial.
NOTE 2 Care should be taken to ensure that small reflecting known and shall be at least , whichever
objects such as measuring instruments are placed far enough
from the aerial under test. gives the largest value; b is the largest dimension of
NOTE 3 The transmission line, including the mounting
system, should be placed as specified by the manufacturer.
the aerial and the wavelength corresponding to
Where no position is specified, the transmission line and the the measuring frequency. Distances and heights
mounting system should be disposed in a manner which shall be stated with the results, whilst the chosen
minimizes interaction with the aerial. centre shall be shown in the relevant drawing of the
aerial.
5 Measuring procedures The influence of ground reflection on gain
5.1 Gain measurement can be assessed by varying the height
of the aerials above the ground simultaneously from
Dipole and transfer standard aerials used in gain
a minimum value of 2 and observing the relative
measurements shall preferably be placed with their
voltage variation, corresponding to signal strength,
feed points in the same position as the feed point of
as a function of the height of the aerials.
the antenna under measurement.
The chosen height shall be regarded as satisfactory
When this is impracticable, a more suitable point
if these variations are within 1 dB at frequencies
may be chosen, but in all cases the point chosen
below 300 MHz and within 0.5 dB at frequencies
shall be stated in the results of the measurement.
above 300 MHz.
Whenever possible, the same transmission line
system shall be used for the test aerial and the
reference aerial. The attenuation of the
transmission line system used shall be taken into
account at each measuring frequency. See also
Note 3 of Sub-clause 4.2.
To ensure system stability during measurement:
a) when using the aerial under test for receiving,
a receiving monitor aerial should be used and
placed in such a position that it does not alter the
electromagnetic field around the aerial under test
(see Figure 1, page 6).
b) when using the aerial under test for
transmitting, a transmitting monitor aerial
should be used and placed in such a position that
it does not alter the electromagnetic field of the
aerial under test (see Figure 1).
The aerial to be measured shall be connected to the
measuring device or to the r.f. generator by means
of a transmission system, matched for a reflection
coefficient, at the aerial terminals, of a magnitude
less than 0.1 referred to the specified resistive load.

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4 BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

In making gain measurements by the reciprocity The aerials are then connected to the cables as in
method using two identical aerials, the loss between Figure 4 and the attenuator A is again adjusted
the two aerials can be measured in various ways until the receiver R indicates the same output for
depending on the available measuring apparatus. both positions of the switches. Suppose the
a) In Figure 2 (page 7), the total attenuation attenuator setting reads A2 dB, then the
including attenuator insertion loss must be measured loss is:

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
known. The aerial cables with lengths l1, l2, l3
and l4 are of the same type. l1 + l2 = l3 + l4 so that
their attenuation in the two switch positions is 5.2 Directivity pattern
the same. For both positions of the switches, the
For reasons of convenience, the aerial, together with
impedance offered to both aerials shall have a
its mounting system, shall be orientated in such a
value which gives rise to a reflection coefficient
way that the plane in which the directivity pattern
with magnitude less than 0.1 relative to the
is to be measured is horizontal so that the aerial can
specified resistive load for which the aerial has
be rotated around a vertical axis.
been designed. R is a receiver with a signal
strength indicator and G a signal generator. Both When the aerial is measured as a receiving aerial,
are tuned to the frequency at which the gain is to the output voltage or current originating from an
be measured. It is necessary to match the incident plane electromagnetic wave shall be
impedance of R and G and both sides of measured as a function of the angle of rotation.
attenuator A to the cables, the magnitude of the When the aerial is measured as a transmitting
reflection coefficient being less than 0.1. The aerial, the field strength at a distant receiving aerial
attenuator A is adjusted until the receiver shall be measured as a function of the angle of
indicator reads the same in both positions of the rotation of the transmitting aerial. The receiving
switches S. The attenuation As read on the aerial shall be orientated to measure the
attenuator scale and expressed in decibels is appropriately polarized radiation from the aerial
equal to the measured loss. under test.
b) In Figure 3 and Figure 4, pages 7 and 8, the Sufficient points shall be taken to define all those
total attenuation in the circuits need not be parts of the directivity pattern where the response
known. Also the lengths of the cables l1 and l2 are voltage is greater than a specified percentage of the
not critical because they have no influence on the main lobe.
measurement. However the matching 5.3 Cross-polarization protection
requirements are the same as under a).
Under consideration.
First the aerial ends of the two cables are
connected as in Figure 3. For each measuring 6 Reference aerials
frequency the attenuator A is adjusted until the
receiver R indicates the same output for both Under consideration.
positions of the switches S. Suppose this
attenuator reads A1 dB.

BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
5
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 1 Example of circuit arrangement for gain measurements, with


the aerial under test used as a receiving aerial, disposition p), or as
a transmitting aerial, disposition q)

6 BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 2 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring system loss

Figure 3 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring cable attenuation

Copyright British Standards Institution


BSI 04-2000 7
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

Figure 4 Schematic circuit arrangement for measuring system loss

Figure 5 Variation of the voltage Vr with the relative aerial height h/

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

8 British Standards Institution BSI 04-2000


Copyright
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:1978

Publications referred to

See national foreword

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 04-2000
Copyright British Standards Institution
Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
BS 5640-2:
1978
IEC 597-2: BSI British Standards Institution
1977
BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing
British Standards. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the
international level. It is incorporated by Royal Charter.

Revisions

British Standards are updated by amendment or revision. Users of


British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or
editions.

It is the constant aim of BSI to improve the quality of our products and services.
We would be grateful if anyone finding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using
this British Standard would inform the Secretary of the technical committee
responsible, the identity of which can be found on the inside front cover.
Tel: 020 8996 9000. Fax: 020 8996 7400.

BSI offers members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures
that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards.

Buying standards

Orders for all BSI, international and foreign standards publications should be
addressed to Customer Services. Tel: 020 8996 9001. Fax: 020 8996 7001.

In response to orders for international standards, it is BSI policy to supply the


BSI implementation of those that have been published as British Standards,
unless otherwise requested.

Information on standards

BSI provides a wide range of information on national, European and


international standards through its Library and its Technical Help to Exporters
Service. Various BSI electronic information services are also available which give
details on all its products and services. Contact the Information Centre.
Tel: 020 8996 7111. Fax: 020 8996 7048.

Subscribing members of BSI are kept up to date with standards developments


and receive substantial discounts on the purchase price of standards. For details
of these and other benefits contact Membership Administration.
Tel: 020 8996 7002. Fax: 020 8996 7001.

Copyright

Copyright subsists in all BSI publications. BSI also holds the copyright, in the
UK, of the publications of the international standardization bodies. Except as
permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 no extract may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any
means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written
permission from BSI.

This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the standard,
of necessary details such as symbols, and size, type or grade designations. If these
details are to be used for any other purpose than implementation then the prior
written permission of BSI must be obtained.

If permission is granted, the terms may include royalty payments or a licensing


agreement. Details and advice can be obtained from the Copyright Manager.
BSI Tel: 020 8996 7070.
389 Chiswick High Road
London
W4 4AL

--`,,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright British Standards Institution


Reproduced by IHS under license with BSI - Uncontrolled Copy
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale