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2008
802,0(075.8)
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VII XVII .

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. .; Page R.L. An Introduction
to English Runes, L,, 1973.


fisc, flociu. | a h o fo n fe r; | | w a rl^ a sric sro m h te rh e o n jre u t^ is-
w om I h ro n e s b a n 1

1. hrpnes ban ,
, : (. = ) .
: fisc flodu ahof /
on fersenberij / / warh jasrlc / ]xcr he on jrout jiswpm.
2


. 680 .

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VII V III . (. , . ).

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. XVII .

16

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(1815).
.: .
, : Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg j cd. with introduction, bibli-
ography, notes, and appendices by Fr. Klaebcr. 4th ed, Boston, 1950.
. : Beowulf dem
Fiiuisburg-Bruchstiick / hrsg. von F. Holthauscn. Pt. I. Texte und Namenverzei-
chnis. Heidelberg, 1905 ( 1 3 ,
, . ); Beowulf with the Finnesburg Fragment /
ed. by C .L . Wrenn, L., etc., 1953.

( -
. , ( , , 5eatas),

.) ---------- ------- -------------------- ------ . .-------------
sin p y rst fo r3 g ew at; flo ta wses o n ,
b at u n d e r b e o r je . B e o rn a s 3 earw e
o n ste fn s tijo n , stre a m a s w u n d o n ,
su n d w id s a n d e ; sec sas bebron
o n b e a rm n a c a n b e o r h te freetwe,
2l5 30d sea ro jeato lT c: ut s c u fo n ,
w eras on wilsT6 w udu b u n d en n e,
^ e w a t ba f e r w a ^ h o lm w in d e sefyfied
flo ta fa m lh e a ls fu jle 3e!Tcost,
od fse t y m b antTd o b re s do ;so res!
m w u n d e n s te fn a je w a d e n hffifde,
93 liO eode la n d se sa w o n ,
b rim c lifu blTcan, b e o r ja s S tia p e ,
sid e ssn.sessas; t>S wses su n d lid e n ,

( ieytrioQ

i!l) Slrait wees s ta n fa h , s tls wTiode


'5 m u m set^aidere, JiiQ b y rn e can

17
h ea rd h o n d lo c e n , h rin jlrc n sclr
so n 3 in sea rw u m , hie to sele fu r6um
in hyra 3ry rc3e atw u m cw o m o n .
325 S e tto n sSmgJie sTde scy ld as,
ro n d a s re jn h e a rd e wiO [ites reced es w eal;
b u jo n l?a to b e n c e , b y rn a n h rin jd o n ,
juO searo ; 3aras s to d o n ,
s& m anna searo sam o d setjsedere,
330 aescholt ufan : waes se Trenfcireat
w tepnum 3ewurt>ad. t*a w lonc liele6
o rc tm e csas x f te r sspelum 2 frassn:
H w a n o n feri^eaS 36 fabtte scyldas,
sy rc an , o n d jrlm h e lm a s ,
335 h e re sc e a fta h eap ? Ic eom
ar ond o m b ih t. N e seah ic e ljie o d ije 1
(jus m a n ije m en m o d ijllc ra n .
W e n ic, l>ajt j e for w len co , nalles for wraecsldum ,
ac for h iscjjry m m u m s o h to n .
340 H im t>a e lle n ro f an d sw a ro d e
w lan c W ed era leo d , w ord a f t e r sprzec
h ea rd u n d e r helrne: W e synt H ise la c e s 3
b e o d se n e a ta s: B eow ulf is m ln nam a.
W ille ic asecsan su n u H e alfd en e s,
345 m & rum t>eodne m ln Ebrende,
aldrc f ln u m , 3if he Qs w ile,
t>et we h in e swa 36d n e s re ta n m o to n .
W ulfsar m ajjelo d e feet wees W endla leod,
wzes his nio d sefa m a n e ju m secyO ed,
350 WT3 ond w isdom : Ic (jibs w ine
frean S c ild in 3a frln a n w ille,
b ry tta n , swa t>u b e n a e a rt,
j^eoden m iurne ym b {)Inne sT5,
o n d | | y n d sw are tedre ,
m e se 3o d a a jifa n 1 .

( ,
.)-----------------------------------_ _ _ _ _ _

405 B eo w ulf m ad elo d c on him byrne scan,


se a ro n e t seow ed s m ile s ;
W a s 4 ], , hal! Ic eo m H iselaces

18
m5 o n d m a jo d e jn , ;1 ic fela
o n ju n n e n o n ^ . M e w earS S re n d le s p in s
410 on m ln re ej?eltyrf u n d y rn e cud;
secsad seelldcnd, t>et pa;s s c le 5 sta n d e ,
re ced selesta rin ca seh w y lcu m
Tdel o n d u n n y t, sidflan tefenleoht
u n d e r h eo fen es h a d o r b ch o le n w corped.
411 Pa m e ^set je la r d o n leode m in e,
pa selestan , s n o t^ re 1 c e o rla s,
p e o d e n H r6 fl;a r, Jatet ic pe so h te,
fo r-p a n h ie m sejenes c r a f t m ln ln je ciipon;
selfe o fersaw o n , 6ii ic o f searw um cw om ;
420 fah fro m fS ondum , pter ic fife je b a n d ,
ydde e o te n a cy n , ond on yflum slos
n iceras n ih te s, n ea ro jiearfe d re ah ,
wreec W ed era n ld , w ean a h so d o n ,
fo rsra n d g ra m u m ; ond nti wiS 3 re n d e l sceal,
425 w i9 ^ a m ! an a
6ing wi6 p y rse .---------------------------------------------> ^ ----------

11

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"7Sf! Sa m id p lo d en ,
d ry h te n sm n e d rlo risn c fand,
2190 ea ld res set en d e ; he h in e eft
weeteres w e o rp an , pact w ordes ord
b rc o sth o rd p u rh b n e c . [B lo w u lf reo rd o d e]
3o m el o n jio /jd e 6 Sold sceaw ode :
Tc Oara friEtwa F re a n ealles d a n c ,
71^ W u ld u rc y n in se w o rd u m secse,
E cu m d ry h tn c , pc ic h5r on starie,
pics 3e ic m o ste m lnum leodum
;ter Swylk'hese swyle 3estry n a n .
N u ic on hord bcbohle

19
2soo fr6de fe o rh le je , frem m a d 367 n u 7
leo d a p ea rfe ; ne ic h e r lc n j w esan.
HataO heaflornaire hlaiw 3ew y rccan ,
b e o rh tn e a f te r b a le fet b rim es nosan;
se seel to scm y n d u m m in u rn leo d u m
2805 h eah hlTfian o n H ronesnresse,
brct h it SEelldend syddan h a ta n
BTowulfes b io rh , 5a 5e b re n tin ja s
o fe r floda g e n ip u fe o rra n d rlfa d .
D yde him o f healse h r in j sy ld en n e
2SIQ jilo d en Jjristhydis, { je s e a ld e ,
sa rw ija n , s o ld fa h n e h elm ,
beah ond b y rn a n , h et iiyne b ru c a n w ell :
1> e a rt c n d e la f Gsses cy n n e s,
W ffism undinsa; ealle wyrd forsiM o/j8
2815 m ine n ia ja s to m e to d sc e a fte ,
eo rlas o n cine: ic him a f t e r s c e a l.
tffit w a s b am s o m e la n 3in3ste w ord
b re o stse h y sd u m , s ir he b a l cu re,
h ate headow ylm as; him o f ImeOre9 3ew at
2820 Saw ol sec ean s o d fa stra dom .

1. , ,
: , do3ores = dtQres . . 2. . hselefcium.
3. (1 ), (. Jcatas): .
VI . *Hugilaikaz . Cliochilaieus
; . /-., . hugr, , ; . lac -.,
. leikr ., , laiks i-., . 4. wses . wes . 5.
(Heorot , . ). . . 3io3o6e,
1. . , , . forspeof. 9. . hwasOre.
4

. 831 .

IX .
(land el ) . .


. (
) ;
(C otton Augustus II. 52).
Dis sindan scdinga E alh b u rje a n d Eadw ealdes et Oem laiide et Bur-
nan, hwet m an clce ob dem lande to C ristes ciric an hTwum
ajiab an seel for E a lh b u rje and for E aldred and fore E adw eald a n d
Ealawynne: .X L .1 am b ra m ealtes, an d . .XL. a n d .C C .2h laba, I .3 \ve3e
cesa, .1. w ese speces, .1. e a ld -h rld e r, .1111.4 w edras, .X .5 gees,.X X .6
henfujla, .HIT. fodra w eada. And ic Ealhbuns beblade Eadw ealde m lnem
m eje an sodes n am an and an ealra his h alisra det he dis wel healde his
dei and siddan ford bebeode his erbum to h e a ld e n n e , da hwTIe de bit
C risten se.
And suelc m p n se flet lpnd hebbe, e3hwylce sunnandese .XX. sesuflra
hlafa to dare cirican for E aldredes saulc an d for .

1. XL = feowcrti3, . . 2. CC = tfl bund, , CM. 3. I = an,


icomop. cm, 4. 1III = feowcr, . . 5. X - tyn .., . .
6. XX = twentij, . .
5

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. 872 892 .

, VII , <
, 2- IX .
(W inchester), ]
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(Abingdon, Canterbury, Worce
ter, Peterborough), ,
.
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it X X
. :
(N o. 173 Corpus Christi College, ), <
891 .
IX . , ,
, Peterborough
(MS. ., Laud Miscellany in the Bodleian),
1154 .;
(1 122 1154), *
,
(, 13).
.: Earle J,, Plummer . Two of the Saxon Chroniclcs Parallel Oxfof
1892 (repr. with additional material by D.W hitclock, Oxford, 1952); Smith A. j
T he Parker Chronicle, 832 900. L., 1935.

(' )

871. H er euom se here to R c a d ta su m 1on W estseaxe, pnd jiajs yin


1112 n ih t ridon I I 3 eorlas up. Pa hie /EJielw ulf a ld o rm a n
E n slafeld a4, p n d him [ wib je fe a h t, ond sise nam . ym b III
n ih t /E b e re d 6 c y n in j p n d /E lfi'cd7 his b ro b u r b*cr niicle Herd to Rcac
in^um geheddon, pnd wib bone lie re jefu h to n ; p n d [ w&s stlicel ws
seslsesen on 1 > h y n d , pnd ^Ebelw ulf ald o rm p n w earb ofslsesei
p n d ba D eniscan ah to n waelstowe jew ald .
( .)-------------------------- -i

22
Q nd b<s ofer E astron 3efor AL\>crcd cy n in j; p n d he rlcsode Vs3car;
pnd Ins lie llt> act W in b u rn an 9.
> fc n j A lfred /E ljelw ulfm j10 his b ro b u rto Wesscaxna rice, Q n d ba;s
ynib anne m onab jefeah t /ElfrSd cy n in j wib alne bone here lytic wcrcde
jet W iltune, p n d hine lp n je on d3 sefliem de, p n d ba D en iscan ah to n
waslstowe jew ald ,
Q nd ba:s je a rc s w u rd o n VI1111 folcsefeoht se fo h te n wib b n e here
on cynerlce be stiban T em ese12, b u ta n 13 bam be him /E lfred b&s cyn-
inses b ro b u r pn d a n llp ij ald o rm p n p n d cy n in je s b e jn a s oft rade o n ri-
don be m P n ne r' m de; pnd b s 3eares weerun ofslaesenc V IIII14 eorlas
pnd an cy n in j. Q n d by n am o n W estseaxe frib wib bone here.

1. Readinjas o-., coep. a. Reading, . 2. I ll = Jireo, cm. bn,


3. 11 = tw ejen, . cm. 4. Eailafcld it-., coep. a. Englcficld, ,
. 1 (eld . 5. IIII = fcowcr, . . 6. /EJaercd,
/Lijjclrcd, (866871). 7. .
S. 8. V = fif, . . 9. Winblirne -., coep. a. W imborne,
. 10. /Ebelw ulfa ( /Cfrelwulfa). 11, VIII =
cahta, . . 12. Temes . ; Tamesis . .
13. . pnd butan. 14. VIIII = nijon, . .



( H IS T O R I A E C C L E S I A S T I C S )
. 890 .

(B eda V enerabilis, 673 735)


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.: Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. / ed. by B.Col-
gravc. Oxford, 1969. . .: ,
/ . ., , ., , . . . -

24
, ., 2001. . : Smith . . Three
Northumbrian Poems. L., 1933. . . (. . .) ,
.: / . . . , . .-
0. ., 1982. (. ).

( Tanner 10, )

W ojs he sc m pn in w eoruld-hade seseted hit tide be he wtes selefe-


d ie 1 ylde; pnd [he] n s fre leod je le o rn a d e . Q nd he - oft
in jeb co rscip e, b p n n e | wa;s blisse in tin sa je d e m e e l bt heo ealle
sceolden2 Jjurh ende-b y rd nesse be hearp an sin ja n , bonne he jesea h ba
hearpan him nealecan, bpnne aras lie for3scpm e from bm symble pnd
ham eode to his huse.
Pii he b ^ t ba sum re tide dyde, bzet he forlet b ^ t htis bs je b e o rsc -
ipes pnd ut wies s p n je n d e to n ea ta scipene, bara hcord him wtes b&rc
neahte beboden; ba he 0a bair in selimplTce tide his leom u on rcste -
sette pnd onslepte, ba stod him sum m pn ret burh swefn pnd hine halette
9iid pnd h in e be his npm an nem nde: C ed m p n , sins m e hwact-
hwusu!
Pa pndsw arede he pnd ewaeS: l Ne cpn ic no h t sin ja n ; pnd ic for-
bon o f beossum sebeorscipe ut code pnd h id e rje w a t, for-bon ic naht
sinsan ne e lid e.
Eft he ewte6, se de wifl4 h in e 4 sprecende ws: Hw a;dre bn m eaht
sin ja n .
Pa cwx 6 he: Hwaet sceal ic s in ja n ?
Cwacd he: Sins m e fru m -se e a ft.
Pa lie da bas andsw are o n fe n j, ba o n jo n lie sona sin ja n in h ere-
nesse sodes scyppendes |ia fers pnd ba word be he nrcfre jeh y rd e , b a ra 5
ende-b y rd nes5 bis is:

N u scu lo n h e o fo n -rlc e s w card,


m eo to d es m eah te pnd his m o d - ,
w eorc W iildor-fasder, swa lie w u n d ra sehwaes,
ece d rih te n , o r o n steald e ,
He aerest seeo p , eo rS an b earn u m
h eo fo n to h ro fe, halis sey p p en d ;
ba m id d a n -s c a rd m p n n -c y n n e s w eard,
ece d rih te n , iefter teo d e
ftru m fo ld a n , frea selm ihtis.

25
Pa aras he frprn b ^ m shepe 911c! eal t>a be h e sltepende sons fas
in jem y n d e hrefde pnd b&m w ordum sOna m yni.3 word in b^ct ilce 3cm
3o d efi wyr6es6 senses to je b c o d d e .
Pa com he on m o rjen n e to b ^ m tu n -se re fa n se7 b e 7 his ealdorm d
wzes; sresde him , liwylce sife he o n fe n j; pnd he hine sona to b ^ re ar
budissan s e ls d d e pnd hire b^et8 cydde pnd sassde. Pa h eht heo seso
nian ealle ba selieredestan m en pnd ba leorneras, pnd him pndw ea
dum het secjan bast swefh pnd bt leod sinjan, bt[te] ealra heora do
wsere, liw st odde hw pnan bt cum en wajre. Pa waes him eallu
je s e je n , swa-swa hit waes, b t him waire frpm d rihtne sylfum heofonf
sifti for^ifen. Pa re h to n heo him pnd stejd o n sum halis spell pnd 30
eundre lare w ord; bebudon him bS, sif he m eahte, bt he in sw insun
leob-spases bt jeliw yrfdc. D a he 6a ha;fde ba wlsan , ba
he h am to his huse; pnd cw om eft on m orgenne pnd by b etstan leo
!1 him a sp n j pnd ase af beet him b eb o d en wtes.

1. T. (= Tanner ' .) selyfdrc. 2. T. sealde. 3. T. for for, 4. Co


. ( Otho . XI) . 279 Corp. Chr. Coll. Cambr. mid him.
5. T. b a re endebyrdnessc. 6. T. jodes wordes. 7. T. be. 8. T. ba.


. 680 .

( . 5. 16.
)
N u scy lu n h e rja n h e fa e n -rlc a e s u ard ,
m etudajs m aecti en d his m o d -jid a n c ,
u erc u u ld u r-fa d u r, sue he u u n d ra sih u a e s,
eci d ry c tin , o r astclida;.
H e ae rist scop ae ld a b arn u m
h eb e n til h ro fe, haleg s c e p lp ] e n [d ];
th a m id d u n -je a r d m pn-cynnees u ard ,
eei d ry c tin , refter tTadaj
firum fo ld u [n] frea a llm e c tij.
Primo cantavit C aedm on istud carmen*.

* .
7

,
, (the Exet
Book, 2 - X .),
, )

,
,
. ei
,
, , '
]
. , , Eadwi
(
O doacer). ,
(.
, ,
, *
). , , :

, , ?
, I-
,
.
, , :
,
, .
.: The Exeter Book / ed. by G. P.Krapp, E. V, K, Dobbie. L.; N .Y
1936, . , (. . , ) . .:
. . . , .,. ., 1982, (, ]

28
L eodum is mTnum sw ylce him m o n lac sife;
willaQ hy h in e , 3if h e on b re a t cym cd.
U n sellc is us.
W u lf is o n , ic o n o b erre.
Ftest is b* e sio n d , fe n n e b iw o rp en .
S in d o n w telreow e w eras b ^ r o n ;
w illad hy h in e , s if he on b re a t cym eS.
U n^elice is us.
W ulfes ic m in es w ld lastu m w enum d o jo d e ;
b o n n e h it wass w e d er o n d ic re o tu ju sset,
b o n n e m ec se b ea d u cafa b o ju m b ile jd e ,
wees m e w yn to b o n , w s s m e h w $ b re l^d,
W ulf, m ln W ulf, w e n a m e bine
seoce se d y d o n , b in e seld cy m as,
m u rn e n d e m od, n ales m eteliste.
S eh y re st b u . E ad w acer? U n c e rn e e a rn e hw elp
bireO w u lf to w uda.
Past m o n eabe tosliteQ bt*e je s o m n a d w e b s ,
u n c e r ;ie d d je a d o r.
8



. 893 .

(849 871 901),


,
, ( 890 .
), ( )
., ]

Cura Pastoratis (
) . ]
(
),
, . |
,
; ,
,
. ,
,

,
, ,
(Historiarum adversus paganos libri
septem, . . , . 418 .)
.
(. O tta rr) -j
(. H atjo lan d )

, (
,
)
,

, The Discoverer o f the North
Cape,

(
),

.

30
;
, LauderdalecKafl (H elm ingham
Hall, Suffolk), 1.; (C otton T ibe
rius I, ) XI .,
, .
.: King Alfred's Qmsius. Old English Text and Latin Original / ed. by
. Sweet / / E. E.T. S., 79. L., 1883,


(LauderdalecKafl )

O hthere srede his hlaforde, /Elfrcde , past he ealra N ordm pnna


norpm est bude. H e cwasd peet he bude o n b ^ m lande norpw eardum
wib b a Westste1. He siede peah bt2 bt land sle swTbe 1 bpnan;
hit is eal w este, b iito n o n feaw um stow um stycce-m m lum wlciaO
Finnas, on h u n to d e on w intra an d o n sum era on fiscape3 be b&re sje.
H e s&de b ^ t he eei su rn u m cirre w olde fa n d ia n hO 1 lan d
norpryhte 1 obbe hwseder m p n ben o rd an b ^ m w estenne bude.
Pa for he n o rb ry h le be bffiin lande; let him ealne wes peet weste land
on daet steor-b o rd , and pa wTd-s on Oset bEec-bord, prie dajas. Pa wses
he swa feor n o rb swa ba hw selhuntan firrest farap. Pa for he ba 3iet
norbryhte swa feor swa lie m eah te on prim d a ju m 5esj3 -
lan4. Pa bt land b ^ r eastry h te opbe seo see in o n dset lpnd, he
nysse hwsefler, bfiton lie wisse 6set he b ad w estanw indes an d hw on
, and si,3ld e5 9a east be lan d e, sw a-sw a lie m eah te on feow er
daju m gesijlan. Pa sccoldc lie 5sSr bldan ryht-norpatiw indes; fo r-
luct land br subryhte obbe seo sse in o n diet land he nysse hwteper.
Pa sijlde he p p n an sudryhte be lande, sw a-sw a he m chte on fif d a ju m
3csi3lan, D a 1 p r an m icel ea u p -in o n 6 p s t lan d . Pa c ird o n hie
up-in on dii , - hie n e d o rsto n forb bi b ^ re ea simian for
unfribe; fo r- Sa;t land wrcs eall 011 5 b re healfe bre eas.
Ne m ette h i n an land, sib b an he frpm his a jn u m ham for,
( no .) ------
Fela spella him sffidon ba B eorm as7 o f hi era lande
3C of | landum be ym b hie titan wtcron, ac he nysle [iw;et pses stipes
w<es, lo r-b ^ m he hit self ne 3cscah. Pa F innas, him p u h te , and ba Be-
onrms s p rg c o n n ea h a n sebeode. SwTbost he for Sider, to - psei
landes sceaw unse, for b ^ m hors-hw aelum s, for-daim hie habbaS swTbe
^bele ban on hiora to b u m , ba ted hie b ro h to n sume ,
and hiora hyd... ( e L auderdale .)

31
( C otton )
---------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------ b id sw h
jo d to scip -rap u m . Se hwsel bio m icle lsessa b p n n e odre hwalas; ne bi
he Ienjra 6911110 syfan elna lanj. Ac on his asnum lande is se betsta hwai
huntad: pa ca h ta and flo w e rtise s elna la n je , and { maLstan fif]
ijes elna la n je . h ara he sffide bret he syxa sum o fslo je syxtij o n twai
da,-sum.
He w:bs swyde sp ed ij m an o n fa im tell turn be heora spedu on ]
beet is, on w ildrum . He haefde b a s y t, ba he b o n e c y n in je sohte, tam rj
deora u n b eb o h tra syx liund. t*5 d eo r hi h atad h ra n as5; bara wieron sy}
stffil-hranas; da beod swyde dyre m id F in n u m , for-dajm hy fod ba wil
dan h ran as m id. H e wres m id btcm fyrstum m an n u m on b ;^m lande
Ntefde he b^ah m ad o n n e tw en ty hrydera and tw e n ty seeapa and twenti'
swyna; and b ^ t lytle bt he erede, he erede m id horsan. Ac hyra ar is
maist o n b<em ja fo le be da F innas him jy ld ad . t*Et safol bid on deora
felhim , a n d 011 fu je la federum , an d hw ales b an e, and o n b ^ rn scipj
rap u m be o f hweeles hydc je w o rh t and o f seolcs. ^ j h w i l c jy lt ba
hys 3ebyrdnm . Se byrdesta sceall jy ld a n fifty ne m eardes fell an d fu
hranes, and an b eran fel, an d tyn am bra fedra, an d b cren n e kyrtel odda
y teren n e, and twe.Tjen scip -rap as; ^ sy syxlis elna 1, ojier sy ol
hwreles hyde je w o rh t, o f sloles.

1. Wests ; . west sa: , 2. L. (= Lauder-


dale'cKQ* .) . 3. . ( = Cotton .) fiscobe. 4, . ?;-
sejlian; . . 5. . sejlede; . . 6. .
. 7. Beormas = . Bjarmar (. . ),
;
. 8. L. horschw&llim.
, II
. 8 9 8 - 9 0 2 .

. , 5.

( )

897. D a baes o n su m era on dysum to fo r se h ere, sum o n Has


ten1^ , sum on N ordhym bre. Q n d t>a be feohlease w Sron, him bier scipu
beseton, 9n d sud ofer sec foron to S ije n e 1.
N tcfde se here, so d e s b p n ces, A n selcy n ea lles for swlOe seb rocod ;
nc hie w sr o n m icle sw lbor seb roced e o n bm brim mid ceapes
cwilde pnd m pnna, ealles sw ibost m id b S m b * t bara selesten a
cynjes bena be br on lpnde wreron forflferdon on brym .
Para webs sum SwTdUlf biscop on H rofesceastre2, pnd C eolm und caldor-
mpn o n C e n t3, pnd B eo rh tu lf eald orm p n on E astseaxum , pnd W ul-
fretl ealdorm pn on HamtunscTre4, pnd Ealhheard biscop ait D orceceas-
tres, pnd E ad u lf c y n je s on S ud seaxu m , pnd B eorn u lf wTcjefera6
on W in teccastrc7, pnd E ad u lf e y a se s h o rsb ejn , pnd eac him ,
beh ic da je S u n jn e sta n n em d e.
Py ilcan d re h to n ba h e rja s on E asten jlm n pnd o n N o rd h y m -
brum W estseaxna lpnd swlde be bm sQ6st;ede m id stielh erju m , ealra
swibust mid lescum b hie fela ;5r tim bredon. Pa het 118
tim bran 1 scipu da tescas; ba w&ron ful ncah tu swa 1
swa ba odru; sum e haefdon LX9 ara, sum e ; ba wreron swift-
ran, u n w ealtran , h le r[rja n bpnne ba odru; naw der ne
on Fresisc sescaepene, n e on D enise, b ute swa him selfum dOhte bast
hie nytw yrdoste b eo n m eah ten . Pa ;et sum tim cirre b*es ilcan
b ^ r sex scipu to W ih t10, p n d b * r m ycel yfel je d y d o n ,
on D e fen u m n 3e wel h w terb e dsem sffiriman. Pa het se fa ran m id
nijo n u m to bara n lw ena scipa, p n d forforon him bone m udan foran
n u term ere. Pa foron hie m id b n m scipum ul lue, p n d brSo
st 6 don set ufeweardum b s m m u flan on d ry ju m ; wtcron ba m en uppe
on lpnde o f . Pa 3efen3on hie bara breora scipa tu set m udan
utew eardum , pnd pa m en ol'slojon, pnd b*ct an odwand; o n b&m w aro n
| m en ofsleejene b u to n fTfum; [ co m o n for-dy on-w es de Sara
operra scipu asi&ton. ha w urdon swT6e aseten: breo asastor
o n 5a healfe Jdecs deopes D e n isc an scipu ase te n w ^ ro n , p n d pg
eall on opre healfe, ptet h ira ne m ehte n an to SSrum . Ac da pas
w aiter wa:s ahebbad fela fu rla n ja frp m ptem scipum , pa io d a n da De-
n iscan frp m b;cm brim scipum to b * m 6 drum pe o n hira healfe
b e e b b a d e w eeron, p n d h ie b a b ^ r je f u h to n . P air w earS ofslseset
L u cum pn serefa, p n d W ulfheard F rlesa, pnd /E bbe FrTesa, pnc
/E O dhere FrTesa, pnd /Edelferd cynjes je n e a t, pnd ealra m pnna, Fresisj
era p n d E n jlisc ra L X II12, pnd b ara D en iscen a C X X 13. f>y com b n
D e n isc u m scipum p5h S r flod to , $ r b a e n stn a n m e h te n hira ut
fan, p n d hie fo r- ut odreow on. Pa w ^ r o n hie to b ^ m s e sa rjo d e b
hie ne m eh to n Siidscaxnalpnd utan be row an, ac hira peer tu see on Lont
w earp; p n d pa m e n m yn Isedde to W inteceastre to , p n d hi
hie deer a h o n h et; p n d pa m en c o m o n o n E asten jle pe o n p g m
scipe wreron swlde forw undode,
Py ilcan sum era forw eard n o lees b p n n e X X 14 scipa m id m pn n u m
m id ealle be bam suflrim aii. Py ilcan sere forSferde WulfrTc
se ws W ealhjefera,

901. H e r 3efor A lfred 15 syx nihtum ealra halijrS


rraessan1-. Se wses cyninj ofer eall biitan dahn dajle be un<
der D e n a onwalde wiss; pnd he heold b*t rice opium healfum Iks b
X X X 17 wintra. Qnd ba fenj Eadweard his sunu to rice.

1 , S een . , 2, Hrofcs-ccaster ., , cat. Rovecestre (Peterbd


rough1 , 1140)\ coep. a. Rochester (<? ). 3. Cent coep
a. Kent; Cantium , -ia, . . 4. Ham-ttin'SCTr, coep. a.
shire; c m . tun selr . 5, D oree-ceaster D orcan-, coep. a. Dor
Chester. 6. . sc if Fa. 7. W inte-ccastcr W intan-, coep. a
Winchester. 8. . 8. 9. LX = syxtis,
mop. . 10. Wiht . (Wight). 11. Defenas . -. (:
) D evonshire (. Defena-scTr), 12, LXII = tw ejen ( np.) and syxtij;
twesen syxtij . 13. CXX - hundtwelftis, . . 14. XX 1
= tw enty, . . 15. < /Edelwulfm^, . 5, . 10. -
16. / . = 17. XXX = pfltiSi . .
10

, III

937 .

,
,
(. 5)
937. ,

. ,
,
.
,
-
.

.: The Battle of Brunanburh / ed, by A. Campbell, Oxford, 1938. Pyc,


. (. . . ) . .: / .
., , . .. ., 19S2. (. ).

H e r ^ 0 e l s t a n , eo rla d rih te n ,
b e o rn a b e a h jifa , a n d his b ro d o r ,
E a d m u n d , e a ld o rla n sn e t!r
1 tet s cce sw eorda e c ju m
11 ym be B ru n a n b u rh : bordw eali c lu fo n ,
h eo w o n h e a d o lin d e h am o ra lafum ,
ea fo ra n E ad w eard es; swa h im jeseflele wass
fram , 6ast hi ast cam p e oft
wi6 Iadra jeh w asne la n d e a ljo d o n ,
10 h e rd a n d ham as, H e tte n d c r u n jo n ,
S c o tta leo d e a n d sc ip flo ta n ,
f $ 3e feo llo n : feld d e n n o d e
s e c ja sw ate, sijjhan su n n ? u p p
o n m o rs e n tld , tu n so l,
3l8d o fe r s ru n d a s ? Socles a n d e l b e o rh t,
gees D rih tn c s, o<5 slo c5cle jc s c e a ft
sah to setle. Daer 1 secs
ijs te d , ju m a N o rd g rn a
o fe r scyld s c o te n , sw ylce S cy ttisc

35
w e rij wi^es seed. W esseaxe for5
a n d la n jn e datij e o red cy stu m
o n last le jd o n ladum fleodum ;
h co w o n h ere fly m an h in d a n d earie
m e c u m m y len sce arp u m . M yrce ne w y rn d o n
h ea rd es h a n d p le s a n haalefla n a n u m ,
Sara Oe m id A nlafc o fe r e a rje b la n d
on lides bosm e land se so h to n ,
foeje to se fe o h te . F ife la jo n
on 5am ca m p ste d e c y n in ja s ^
sw eo rd u n t asw efede, sw ylce seo fo n e
eo rlas A nlnfes, u n rlm heroes,
flo te n a a n d S co tta. ; sefly m ed w ear5
N o rflm a n n a b re jo , n ead e je b s d e d
to lides stefn e lytle w eorode:
read c n e a r on flot; cy n in s Gt je w a t
o n fe alo n c Hod, feo rh se n e re d e .
Sw ylce se fro d a m id fleam e co m
o n his cyflfle n o rd , C onstantT nus,
h ar h ild e rin c ; h re m a n ne florfte
m eca je m a n a n ; he wies his sc e a rd ,
fre o n d a sefylled o n fo lcsted e,
b e s l aet stecce, a n d his sunu forlet
o n w id sto w e w u n d u m fo rjru n d e n ,
jet , 1 4 5orfte
b e o rn b lan d cn feax biU ^eslilites,
e ald in w itta, ne A n la f fly
m id h eo ra h erelafu m ; h lih h a n ne florfton,
flaet h i b ead u w co rca b e te ra n w u rd o n
o n c a m p ste d e c u m b o lje h n a s tc s ,
S irm ittin s e , se m o te s,
w aspenjcw rixles, flius h i o n w relfelda
wi5 H adw eardes e a fo ra n p le jo d o n .
J e w iio n him b& N o rflm e n n naesled cn earru m ,
d re o ris d a ro d a , o n D in je s m ere
o fe r d eo p w aiter D yflin Secan,
and eft Traland, jcwiscm ode.
Sw ylce 5a sebroflor astspm ne,
cy n in s a n d , cyfl5e so h to n ,
W esseax n a lan d , \vI3es hrem se,
L eto n him b e h in d a n lira b ry ttija n
s a lo w ijp a d a n , d o n e sw eartan hraefn,
h y rn c d n c b b a n , a n d do n e h aso p a d an
earn aeftan hw lt, tescs b ru c a n ,
jr& d isn e sOflhafoc, a n d 6a;t srscje d eo r,
w u lf on w ealda. N e wearfl wicl m arc
on 3ys ijla n d e ajfre syta
folces 3efylled b efo ran flyssum
sw eo rd es e c ju m , flies fle us secjafl bee,
eald e Oflwitan, si{?J)an e a sta n h id e r
E n jle an d Seaxe upp b ec o m o n
o fe r b rade b rim u , B rytene so h to n ,
w lan ce w ljsm id as W ealas o fe rc o m o n ,
eo rlas arh w ate eard b e jia to n .
11


. 1000 .


(. 955 . 1020)
. E y n sh am cKoro
( ),
, , .
, (
- ), -
(.. )
.
;
,
( ,
, ,
).
,
( H eptateuch),
.
(Laud M iscellany 509, ,
) 1070 .
. : The Homilies of /Elfric / ed. by B. Thorpe.
Vol. 1 2. L., 1844,1846; vClfric's Grammatik und Glosser/ . von J. Zupi-
tza. - Berlin, 1880; yElfrics Lives of Saints / ed. by W. W. Skeat. / / E. E. T, S,, 76,
8 2 ,9 4 ,114. L., 1881 1900; /Elfrics Old Testament Translations / / hrsg. von
C.W. M.Grein. Bibliothek dcr angclsachsisehen Prosa. Bd. 1. = Kassel, 1872,

( Laud Misc. 509, )


Incipit prefatio Genesis Anyjicc*.

/Elfric m unuc "ret /Edelwtcrd ealdorm ann eadm odllce, PD bUde me,
leof, bast ic sccolde dc aw endan o f L cdene o n [ boc genesis:
ba b u h te me h cfijtim c be to tia ic n n e b ^ s , and ewtede ba b ^ t ic ne
* -.

38
jjorfte n a m are aw endan b ^ re bee b u to n to Tsaace, A braham es snna,
f0r-l?am -be sum 56er m an be ha;fde aw end Irani Tsaace ba boc ende.
[sju fille d m e, leof, b^et feet w eorc is swT6e pleollc me odfle
men to u n d e rb e s in n e n n e 1, fo r-b a n -b e ic o n d n ed e, j i f sum dysis m an
j,as boc ract reedan je h y rd , b ^ t he wille w enan bt he m ote lyb-
ban nu on b^ere nlw an sw a-sw a ba ealdan fe d e ra s leofodon b a on
[& tide -b a n -b e seo ealde s e je s e tt waire sw a-sw a m en le o
fodon u n d e r M oyses . HwTlon ic wiste bt sum im esse-preost, se be
mln m ajiste r w $ s on {jam tlm a n , hasfde ba boc 3 enesis, and he
be d S lc Lyden u n d ersta n d an ; ba cwie6 he be bam heahfredere lacobe,
b ^ t he liEefde leow er wTf, tw a je -sw u stra and h eo ra tw a bm ena. Ful
soS he Scede, ac he nyste, ne ic ba 3lt, hu micel todal ys betw eohx2
ealdan an d b ^ r e nlw an. O n bisere w orulde n am se 3
hys sw uster4 to w ife, an d hwTlon se faider tym de bl5 his a je n r e 6
deliter6, and m a n e ja hicfdon7 w lfa7 to folces eacan , and m an ne
m ihte ba ast fru m an wTFmn b u to n o n his sib lin su m 8. 3 y f hwa wyle nil
swa lybban aefter C rlstes tocym e sw a-sw a m en leofodon eer M oises
under M oises x , ne by3 se m an nfi C risten... (
.)-~ ----------------------------------------------------
Ic cwede nil biet ic ne dearr, ne ic nelle, nane boc setter bissere o f
Ledene o n Ertflisc aw endan, and ic bidde , leo f ealdorm an, bt bu
me jxes n a lens ne bidde b> lass be ic boo be unsehTrsum, leas s if ic
do. 3 o d be sis m ikie a o n ecnisse. ic bidde nu o n sodes nam an, j i f hwa
btis boc aw rltan wylle, btet he his serihte wel be bysne, fo r-b an -b e
ic nah sew cald, bcah be his hwa to wose brinse b u rh lease w rlteras, and
hit b p n n e his pleoh, n a mTn: m ycel yfel dco sc un writ ere, sif he nele
hys9 w oh9 je rih ta n .

1- D a Isaac eald o d e an d his e a ja n bystrodon, b*et he ne m ihte nan


bin; je se o n , clypode he Esau, his yldran sunu, 2. and cw0 to him :
( je sih st bt ie eald ise, and ic n at hwaenne m ine dasas asane beob.
3. N im bln sesceo l, b n ine co c u r an d b m n e , an d sans ut; and,
bpnne bu ffinis b in s besite b^es-bc w ene. 4. b ^ l m i lycise, b rin s m e,
bffif ic ete and ic {? b letsije, -b a m -b e ic sw clte. 5. D a R ebecca b * t
^elnrde and Esau Qtasan webs, 6. ba cwsed heo to laco b e, hire suna: 'Ic
^ehirde b a t b ln fteder ewseS to Esauw e, b ln u m brebcr: 7. B rins m e
f blnum h im to b e, bl ic b letsije befo ran d rih tn e, aer ic sw otte,

39
S. S unu m in, hlyste m inre lare; 9. far to dajre h eq rd e an d b rin j m e twa
ba b etstan ty ccen u , b ^ t ic m a c ije m ete Jjlnum fseder b ^ r - o f , a n d hg
ytt lustlice. 10. D o n n e 3u da in brin^st, he ytt and b letsab 1, hS,
sw elte. I I . D a cwa;0 he to hire: 'P u wast |itet E sau, m in , ys rfih,
an d ic eom sm ejie. 1 2 . S if m in fa d e r me h an d lab an d me jecneew d, ic
ondrsede liret lie w ene peet ic hine wylle besw ican an d h t lie w irije
m e, nies nfi b le ts ije . 13. Da cwted seo m o d o r to him : S unu m in, si;
seo w irijnys ofer me! Do swa ic |ie secje: far a n d b rin j jie bins fie ic
b e a d .
14. He ferde b3 and b ro h te an d sealde hit hys m eder, and heo hi
jearw ode, swa heo wiste bt his fieder llcode. 15. And heo scrydde Jacob
m id |iam d eo rw u rp u stan reafe be heo ;et ham m id hire h<efde; 16. and
befeold his h a n d a m id b ^ ra tycccn a fell urn; and his sw uran, b ^ r he
nacod wa;s, heo befeold. 17. And heo sealde him bone m ete }ie heo
scab, and hlaf; and he brohte b^et his feeder 18. and cwasd: Fteder m tn!
He andsw arode an d cwd: 'H w ait eart , sunu m tn ? 19. And lacob
cwsed: 4 c eom Esau, bin fru m -c e n n e d a sunu. Ic dyde swa |m m e be-
bu d e. Aris upp and site, and et o f m inum h u n to d e, b ^ t m e blit-j
s ije . 20. Eft Isaac cwaed to his suna: Sunu m in, hfl m ihtest bo hit swa
hraedlTce fin d a n ? Pa andsw arode lie and cwjed: H it waes sodes willa,
bt me hrsedllce com b x t ic w o ld e. 21. A nd Isa ac cwjed:
hider near, b ^ t ic aethrtne bin, sunu m in, and fandise hwaeder sk min
sunu Esau, be nS s ij. 22. He eode to bam fseder; an d Isaac c w sd , ba
ba he hyne je jra p o d hrefde: W itodlice seo stem n ys lacobes stefn, and
bii handa synd Esauwes h a n d a , 23, And lie ne jeen e o w hine, for-b^m
ba ruwan h an d a w S ron swilce b ^ s yldran brobur. H e hyne bletsode ba
24. and cwEed: Eart bfl Esau, m in su n u ? And he cwasd: *la leof, ic hit
co m . 25. Pa cwa:d he: 'B rin ; me m ete o f blnum huntode bt ic be blel-
s ije . Pa lie bone m ete brohte, he brohte him eac win. Pa he hasfde -
dru n cen , 26, ba c w sd he to him: S unu m in, h id er and cysse m e.
27. He nealenhte and cyste hine. Sona, he hyne o n je a t, he Wetsode hine
and cwied: N u ys m ines suna stenc, swilce b<es landes stenc be drihten
hletsode. 28. Sylle be sod o f heofenes deawe an d o f eordan fetnisse, and
micelnysse hw&tes and wines. 29. And peowion be eall folc, and jeeadm e-
dun be ealle , [ni (tfnra b rd b 'a hlaford and sin pinre m odur
suna scbTscd beforan be. Se de de w irije, si h e Fjwirijed; and, se |>e be
bletsije, si he m id b letsu n je jefy lled .

1 . Co. (= . . I. 33, Cambr, Univ. Libr.) undersm nenne. 2, Ca.


bctweox. 3. Ca, . 4. Ca. swuslor, 5. Ca. Wid. 6. Ca. aieiie
dohtor. 7. Ca. ma wlf htefdon. 8. Ca. scsiblinjum. 9. Ca. his scwrit.
12


, 1070 .


(G uildhall, Tow n C lerks Office).
, , (1066 1087),
, - , , 1075 .
,
,
, ,
,
. ,
, *
( )
,
,


1066 1067 . (?)

W ill(e!)m jrc t W ill(el)m bisceop a n d SosfrejO p o rtirefan and


ealle ( burhw aru binnan L o n d o n e1, Frencisce and , freondlTce,
And ic eow J5tet ic wylle t>cet j e t beon eallra btcra la ja w eorde ]>e
3yt wairan on E adw ordes dteje kynjes. A nd ic wyllc >ait eIc cyld beo
bis fe d e r yrf-num e asfter bis fe d e r dajje. And ic nelle jeh o lia n bct senis
m an eow ten ij w ra n j beode, 3 od eow jeh eald e!


(the Bayeux Tapestry), XI

41

1 0 6 6 - 1 0 7 5 . (?)

W ill(el)m sre t W ill(el)m b (isceo p ) a n d S w e jn 5 sc y rje re fa n


a n d ealle m ine b e jn a s on E astsea x an fre o n d llc e , A nd ic eow
beet ic h ab b e je u n n e n D e o rm a n n e , m ln a n m en , b a hide landes
3 y d d e sd u n e be hi[m ] o f se ry d e n wses. A nd ic n elle se b o lia n
F re n c isc a n n e Enslisc-an bt h im S n is a n b in sa n m isbeode,

1, da, Liindun, |eti, - b u rj, L ondon,


coep. a. London; . ( .) *L5ndiniOn = Londm ium
. 2. . - . Sveinn.
II

13


( P E T E R B O R Q U G H C K A Jl )
<, 1154 .


P eterboroughcKoji (B odleian, M S, Laud 636, .
,
5,),

.
,
(- ) , ,.

. ,
(,
, ,
),

(. )
(.
[) ).
PeterboroiiglrcK ort

,

.
.
.: The Peterborough Chronicle and Laws / ed. by R. Flower, H. Smith / /
E. E .T .S ., OS 2 0 8 .- O x f o r d , 1941.
( Laud Miscel. 636, )

1137, D is gsere for be k.(ing) S te p h .(n e ) 1 ofer sae to N o rm a n d i and


th e rw e s u n d cr-fan g en , for-pi diet hi u u en d en 6@et he sculde hen alsu-
ic alse th e e o m 2 wes, a n d for he hadde get his treso r, ac h e to -d e ld it

43
and scatered sorlice, M icel hadde H enri2 k.(ing) gadered gold and sylver,
a n d na god ne dide me for his saule th ar-o f.
Pa |ie king S .(tephne) to Englel.(and)3 com , ha m acod he hisgadering
ct O xeneford4 and bar he nam he b.(iscop) Roger o f Sereberi5, and Alex.
b .(iscop) o f L in eal6, a n d te ca n celer R oger, hise neves, and dide ielle
in prisun, til hi iafen up here castles, h a the suikes under-gaeton foct
he m ilde m an was, and softe, and god, and najustisc ne dide, ba d id e fn )
hi alle w under. Hi hadden hin m anred m aked a n d ath es su o ren , ac hi
nan tre u th e ne heolden: alle he wacron for-sw oren an d here treo th es
fo r-lo ren ; for eevric rice m an his castles m akede an d agaenes him heo-
Iden, and fylden be land ful o f castles. Hi su en cten suyfle be uurecce
m en o f be lan d m id castel-w eorces. ha |ie castles u u aren m aked, ba
fylden hi m id deovles and yvele m en. I>a nam en hi ba m en be hi w enden
6t ani god hefden, bathe be nihtes and be daeies, ca rl-m e n and w im -
m en, an d d iden heom in prisun e fte rg o k l and sylver, and pined heom
u n tellen d lice pining; for ne uuteren na;vre nan m artyrs swa pined, alse
hi waeron. Me henged up hi the fet and sm oked heom m id ful sm oke,
me henged bi the bum bcs, o th er bi the hefed, and hengen briniges on
[her] fet, ( .)

M ani b u s e n h i drapen m id hungaer. I ne can, ne i ne m ai, tellen alle


be w under ne alle be pines fiict hi diden w recce m en on pis land, and
diet lastede ba X IX ; w intre, wile Steplm e was king, and ajvre it was uu-
erse and uuerse. Hi Leiden gteildes o [n | the tunes asvre um wile and cle-
ped en it ten serie. Pa be uurecce m e n ne had d en nan m ore to gyven,
ba neveden hi and bren d o n alle the tu n es, daet wel bu m yhtes faren all
a Jacis fare, sculdest th u nevre fin d en m an in tu n e sitte n d e, ne land
tiled. Pa was co rn daire, a n d flc[s]c, and crese, an d butere; for nan ne
wecs o be land, W recce m en sturven o f h u rtg sr, sum e ieden on iclm es
be w aren sum wile rice m en, sum e flugen ut o f lande. W es n.evre giet
m are w reccehed on lan d , ne nsevre h eth en m en werse ne diden ban hi
diden, for o v e r-sith o n 8 ne for-baren (hi] n o u th e r circe, ne cyrcc-iterd;
oc n am en al be god cteet b a r-in n e was, a n d b re n d en sythen |ie cyrce
and al tegiedere. N e hi ne fo r-b aren b.(iscopes) lan d , ne ab b .(o tes),
ne preostes, ac neveden m unekes an d clerekes, and ievric m an o th er
|>e over m yhte. G if tw a m en o b cr III co m an rid en d to an tu n , al be
tunscipe flu g s n for heom : w enden rt;et hi w ;eron ncveres. he biscopcs
and lered m e n heom curscdc asvre, oc was heom naht b ar-o f; for hi
u u ero n al for-cursted, and fo r-su o ren , an d fo r-lo ren .

1 140. O n bis g;f w okle be king S te p h .(n c ) taecen R o d b ert eorl o f


G lo u c e stre 9, be kinges sune H en ries, ac he ne m yhte; for he w art it
war.

44
P e r-efter in be len g ten Jiestrede be su n n e anti le dasi, a b u to n n o n
tid d x ies, |xi m en elen , fleet me lihtede candles to Eeten bi, and bat was
XI1110 k .(alend) A pril; waeron m en suythe of-w undred,
P er-efter fordfeorde W ill.(elm ) rerceb.(iscop) o f C an tw arb .(u rch ) 11
and te king m akede T codbald asrceb.(iscop) be was abbot in the B ee12.
P e r-efter w;ex suythe m icel uuerre betuyx be king an d R an d o lf eorl
of C w stre13, n o h t lo r-b i diet he ne ia f him al diet he c u th e axen him ,
a[se lie dide alle o th re; oc iefre be m are lie iaf heom , |ie w;erse hi waeron
him. Pe eorl h cold Lincol agaenes be king, an d benam him al diet he
ahte to haven; an d le king for b id er and besrette him and his b ro th e r
W ill.(elm ) de R [om ]arc in be castel; and te teorl steel ut and ferde cfter
Rodbert eorl o f G lo u ce stre, and bro h te him b id er m id m icel ferd; and
fuhten suythe o n C an d elm asse-daei14 agcnes hcore laverd; and n am en
him; for his m en him suyken a n d fluga&n; and lacd him to B ristow e15
and d id e n ]iar in p risun, an d [in fe]teres. Pa was al E ng lel.(an d ) sty-
red m ar b an wtes, an d al yvel waes in lande.
P e r-efter co m | kinges d o h le r H enries2 be hefde ben E m perice in
A lam anie16, and nu wtes cuntesse in A n g o u 17, an d com to L u n d c n c 18,
and te L undenissce folc hire w olde taecen, a n d scie fleh and fortes [
micel.
P er-efter be biscop o f W incestre19 H enri, be kinges brother Stephnes,
spac wid R odbert eorl an d wyd b em p erice and su o r heom atlias daet
he nevre m a m id te king his b ro th e r w oldc halden; and cursede alle be
men be m id him heo ld on; a n d scede heom dast he uuolde liven heom
up W inccstre; a n d dide heom cum en bidcr.
Pa hi b * r-in n e wieren, b a c o m be kinges cuen [mid al] hire strengthe,
and besaet heom , flaet b ^ r wtes inne micel hungaer, Pa hi neleng ne m uht-
en (1, pa s ta l|e n | hi ut and flugen. And hi w urthen w ar w iduten and
folecheden heom ; and n am en R odbert eorl o f G lo u c.(estre ), an d led-
den him to R o vecestrc20, a n d d iden him bare in prisun. A nd le e m
perice fleh into an m instre. Pa feorden [ wise m en betw yx be kinges
freond an d te eorles freond, an d sahtlede sua daet me sculde leten ut
be king o f p risun for be eorl, and te eorl lor be king. And sua diden.

I. , (1135 1154); --
. 2. I, ( 1100 1135). 3. . 1-
land, 1-, , coep. a. England; . En.de land .
4. . Oxna-ford -., coep. a. Oxford; . -., . . || . Ochse, .
auhsa]; <). ford, . a. ford || . Furl]. 5- . Sear byri,s, . a. Salisbury
( ); . b u n . 6. . Lind-cylne, . a. Lincoln; -cylnc
. colonia. 7. XIX = n ijo n -ty n e, . , 8. ? ouuer
(= owher < . a-hwEer, |, -, ) sithen (< . siflSan, |); over
' r>cl- ol'er, sithon - da. sldum dm. . sT6; sidon = . sidum dm.
Mfl . sidu -. . 9. . 3 leaw-ccastcr ,, coep. a. Gloucester.

4S
10. XIII s tm-t?nc, . . 11. . Cant-wara-burs; dm. -,
. a. Canterbury; Cant-wcre (. 9, . . burhwaru
). 12. . 13. . ceaster .
, ; . a. Chester; . castra . . 14. 2
. 15. . Bricj-stow, . a. Bristol; . brycj stow . 16.
; . . Alemannia ( ,
); . Allemagne. 17. . a. Anjou. 18. . 12,
. 1. 19. . Ns 9, . 7. 20. . 9, . 2.
14

O RM U LU M
. 1200 .

, (.
), Ormulum, forr^i liatt Q n n itt
wrohhte. , ,
240 ; 32
I .
:
,
. ,
, ,
,
, , .. -

Ormulum. Junius I, . 3608 3623

47

. ,
, .
13 (7 + 6) (M eu m est propositum / in
taberna m ori)
, , ,
( ) (8 + 7 = 15
). ,
,
.

:
;
( , )
,
Ormulum
- .

.
(J u n iu s 1, B odleian L ib ra ry ),
, .
.: The Ormulurn / with the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R, M. White, ed.
by Rev. Robert Holt. - Oxford, 1878.

N u , b ro b e rr W a llterr, b ro b e rr m in
a fflerr be flaeshess k in d e,
A n n d b ro b e rr m in i e riis te n n d o m
b u rrh fu llu h h t a n n d b u rrh trow w jje,
A nnd b ro b e rr m in i G o d e ss hus,
j e t be bride wise,
b u rrli t>att w itt h a fe n n lak en n ba
an reg h ellb o c to f o l^ h e n n
5 U n n d e rr k an u n n k e ss had a n n d lif,
sw asum m sa n n t A w w stin 1 se tte
Icc hafe don sw asum m b 11 bad d
a n n d fo rb ed d te bin w ille:
Icc hafe w ennd in n till H nnglissh
go d d sp elless h a l^ h e larc
A ffterr b att little w itt b a tt me
m in d rih h tin h afeb b lenedd.
Pu b o h h te sst ta tt itt m lh h te wel

48
till m ikell fram e tu rrn e n n ,
10 3 iff E n n g lissh folic fo rr lufe o ff C rist
itt w ollde le rn e n n
A n n d f o l^ h e n n itt a n n d fillenn itt
w ipp b o h h t, w ipp w ord, w ipp dede.
A n n d fo rrpi 3errn d esst tu b att icc
piss w errc pe sh o lld e w irrk en n ;
A n n d icc itt hafe fo rp cd d tc,
acc all p u rrh C ristess hellp e,
14 A n n d u n n c b irrp ba>e b a n n k e n n C rist
p att itt iss b ro h h t till ende.

40 A n n d w hase w ilen n shall biss boc


efft o p errsip e w riten n ,
H im m b id de icc p a tt h et w rite rih h t,
sw asum m piss boc h im m taich eh h ,
50 All pw errtflt affte rr h att itt iss
u p p o t>iss firrste bisne,
W ipp all sw illc rim e alls h e r sett,
w ipp allse fele w ordess;
A n n d ta tt he loke wel p a tt he
an b o c sta ff w rite tw i33ess
E 33w h r )ner itt u p p o hiss boc
iss w rite n n b a tt wise,
Loke he wel p att het w rite swa;
forr he ne n o h h t elless
ss O n E n n g lissh w rite n n rih h t te w o rd ,
p att w ite he wcl to sope.

1. Awwstin = Austin (, a. ~) . Austin <. Augustinus, . |um


( coep. a. Augustine); . , , 430.
15


. 1205 .

(Brut) , |
*
(Layam on) ]
Brut dAngleterre (W ace), -
XII . ,
Historia Ecclesiastica (. . 7). He-j
,
(. 1135 .) {
, . -j
, , (
) . -|
, , *
(. 15 ).
, ,
,
.
; ]
. --1
-j
, .
,
, *
. *
, , ?
. |
,
. , ,
(
). -]
- <
( ) (
, , ).
: (= MS
C otton Caligula . IX) (= MS Q tho . X III),
.

( -

50
-, ),
. ,
,
.
.: Layamons Brut, or Chronicle o f England / / ed. by Fr.Maddan, L.,
1847,

( A)
Incipit hystoria Brutonum*.
1 An preost wes on leoden, L a ja m p n 1 wes i-h o te n ;
He wes L eovenades sone: lide him beo drihten!
He w onede at E rn le je 2 at sedelen are ch ire ch en
U p p en S ev arn e3 stabe sel b ar him b u h te
5 Onfest R ad esto n e4, frer he bock radde.
Hit com him on m ode a n d on his m em bpnke
Pet he w olde o f Engle l?a asdelasn tellen
W at heo i-h o te n w eoren, an d w pnene heo co m en ,
Pa E nglene lp n d e5 attest a h ten
10 aefter [ flode be frpm d rih te n e com ,
Pe al h er a=quelde quic bat he funde,
B uten N oe an d Sem , Jap h e t and C ham ,
And heore four wives b e m id h eo m w eren on areh en .
L a ja m p n gpn liden wide ^ond bas leode,
15 A nd biw pn ba isdela boc b a he to bisne npm .
He nom b^ Englisca boc ba m akcde sein t B eda6;
An o b e r7 he n o m on L atin be m akede seinte A lbin
A nd be feire A u stin 8 b e fulluht broute h id er in.
Boc he n o m be b ridde, leide b er a -m id d e n ,
20 Pa m akcdc a F ren ch is clerc, W ace wes i-h o te n ,
Pe wel cou b e w riten, an d he hoe ^ef bare s d e le n
^Elienor be wcs H en ries9 q u en e , bes h e je s kinges.
leide beos boc, an d ba le a f w ende;
He h eo m leo tlich e biheold: li|ie him beo drihten!
35 F eberen he nom m id fingren, and fiedc on bocfelle,
A nd ba sobe w ord sette to g ad ere,
A nd ba br boc b tu m d e to are.
N u b id d e d L a ja m p n (
.)
(.. ).

51
A lcne dele m pn, for p en e alm ite n G o d d ,
30 Pet J^eos b o c rede and le o m ia peos ru n a n ,
P at he fieos soSfeste w ord scgge to su m n c
F o r his fad er saule ha h ine ford b ro u h te,
A nd for his m o d er saule f a h in n e to m p n n e i-ber,
A nd for his aw ene saule, f a t hire he selre beo.

1, Laweman; , 3 Laja-, -,
\ . . 1,511 m an1 . 2. . a. Areiey (Arley),
. 3. . Srcfem ,, coep. a. (the) Severn. 4. . a. Redstone,
, 5. . 13, , 3. 6. . .-
7. , , ; ,
Historia Eccksiaslica
(.. . ); .
, , -, -. 8.
(Augustine), 596 . ,
; Austin
14, . 1. 9. II, (1154-- 1189),
.
16

III
1258 .

1258 III (1 2 1 6 1272)


, .

(Provisions o f Oxford), ,
24 ,
.
,
,

.
X III ., ,
.
,
- . . . .
-eth. ;

. . , - ,
( )
(the H untingdon recension the Oxford recen
sion).

. (Hunt, rec.): Ellis A. J. On Early English Pronunciation, P, II, L , 1870,


P' 501 ff.; Masse F. Manuel de Anglais du Moyen Age. II. Moyen-anglais,
Grammaire et Textes. Paris, 1949. P. 220 ff.

(The Huntingdon recension)


Hen 1, [ G o d es fu ltum e king on E n g len elo an d e1, Ihoaverd on
Y rloand3, duk o n N o rm 4, on A q u ita in and eorl o n A njow send i-
Sfetinge to alle h is e 5 h o ld e , i-lte rd c 6 a n d i-le a w e d e o n H u n te n *
donsclu r7. P jetRw iten 3c wel alle, taet we w illen an d u n n e n |1 b&t
ure rtedesm en6, alle oJ)er J>e m oare dtel6 o f h eom , \>mt beo)) i-ch o sen
')Ur3 Lls and ^ bait loandes folk o n ure k u neriche, habbeb i-d o n and
Schullen don in worjm esse o f G o d eyan d 011 ure treowj^e for be frcm e
he lo an d e10, | lie b e s id e o f >an to fo re n i-se id e 11 rcdesm cn, bco
s-^defaest6 and i-le s tin d e 11 in allc ^ingc a b u ten am de6. A nd we h o aten
c l|re treow e, in l?c treow jje fact heo us , fuel heo stedefiestliche6

53
healden and sw erien to healden an d to w erien bo i-setnesses11 t>set be<
i-m ak e d e 11 and beon to m ak ien 12 ] f a n toforen i-se id e 11 rsd e sm e
o f e r ( be m oare d $ I6 o f heom , alswo alse hit is b ifo re n 13 i-seid; a]
b;et E ehc o b er belpe bait for to d o n e 14 bi b a n 13 ilche o b e 16 a - je n c s a
m en , r ijt for to d o n e 14 an d to foangen, and n o a n ne nim e o f loandi
ne o f e jte , \vherbur3 bis b esijte m u je beon i-le t11 ober i-w ersed on 01
wise. A nd j i f oni o b e r o nie cu m en her o - je n e s 17, we w illen an d hoi
en b^et alle ure treow e heom h ea ld e n dead lich e i-fo a n 11, and for b
we w illen Jjeet bis b eo stedefcest6 an d lestinde, we sen d e n jew bis w
o p en i-s e in e d 11 wib ure seel, to h a ld e n l8a -m a n g e s 19 je w ine h o rd . 1
W itnesse us selven Eet L u n d en 20 bsene21 e jte te n b e day o n be m on
o f O c to b r in be two and fo w e rtijb e 22 o f ure cruninge.
A nd bis wes i- d o n u tetforen ure i-sw o ren e23 redesm en: Bonefa<
a r c h e b is c h o p o n K a n t- b u r 24. W a lte r o f C a n te lo w , b is c h o p (
W ire ch estr25. S im o f M u n tfo rt26, eorl on L eirc h estr27. Rio* o f Cla
eorl o n G lo w c h estr28 a n d o n H u rtfo rd 29. R og Bigod, eorl o n N ort
folk 30 an d m are scal31 011 E n g len e lo a n d . Perres o f Savveye32. W ill
F o rt, eorl o n A u b e m 33. J o b o f P lesseiz, eorl on W arew ik34. Jol
G efrees sune. Perres o f M untfort, R ic o f G rey. R og o f M ortem i
Jam es o f A ldithel, an d aetforen obre i-n o je .
A nd al on bo ilche w o rd en is i-sen d into sevrihce obre shcire ov
al b ^ r e ku n erice o n E n gleneloande and ek in te l Irelonde.

i. Oxf. (= the Oxford recension) Henri. 2, Cm, 13, . 3. 3. . I


I&nd, Tr-, coep. a. Ireland. 4. , = N orm andi. 5, Oxf. his. 6. Oxf.
|as|. 7. Oxf Oxcnefordeschir; cm . 13, . 4, . sclr
. 8. Oxf. bet ( . ). 9, Oxf God. 10. Oxf. loand.
11. Oxf. . 1-. 12. Oxf maken, 13, Oxf. toforen. 14, Oxf. don.
15. O xf bat, 16. Oxf cab- 17. Oxf. o n -jen es. 18. Oxf. healden.
19. Oxf. a-moanges. 20. Cm. 12, . 1. 21. Oxf. bene, = 22. 0.
. 23. Oxf. sworen. 24. , M 13, . 11. 25. . W iojora-ceasti
coup. a. Worcester, 26. Simon dc Monfort ( ), 6t
; 1265 . 27. . a. Leicester.
28. . 13, . 9. 29. . a. Hertford. 30 .. N orb-folc, .
Norfolk, 31. Oxf. marcschal. 32. . a. Savoy. 33. Oxf Aubem arl.
34, Coep. a. Warwick.
17

I I
, 1315 ,


1! (1307 1327). ,
:
(E dinburgh A dvocates Libr., A uchin-
leck MS) ; (C am br. P eterhouse
104), ,
. ,
500 .
XIV .
.
.: The Political Songs o f England, from the Reign of John to that of
Edward I I / cd. andtransl. by Th, Wright. L., 1839 (repr. Royal Hist. Society,
Camden, 1993) ( ,); A Poem on the Times of Edward II / ed.
by C. Hardwick. L,, 1849 ( .).

( )
1 Whii werre and w rake in londe an d m an slau h t is i-eo m e ,
Whii hungger a n d d erthe o n eo rth e the pore h ath u n d ern o m e ,
Whii bcstes ben th u s storve, whii co rn h a th b en so dere:
3e th at w olen a-b id e , listn eth a n d 3c m uw en here
T he skile;
I nelle lije n for n o m an, h erk n e w hoso wile.
7 G o d greteth we! th e clergie, an d seith th eih don a-m is,
And d o th hem to u n d ersto n d e th at litel treu lh e th e r is;
F or at th e co u rt o f R om e, (her tre u th e sholde biginne,
Him is fo rb o d en th e paleis, d ar he n o h t com th e rin n e
F or d o u te;
And th o u h th e pope clepe h im in, jit slml he stonde th ero u te.
Allc th e popes elerkes h an tak en h em to red:
If treu th e com e a-m onges hem , th at he shal be ded.
I here d ar he n o h t shew cn him for d o u te to be slain,
A -m ong n o n e o f the card in au s d ar he n o h t be sein,
F o r feerd.
It syiiionie m ay m ete wid him , he wole shaken his bcrd.

55
21 And thise abbotes a n d p rio u rs d o n a - je in here rihtcs;
Hii rid cn wid. h au k a n d h o u n d a n d c o n tre fe te n knihtes.
H ii sholde leve swich pride a n d ben religious;
A n d n u is pride m aister in evericb o rd red h ous,
I-w is.
R eligioun is evele i-h o ld e and fareth the m ore [a-m is],
11 F o r if th ere com e to an abey to pore m en or thre
A nd aske o f h em helpe p a r seinte charite,
U n n e th e wole any d o n his e rn d e, o th e r gong o r old,
But late h im coure th e r al day in h u n g er a n d in cold,
A nd sterve.
Loke w hat love th e r is to G o d , w hom th e ih seien th a t hii servj

3gA nd git th e r is a n o th e r o rd re, M e n o u r5 an d J a c o b in 1,


A nd freres o f th e C a rm e 1 an d o f seint A u stin 1,
T h at w olde p rech e m ore for a busshel o f w hete,
T h an for to bringe a soule from helle out o f th e h ete
T rest.
A nd th u s is coveytise loverd bo th e est a n d west.
29 If a pore m an com e to a frere for to aske shrifte,
A nd th e r com e a ricch ere a n d bringe him a jifte ,
H e shal in to the freitu r a n d b en i-m a d ful glad.
A nd th a t o th e r stant th e ro u te as a m an th a t w ere m ad
In sorwe,
3it sha! his ernde b en u n d o n til th a t o th e r m orw e.

43 K n ihtes sholde w eren w eden in here m an ere,


A fter th at th e ordre asketh, also wel as a frere;
N u b en th e ih so degysed an d diverseliche i-d ih t,
U n n e th e m ay m en knowe a glem an from a k n ih t
We! neih:
So is m ieknesse driven a -d o u n , an d pride is rison on heih.
44T h u s is th e ordre o f kniht tu rn e d u p -so -d o u n ;
Also wel can a k n ih t chide as any skoide o f a to u n ,
Hii sholde b en also hende as any levedi in londe;
A nd for to speke a lie viianie n e l nu n o k n ih t w onde
F o r sham e;
A nd th u s kfllhtshipe is acloied and w axen al fa t-la m e.

49 A nd justiscs, shirreves, m eires, baillifs, if I shal rede a -ric h t,


Hii km m e n o f th e fa ire day m ake the dcrke niht:
Iiii gon o u t o f the heie wey, ne leven hii for n o sklaundre,

56
Arid m a k e n th e m o th a lle at h o rn in h e re c h a u rn b re
W id w o u h ;
p o r be th e h o n d i-w h ite d , it sh a l go g o d i- n o u h .
50i f th e kin g in his w erre se n t a fte r m ih ti m e n ,
T o h elp e h im in his n e d e , o f su m to u n IX 2 o r X J:
T he stiffe ste s h o le n bileve a t h o m fo r X sh illin g e s o r X II4
A nd se n d e f o rth a w re c c h e th a t m a y n o h t h e lp e h im selve
At nede,
T h u s is th e k in g d e c e y v e d a n d p o re m e n s h e n t fo r m e d e .
5 'A nd if th e king in his lo n d m a k e th a ta x a c io u n ,
A n d cv eri m a n is i-s e t to a c e rte in ra u n c z o u n ,
H it sh a l be so fo rp in c h e d , to to ille d a n d to tw ih t,
T h a t h a lv e n d e l sh a l g o n in th e fe n d e s flih t
O ff h elle:
T h e r b e th so m a n y e p a rte n e rs , m a y n o tu n g e telle,
52A m a n o f X L 5 p o u n d e s w o rth g o d is le id to X ll p a n s ro u n d e ,
A nd also m u c h p aieth a n o th e r th a t p overte h a th b ro u h t to grounde,
A nd h a th a n h e p o f g irle s s itte n d e a -b o u te th e flet.
G o d e s c u rs m o te n h ii h a v e , b u t th a t be w el set
A n d sw o rn ,
T h a t th e p o re is th u s i-p ile d a n d th e ric h e fo rb o rn .

79A nd th ise a ssiso u rs, th a t c o m e n to s h ire a n d to h u n d re d ,


D a m n e th m e n fo r silv er; a n d th a t n is n o w o n d e r,
F o r w h a n th e ric h e ju s tis e w ol d o w ro n g fo r m e d e ,
T hanne th in k eth hem th eih m uw en the bet, for th eih h a n m ore nede
T o w in n e ,
Ac so is al th is w o rld a b le n t, th a t n o m a n d o u te th sin n e .
But bi s e in t Ja m e o f G a lic e 6, th a t m a n y m a n h a th s o u h t,
T he p ilo ry a n d th e c u c k in g sto l b e th i-m a d fo r n o h t,..

I- ) , , ; ) ,
, , ; ) ,
; ) . .
, -
.
(C arm elite), (A ustin), .
(laen b in ), (M inorite)
( ): Thus grounded thes four ordours, -
Pu,n (
* . . Liddell1 .). 2. IX - ni^en, ,
^, - nijon. 3. X = ten, . . tyn. 4. XII twelve, twelf, . . twelf,
X L *iow cn i3, fourty, . . feowcrtij. 6, .
18


(4 Y E N B Y T E O F IN W Y T ) ,

1340 .


La somme des Vices etd es Vertus |
(Fr&re Lorens).
, ( Hugo de St. Via
tore, XI XII .).

. .
,
(
). , , ]
, <!
(Arudel 57, ) |
.
.: Ayenbite of Inwyt / cd. by R. Morris / / E. E.T. S., 23. L,, 1866.1

a.
Pis boc is dan M ichelis o f N o rth g ate, -w rite an Englis o f his
h an d . P et h atte A -yenbyte o f ln w y t and is o f be bochouse o f sayi
A u stin es1 o f C a n te rb e ri2 m id be lettres C C,

b,
Pis boc is -w rite V or Englisse m en, bet hi wyte
H ou hi ssolle ham zelve ssrive And m aki h am klene in pise live
Pis hoc h atte huo [jet writ A -yenbite o f In w y t.
A verst byeb b e hestes te n Pet loki ssole alle m en.

c.
N o u ich w ille bet ye y-w yte H ou it is y-w ent
P et pis boc is -w rite M id Engliss o f K e n t3:
Pis boc is y-m ad vor lewede m en, Vor vader and vor m o d er art
vor ober kei
H am vor to b c rje vram alle m anyere zen, P et in hare inw ytte n<
bleve no voul wen

58
Huo ase G o d ? is his nam e -zed Pet t>is boc m ade: G od him
yeve t>ct bread
Of angles o f hevene and fe rto his red, A nd ondervonge his zaule
h u a n n e bet he is dyad.
Y-mende Jjat bis boc is volveld ine be eve4 o f be holy apostles Sy-
mon an Judas4 o f ane brobre o f be cloystre o f saynt A ustin o f C a n te r
beri ine be yeare o fo u re L hordes beringe 1340.
19



1400 .

(S ir Gawain and the Greet


Knight) , , i
XIV . MS. C ottoi
N ero . X, Art, 3, British M useum (. 1400 .).
, (
( ) , j
( the Gawait
MS the Pearl MS).
, , *
.
, , , !
. . . -
( 1975 .). ,
,
( ),
- ( '
), XV .
, ^
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
, -
,
(
,
). , .

. ,


( , ,

60
),
.
.


, -
(,, ,
, 21). ,
, ,
,
.

.: Sir Gawayne and The Green K night/ed. by R. M o rris//E . E.T. S., 4,


L., 1864; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight / cd. by J. R.R.Tolkien, E.V, G or
don. Oxford, 1925 (2nd ed. revised by N. Davis, Oxford, 1967). . ,
. .: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Pearl and Sir Orfeo / transl. by
J.R . R. Tolkien; ed. by Ch. Tolkien. George Allen & Unwin, 1975, . nep.
(. H. ) . .: : .
. / , . . . , ., 2006,

T h e n n e gyrdes he to G ryngolet, a n d gederez pe rake,


2161 S chow uez in bi a schore at a s e h a je syde
R idez pe b o n k ry3t to pe dale;
A nd p en n e he w ayted hym ab o u te, and wylde hit hym p o jt,
A nd se je no syngne o f resette bisydez now here,
2165 Bot b o n k k ez a n d b re n t v p o n bope halue.
A nd ru je k n okled knarrez w ith k n o rn e d stoncz;
Pe skwez o f pe scow tes skayned hym p o jt.
P en n e he h o u ed , and w ythhylde his hors at pat tyde,
A nd ofte ch au n g ed his ch er pe chapel to seche:
2170 H e se3 n o n su che in no syde, a n d selly hym p o st,
Saue, a lyltel o n a lau n d e, a lawe as h it were;
1 bi a bonke pe b ry m m e bysyde,
Bi a fo rj o f a ilode pal ferked pare;
Pe borne blubred p erin n e as h it boyled hade.
2175 Pe 1 k ach ez his caple, a n d com to pe lawe,
L i3tez d o u n luXlyly, a n d at a lynde tach ez
Pe rayne and his riche w ith a b rau n ch e.
P enne he to pe , aboute hit he w alkez,
D eb atan d e w ith h y m sclf q u at hit be my'31.
MS0 H it h ade a hole on pe en d e a n d on ayper syde,
A nd o uergrow en w ith grcssc in glodcs ayw here,
A nd al w atz I10I3 inw ith, n o b o t a n olde caue,

61
O r a creuisse o f an olde cragge, he hit 11031 dem e
w ith spelle.
2185
We! L o rd e , quop >e gentyle k n y jt,
W heper J?is be lie grene chapelle?
H ere m y 3t aboute m ydnyjt
| dele his m atynnes telle!

N ow iw ysse, quob W ow ayn, wysty is here;


2 190
Pis o ritore is vgly, w ith erbez ouergrow en;
Wel bisem ez be wy3e w ruxled in grene
Dele here his d eu o cio u n on be deuelez wyse.
N ow I fele h it is be fcnde, in my fyue wyttez,
Put h atz stoken me bis steuen to strye me here.
2195
Pis is a chapel o f m eschaunce, bat chekke hit bytyde!
Hit is be corsedest kyrk bat euer I com inne!
W ith )1 helm e o n his hede, his launce in his ho n d e,
He rom ez vp to be roffe o f be 03 wonez.
P ene herde he o f b at hii, in a harde roche
2201)
Bi3onde be broke, in a bonk, a w onder brem e noyse,
Quat! h it clatered in be clyff, as hit cleue schulde,
As o ne vpOli a gryndelston hade grounden a sybe.
What! hit w harred and w hette, as w ater at a m ulne;
What! hit rusched and ronge, rawpe to here.
220 5
P enne Bi G o d d e , quob G aw ayn, 'b at gere, as I trow e,
Is ryched at pe reu eren ce m e, renk, to m ete
bi rote.
Let G od worche! We lo o
H it h elppez me not a m ote.
2210
M y lif I forgoo,
D rede dotz m e no lo te ,
20

(B R U C E )
1375 .

(B arbour) (B arber) (, 1316 1395),


,
X IV XVI ., ,
,
(Low land) Scots,
(Inglis). ,
, 13 ,

, (1308 1328),

( B annockburne, 1314).
(G 23. St. J o h n s Coll. Cam br. Edinburgh A dvocates Libr.) -
,
.
, 1616 .

; . . a, ai; . .
oi, u, w; . hw . quh, qhn; . w . v; .
d , t,

.: Barbour's Bntce\ in 4 vols. / ed. by W. W. Skeat / / E, E.T.S. L 1870


1889.


( )

Pis wes in w ere1, qu h en vyntirtyde


Vith his blastis hydwifi to byde
Wes ourdriffm , and byrdis sm ale
As th ristill2 and tie nychtingalc,
B egouth rycht m eraly3 to syng
A nd for to m ak in Jjair synging
S yndry4 notis and soundis sere
And m elody5 plesande to here:
A nd be treis begouth to ma
B urgeonys and brycht blwm ys alsua
To vyn jpe heling o f bar hovede6,
tat vikkit vyntir had Jiame revede,
A nd all grewis7 begouth to spring.

63
In to f a t tym e be nobill king
V ith his flot and a few m en je
(T h re h u n d ir, i trow , pai m ycht w eill be)
W ess to pe se fu rth 9 o f A m n e10
A littil forrow b e 11 evyn g an e12.
Pai row it fast w ith all par m ycht,
Till pat ap o n pam e fell pe nycht,
P at i t 13 wox m yrk on gret m aner,
Swa (aat pai wist n o c h t, quhar tai wer;
F o r pai na n ed ill had na stane,
But row it alwayis intill ane
S te m m a n d 14 alw ayis14 ap o n p e fyre,
Pat pai saw b y rn an d lich t and schire.
It wes b o t av en tu r, p a t15 pam e led,
A nd pai in schort tym swa ( sped,
P at at pe fyre arivit pai
A nd vent to land but m air delay.

1. . {= .) ver, 2. 3 . turturis p
( Skeat). 3. . saricly, 4. . swcte. 5. . mclodys.
6, Skeat'-, . (= .) hcde; . hewid; )
1616 . head. 7. . gressys. 8. Skeat] , went; . is. 9.
owte. 10, (Arran), , 11. J
. 12. . ar gafle; . gan. 13. . . 14,
sterand all tyme. 15. . .
21


1 3 6 2 - 1 3 7 7 - 1 3 9 0 .

,
, (Langland)
XV , ( Dublin D, 4,1),
(P iets the Plowman) .
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
,
what holy wryt menede;
-, , ,
, , .
, lyvede in London m eny longe ,
,
(
) .
47 ,
: (2567 ),
, . 1362 . (
: V ernon , , . 1370 80);
,
1377 , ( ; Laud M iscellany 581,
, , , 15. 17. Trinity
College, ;
XIV .); ,
390 . ( : Phillips 8231, 1400 .).
.; The Vision of William Concerning Piers Plowman / three parallel texts
ed. by W.W, Skeat. Oxford, 1924; Critical Edition of the A Version of Piers
Plowman j ed. by C .D .F ow ler. L., 1952. . . (
): .
/ ., . . . . . . -
-, ~ .; ., 1941.

IV
( IV V )
( Laud Missel, 581)
A n d1 p an n e co m e Pees in to 1 p arle m en l an d pu t fo rth 2 a bille
Cflj ^ ( , -

65
78 Pees put his h ed and his p a n n e 3 blody:
. W y th o u ten g ilte4, G od it5 w ote, gat I J>is skafje,
C o n scien ce and be co m u n e6 k n ow en 7 be s o th e s.
A c9 W isdom and W itt w ere 10a -b o u t faste
T o overco m e be kyng w ith catel, gif b e iu m i jt e 11,
be kynge sw o re12, bi C rist a n d bi his cro w n e 13 b o th e,
b a t W ronge for his w erkis sholde wo JiolyeJi4,
85 A nd co m au n d e d a co nstable to casten hym in yrens:
A n d*5 late hym n o u jte 15 f is sevene je re seen his feet o n e s. >
G o d w o t, q u o d 16 W ysdom , bat w ere n a i^ te 17 b e beste;
A nd he am en d es m o w e18 m ake, la te 19 m eynprise hym have
A nd be borw gh for20 his bale and biggen 21 hym bote,
90 A nd22 so am ende bat is m ysdo22 an d everm ore be b e tte r e ,
W itt ac o rd ed b erw ith 23 and seide be sam e:
B ettere24 is24 bat bote Bale a -d o u n brynge,
b a n 25 Bale be y -b e tte 25 and bote nevere be b e tte r e .
A nd36 banne gan M ede to m engen h ere36 and m ercy she bisoughi
95 A nd p ro fred P ees a present al o f p u re 7-7 golde:
H ave bis, m a n 28, o f m e , quod sh e29, to am ende bi skabe,
Fos I 30 wil30 wage for W ronge h e wil31 do so na m o re .
P itously32 P ees b a nne prayed to b e kynge32
T o have m ercy on bat m an b a t m ysdid 33 hym so ofte:
loo t p o r w aged m e wel34 as W ysdom e hym ta u jte ,
A nd I forgyve hym bat gilte4 w ith a goode wille;
So bat b e 35 kynge assent, 1 ca n seye no b e tte re 35;
F o r M ede hath m ade m e am endes, I m ay n a m ore axe36.
'N a y , q u o d be kynge b o , !so37 m e C ryst h elp e37!
105 W ronge w e n d eth 38 n o ta te 38 so a=-waye, a rst39wil I39 wite more;;
F o r40 lo upe he so li^tly41, lau g h en 41 he w olde.
A nd efte b e 42 b ald er be to bete m yne hew en42;
But R esoun have reuthe o n '13 hym , he shal44 rest in m y44 stokke
A nd'15 bat as longe as h e lyveth, but Low enesse hym b o r n e 45/*
110 Som m e46 m en redde4S R esoun bo to have reuthe o n 43 bat schreW
A nd for to conseille be kynge a n d C o n scien ce after47;
T h at M ede m oste be m ey n p ern o u r R esoun b ei4S bisou-jte.
R ede m e n o u j t e 17, quod R esoun no 49 reuthe to have,
T il lordes and ladies lovien50 alle tre u th e ,
115 A nd51 h aten al h arlo try e, to h e re n it o r to m o u th e n it51;
Tyi P ernelies purfil be pu t in here hu cch e;
A nd ch ild ry n chcrissyng be chastyng 52 w ith 3erdes;
A n d harlotes holynesse be holden for an hyne;
Til clerk cn 3J coveitise be to clo th e jie pore a n d to fede53,
120 ! 53 religious rom ares recordare in here clo istres53,
As53 seynt B enet h em bad, B ernarde a n d F raunceys 53;
A nd53 til p rech o u res prechyng be preved o n hem selven53;
Tyl53 be Synges co n seille be be eo m u n e p ro fy te53;
Tyl53 bisschopes b aiardes b en beggeres cham bres 53,
125 H ere 53 h aukes an d here hou n d es helpe to pore religious53;
And til33 seynt Jam es be sou^hte54 [ I shal assigne,
T h a t55 no m an go to G alis56 bu t if57 he go for evere;
A nd alle R o m e-re n n ere s for robberes o f b y jen d e
Bere no silver over see bat signe58 o f kynge shew eb58,
130 fvjoyther59 grave ne ungrave, golde n e ith e r silver59,
U ppon fo rfetu re60 o f b at fee, w ho 61 so fynt hym 61 at D overe,
But if*2 it be62 m arch au n t or63 his m an64, o r m essagere w ith letteres,
Provysoure65 o r prest, o r p e n a u n t for his synnes65.
And jet6, q u o d R esoun, bi be ro d e, I shal no reu th e have,
135 While M ede h a th b e67 m aistrye in 68 bis m o o th alle68.
Ac I m ay shewe en saum ples, as691 se o th erw h ile69;
I70 sey it by m y se lf, q u o d h e 70, and it so were
T hat I71 w ere kynge w ith crow ne to kepen a rew m e,
Shulde nevere wronge in bis worlde, bat I71 wite m y jh te ,
Ben u n p u n issh ed in72 m y pow ere for peril o f m y soule,
Ne gete m y73 g race for giftes73, so m e G o d save74,
Ne for n o 75 m ede have rnercy, bu t m ekenesse it m a k e .

1. AV(= , , Vernon) bene Pees com to. Z.AV up. 3 .A V pon-


ne. 4. A V gult. 5. A V . 6. A V kyng, 7, A V knewen.
8. /fK W usten wel bat W rong was a schrcwe evere. 9. . 10, AV
wcorcn , heo mihten. 12, A V swor bo. 13. A V coroune.
14. /IJ-'bolc. IS. A V He ne schal. 16, ^K q u ab . 17. A V not. 18. AV
. 19. A V let. 20. A V of. 21. Kbuggen. 22. A V And
amenden his misdede, 23, A V herwith. 24. ^4 Hit is betere. 25. AVfcen
Bale be betcn. 26. Meede meokede hire. 27. AVpure red.
^8.4 V . 29. A V heo. 30. A V ichul. 31 .A V wol. 32, A V
^ benne pitously preyed? b<? kyng. 33. ,4Kmisdude. 34, amendes.
35, A V assented beo, I con no more siggc. 36, , 37. AV$o G od
me blisse. 38. /4Kwent not. 39. AVtil ieh. 40. A V ,
V lihtliehe a-wei laiijwhen, 42. A Kbe be baldore for te beten myne [hy-
neill- 43, !''of. 44. ^K restes in the. 45, A V Also longe as I lyve bote
^ 0 love hit make. 46. summc radde. 47. A V bobe. 48, AV
49. A V . 50. A V loven. 51, A V 115 omcym-
c'neyt>m. f>2, A V chastet, 53, A V derkcs and knihtes ben eorteis of heore
^ 0ubes || And haten to don heor harlotrie and usun hit no more, || Til prestes
q le Pfeshyng preven hit in hem selven || And don hit in dedc to drawen us to
0 e II Til. 54. /4 P i-seuht. 55. A V And. 56. C m . 1 7 , . 6.

67
57. V . 58. V bercb signe o f be kyng. 59. A KNou{3er g,
tes ne gold i-grave wilj 1 kynges coroune. 6 0 . A V forfet. 61. hose
fynde. 62. A V hit beo. 63. A Kobur. 64. A V m cn. 65. AVO r proviso
or preestes [>at popes avannset. 66. AV y it. 67. A V cny. 68 .A V to moot
in tm halle, 69. ,4Kseie be my seive. 70, A V For I siggc hit for my soulc,
71. A V ich. 72. . 73. A V grace tiorw a jift. 74 , A V helpe.
75. A V .
22

P O L Y C H R O N /C O N

1387 .

(John de Trevisa, 1326 1412),


, ,

. ,
Polychronicon
Ranulphi Hidden, ,
- (R an-
ulf H igden), XIV .
;
places and c o n tr e e s ... o f fee w orlde wyde (
),
, ,
R .

, , XV .
,
, 1482 ., , ,
, , ,
the rude and old englyssh, th at is, to w ete, certayn w ordes w hich
in these days be n eith er usyd ne understandyn (
, .. ,
). ,
,
-
- : ,
, ,
, -
, , - ,
(C o tto n T ib e riu s D V II ).
( . I. St. J o h n s C o ll,
Cambr,), 1420 . ,
( . ),
, ,
(
. . ),
.: Babington (. 1 II) Lumby (. I l l IX), 186586, Kolls Series
41.

69

( H.I.St. John's Coll.)
De incolarum Unguis. Capitulum quinquagesimum *.
As it is i-know e how m eny m anere peple beeb in bis ilond, bere beejj
also so m any dyvers longages an d tonges; nobbles W alsche m en and
S cottes, bat beejs n o u jt i-m ed led wib ober naciouns, holdeb wel nyh
h ir firstc longage and speche; but 3if the Scottes bat were som tym e con-
federal and w onede wib be Pictes draw e som w hat after hir speche; but
he F lem m ynges bat wonef) in be weste side o f W ales1 haveb i-left her
straunge speche an d spekeb2 S axonliche3 i-now 2. Also E nglische m en,
[ [l?eil3 h ad d e from the bygynnynge bre m anere speche, ,
sow berne, an d m iddel speche in be m yddel o f be lond, as |iey com e
o f bre m anere peple o f G e rm a n ia 4, nojieles by eo m yxtioun an d m el-
lynge firste wib D anes an d afterw ard wib N orm ans, in m eny5 he co n -
tray longage is apayred, and som useb straunge6 w lafferynge7, c h ite -
rynge, harrynge, and garrynge grisbayting8. This apayrynge9 o f the
o f he tunge- is bycause oftw eie binges; oon is for children in scole ajenst
be usage and m an ere o f alle obere n aciouns beeb com pelled for to leve
hire ow ne langage, an d for to co n stru e hir iessouns and here bynges
in F re n s c h e , a n d so [ h av eb seb b e N o rm a n s c o m e first in to
Engelond. A lso10 genii! m en c h ild re n beeb i- ta u jt to speke F rensche
from be tym e bat bey beeb i-ro k k ed in here cradel, an d kunneb speke
an d playe wib a childes b ro ch e; a n d uplondisshc m en wil likne hym
self to gentil m en, and fondeb wib greet besynesse for to speke F re n
sche, for to be i-to ld e o f10. Trevisa. bis m anere was m oche i-uscd to
for firste d eth and is sibbe sum del i-d ia u n g e d ; for Jo h n C ornw aile, a
m aister o f g ram m er, chaunged be lore in gram er scole an d c o n stru c -
cioun o f F ren sc h e in to E nglische; and R ichard P encriche lerncd be
m anere techynge o f hym and o f obere m en o f P cncrich; so (rat now,
|ie o f oure Lordc a bow sand bre h undred and foure score and fyve,
and o f be seco u n d e kyng R ich ard after be conqucst nyne, in 11 alle be
gram ere scales o f Engelond, children leveb Frensche and construeb and
lerneb an E nglische, an d h au eb berby avauntage in o o n side and dis-
avauntage in a n o b e r side; here avauntage is bat bey lerneb her g ram er
in lasse tym e b an ch ild ren w ere i-w oued to doo; dis avauntage is bat
now ch ild ren o f g ram er seole conneliIJ na m ore F rensche jmn can h ir
lift heele, a n d bat is harm e for h em and bey schulle passe be see and
travaille in straunge landes and in m any ober places. Also gentil m en
haveb n o w m oche i-left for to teche here ch ild ren F rensche. R. Hit
sem eb a greet w o nder how Englische, [bat is be tonge o f E ng-
lissh e j13 m en and h er ow ne langage and tonge, is so dyverse o f sown
In bis oon ilond, a n d 1'1 be langage o f N orm andie is com lynge o f anober

70
londe, a n d h a th oon m anere soun am ong alle m en ]>at speket hit a r ijt
in E n g elo n d 14. Trevisa. N everbeles pere is m any dyvers m anere F re n
sche in he reem o f F rau n ce as is dyvers m anere Englische in he rccm
o f E ngelond. R. Also o f he forsaidc Saxon tonge hat is i-d eled ahre,
and is abide scajslich e wib fewe uplondisshe m en, is greet w onder; for
m en o f he est wip m en o f he w est15, as it were u n d ir he sam e p artie o f
hevene, aco rd ep m ore in sow nynge o f speche han m en o f he n o rp wip
m en o f he soup; p erfore it is hat M e rc ii16, bat beep m en o f m yddel
Engelond, as it w ere p arte n ers o f the endes, u n d ersto n d ep b ettre he
side langages, an d so u h e rn e , h an n o rp e rn e a n d so u b ern e
u n d ersto n d eh eib er ober. Willelmus de Ponlificibus11, libro tertio. Al be
longage o f be N o rb h u m bres, and specialliche at 3ork, is so scharp, slit
ting an d frotynge and u n sch ap e, hat we souberne m en m ay hat lo n
gage u n n eb e u n d ersto n d e, I trow e hat bat is bycause hat hey b eeb nyh
to straunge m en and nacio u n s bat spekeh stro n g iich e18, and also b y
cause hat b e kynges o f E ngelond w oneb alwey fer from bat cuntrey;
for bey beeb m ore i-to rn e d to be soub co n tray , and j i f bey gooh to he
n o rh co n tray , bey gooh w >b greet [h e lp ]19 an d strengpe. Pe cause why
pey b eeb m ore in pe soub co n trey pan in be , [is]20 for hit m ay
be20 b etter co rne londe, m ore peple, m ore noble citees, and m ore p ro f
itable havenes.

1.. Wcalas . Wealli = wealh -. , ;


() , . Volei. 2. Saxonliche
. . Saxonice; speken lykc to Saxons. 3.
. , : pei peyh hy . Cotton
Tiberius .
4. . , , XV .
Gcrmanye. 5, , many thynges. 6. . . ',
. H. I.St.J.CoIl. strong; Cotton Tiberius strange. 7. . wlaffyng.
8. . grysbitynge. 9. . appayryngc o f the langage. 10.
. 11. . and,
12. . . 13. . . 14. . And the langage of
Normandye is comen outc of another lond, and hath one maner sounc among al
men that speketh it in Englond; for a man of Kente, southern, western, and
northern men speken Frensshe al lyke in sowne and speche; but they can not
speke thcyr Englissh so. 15. . west is. 16. .
, . Myrcc (< Miorcc). 17, Gesta Pontificum Anglorum (1125)
(William of M almes
bury). 18. . straungleliche; . , 6, 19. . .
^0. . is by causc pat ther is.
23
.
1400 .

: The Romaunt o f the Rose (. .), The Complaynt
of Pitee, The Booke o f the Duchesse, The Complaynt o f Mars and Venus, O f
, 13841400 .
the Queen Anetyda and False Arcite, Troilus and Criseyde, A Treatise on
the Astrolabe, The Parlement o f Fowles, The Hons o f Fame, The Legend o f
Goode Women, The Canterbury Tales .
,
(G eo ffrey C h a u c e r, 1340 1400) ,


. , ( Canterbury Tales) .
,
,
,
. (. ) 357 1359) . , ,
, ,
24 , , ,
III (1327 1377). - ,
. ,
. 1367 .

,
. ,

,
. ,
. ,
(1369, 1377), (1372, 1378)
.
(1377). 1374 . 1386 ,
, - , ,
, 1382 .
,
. 1386 .
, ,
.

.
,
, 13S4 .
,
, ,
,
.
, ,.
(< . ),
, -
,
( XIV .
- ),
, .
57
. 14
Ellesmere. M S Hengwrt M S,
. . , . H arleian 7334
, ,

( Ellesmere MS)
72

: 73
,
;
.

,: -
1478 . (2- . );
. (1492,1498, 1526, 1532, 1542 .).
. . . ;
The Complete Works o f Geoffrey Chaucer: in 6 vols, / ed. by W.W. Skeat.
Oxford, 1894 1897 ( .); . .
: The Complete Works of Geoffrey C haucer / ed. by F. N. Robinson.
Oxford, 1951. . . (. . .
. , ) 1946 .
. . .: .
. ., 1996.

( Ellesmere.)

1 W h an th at A prille w ith his shoures soote


T he d ro g h te 1 o f M arch h a th perced to the ro o te,
A nd b ath ed every veyne in sw ich licour,
O f w hich vcrtu eng en d red is the flour;
5 W han Z ep h iru s eek w ith his sw ete breelh
In spired h a th in every holt a n d h eeth
T he ten d re croppes, and the yonge sonne
H a th in the R am 2 his h alve3 cours y -ro n n e,
And sm ale fow eles1 m aken m elodye,
10 T h a t slepen al the nyght w ith o p en ye4
So p riketh hem n atu re in here corages
T h a n n e 1 longen folk to goon on pilgrim ages,
A nd palm ercs for to seken straungc strondes,
T o fem e halw es, c o u th e in sontlry londes;
15 A nd specially, from every shires ende
O f E n g clo n d 5 to C au n tcrb u ry 6 th ey w ende,
T he hooly, blisfu! m aftir7 for to seke,
T h at hem h ath h o lp en , w han th a t they were seeke;
Bifll th a t in th a t seson on a day
20 In S o uthw erka at the T ab a rd 4 as I lay,
R edy to w enden o n m y pilgrym age
T o Caunterbury w ith ful devout corage,
At nyght were com e into th at hostelryc
Wel nyne and tw enty in a com paignye
25 O f sondry folk by aventure y-falle
In felaw eshipe1, an d pilgrim es1 w ere1 they alle,
T h at tow ard C au n terb u ry w olden ryde.
T h e eh au m b res a n d the stables w eren w ydes
A nd wel we w eren esed atte beste.
30 And sh ortly, w han the sonne w as10 to re s te 10,
So had d c 1 spoken with hem everichon,
T h at I was o f h er felaw eshipe an o n ,
And m ade forw ard erly for to ryse,
T o take oure wey th er, as I yow devyse.
35 B ut n ath elees, whii 1 have tym e and space,
Er th at I fe rth e r in this tale pace,
Me th y n k e th it ac o rd a u n t to resoun
T o telle yow al the co n d icio u n
O f ech o f h em , so as it sem ed m e,
40 A nd w hiche they w ere, and o f w hat degree,
A nd eek in w hat array th a t they were inne;
A nd at a knyght th a n wol I First bigynne.
A Knyglit th e r was, a n d th a t a w orthy m an,
T h a t fro th e tym e th at he first bigan
45 T o rid en o u t, he loved chivalrie,
T ro u th e a n d h o n o u r, fredom a n d curteisie.
Ful w orthy was he in his lordes w erre,
A nd th e rto hadde he rid en , no m an ferre,
As wel in cristen d o m as in hethenesse,
50 And e v e re 11 h o n o u re d 11 for his w orthynesse.
At A lisau n d re12 h e was, w han it was w onne.
Ful o fte-ty m e he h a d d e 13 the b o rd b ig o n n e 13
A boven alle n ac io u n s in P ru c e 14.
In L ettow 15 hadde he reysed an d in R u c e 16,
55 N o cristen m an so ofte o f his degree.

6- A nd th o u g h th a t he w ere w orthy, he was wys,


A nd o f his p ort as rneeke as is a m ayde:
70 H e nevere yet n o vileynye ne sayde
In al his lyf u n to no m an er wight:
H e was a verray parfit genlil knyght.
But for to tellen yow o f his array,
H is hors w ere17 goode, but he was nat gay;
75 O f fustian lie w ered a gypoun,
Al b ism o tered w ith his habergeoun;
F o r he was late y -c o m e from his viagc,
A nd w ente for to d o o n his pilgrym age.
W ith hym th e r was his sone, a yong Squier,
80 A lovyere, and a lusty bacheler,
W ith lokkes en tile, as they were leyd in pressc.

75
O f tw enty yeer o f age he was, I gesse;
O f his stature he was o f evene lengthe,
A nd w onderly delyvere and o f greet strengthe,
85 A nd he h ad d c been som tym e in chyvachie,
In F la u n d re s18, in A rtoys19, and P y card ie20,
A nd b o rn hym weel, as o f so litel space.
In hope to sto n d en in his lady grace.
E m brouded was he, as it w ere a m eede,
90 Al ful o f fresshe flotires, w hyte and reede.
Syngynge he was o r floytynge al the day:
He was as fresh as is21 the m o n th o f M ay.
S hort was his gow ne, w ith sieves longe and wyde.
Wel koude he sitte o n hors, and faire ryde;
55 H e koude songes m ake a n d wel en d ite,
Juste and eek d au n ce, a n d weel purtreye and w rite.
So h o ote he lovede th a t by nyghtertale
H e slepte na m oore th a n do o th a nyghtyngale.
C urteis he was, low ely, an d servysable,
100 And c a rfb ifo rn his fader at the table.
A Yeman hadde he an d servauntz na m o
At th a t tym e, for hym liste ride soo.
A nd he was clad in cote a n d h o o d o f grene;
A sh ee f o f pecok-arw es, bright an d kene,
105 U n d e r his belt he b ar ful thriftily.

118 T h e r was also a n o n n e, a P rio resse,


T h at o f h ir sm ylyng was ful sym ple and coy;
120 H ire gretteste ooth was bu t by se in te 22 Loy23;
A nd she was cleped m ad am e E glentyne.
Ful weel she soong th e service dyvyne,
E n tu n ed in h ir nose ful sem ely.
A nd F renssh she spak ful faire and fetisiy,
125 A fter the scole o f S tra tfo rd 24 atte DoweJ4,
F o r F reiissh o f Parys was to hire unknow e.
At m ete wel y -tau g h t was she w ith-alle:
She leet no m orsel from h ir lippes falle,
N e w ette h ir fyngres in hir sauce depe;
130 Wel koude she carie a m orsel, an d wel kepe,
T h a t n o 25 d ro p e 25 ne upon hire b re st26.
In curteisie was set ful m uchel h ir lest27:
H ire overlippe wyped she so d e n e
T h a t in hir coppe was no ferthyng sene
135 O f g rece, w han she d ro n k e n haddc hir draughtc;

76
Fu) sem ely after hir m ete she raughte.
A nd sikerly she was o f greet desport,
A nd ful plesau n t, an d am yable o f port;
A nd peyned hire to eo u n tre fete cheere
140 O f co u rt, and been estatlich o f m anere,
A nd to ben h o ld en digne o f reverence.
But for to spekcn o f hire conscience,
She was so ch aritable and so pitous,
She wolde w epe, if th at she saugh a m ous
145 K aught in a trap p e , if it were deed or bledde.
O f sm ale houndes had d e she th a t she fedde
W ith rosted flessh, o r m ilk and wastel breed;
But soore w epte she, if an y 28 o f hem were deed,
O r if m en sm o o t it w ith a yerde sm erte;
150 A nd al was co n science and ten d re herte.

163 A n o th er n o n n e w ith hire hadde she,


T h at was hire chapeleyne, and preestes thre.
165 A M onk th e r was, a fair for the m aistrie,
An o u trid ere, th a t lovede venerie;
A m anly m an , to been an abbot able.
Ful m any a dey ntee hors hadde he in stable;
A nd w han he rood, m en m yghte his brydel heere
170 G y n g len in a w histlynge w ynd as cleere,
A nd eek as loude as dooth th e chapel belle,
T h er as this lord was kepcrc o f the celle.
T h e reule o f seint M aure o r o f seint B eneit,
By cause th at it was old, an d som del strcit,
175 T his ilke m onk leet o ld e 29 thynges!29 pace
A nd bee Id after the newe w orld th e space.
H e y af n at o f th at text a pulled hen.
T h at seith th at h u n ters b een 30 nat hooly m en,
N e th a t a m onk, w han he is recchelees,
180 Is likned til a fissh th at is w aterless;
T his is to seyn, a m onk out o f his cloystre.
But thilke text heeld he nat w orth an oystre;
A nd I seyde his o p in io u n was good,
W hat sholde he studie and m ake hym selvcn w ood,
185 U p o n a book in cloystre alwey to po m e.
Or sw ynken with his h o n d es, and laboure,
As A ustyn31 bit? H ow shal th e w orld be served?
Lat Austyn have his32 swynk to him reserved!
T herfo re he was a p rikasour aright:

77
14(1 G rehouncies33 h e 33 h ad d e as swift as fow el34 in flight
O f prikyng and o f h untyng for the hare
W as at his lust, fo r no cost wolde he spare.
1 seigh his sieves purffled35 at th e hond
W ith grys, and th at the fyneste o f a lond;
195 A nd for to festne his hood u n d e r his chyn,
He hadde o f gold y-w roght a curious p y n :
A lo ve-knotte in the g re ttc r ende th e r was.
His heed was balled, th at shoon as an y glas,
And eek his face, as it hadde been eno y n t;
200 H e was a lord ful fat, a n d in good poynt.
His eyen stepe and rollynge in his h eed ,
T hat stem ed as a forneys o f a leed.
His bootes souple, his hors in greet estaat.
N ow certeinly he was a fair prelaat:
205 He was nat pale as a forpyned goost;
A fat swan loved he best o f any roost.
His palfrey was as broun as is a berye.
A F rerc th er was, a w antow n a n d a m erye,
A lym ytour, a ful solem pne m an.
210 In alle the ordres foure36 is noon th at kan
So m uche o f daliaunce a n d fair langage.
H e hadde m aad ful m any a m ariage
O f yonge w om m en at his owene cost.
U n to his ordre he was a noble post,
215 A nd wel biloved and fam ulier was he
W ith frankeleyns over al in his co n tree,
A nd eek with w orthy w om m en o f the to u n ;
F o r he hadde pow er o f confessioun,
As seyde hymself, m oore than a cu rat;
220 F or o f his ordre he was licenciat.
F ul swetely herde he confessioun,
A nd plesaunt was his absolucioun;
He was an esy m an to yeve penaunce
T h e r as he wiste h an a good pitaunce;
225 F or u n to 37 a pourc ordre for to yive
Is signe that a m an is wel y-shryve;
F o r if he yaf, he dorste m ake avaunt.
H e wiste that a m an was repentaunt;
F o r m any a m an so hard is o f his hcrte,
230 H e m ay nat wcpc, althogh hym soore sm erte;
T herfore in slede o f wepynge and preyeres
M en m oote yevc silver to the poure J'rcres.
His typet was ay farsed ful o f knyves
A nd pynnes for to yeven faire38 wyves.
235 A nd ce rtein ly he h ad d e a m urye note;
Wel koude he synge, and pleyen on a rote;
O f yeddynges he b a a r o u trely the pris.
His nekke w hit was as the f!our-de-lys;
T h e rto he strong was as a ch am pioun.
240 H e knew th e tavernes wel in every39 to u n ,
A nd ev erich h o stile r an d tap p estere
242 Bet th a n a lazar o r a beggestere.

254 S om w hat h e lipsed for his w antow nesse,


265 T o m ake his Englissh sw eete u p o n his tonge.
A nd in his harp yng, w han th a t he hadde songe,
Hise eyen tw ynkled in his h eed aryght
As d o o n th e sterres in th e frosty nyght.
T his w o rth y ly m ytour was cleped H uberd.
270 A M arch au n t was th e r w ith a forked berd;
In m o telee40, and hye o n horse he sat,
U p o n his h eed a F laundryssh bever hat,
H is bo o tes clasped faire an d fetisly.
H ise resons he spak ful solem pnely,
273 Sow nynge alway th enerees o f his wynnyng.
H e w olde th e see were kept for any thing
Bitw ixe M id d elburgh 41 a n d O rew elle42.
W el koude he in eschaunge sheeldes selle.
T h is w orthy m an ful wel his wit bisette:
2S0 T h e r wiste no w ight th a t lie was in d e tte s
So estatly43 was he o f his governaunce,
W ith his bargaynes and w ith his chevyssaunee.
F o r so th e he was a w orthy m an w ith -alle;
But so o th to seyn, 1 no o t how m en hym calle.
285 A C lerk th e r was o f O xenford also,
T h at u n to logyk hadde longe y-go.
As leene was his hors as is a rake;
A nd he nas n at right fat, I u n d ertak e,
But lo o k ed holw e, a n d th e rto sobrely.
F ul th red b a re was his overeste eourtepy;
F o r he h ad d c g eten hym yet no benefice,
N e was so w orldly for to have office.
F or hym was lcvere have at his beddes heed
T w enty bookes, clad in blak o r reed,
295 O f A risto tle a n d his philosophic

79
T h an robes rich e, o r fitheie, or gay sautrie.
But al be th a t he was a ph ilo so p h re,
Yet h ad d e he b u t litel gold in cofre;
B ut al th a t he m yghte o f his freendes hente,
3aQ O n baokes a n d his lernynge he it spente,
A nd bisily gan for th e soules preye
O f hern th at y af hym w herw ith to scoleye;
O f studie to o k he m oost cure a n d m oost heede.
N o g ht o44 w ord44 spak he m oore th a n was neede,
303 A nd th a t was seyd in form e an d reverence,
And short, a n d quyk, an d ful o f hy sentence;
Sow nynge in m oral vertu was his speche,
A nd gladly w olde he lerne a n d gladly tech e.
A S ergeaim t of the Lawe, w ar a n d wys,
310 T h at o ften hadde b een at th e parvys45,
T h e r was also, Ful riche o f excellence;
D iscreet he was, an d o f greet reverence:
313 H e sem ed sw ich, hise w ordes w eren so wise.

328 H e rood but hoom ly in a m edlee cote,


G irt w ith a c e in t oF silk, w ith barres sm alc;
330 O f his array telle I no lenger tale.
A F rankeleyn was in his com paignye;
W hit was his h ee d 46 as is a dayes-ye;
O f his co m p lex io u n he was sangwyn.
Wel loved he by the m orw e a sop in wyn;
335 T o lyven in delit was evere his w one,
F o r he was E picurus ow ene sone,
T h at h eeld o p in io u n th at pleyn delit
338 W as verraily47 felicitee parfit.

355 At sessiouns48 th e r was he lord and sire;


Ful o fie-ty m e he was knyght49 o f the sh ire49.
A n anlaas, a n d a gipser al o f silk,
H eeng at his girdel, w hit as m o rn e milk.
A shirreve hadde he been a n d a co u n to u r;
360 Was now her such a w orthy vavasour.
An H ab erd assh ere, and a C arp en ter,
A W ebbe, a D yere, a n d a T apyeer
W ere50 w ith us50, c lo th e d alle in lyveree51,
O f a solem pne an d a greet fralem itee.
365 Ful fressh an d new e h er geere apiked was:
H er knyves were y -c h ap ed noght w ith bras,

80
B ut al w ith silver, w roght ful elene and weel
H ere girdles and hir p ouches everydeel.
Wel sem ed ec h o f hem a fair burgeys,
370 T o sitte n in a yeldhalle on a deys,
E verich for the w isdom th a t he k an
Was shaply for to b een an alderm an.
F o r catel h ad d e they ynough an d rente.
A nd eek h er wyves w olde it wel assente
375 A nd elies, certey n , w ere they to blam e;
It is ful fair to b een y -c le p ed dame,
A nd goon to vigilies al bifore,
A nd have a m an tel roialliche y-bore.
A C ook th ey hadde w ith hem for the nones,
380 T o boille the chiknes w ith the m arybones,
A n d p o u d re -m a rc h a u n t tart, a n d galyngale,
382 W el koude h e know e a draughte o f L o n d o n ale.

388 A Shipm an was th e r, w onynge fer by weste:


F o r aught 1 w o at, he was o f D e rte m o u th e 52,
39Q He ro o d u pon a ro u n cy , as he k o u th e,
In a gow ne o f faldyng to th e knee.
A daggere hangynge on a laas hadde he
A boute his nekke u n d er his arm adoun.
T he b o o te so m er h ad d e m aad his hew e al b ro u n ;
395 A nd certein ly he was a good felawe.
Ful m an y a drau g h te o f wyn hadde he y -d raw e33
F ro B urdeuxw ard54, whii th a t th e ch a p m a n sleep.
O f nyce co n scien ce to o k he no keep;
I f th a t he faught, and hadde the hyer h o n d ,
'10 By w ater he sente h em ho o m to every lond.

41! W ith us th e r was a D octour o f phisik.


In al this w orld ne was th e r n o o n hym lik
T o speke o f phisik a n d o f surge rye;
F o r lie was g ro u n d ed in astronom ye.
1115 He kepte his p ac ie n t a ful greet deel
In h o u re i by his m agyk natureel;
W el koude he fo rtu n e n th e ascen d en t
O f hise ymages 55 for his pacient,
H e knew the cause o f everiche m aladye,
m w ere o f h o o t o r cold, o r m oyste, o r dry,
A nd w here eng en d red , an d o f w hat hum our.
H e was a verray p arilt praktisour;

81
T he cause y-know e an d o f his h arm the ro o te,
424 A non he y af the sike m a n his boote.

434 In sangwyn an d in pers he clad was al,


440 Lyned w ith taffata an d w ith sendal.
A nd yet he was but esy o f dispence;
He kepte th at he was in p estilence;
F o r gold in phisik is a c o rd ia l,
T herfore he lovede gold in spccial.
445 A Good 56 W if was th e r o f biside B athe;
But she was soin-dcl deef, a n d th at was scathe.
O f clo o th -m ak y n g she h ad d e sw ich an h a u n t,
She passed hem o f Y pres57 an d o f G a u n t58.
In al th e parisshe w if ne was th e r n o o n
450 T h at to th e 59 offrynge59 bifore hire sholde goon;
And if th e r dide, c e rtey n so w ro o th was she,
T h at she was ou t o f alle ch aritee.
H ir coverchiefs ful fyne w ere60 o f ground;
I dorste swere, they w eyeden te n pound,
455 T h at on a S onday w ere60 u p o n h ir heed.
H ir h osen w eren o f fyn sca rlet reed
Ful streite y-tey d , and shoos ful m oyste an d new e.
458 B oold was h ir face, a n d fair, an d reed o f hewe.

477 A good m an was th e r o f religioun,


A nd was a poure P ersoun o f a to u n ;
But riche he was o f hooly th o g h t and werk.
480 H e was also a lerned m an , a clerk,
T h at C ristes gospel trew ely w olde preche;
Hise parisshens devoutly w olde he teche
Benygne he was and w o n d e r diligent,
A nd in advcrsitcc ful p a c ie n t;
485 A nd sw ich he was y -p rev ed 61 o fte-sith es.
Ful looth were hym to cu rsen for h ise 1 tithes;
But ra th e r w olde he yeven ou t o f doute
U n to his poure p arissh en s ab o u te,
O f his offryng, an d eek o f his substaunce;
490 He koude in litel thyng have suffisaunce.

524 W ith hym th e r was a Plow m an, was his b ro th er,


530 T h at h ad d e y -lad o f dong ful m an y a fother.
A trew e sw ynkere and a good was he,
Lyvynge in pees and pa rill ch aritee.

82
G o d loved he best w ith al his hoole herte,
At alle tym es, thogh h im 62 gam ed or sm crte,
335 A nd th a n n e his nighebore right as hym selve.
* He wolde thresshe and th erto dyke an d delve,
F o r C ristes sake, for every poure w ight,
W ith o u ten hire, if it lay in his m yght.
Hise tith e s payede he ful faire and wel,
540 B othe o f his propre swynk an d his catel.
In a tab ard he rood u p o n a m ere.
T h er was also a Reve, an d a M illere,
A Sonm our, and a P ard o n e r also,
544 A M aunciple, and m yself th e r w ere na m o.

1. e ( ,
droghte of = droghtof); . ( , fclawe-
shipe = 'felawship 'felawshipe); ,
( , thanne, were, have, hire =
= th a n \ w er, hav, hir ..). e (no )
. ( , foweles = fowles
. fu3las . fu^ol); .
, . .
( , fethercs = fethres fethers,
. - . federa . fe0er
fc- .). 2. , ; ram, . ram ,
. , Aries. 3. 1. (- Ellesmere ' .) half. 4. El.
ty e . 5. . 13, . 3. 6. . 13, . 11. 7,
1 Thomas a Becket), ,
( 1170 .). 8. . a. Southwark,
. 9. , ,
abaid, .. (. tabard ).
was to reste, no-, . was gon to reste. 1 1 . evere ho-
lonred a evr onoured (. . I). 12. . 13, hadde the
>o,d blgonne , 14. . a. Prussia -
V i , . 15. . a. Lithuania

I . ', . . Lietuva. 16. . a. Russia. 17. El. weren,


' , a. Flanders, 19. . . Artois; ,
--, . 20. . a. Picardy,
- . 21. Et. in. 22. . seint,
23, 1 . . , .
,
, 24, ,
. , .
Stratford-le-Bow ( ), .
25. dropc, -,
, drop? .
. 26. El. brist. 27. El. list, 28. any -
of; . .

S3
any, 29. Harleian 7334 for by hem. 30. El. beth. 31. Cm. 14, . 1,
17, . 1. 32. El. his owene. 33. e grehoundes
, he. 34.
fowl. 35. El. y-purfiled. 36. . 1 7 , . 1. 37.
lint. 38. El. yongc. 39, El. al the. 40. El. motlee. 41. Coep. Middclburg
; ,
1384 1388., ,
, .
, 1388 .,
. 42. Orwell, . 43. ,
no-, statly. 44.
; . 131, no drope. 45, , ,
. ,
. 46. . . berd. 47. . Harleian 7334', El. . .
vcrray, 48. (
1327.). 49. .. . 50. 1.
And they were; Harleian 7334 Weren with uss eeke. 51.
no . 52. . a. D artm outh, ,
. 53. El. drawe, 54. Burdeux, . .
Bordeaux ( . B urdigala); -w ard, . . . -w eard .
55. ,
,
* (ymages)
; , , . 56. good,
-, ,
. 57. . 58. . G hent ,
. 59. th ofl'ryng',
-yng, ofifr-. 60. El. weren. 61. .,
Harleian 7334, preved. 62. El. he; him , gamed .
,
24

VI
. 1455 .

V I{On the Times)



(1422 1461), , (
) (1455 1485).
.
,
( , i)
.
.: Political Poems and Songs from Edward III to Richard III / ed. by
Th. Wright. L., 1859 1861,

1 N ow ys Y n g la n d alle in fyght,
M o ch e p ep le o f co n sy e n s lyght,
M an y k n yghtes, a n d lytyl o f m yght,
M any law ys, an d lytylle ryght;
s M an y ac te s o f p a rla m e n t,
A nd few kept w ylh tru e n te rtt;
L ytyde ch a ry td a n d fayne to plesc;
M an y a g alan t p cn y les.
A nd m an y a w o n d u rfu lle dysgyzyng
10 By u n p ru d e n t a n d m yssavysyng;
G re te c o u n te n a n s e a n d sm alle wages,
M a n y g e n tille m e n a n d few pages;
W ele b escn e a n d stro n g thevys

iS M o ch b o st o f th e re clo th y s,
Bui weJe I wo( th ey lake n o n e othys.

1- Cm , 13, . 3.
25


. 1463 .

(Jo h n Capgrave, 1393 1463)


(Lynn) .
,
(, ). 24
, ^
.
;
(
Guide to the Antiquities and Curiosities
).
.
^
.
(Chronicle o f England), IV (1461 148
, - , .
* 1417 .,
(1463).
, .
(G .g. 4. 12 ) , ,
(, , ).
.: John Capgrave's Chronicle / ed, by F.C, Hingeston / / Rolls Serid]
185?. .,
|i th.

1393, 1394

( G.g. 4, 12 )

[1393,]
In the month of Auguste was it proclamed thorowoute Y ng lo nd 1ti
alle E risch m en be at horn, in h er ow ne lond, in the fest o f N ativite3!
ure L a d y2, in peyne o f leslng of her hed, II was proved be experieJ)
th a t th ere w ere com to Y nglond so m any E rischm en th at the Eris^
cuntr, w h ich longeth to the king o f Y tiglond, was so voydsd fro
dw elleris th at the wilde E risch w ere com in, and had dom inacioune <
al that cuture. And, more ovvr, it was noted, that in Kyng Edward 3 tyn

S6


uit j Min-'ofiy rftbdH
r io te d y a t -tu tvtifj c^iWn> tyrne
pe ftii If l/iifi (c tj/f b>f*
itrniftfjiO tu ip ft tirtrt
t) c r m iy u c d tn { y ;< , il)P"
tc<70 ft- n c \b y c f y n t j n ( l ) ti r i
Y a n g fa y to Jx r jfc y c v ty te(Vjfteri
fhm c tii u t & ip fx o> mnr^
|n V te ^ rc m V,V| ofrtp ii $,
IpAw PyaHfm vlwrv Tb7)r^ mm)
JXfb rtrrnobuiouufi Unifi ye (trine
gcvc fym jrvi tIjrtfft *; i n , (u
cAttift\^iri; ye opijioixtT
ferleO m n irlj ttofujfjiTanb
initlikrti) 0)w iy o f y e mjcfj It*
bi0 \lx)liH Ijtf lebtii) Ijta cvinytm
b u t l)ep JxMktI1 IVirtfl on yiA b cyP -
'Itjerlbw ? b6 yc n n b ta o y o u t'
I d iy o n *5> o jir fn p 31 T tty a t
tyinQ Mwre flii t pit tolptn beyc
o w n o f v i e kmO v% m t fibiuljo,"! I4

the T h ird e3, w han he h ad set th ere his bank, his juges, and his chekyr,
he received every ^ere XXX4 M. pound: and now the kyng R ich ard 3was
fayn to paye gerly to defens o f the sam e cu n tre XXX M . m ark.
In this , in th e XXI. day o f A prile, was th a t frere bore w hech
mad these A n n o tacio n es.
And in th e same Kyng R ichard w ent into Erl and6, with the duke
of G lo u ce te r7, an d erics M arch , N o tin g h am and R u th land. M any of
the Erisch lordis w old h a lettid his com yng; bu t h er pow er was ovyr
weyk, T h e r was he fro the N ativite o f oure Lady o n to E stern e8. And
in that tym e were sent o n to him , be th e clergi o f this lo u d , th e a rc h
bishop o f Y ork an d th e bishop o f L o n d o n 9, praying him th a t he wold
Cf,me h om ageyn to oppresse th e m alice o f Lollardis. F or thci laboured
sore to take away alle the possessiones o f the C h erc h , and aftir to dis
troye alle th e lawes th a t were m ad to favour o f th e C herch. W han th e
kyng h erd this, he h astid him in al goodly m an er to com hom ageyn.
[1394.] In th e X V U L 10 10 th e kyng held his P arlem e n t at D u-
^ n " , and th id ir com alle the lordes th at had m ad subjeccion onto him .
And in th a t sam e tym e, E dm und, duke o f York, K eper o f Y nglond,
held a P arlem en t at L o ndon; to w hech P arlem e n t cam the duke o f
' 'bucetir fro Y rlo n d 6, expressing the kyngis costis in Y rlond: a n d his
legacion was so acceptabil, th a t the clergy graunted him a d y m ei an
th e lay fe a fiftene.
In th is tym e th e L olardis set up scrow is at W e stm in ste r12 a n d a
P o u le s 13, w ith a b h o m in a b le a c c u sa c io n e s o f h em th a t long to the
C h erc h , w hech so u n d ed in d estru c cio u n e o f the S acram entis, an d
statutes of the C herch. The m eynteyneris o f the puple that were so infec
were these: R ichard S torry, Lodew ik C lifforth, T hom as L atym er, Jo
M ountagw . T h ei were p rin cip al in stru cto u ris o f heretikes. T he kyng,
w h an he had conceyved the m alice o f these m en, he cleped hem to hi
presens, and snybbed hem; forbad hem eke thei schuld no m ore m eynte
no swech m ateres. O f R ich ard Story he to o k a b o o th 14; for he sw or
o n a book15 th a t he schuld nevyr m eynten no swech opiniones. And afti
this h o o th 16th e kyng saide: "A nd I swere here on to th e , If evyr th o u
breke th in o o th , th o u schal deye a foul d e th . T hei th a t w ere gilty i
th is m ater w ithdrew gretly h er o terau n s o f m alys.

1. Cm . N s 13, . 3. 2. 8 . 3. 1327 1377. 4. XXX


= thritty, thrity, . . britis. 5. II, (1377 1399).
6. . 16, , 3. 7. , a. G loucester f'glnsta]; . 13,
. 9. 8. 1394.; 19 . 9. . N 12,
. 1. 10. .. 18- II: XVIII = eightene,
. . eahta-tyne. 1 1 .5 . . Dublin. 12, West (. ) + min-i
stcr, . m ynster -. . . m onasterium . m onasterion,
13. . . 14. . . oth. 15. . .
oth. 16. . . hotb,
III

26


. 1490 .

(. 1422 1491) . 1441 .,


,
( ). -
35 .

. 60- .
{,
,

).
(468 1471 .
Recuyell o f the Historyes o f Troye (
, 1464 , ,
). 1475 .

The Game and Playe o f the Chesse.
,
. - ,
, ,
, 1476 .
,
15 60
,
, M irrour o f the
World ( , )
(M eta -
ntorphoses Eneydos ).

.
( ), . , . ,
;< . Morte d Arthur
.
. |
,
(. 22)1
, <|
,
.
,
,
.
. : Caxton Eneydos / ed. by W. T, Cullcy, F. J, Furnivall
E .E.T.S.; ES,57. - L., 1890.

A nd w han I had advysed me in this sayd boke, I delyvered and c o n l


elu d ed to tran slate it in -to Englysshe. A nd forthw yth toke a penne &
ynkc an d w rote a le e f or tw eyne, w hyche I oversaw e agayn to co recta
it. A nd w han I sawe the fayr an d straunge term es th e re in , I d o u b le !
th at it sholde not please som e gentylm en which late blam ed m e, sa y e irJ
b a t1 in my translacyons I had over curyous term es w hich coude not ba
u n d ersta n d e o f com yn peple and desired m e to use olde and hom ejy
term es in m y translacyons. A nd fayn w olde I satisfye every m an, an d
so to doo toke an olde booke an d redde th e rin , an d certaynly the EngJ
lysshe was so rude an d brood th a t I coude not wele u n d erstan d e it. A n J
also my lorde abbot o f W estm ynster2 ded do shew e to m e late certayd
evydences w ryton in olde Englysshe for to reduce it in to our E nglysshi
now tisid. A nd certaynly, it was w reto n in suche wyse th a t it was
lyke to D u tch e th a n Englysshe; I coude no t red u ce ne brynge it to be
u n d ersto n d en. And certaynly, our langage now used varyeth ferre from
th a t w hich was used and spoken w han I was borne. F o r we Englysshffl
m en b en b o rn e u n d e r the d o m ynacyon o f the m o n e, w hiche is nevefl
sledfaste but ever w averynge, wexynge one season, a n d w aneth & d y i
creaseth a n o th e r season. A nd th a t co m y n Englysshe th a t is spoken in
one shyre varyeth from an o th er in so m oche that in m y dayes happened
th a t certay n m arc h au n tes were in a ship in T am yse3 for to have sayled
over th e see in to Z ela n d e4. A nd for lacke o f w ynde th ei taryed attffl
fo rlond; an d w entc to land for to refreshe them . A nd one o f thayrnl
n am ed Sheffelde, a m ercer, cam e in lo an hows an d axed for m ete, |
specyally he axyd after eggys. A nd th e goode w yf answ ered? th a t she
cou d e speke n o F renshe. A nd th e m arc h au n t was angry; for he alsa
cou d e speke no F ren sh e , but w olde have hadde egges; a n d she u n d e fi
Stode hym not. A nd th e n n e at laste a n o th e r sayd th a t he wolde hav
eyren. T h en the good w yf sayd th a t she u n d ersto d hym wel. Loo, whajj
sholde a m an in thysc dayes now wryte: egges o r eyren? C ertynly it 'is
h arde to playse every m an by cause o f dyversitie & chaunge o f langag*-
F o r in these dayes every m an th a t is in ony rep u tacy o n in his country

90
^yll u tte r his co m y n cacy o n and m aters in such m aners & term es th at
fewe m en shall u n d ersto n d e theym . A nd som honest a n d grete clerkes
|lt1ve ben w yth m e an d desired me to w ryte th e m oste curyous term cs
tjiat 1 coude fynde. A nd thus bytw enc playn, rude, & curyous, I stande
aba ssh ed . But in m y ju d g m e n ts the com yn term es th a t be dayli used
ben lyghter to be u n d ersto n d e th a n the olde and au n c y en d Englysshe.
And for as m o ch e as this p resen t booke is not for a rude uplondyssh
frtan to laboure th ere in , ne rede it, bu t onely for a cler'ke & a noble
gentylm an th at feleth an d u n d ersto n d e th in faytes o f arm es, in love,
$ in noble chyvalrye, th ere fo r in a m eane bytw ene b othe I have re
duced & tran slate d this sayd booke in to o u r Englysshe, n o t over rude
ne curyous, but in such term es as shall be undcrstanden by G oddys grace
accordynge to my copye.

1 . |): ., wha
whan . . 2. . 25, . 12, 3, . 5, . 12. 4. .
. Zeeland, ,
27


.
1551 .

(R alph R obynson), !
, 1521 *
, 1542 . kojX
C orpus C hristi; , ,
,
,
, .
, , ,
. 1571 . |
some place to relieve his poverty.

1551 . (A braham Vele);
1556, 1597 1624 . 1684 .
.

.

. , *

, .
, ,
.
(Utopia', . (opos , ,
) .
1516 ., 1517, 1518 1519 . *
, M op (Thom as M ore, 1478-fl
1535), .
, if
.
. III, *
- , -j
. , !
. 1521 . ]
. 1523 ,
1529 ,
.
'

92
VII! (15091547),
(1532). 1534 . , 6 1535 . .
I- . . ; More Th.
flie Utopia / with additional translations, introduction and notes by J. H.Lup-
ton. Oxford, 1895.

, IX.
(1- )

Nowe I have declared an d descrybyd unto yowe, as truely as I coulde,


the fourmc and ordre o f th at com m en w ealth, w hich verely in my judge
m ent is not onlye th e beste, bu t also th a t w hiche alone o f good ryght
may claym e an d tak e u p on it the nam e o f a c o m m o n w ealthe or pub-
lique weale. F o r in o th er places they speake stil o f the com m en w ealth;
but everye m an p ro c u re th hys ow ne pryvate w e a lth e 1. H ere w here
nothynge is pryvate, th e com m en affayresbe earnestly loked upon. And
truely on both partes th ey have good cause so (o do as they do. F or on
other co u n trey s w ho know eth no t th a t he shall sterve for honger, o n -
les he m ake som e severall provision for hym self, th o u g h the com m on
w ealthe floryshe never so m u eh e in ryches? A nd therefore he is co m -

ftuteful/
ant) piealaunt d( the
bfflf Dale of publpijuf lo tjii, anto.
cftljt m ttf plr ralLfc
in irwinf bp pt 10c*f
knpgfit^nh tirt^ (Pfiglpftje
ISobpnlbn anu
lDOiainipjl^0tjren!)oh,al
Ul ^ "UlUn , .Jl ifj<
IIJl
pifloitfmtnf jflqo fjtntQ .-
qiirQ ol Art TDDlatoe
jCiJryin J (Jabrjtiafr]jrip
of itjrlamjJDifir.

C E 3 !m p ?w frt)at3 lo n t)o n
bp folr,bU)illuig in pauW
t {jarcbrpart r jK jje fp<jnn)f
l[|t Carofce, JJnno,
* !

'' i -
.

93
pelled, even o f verye necessitie, to have regarde to hym selfe rather th e n !
to th e p eo p le, th a t is to saye, to o th er. C ontraryw yse, th ere where !
thynges be co m m en to everye m an , it is no t to be dow ted th at any m an I
shal lacke anye thynge necessarye for hys pryvale uses, so that the
m en store liowses and barnes be sufFicientlye stored. F o r there n o th y n g J
is distry b u ted after a nyggyshe sorte, n o th e r th ere is any poore m an o r l
begger. And though no m an have any thynge, yet everye m an is ryche, I
F o r w hat can be m ore ryche th e n to lyve joyfullye a n d m erylye w i t h e
ou t all griefe and pensifenes; not caryng for hys owne lyving, n o r vexed!
o r trow bled w ith hys wyfes im p o rtu n ate co m p lay n tes, n o t2 drydyng<j|
povertie to his so n n e, n o r sorrow yng for his dow ghters dow rey? Y ea,J
th ey take no care at all for th e lyvyng an d w ealthe o f them selfes a n d !
all theirs; o f theire wyfes, theire chyldren, thcire nephew es, theire c h i l J
d ren s ch y ld ren, and all the succession th at ever shall followe in th e ire l
p osteritie. And yet, besydes thys, th ere is no lesse provision for th e m !
th a t w ere ones labourers, and be now e weake an d im p o te n t, th e n fot3
th e m th a t do now e lab o u rs a n d take payne.
H eere nowe w oulde I see y f anye m an dare be so bolde, as to c o m -J
p are w ith thys equytie the ju stic e o f o th e r nations. A m ong w hom , l l
forsake G o d , if I can fynde any signe o r token o f equitie an d ju stic e ,!
F o r w hat ju stice is this, th a t a ryche g oldsm ythe3 or an usurer, o r, to ]
be sh o rte, any o f th em , w hyche o th e r doo n othyng at all; o r els th a t]
w hiehe tb ey do is su ch e, th a t it is not very necessary to the c o m m e n l
w ealthe; should have a pleasaunt and a welthy lyvynge, o ther by idilnesjfl
or by u n n ecessary busynes? w hen in the m eane tym e poore la b o u re rs,]
carters, y ronsm ythes, carp en ters, and plow m en, by so great and c o n - 1
tin u al toyle, as draw ynge a n d bearyng beastes be skeailt able to s u s -j
tein e; and agayn so necessary toyle th at w ith out it no com m en w ealth I
w ere able to continew e an d , en d u re o n e yere; d o 4 yet get so 11aide a n d !
p o o re a lyving, and !yve so w retched and m iserable a lyfe, th at the state!
and co n d itio n o f the labouring beastes m aye sem e m u ch e b e tte r an d ]
w elthier. F o r they be no t put to so co n ty n u ail la b o u rs, n o r th eire ly-J
vynge is not m uche w orse; yea, to them m uch pleasaunter; takynge n o ]
thow ghte in the m eane season for the tym c to com e. But thies seilieJ
poore w retchcs be presently to rm en ted w ith barreyne an d u n fru te fu llj
labour. A nd the remembraunce o f th eire poore in d ig en t a n d begerlye j
olde age kylleth th em up, F o r th eire dayly wages is so lytle th a t it will.]
n o t suffice for the sam e daye; m uche lesse it yeldeth any overplus, th at j
m ay dayly be layde up for the relyefe o f old age,
Is not thys an unjust an d an unky n d publyquc w eale, w hyche gy-1
v eth great fees an d rewarded to g en telm en , as they call th e m , and to 1
g oldsm ythes5 and to suche oth er, w hiche be o th er ydell persones o r els
onlye flatterers, and devysers o fv a y n e pleasures; an d , o f the c o n tra ry ]

94
arte, m ak eth no gentle provision for poore p lo w m en , coliars, [abor
t s , carters, yronsm ythes, and carpenters, w ith o u t w hom e no com m en
wealth can continew e? But w h en 5 it h a th abused the laboures o f theire
lusty and flow ringe age, at the laste, w hen th ey be oppressed w ith old
ace and syckenes, being nedye, poore and in d ig en t o f all thynges; th en
forgettynge theire so many paynfull watchynges, no t rem em brynge theire
so m any a n d so great benefytes; re c o m p e n se th a n d ac q u y teth th em
^ s t e unkyndly w ith m yserable death. A nd yet besides this th e riche
men n o t only by private fraud, but also by c o m m e n lawes, do every
day plucke and snatche away from the p o o re som e parte o f th eir daily
living. So, w here as it sem ed before unjuste to reco m p en se w ith urt-
kyndnes th eir paynes th at have bene beneficial] to the publique w eale,
nowe they have to this th e ir w rong a n d unjuste dealinge (w hiche is yet
a m uche worse pointe), geven the nam e o fju stice, yea, and that by force
of a law.

1. 2- . gaine. 2 .2- . nor. 3. We should now rather say, a banker


(Lupton). 4, 2- . should. 5. 2- . after.
28

(Thom as W yatt, 15031542) ,


V III,
.
(1536), .
1541 . . !
.
. . (H enry H ow ard, Earl o f Surrey, 1517 1547)
*
(G. P uttenham . The Arte o f English Poesie, 1589). -]
, .
-]
(
, , cy*J
).
,
,

.: The Poetry of Sir Thomas Wyatt / ed. by E.M.W.Tillyard. 1929.

P erd y e I saide yt not


N o r nev er th o u g h t to do,
As well as I ye w ott
I have no pow re th e re to ;
A nd if I d ed, th e lott
T h a t first ded m e e n c h a in e
D o n ever slake the k n o tt
B ut stray t it to m y p ayne.

A nd if I d ed , ech e th in g
T h a t m aye do h arm e o r w oo
C o n ty n u a lly e m aye w ring
M y h erte w hereso I goo;
R ep o rte m aye alw ays ring
O f sh am e o f m e for aye,
Y f yn m y h e rte ded spring
T he w orde th at ye d o o saye.

96
Y f I saide so, ech e sterre
, T h a t is yn h ev en above
M aye frow ne o n m e to m arre
T h e h o p e I have yn love;
A nd if I d ed , su ch e w arre
As th e y b ro u g h t u n to T ro ye
B ring all m y ly f afarre
F ro m all this luste an d joye.

A nd i f I ded so saye,
T he bew tye th a t m e b o u n d e
E n eresse fro m daye to daye
M o re cruel! to my w o u n d e ,
W ith all th e m o n e th a t m aye
T o p la y n te m aye to m e m y song;
M y lif m aye so n e dekaye
W ith o u t redresse bye w rong,

Y f I be clere fro th o u g h t,
W hye do ye th e n co m p lain e?
T h en ys th is th in g bu t sought
T o to rn e m e to m o re payne.
T h e n th a t th a t ye have w ro u g h t
Ye m u st yt now red resse;
O f rig h t th e re fo re ye o u g h t
S u ch R ig o r to represse.

A nd as I have deserv id .
So g ra u n te m e now e m y h ire;
Ye k n o I n ev e r sw ervid,
Ye n ever fow nd m e lyre;
F o r R ach e ll have I servid,
(F o r Lya ca rid I never)
A nd h e r I have R eservid
W ith in m y h e rte fo r ever.
29


1579 .

(E dm und Spenser, . 1552 1599)


, .
, , , 1569 ,
(Pem broke Hall College)
-, . . ,

. *
(1576) , - , (
, ), .}
. (E .K irk e ) ( Th
Shepheardes Calendar) ( ) The N o rth countrye where
he ( ) dwelt. , ,
. *
, 1579 ., !
, -|
. 1580 .
- ( ), !
,
1588 , (C ork). ,
(K ilcolm an C astle),
The Faery Queene,
, ,
. 1598 ,
.
, *
. ,
(.
), , ,
, ,
, , .
, ^
, -
1599 ,
12 ()
. (. .),
, (Argument)
; "

98
( Glosses) , .. ,
, (
). ,
,
, ,
XVI .
, .
.: Complete Works of Edmund Spenser / ed, from the original editions
and manuscripts by R. Morris. L.; N.Y., 1904.

M ARCH
/Egloga tertia. Argument

In this/E glogue two shepheards boyes, taking occasion o f the season,


beginne to make purpose o f love, and other plesaunce which to spring time
is most agreeable. The speciall meaning hereof is, to give certaine m arkes
and tokens to kn o w Cupide, the Poets God o f Love. But more particu-
larlye, Ith in k e , in the person o fT h o m a lin is m eant som e secrete freend,
who scorned L ove a nd his knights so long, till at length him selfe w as
entangled, and unwares w ounded with the dart o f some beautifulI regard,
which is Cupldes arrow,

W illye. Thom alin


Wil. T h o m a lin , w hy sy tten we soe,
As w eren o v erw en t w ith w oe,
U p o n so fayre a m orow ?
T he jo y o u s tim e now nighes fast,
T h a t shall alegge th is b itte r blast,
And slake th e w in ters sorow e.
Tho. S ick er, W illye, th o u w arnest w ell;
F o r W in ters w rath b eg in n es to q u ell,
A nd p le a sa n t spring ap p e a re th :
T h e grasse now e gin n es to be refresh!,
T h e Sw allow p eep es o u t o f h er nest,
A nd clo w die W elkin c lca reth .
Wit. Seest n o t thiik.e sam e H a w th o rn e stu d d e ,
H ow bragly it beg in n es to bu d d e,
A nd u tte r his te n d e r h ead?
F lo ra now c a lie th fo rth ech e flow er,
A nd b id s m ake read ie M aias bow re,
T h a t new e is u p ry st from bedde:
T h o shall wc sp o rte n in d elig h t.
A nd lea m e w ith L ettice to wexe light,

99
T h a t sco rn efu lly lookes a sk a u n ce;
T h o will we little Love aw ake.
T h a t n o w e sle e p e th in L eth e lak e,
A nd pray him le a d e n o u r d au n e e.
Tho. W illye, I w ene th o u bee asse t;
F o r lustie Love still sle e p e th n o t.
B ut is a b ro a d at his gam e.
Wil. H ow k en st th o u th a t he is aw oke?
O r hast thy selfe his slo m b e r b ro k e,
O r m ade previe to th e sam e?
Tho. N o : bu t h ap p e ly I hym spyde,
W h ere in a b ush he did h im h id e,
W ith w inges o f p u rp le a n d blew e;
A nd, w ere n o t th a t m y sh ee p e w ould stray ,
T he p revie m arks I w ould bew ray,
W h ereb y by c h a u n c e I h im knew e.
Wit. T h o m a lin , have n o c a re fo r-th y ;
M y selfe will have a d o u b le eye,
Y like to m y fioeke a n d th in e ;
F o r als at h o m e I have a syre,
A ste p d a m e eke, as w h o tt as fyre,
T h a t dew ly adayes c o u n ts m ine.
Tho. N ay , b u t th y seeing will n o t serve.
M y sh eep e fo r th a t m ay c h a u n c e to sw erve,
A nd fall in to som e m isch iefe;
F o r sith e n s is but th e th ird m orow e
T h a t I c h a u n s t to fall a s ie e p e w ith so ro w e
A nd w aked againe w ith griefe;
T h e w hile th ilk e sam e u n h a p p y e Ewe,
W hose c lo u te d legge h e r h u rt d o th shew e,
F ell h ea d lo n g in to a d ell,
A nd th e re u n jo y n ted b o th h e r bones:
M o u g h t h e r b en e jo y n te d a tto n e s,
She sh o u ld e have n e e d c no m o re spell;
T h e lf was so w a n to n a n d so w ood,
(B u t now I tro w e can b e tte r g o o d ),
She m o u g h t ne gang o n th e g reen e.
W il, Let be, as m ay be, that is past:
T h a t is to co m e, let be fo recast:
N ow tell us w hat th o u h a st seene.
Tho. It was u p o n a h o lid ay ,
W hen sh e p h e a rd e s g ro o m es h an leave to playe,
I c a st to goe a sh o o tin g .
L ong w a n d rin g up a n d d o w n s the lan d ,
W ith bow e a n d bolts in e ith e r h an d ,
F o r b ird s in b u sh es to o tin g
A t len g th w ith in an Yvie to d d e ,
(T h e re sh ro u d e d was th e little G o d ),
I h eard a busie bustling,
I b e n t m y b o lt ag ain st th e bush,
L isten in g if an y th in g did ru sh e ,
But th e n h ea rd no m o re rustling:
T h o , p eep in g close in to th e th ick e,
M ig h t see th e m oving o f som e q u ick e,
W hose sh ap e a p p e a re d n o t;
B ut w ere it faerie, feen d , o r sn ak e,
M y co u rag e e a rn d it to aw ake,
A nd m an fu lly th e re a t sh o tte .
W ith th a t sp ro n g fo rth a n ak e d sw ayne
W ith sp o tte d w inges, like P eaco ck s tra y n e ,
A n d lau g h in g lope to a tree ;
H is g y ld en qu iv er a t his b ae k e,
A nd silver bow e, w h ich was b u t slacke,
W h ich lightly he b e n t at m e:
T h a t seeing, I levelde againe
A nd s h o tt at h im w ith m ig h t a n d m ain e,
As th ic k e as it h ad hayled.
So long I s h o tt, th a t al was sp en t;
T h o p u m ie sto n es F h a stly h e n t
A nd threw e; b u t n o u g h t availed:
H e was so w im ble a n d so w ight,
F ro m b o u g h to b o u g h he lep p ed light,
A nd oft th e p u m ie s la tc h e d .
T h e re w ith a ffra y d , I ra n n e away:
B ut he, th a t e a rst see m d b u t to playe,
A sh aft in e a rn e st sn a tc h e d ,
A nd h it m e ru n n in g in th e heelc:
F o r th e n X little sm a rt did feele,
B ut so o n e it sore en c re a se d ;
A n d now it ranekleth more a n d m o re ,
A n d in w ardly it fe streth sore,
N e w ote I how to cease it.
Wil. T h o m a lin , I p ittie th y p lig h t,
P erd ie w ith Love th o u d id d c st fight:
i know h im by a to k en ;
F o r o n ce I h ea rd m y la th e r say,
H ow he him ca u g h t u p o n a day
(W h e re o f he wil be w ro k e n ),
E n ta n g le d in a fow ling n e t,
W h ich h e fo r c a rrio n C row es had set
T h a t in o u r P e e re -tre e h a u n te d :
T h o sayd, he was a w inged lad,
B ut bow e a n d sh afts as th e n n o n e h ad ,
Els h ad he sore be d a u n te d .
But see, th e W elkin th ic k s ap ace,
A nd sto u p in g P h e b u s steep c s his face:
Yts tim e to h ast us h o m ew ard .
Willyes Embleme.
To be w ise , a n d eke to love,
Is g raunted scarce to Gods above,
Thomalins Embleme.
O f H ony a n d o f Gaule in love there is store;
The H onye is m uch, but the Gaule is more.

G L O SSE

T his Aiglogue seem eth som ew hat to resem ble th at sam e o f T h eo c ri


tus, w herein the boy likewise telling the old m an, th at he had shot at a
winged boy in a tree, was by hym w arned to beware o f mischiefe to com e.
O verw ent, overgone.
Alegge, to lessen o r asswage.
To quell, to abate.
W elkin, th e skie.
The sw a llo w , w hich bird uselh to be co u n te d the m essenger, and
as it w ere, the fo reru n n er, o f springe.
Flora, the G oddesse o f flow res, but indede (as saith T ac itu s) a fa
m ous h arlo t, w hich, w ith th e abuse o f h er body having gotten great
riches, m ade the people o f R om e h er heyre: w ho, in re m em b rau n ce
o f so great b en eficen ce, ap p o in ted a yearely feste for the m em orial! o f
h er, calling her, no t as she was, n o r as som e doe th in k , Andronica, but
Flora; m aking h er th e G oddesse o f floures, and do in g yerely to her
solem ne sacrifice,
M aias bow er, th a t is, the pleasaunt field, o r ra th e r th e M aye b u sh
es. M aia is a G o d d esse, a n d the m o th e r o f M ereu rie, in h o n o u r o f
w hom e th e m oiteth o f M aye is o f h er nam e so called, as sayth M acro-
bius.
L e itk e , I lie nam e o f som e c o u n try lasse.

102

Ascaunce, askewe, o r asquint.
For-thy, th erefo re.
Lethe, is a lake in hell, w hich the Poctes call the lake o f forgetfulnes.
fo r Lethe signifieth forgetfulnes, W herein the soules being d ip p ed did
forget th e cares o f th e ir form er lyfe. So th a t by love sleeping in Lethe
lake, he m ean eth he was alm ost fo rg o tten , an d o u t o f know ledge, by
reason o f w inters hard nesse, w hen all pleasures, as it w ere, sleepe and
weare oute o f m inde.
Assotte, to dote.
His slom ber, T o breakc Loves slom ber is to exercise the delightes
of Love, an d w an to n pleasures.
IVinges o f purple, so is he feyned o f th e Poetes.
For a h , he im itate th Virgils verse.
Est m ihi n am q u e dom i p ater, est injusta noverca, & c .*
A d ell, a hole in th e ground.
Spell, is a kinde o f verse o r ch arm e, th at in eld er tym es th e y used
often to say over every th in g th a t they w ould have preserved, as the
N ightspel for theeves, and the w oodspell. A nd h ereh en ce, I th in k e, is
named the gospel, as it were G ods spell, or worde. And so sayth C haucer,
L isteneth L ordings to m y spell.
Gang, goe.
An Yvie todde, a th icke bush.
S w aine, a boye: F o r so is he described o f th e Poetes to be a boye, s. 1
alwayes freshe and lustie: blindfolded, because lie m aketh no difference
of personages: wyth divers coloured winges, s. ful o f flying fancies: w ith
bowe and arrow , th at is, w ith glauncc o f beautye, w hich prycketh as a
forked arrow e. He is sayd also to have shafts, som e leaden, som e go ld
en: th at is, bo th pleasure for the gracious and loved, and sorow for the
lover that is disdayned or forsaken. But who liste m ore at large to b e
hold C upids colours and furniture, let him reade eth er P ropertius, o r
M oschus his Idyllion o f w inged love, being now m ost excellently tra n s
lated into Latine, by the singuler learned m an Angelus Politianus: whych
worke 1 have seene, am ongst o th er o f thys Poets doings, very wel tntus-
lated also into Englishe Rymes.
Wimble a n d wighte, Q uicke an d deliver.
In the heele, is very poetically spoken, and not w ithout speciall judge
ment. F o r I rem em ber that in H om er it is sayd o f T hetis, that shce tooke
her young babe A chilles, being new ely bo rn e, and, holding him by the
heele, dipped him in th e R iver o f Styx. T he vertue w h e reo f is, to d e
fend and keepe th e bodyes w ashed th e re in from any m ortall w ound.
So A chilles being w ashed al over, save onely his hele, by w hich his
mother h eld, was in th e rest invulnerable: th erfo re by Paris was feyned
* For Iha re is a fath er at m y homer, there is an unjust step-mother.

103
to bee sh otte w ith a poysoned arrow e in th e heele, w hiles he was busie
about (he m arying o f Polyxena in the T em ple o f A pollo: w hich m ysti-
call fable E u stath iu s unfolding sayth: th at by w ounding in the helc is
m eant lustfull love. F or from the heele (as say the best P hisitions) to
the prcvie partes th ere passe c e rtain e veines an d slen d er synew es, as
also the like com e from the head, and are carryed lyke little pypes be-
h y n d th e eares: so th a t (as sayth H ip o crates) y f those veynes th ere be
cut asonder, the partie straighte becom m eth cold and unfruiteful. W hich
reason o u r P octe wel w eighing, m aketh this sh ep h eard s boye o f p u r
pose to be w ounded by Love in the heele.
Latched, caught.
Wroken, revenged.
For once: In this tale is sette out the sim plicitye o f shepheards opinion
o f Love.
Stouping Phoebus, is a Periphrasis o f the sunne setting.

1 . scilicet .
30


. 1600 .

(1564 1616) - -
. , -
, 1568 . (
, )
. ,
,
(gram m ar school). 80- .
. 22
( )
. 80-
90- . ,
, 1584 .
, ( 1603 .
Lord C h am b erlain s m en, K ing's
men). 1599 . ,
, (the G lobe
Theatre) .
,
, , ,
, , , //,

,
(The Chundos Por
trait),

105

I -

Tragicall Hiftorie of
HAMLET
T r i m e f'D cm irk ^
By William ShAeJpaM.

Aj !(fviihbne dhmft afledby Hlghntfll fa


laiminiheCiiticofLondon : nlfo!mhetw<3V
niuni'iucs DfCimbridgesnd OjJbnJjnddtwhtf

fa londonpriflltJft! N L. endlohnTfuniieU,
463.

I I I , IV, , '
.
. 1597 .
(N ew Place) ; 1612 . ,
- ,
, 1616 . 23
(23 ).
, .
(M eres)
(1598). 160.3 . 1604 .
,
,
.
in quarto ;
, ,
,
.
in folio, ,
,
.
, , u, v
i, j, ,

106

s.
.: Parallel Texts of the First and Second Quartos and the First Folio / ed. by
W. Victor. Marburg, 1891; The Three-Text Hamlet: Parallel Texts of the First &
Second Quartos and First Folio / ed. by P. Bertram, B, W. Kliman. N.Y., 1991.

F R O M ACT II I , SC E N E II. T H E PER FO R M A N C E

(1. Q. [= T h e First Q u arto , 1603])


Enter in a Dumbe S h ew , the King and the Queene, he sits dow ne in
an Arbor, she teaues hint: Then enters Lucianus w ith poyson in a ViaII,
and pow res it in Itis eares, a n d goes a w a y ; Then the Queene commeth
a n d fln d es him dead: an d goes a w a y w ith the other.
O f el. W hat m ean es this my Lord? E nter the Prologue.
Ham. T h is is m yching M allico, th at m eanes my chiefe.
Ofel. W hat d o th th is m eane m y lord?

(2. Q. [=The Sccond Quano, 16041)


The1 Trumpets sounds'. D um be1 show fo llo w esh E nter a King and a
Queene3, the Queene em bracing him, a n d A he her*, he takes her vp, a n d
declines his h ea d upon her , <he> lyes him dow ne vpon a bancke
o f flow ers, she seeing him asleepe, leaues him: anon come5 in an other
man5, takes o ff his crowne, kisses it, pours6poyson in the sleepers1 eares,
and leauess him s: the Queene returnes, fin d s the King dead, makes'* p a s
sionate action, the poysnerV) with som e three1! orfoure com e11 in againe,
s e m e 11 to c o n d o k n w ith her, the dead body is carried a w a y, the poysn-
eria w ooes the Queene w ith gifts, shee seemes harsh14 aw hile, but in the
end accepts loue,15
Qph.u W h a t 1m eanes th is m y Lord?
Ham. M arry th is 17 m u n ch in g M allico, i t 17 m eanes m isch iefe18.
Oph. B elike this sh o w 19 im p o rts th e argum ent o f the play.

(Fol. [= The First Folio, 1623])


. ., 2. Q., Fol.
1. Hoboyes play 2. The dumbe shew enters. 3. Queene, very louingly
4. She kneeles, and makes shew o f Protestation vnto him. 5. comes in a
Fellow 6. powres 7. Kings 8. Exits 9. and makes 10. poysoner
. two or three Mutes comes 12. seeming 13, lament 14. loath and
Vnwilling 15, Exeunt, 16. Qphe, W hat 17, this is M iehing Malicho,
that = 18, Mischeefe 19, shew

107
(I. Q.)
Ham. Y ou shall heare an o n e, this fellow will tell you all.
Ofel, Will he tell vs w hat this shew m eanes?
Ham. I, o r any shew y o u le shew him ,
Be no t afeard to shew , h e e le not be afeard to tell:
these P layers ca n n o t keepe co u n sell, th e ile tell all.
Prol. F o r vs, a n d for o u r T ragedie,
H eere stow pnig to your clem en cie,
We begge your hearing patiently.
Ham. I st a prologue, or a poesie for a ring?
Ofel. T is short my Lord.
H am . As w om ens loue.

E nter the Duke and Dutch esse.

D uke F ull fortie yeares are past, th e ir date is gone,

(2. Q.)

Ilam . We shall know by th is20 fellow 20, <E nter Prologue.>


T he Players ca n n o t k eepe21, th e y le tell all.
Oph. W ill a 22 tell vs w hat this sh o w 19 m eant?
Ham. I, o r any show 33 th at you will show 23 him , b e 24 not
you a sh a m d to sh o w , 14 h ee le25 n o t sham e to tell
you w hat it m eanes.
Oph. Y ou are nau g h t, you are nau g h t, lie m ark the play.
Prologue113For vs a n d for o u r T ragedie,
H ccrc stooping to your clem en cie,
W e begge your hearing patiently.
Ham. Is this a P rologue, o r the po sie27 o f a ring?
Oph. T is28 b reefe28 my L ord.
H am. As w om ans loue.

E nter King and29 Queene.

King. F ull th irtie tim es h a th Phel>usi0 cart g o n e 31 round

(Fol.) 20. these Fellowes 21. keepe counsel! = 22. they 23. shew that
youl shew 24. bee 25. heel 26, Enter Prologue, 27. Poesic 28. T is
briefe 29. and his 30. Phoebus 31. gon

108
(i.Q.)
Since happy tim e io y n d b o th o u r h earts as one:
A nd now the blood th a t filld m y youthfull veines,
R u u n es w eakely in th e ir pipes, an d all th e straines
O f m usicke, w hich w hilom e pleasde m ine eare,
Is now a b u rth e n th at Age c a n n o t beare:
A nd th erefo re sweete N a tu re m ust pay his due,
T o h eau en m ust I, an d leaue the earth w ith you.
Dulchesse say no t so, lest th at you kill m y h eart,
W hen d eath takes you, let life from m e depart.
Duke C o n te n t th y selfe, w hen en d ed is my date,________

(2. Q.)

Neptunes salt wash, an d Tellus o rb d 32 < th e> g round,


A nd th irtie d o sen 33 M o o n es w ith borrow ed sheene
A bout the w orld haue tim es tw elue th irtie s becne
Since loue o u r harts, an d Hymen did o u r hands
V nite co m u tu all in m ost sacred bands.
Quee.34 So m any iourneyes35 m ay th e S unne an d M oone
M ake vs againe co u n t o re 36 ere loue be d o o n e ,37
But w oe is m e, you are < ,> so sicke o f late,
So farre from ch e ere , a n d from o u r38 fo rm er38 state,
T h at I distrust y o u ,39 yet th o u g h I distrust,
D isco m fort you my40 L ord40 it n o th in g m ust.
< F o r w om en feare to o m u ch , euen as they loue,>
A n d 41 w om ens feare and loue h o ld 42 q u an titie ,
< E y th er n o n e,> in n e ith e r ought, o r in extrem itie.
N ow w hat my L ord43 is43 proofe h a th m ade you know ,
A nd as m y loue is c iz d 44, m y feare is so,
<W here loue is great, the litlest d oubts are fe a re ,>
<W here little feares grow great, great loue growes th e re .>
King F aith 1 m ust leaue thee loue, an d sh o rtly to 45,
My o p eran t pow ers th e ir46 fu n ctio n s leaue to do
A nd th o u shalt Hue in this faire w orld b e h in d 47,

(Fol,) 32. orbed 33. dozen 34. Bap. 35. iournies 36. orc,
37. done, 38. your forme 39. you: 40. (my Lord) 41. For 42. holds
43. loue is, 44. sizd 45. too 46. my 47. behinde
(l. Q.)
T h o u m aist (p e rc h a n c e ) haue a m ore noble m ate,
M ore wise, m ore y o u th fu ll, and one.
Dulchesse speake no m ore, for th e n I am accurst,
N o n e weds th e seco n d , b u t she kils the first:
A second tim e I kill my L ord th a ts dead,
W hen second h u sb an d kisses m e in bed.
Ham. w orm ew ood, w orm ew ood!
Duke I doe belecue you sw eete, w hat now you speake,
__________ But w hat we doe d eterm in e oft we breake,__________

(2.Q.)

H o n o rd 48, b e lo u d, a n d haply o n e as k in d 49,


F o r husband shalt th o u .50
Quee.S[ O 51 co n fo u n d the rest,
Such loue m ust needes be trea so n in my b rest,
In second husb an d let m e be accu rst,
N one wed the seco n d , bu t w ho kild 52 the first.
(S3)
T h e 54 in stances th at second m arriage m oue
Are base respects o f th rift, but no n e o f loue,
A second tim e I kill m y husb an d dead,
W hen sec o n d h u sb an d kisses me in bed.
King I d o e55 belieue you th in k e 55 w hat now you sp ea k e,56
But w hat we d o e 57 d eterm in e , oft we breake,
Purpose is bu t the slaue to m em o rie,
O f violent b irth , but poore validitie,
W hich now th e 5*1 fruite vnripe stick s59 o n the tree,
But fall v n shakcn w hen they m ellow bee.
M ost necessary tis60 th at we forget
T o pay o u r selues w hat to o u r selues is debt,
W hat to o u r selucs in p assion we p ropose,
T he passion en d in g , d o th the purpose lose,
T he violence o f e y th e r61, griefe61, o r ioy.

(Fol.) 48. H onourd 49. kinde 50. tliou 51, Bap. Oh 52. killd
53. Ham. W ormwood, wormwood. 54. Bapt, The 55. do beleeue you.
Think. *- 56. speak: 57. do 58. like 59. stickes 60. 'tis 61. other Greefe

110
(l.Q.)
F o r o u r dem ises stil are o u erthrow ne,
O ur th o u g h ts are ours, th e ir e n d s none o f o u r owne:
So th in k c you will no seco n d husband w ed,
But die thy th o u g h ts, w hen thy first Lord is dead.
Dulchcsse Both here an d th ere pursue m e lasting strife,
If o n ce a w iddow , eu er I be wife._____________

(2.Q.)

T h e ir ow ne e n n a ctu res62 w ith them selues destroy,


W here ioy m ost reuels, griefe63 d o th m ost lam en t,
G reefe ioyM, ioy griefes65, on slen d er a c c e d e n t66,
T his w orld is no t for aye, n o r tis60 no t strange,
T h at euen o u r loues should w ith o u r fortunes changc:
F o r tis60 a question left vs yet to proue,
W h e th e r loue lead fo rtu n e, o r els67 fo rtu n e loue.
T he great m an dow ne, you inarke his fa u o u rite 68 flyes,68
T he poore a d u a u n c d 69, m akes friends o f enem ies,
A nd h e th e rto 70 d o th loue o n fortune ten d ,
F o r w ho n o t needes, shall n eu er lacke a frien d 71,
A nd w ho in w ant a hollow friend do th try,
D irectly seasons him his en em y 72.
But o rd erly to e n d w here 1 b eg u n n e73,
O u r w ills7'1 and fates doe so co n tra ry ru n n e 75,
T h at o u r d euises76 still arc o u erth ro w n e,
O ur th o u g h ts are ours, th e ir ends no n e o f o u r ow ne,
So th in k c th o u w ilt no seco n d husband wed,
B ut die th y th o u g h ts w hen thy first L ord is dead.
Quo a.11 N o r ea rth to m e78 giue fo o d e78, n o r h ea u en light,
Sport and repose lock79 from m e day a n d night.
T o d esp eratio n tu rn c my trust and hope,
A nd A n ch ors ch eere in prison be m y scope,
E ach o p posite th a t b lan ck s80 the face o f ioy,
M ee tesl w hat I w ould haue w ell, a n d it destroy,

(Fol.) 62, ennactors 63. Grecfe 64. ioyes - 65. greeues 66. acci
dent 67, else 68. fauourites flics, 69. aduaned 70. hitherto
71. Frend 72. Enemie 73. begun 74. Willcs 75. run 76. Deuices
77. Bap. 78. giue me food 79. loeke 80. blankes >81. Meet
( l.Q .)
Ham. If she should breake now.
Duke T is d eepely sw orne, sw eete leaue me here a w hile,
M y spirites grow e dull, an d fainc I w ould beguile the
tedious tim e w ith slecpe.
Dutchesse Sleepe rocke thy braine,
And neuer com e m ischance betw eene vs twaine, exit Lady.
Ham. M adam , how do you like this play?
Queene T he Lady protests to o m uch.
Ham. but sh e e le keep h er word.
King H aue you heard the arg u m en t, is th ere no offence in it?
Ham. N o offence in the w orld, poyson in iest, poyson in iest.
King W hat do you call the nam e o f the phy?________________

( 2.Q.)

Both heere an d hence pursue m e lasting strife,


If o nce <1 be> a w iddow , eu er I be a wife.
Ham. If she sh o u ld breake it now.
King T is82 d eep ly 82 sw o rn e83, sw eet leaue me h e re 84 a w hile,
My spirits grow dull, a n d faine I w ould beguile
T he tedious day w ith sleepe,
Q u ee,^ Sleepe ro ck 86 th y b rain e, (87)
And neu er com e m ischance betw eene vs twaine. Exeunt*.
Ham, M adam , how like you this play?
Quee,ss T h e Lady d o th 89 p ro test to o m u ch m ee th in k s ,89
Ham. O 90 but s h e e le90 keepe h e r w ord.
King H aue you heard the arg u m en t? is there no offence in t?
Ham. N o, no, they do but iest, poyson in iest, no offence
i th 91 world.

King W hat d o e 92 you call the play?

(Fol.) 82. Tis deepely 83. sworne, Sweet, 84. hccre 85. Qu.
89. rockc 87. Sieepes. 88. <(7 89. protests to much me thinkcs 90. Oh
but sheel 91. ith 92. do

I 12
(l. Q )
. M o u se-trap : rnary how irapically: this play is
T he im age o f a m u rd er d o n e in guyana, Aibertus
Was th e D ukes nam e, his wife Baptista;
F ath er, it is a knauish peece a w orke: but what
A th a t, it to u c h e th no t vs, you an d I th at haue free
Soules, let the galld iade w ince, this is one
L ucianus nephew to th e King.

Murd. T h o u g h ts blacke, hands apt, drugs fit, and tim e agreeing,


C o n fed erate season, else no creatu re seeing:
T h o u m ixture rancke, o f m idnight w eedes collected,
W ith Hecates bane thrise blasted, trise infected,
T h y natural! m agicke, and dire p ro p ertie,
O ne w holesom e life vsurps im m ediately, exit.__________

(2. Q.)

Ham. T he M o u setra p 93, m ary how 94 tropically, this play is the


Im age o f a m u rth er d o o n e 95 in Vienna, Gonzago is the
D ukes n am e, his wife Baptista, you shall see an o n , tis96 a
knauish pcece o f worke, but w hat of97 that? your M aiestie
a n d wee th a t haue free soules, it to u ch es vs not, let th e
gauled98 iade w inch, our w ithers are vnw rong". This is one
Lucianus, N ephew to the King.

< E nter Lucianus. >

Luc. 100 T h o u g h ts b la c k 101, hands ap t, || drugges fit, an d tim e


ag re e in g ,
C o n sid e ra t102 season e ls 103 no creatu re seeing,
T h o u m ixture ra n ck e104, o f m idnight w ecdes105 collected,
W i t h H ecats b an th rice blasted, thrice in u e c te d 1116,
T h y natural! m agicke, a n d dire p ro p e rty 107,
O n w holsom e life vsurps108 im m cdiatly. ( l09)

(Fo!,) 93. M ouse-trap: 94. how? 95. done 96. tis 97. o *
98. galled 99. viiwrong. Enter Lucianus. 100. Lucian. 101. blacke
102. Confederate 103. , else, 104. rankc 105. Weeds 106. infected
107. propertie 108., vsurpe - -109. Powres the poyson in his eares.
(L Q )
Ham. H e poysons him for his estate,
King Lights, I will to bed.
Cor, T hek in g rises, lights h o e.

E xeunt King a n d L ordes.

Ham. W hat, frig h ted w ith false fires?


T hen let the strick en d eere goe w eepe,
T he H art vngalled play,
F o r som e m ust laugh, w hile som e m ust w eepe,
T hus ru n n es the w orld away.
Hor.-

(2, Q.)

H am . A 110 poysons him i'th G a rd e n fo r111 h is 111 estate, his


n a m e s112 Gonzago, the story is ex tan t, an d w ritte n 113 in
very choice Italian, you shall see anon how the m urthe
gets the loue o f Gonzagoesm wife.
Oph.m T h e K ing rises, ( u6)
Q uee.u l H ow fares m y Lord?
Pol. G iu e o re 118 the play.
King. G iu e m e som e light, away,
P ol.119 Lights, lights, lights, E xeu n tm all but H a m .m &
Horatio.
Ham , W hy let th e stro o k e n 121 D eere g o e122 w eepe,
T he H art v n g au led 123 play,
F o r som e m ust w atch w hile som e m ust sleepe,
T h u s124 runnes th e w orld away.

(Fol.) 110. He 111. for's 112. nam es 113. writ 114. Gonzagos
115. Ophe. 116. Ham. What, frighted with false fire. 117. Qu, 118. o re
119. Ail. 120. Manet Hamlet 121. strucken 122. go 123. vngalled ="
124. So
31


1616 .

. 30. ( ,
, < >,
.)

Vicesim o q u in to die < Jan u arii> M artii, anno regni dom ini nostri
Jacobi, nunc regis Angliae, <fcc, decim o quarto, et S c o tia xlix% annoque
D om ini 1616*.
T. W m i. Shackspeare,
In th e nam e o f G od, amen! I W illiam Shackspeare, o f Stratford upon
Avon in the co u n tie o f W arr.1, g en t.2, in perfect h ealth an d m em orie,
God be praysed, doe m ake a n d ordayne this m y last will and testam ent
in m anner and forme fo llo w in g , th at ys to saye, ffirst, I com end my soule
into th e handes o f G o d m y C reator, hoping an d assuredlie beleeving,
through th o n d ie m e rites o f Jesus C hriste m y Saviour, to be m ade p a r
taker o f lyfe everlastings, and my bodye to the earth w hereof yt ys m ade.
Item, I gyve an d beq u eath u n to my <sonne and> daughter Ju d y th one
hundred an d fyftie p oundes o f lawfull English m oney, to be paied unto
her in m anner and form e foloweing, that ys to saye, one hundred poundes
in discharge o f her marriage portion w ithin one yeare after m y deceas,
with c o n sid e ra tio n after the rate o f Lwoe shillinges in th e p o u n d for soe
long tym e as th e sam e shalbe u n paied un to her after m y deceas, and the
fyftie poundes residewe thereof upon her surrendring of, or gyving o f such
sufficient seeuritie as the overseers o f this m y will shall like of, to sur
render or graunte all h er estate and right th at shall disccnd o r com e unto
her after m y deceas, o r that shee now e hath, of, in, o r to, one copiehold
tenement, w ith th ap p u rten au n ces, lyeing and being in S tratford upon
Avon aforesaied in th e saied countye o f W arr., being parcell o r holden
of the num nour o f R ow ington, unlo my daughter Susanna3 H all and her
heires for ever. Item , I gyve an d b eq u e ath un to m y saicd daughter J u
dith one h u n d red and fyftie poundes m ore, if shee or ante issue o f her
bodie be lyvinge att th en d o f th ree yeares next ensueing the daie o f the
date o f this m y will, during w hich tym e m y executours are lo pale her

* On the 25th day o f (January) March, in ihc yea r o f the raisn o f our lord James, now
f England, etc., 14, and iri that o f Scotland 49, and A. D. 1616.

115
co n sid e ra c io n from m y deceas according to the rate aforesaied; and if
she dye w ith in the saied tearm e w ithout issue o f h er bodye, then my win
ys, and I doe gyve a n d b equeath one hu n d red poundes th e re o f to my
neece E lizab eth H all, an d the fiftie poundes to be sett fourth by m y ex.
ecutours during the lief of m y sister Johane H arte, and the use and proffitt
th e re o f co m in g s shalbe payed to m y saied sister jo n e , and after h er de.
ceas th e said l . ,Mshall rem aine am ongst the children o f m y saied sister,
eq u allie to be devided am ongst them ; but if m y saied daughter Judith
be lyving att th en d o f the saied three yeares, or anie yssue o f h er bodye,
th e n m y will ys an d soe I devise an d bequeath the saied hu n d red and
fyftie p o u n d e s to be sett out by m y executours and overseers for the best
b en efitt o f h er and h er issue, and the stock not to be paied un to her soe
long as she shalbe m arryed and covert b aro n <by m e executours and
overseers> ; b u t m y will ys, th at she shall have the co n sid eracio n yeare-
lie p aied u n to h er during her lief, and, after her deceas, the saied stockc
an d co n sid eracio n to bee paied to her children, if she have anie, and if
n o t, to h e r executours o r assignes, she lyving the saied term e after my
deceas, Provided that yf suche husbond as she shall att thend o f the saied
three yeares be m arryed unto, or att anie after (sic), doe sufficientlie assure
u n to h e r a n d thissue o f h er bodie landes aw nsw ereable to the p a rd o n
by this m y will gyven unto her, and to be adjudged soe by m y execut
ours a n d overseers, th e n my will ys, th at the saied cl." shalbe paied to
such h u sb o n d as shall m ake such assurance, to his owne use. Item , I gyve
an d b eq u eath unto my saied sister Jone xx."and all my wearing apparrell,
to be p a ie d a n d delivered w ithin one yeare after m y deceas; a n d I doe
will a n d devise un to h er the house with th ap p u rten au n ces in Stratford,
w herein she dw elleth, for her naturall lief, u n d er the yearlie rent o fx ij/ 5
Item , I gyve an d bequeath unto her three sonnes, W illiam I-Iarte, Hart,
and M ich aell H arte, fyve poundes a peece, to be paied w ithin one yeare
after m y dcccas < to be sett out for h er w ithin one yeare after my deceaS
by m y ex ecu to urs, w ith thadvisc and direccions o f my overseers, for her
best profitt, untill her m anage, and then the same with the increase thereof
to be p aied u n to h er> . Item , I gyve an d bequeath u n to < her> the saied
Elizabeth H a ll all m y plate, except m y brod silver and gilt bole, th at I now
have att th e date o f this my will. Item , I gyve and bequeath unto the poore
o f S tratfo rd aforesaied te n n poundes; to M r T hom as C om be my s w o r d ;
to T h o m as Russell esquier fyve poundes; and to F rauncis C ollins, o f the
b orough o f W arr. in th e countie o f W arr. gentlem an, thirtccne poundes,
sixe shillinges, and eight pence, to be paied w ithin one yeare a lie r m
deceas. Item , I gyve and bequeath to <M r Richard Tyler thelder> Ilamlcti
Sadler x x \j.s 6 v i i j / t o buy him a ringe; to William Raynaldes, gent, x x v j'i
v l l j / to buy him a ringe; to m y godson W illiam W alker xx.s in gold; to
A n th o n y e N ashe gent, x x v j/v iij/; and to M r John N ashe xxvj.Jviij.rf<in

1 16
g0ld>; and to myfeHotues John Hemynges1, Richard Burbages, and H en
ry CundetP xxvj,5 viij.d a peece lo buy them ringes. Item , J gyve will, b e
queath, and devise, u nto my daughter Susanna H all, fo r better enabling
of her to performe this m y wilt, and towardes the performans thereof, all
that capitall messuage o rte n e m e n te with thappurtenaunces, in Stratford
aforesaid, called th e New Place, w herein 1 now e dwell, an d two m es
suages or ten em en tes with th ap p u rten au n ces, scituat, lyeing, an d being
in Henley streete, w ithin the borough o f Stratford aforesaied; and all my
barnes, stables, orchardes, gardens, landes, tcnem entes, and heredita-
m cntes w hatsoever, scituat, lyeing, an d being, o r to be had, receyved,
perceyved, or tak en , w ithin the tow nes, ham letes, villages, fieldes, and
groundes, o f S tratford upon Avon, O ldstratford, B ushopton, and W el-
combe, or in anie o f th em in the said countie o f W arr. And alsoe all that
messuage or ten em en te with thappurtenaunces, w herein one John R ob
inson dw elleth, scituat, lyeng, and being, in the Blackfriers9 in L ondon,
nere th e W ardrobe; and all o th er my landes, tenem entes, and heredita-
mentes w hatsoever, to have and to hold all and singuler the saied p rem
isses, with theire ap p u rten aunces, unto the saied Susanna Hall, for and
during the terrne o f her naturall lief, and after her deceas, to the first
soilne o f her bodie lawfullic yssueing, and to the heires males o f the bodie
of the saied first sonne lawfullie yssueinge; and for defalt o f such issue,
to the second sonne o f her bodie lawfullie issueinge, and to the heires
males o f th e bodie o f th e saied second sonne lawfullie yssueinge; and
for defalt o f such heires, to the th ird sonne o f the bodie o f the saied S u
sanna lawfullie yssueing, and o f the heires males o f the bodie o f the saied
third sonne lawfullie yssueing; and for defalt o f such issue, the sam e soe
to be and rcm aine to the ffourth < sonne> , ffyfth, sixte, and seaventh
sonnes o f her bodie lawfullie issueing, one after another, and to the heires
males o f the bodies o f the saied fourth, fifth, sixte, and seaventh sonnes
lawfullie yssueing, in such m an n er as yt ys before lym itted to be and
rem aine to th e first, second, an d third sonns o f h er bodie, and to theire
hcires m ales; and for defalt o f such issue, the saied prem isses to be and
rem aine to m y sayed neece H all, and the hcires m ales o f h er bodie law
fullie yssueing; an d for defalt o f such issue, to my daughter Judith, and
the heires m ales o f her b o die lawfullie issueinge; an d for defalt o f such
issue, to the right heires o f me the saied W illiam S hackspeare for ever.
Item, I gyve unto my w ief my second best bed with the furniture. Item , I gyve
and beq u eath to m y saied daughter Judith my broad silver gilt bole. All
the rest o f my goodes, ch attel, leases, plate, jewels, and household stiiffe
whatsoever, after my dettes and legasies paied, and my funerall expenccs
dischardged, I give, devise, and bequeath to my sonne in lawe, John Hall
gent., a n d m y d au g h ter S u san n a, his wief, w hom I ordaine and m ake
executours o f this m y last will an d testam ent. A nd I doc intreat and

117
point the saied T hom as Russell esquier and Frauncis C ollins gent, to b
overseers hereof, an d doe revoke all form er wills, and pnblishe this t0
be my last will and testam ent. In w itness w hereof I have hereunto
my <seale> hand, the daie an d yeare first abovew ritten.
By m e William Shakspeare
W imes to the publyshing hereof ( )

1. Warwick; . a. ('wDrik]. 2. gent.(lem an). 3.


, . 1583 . 4. 11- . libra . librae , ; . :
. 5. d = . denarius, . |rii, , . 6. s- (); . ,
scilliiV5 . 7. (Hcminge, Condell) ,
, (1623). 8. . -
(Burbage), .
9. Blackfriars ( ), . .


, ,
,
( -. = -
; . 2 = 2~ . .).

,

.
, .

. : flsc-
. .
. . . .
., . fisc . flssh
. (.) fisce . fisshe)
. fisces . fisslios
. . . .
., . fiscas . fisshes
. (.) fiscum (4/. llsshen)
. fisca . (fisshene) fisshes
: 1. , .
-el, -ol, -, -er, -or . ., , -el, -ol, -en, -, -or ..

119
, ; fujol
. . 1, . rifles ..
2. , -h,
-h , -h
seolh . . scale, . seoles . .

.
. : scip-
. . . .
., . scip scipu, |
. (.) scipe scipum
. scipes scipa
. : sceap-
. . . .
., . sceap sceap
. (.) sceapuni
. seeapes sceapa
. heafod ( +
!! ) selp: ., . . Iieafodu.
, waeler ( + ),
., . .: waster ( sceap).

-jo

.
. ,
: bridd-
. . . .
.,. I>ri<l |d(l briddas
. (.) bridde briddum
. briddes bridda
. : end
. . . .
., . ende end as
. (me.) ende endum
. endes enda
13, , -ri: lieri-
.: ., . here (< heri) ; dm. herie; . heries; ( 3, i3!
i^e i: . . , !
.: ., . h e ria s, , h e ri3as, ). i
( . heres).

120
.
. ,
: bedd-
. . . .
., oil. bed |dd bed |dd
. (me.) bedde beddum
. beddes bedda
. : rend-
. . . .
.,. ffirende aerendu
. (.) rondo xrendum
. aerendes tcrenda

-wo

,
. -wo : l>cow-
.\ ., . |)" ', dm. Jieowe ..
. -wo : bearw-
.: ., . bearu, | ; dm. bearwe ..

.
, ; ., . .
.: treow, ; searu, | , .

.
. : -
. .
. . . .
. 1
. -I L. (.)
. (me.) I J
. . (carc) cares
. . . . -i

., . , | (.) , (caren) cares .


. (.) earum (. caren )
. , | (. .) . (carene) cares . : win-
, : heord . . . .
. wine wine; winas ( . -)
. . . . .) wine wlmim
wines wima, |1; wina
. heard
| heorda, | (.)
. 1 . : dasl-
. (nw.) t heorde . (me.) heordum . ed. dad ; dm. dade . .,
. ) . lieordu, | (. - ,
. 1. . . - . . . * ,
-; . -i *., . .: 31 , ^ , ; ^
-s -. ; na i / .
2. U . - ., .,. . . ., ,
, Seaxna.
.
. pod: dasd-
-ja ( .)
. : - . .
. .
(. . ; . bryeje . .) d a d , . d&dc, |
.
-, , , . - . deed, | .
. (.) dfedum
-ja . . (.) dsede , dicda
.
-wa .
. -
, . ,
. : sceadw-. . . sceadu, |
-jo
; . sceadwe .. { . . - ).
- spere (i-c.) , rende (jo-c.) (. "),
. : m xdw -, stow-. , . .^
, stow ; . m&dwc, stowe . . ( . . - , - ., . .: , .
).
-
-/

. ( , .
): stren3- (< *strangln-; . . s tra 3 ). , : sun-
. . . . . .
. .
steii3u, | .
slrenja, | (.); |, | sunu, |; [ suna; |u, |
. ., .
sumim
8tren3i , ]u, | , (.) s tr a tu m . (.)
iuiia suna
.

1
. stren 3 a
123
122
. : feld-
., . . feld ,
: dm. (m s.), . felda .,
.
(dur- )
(hand- ) ,
,

. : nam - (*/*-)
. .
. . . .
. uSma
. | .
( )
. (.) >
. J . names
. . . .
., . . names
(namen)
. (.)
. ( ) . nam es

. . -8 -.
. : tun3- (*1/*()
. . ; . tun3an .,
.
. : - (*auRon/*augan)
., . . ; . ..
.

. -, iti&nn-
. .
. . . .
., . , |
. man
. (.) , |
. mannes Upum. mannes

124
., .
. (.)
.
. .
men, |nn
inannum
manna
.
.
..

men
m ennes
.
. ; hnut-
. . . .
., . limit hnytc
. (.) hnyte hnutum
. hnute (*||) hnuta
, ; -
. . . .
., . boc
. (.) bocum
. ; boca

-nt

.
. . -ond; freond- .
(. ), -.
. . -end: scyppend- .
-; : ., . , -,
-as, dm. -um, . -.

.
. .
., . facdcr sw eostor
. (.) feeder sw eostor
. faeder, |res sw eostor
. .
.,. facdcr as , | sw eostor
. (me.) faederum sweostrum
. faadera sw eostra
Modor dolitor , .,
,- . -a: m odra, dohtra.

125
-s

.
. . . .
., . Iftmb laiutiru
. (.) lAmbe ldtnbrum
. lainbes lAmbra

se, seo, j)set mom, , mo


>

. .
. . . .
. . . .
. se () 1
. bone (bane, |) the
. |i;cm, bam (ban, ben) . :
. , |>
. |)tES (bes)
. . . .
. p. . p.
. seo (< slo) (beo, |o, |a) (ba, bo)
. 1*5 1) (ba, |o, |e) (ban, bo)
. ( .) |) baem, |iain (pare, pe ) (pan)
. J>asre jiiira, jj| (bare, pe ) (bare, pe|) j
Cp.p. Cp.p.
., . [)2et (bat, pet) . 1
. tw in, | (ban) Ed. that
. |>, l>on (be, ben) . tho, thos
. J)aes (bes) podoi

|)^s, Jicos, |iis , ,

. Ca.
. , . 4.
. .
, p.
. f)cs (pcs, liel, leol)
. jiisne (pisne)
126
. I>lsum, |ss| (J)iS5C)
. b*sse
. J)ises, |ss| <t>isses)

. . . .
. p. . p.

. t>es has (beos, |e|, |a|)


. t>as j>as (bos, |a|) ||, ..
. (me.) |)isse |)isum, |ss| (t>isse) . bisjen
. l>isse tiissa (bisse, -re) . {5is.se, ~(re)

Cp.p. Cp.p.
., . l>is (bis) . j)is, this
. j)isum, |ss| (Jjisren) . thes, |e,
. jiisse |)ise
. Jjiscs, |ss| (t>isjes)


1-
. .
. . , . . . . . . . . .
. ic wit we ich, i wit we
. , unc usic, us .
. unc us unc us
. mln uncer user, tire
2-
. Ca.
. . , . . . . . . .
KJ
. { 3it thow , ye
. 1), |> incit, inc eowic, eow .
. inc eow thee 3ew; yow
. 1) incer Sower
3 -
, .
. Ca.
. . . p.
. he . he, ha
. hine . hinc, him , hym
. him
. his . his

127
. . . .
. heo, hlo , heo, hue, scae^
. hy, hi, hie
. (.) hire, hie|, hy . hire, here
. hire, hie|, hy . . hire, here

Cp.p. Cp.p.

,, . hit . hit, it
. (.) him . hit, it
. his . . his

. .

., . hy, h!s hie, heo . hi, heo, he; they, ^ 3 3


. {me.) him, |eo| , hem, |eo|; {5633111, {ieii
. hyra, hi|, hie|, heo| . , hure, |eo|, here; ]>fa
hwa , hwjet . *
. .
. .

( , ,
.)
.
. : 3te d -

. .
. . . p. Cp.p.
. 3laed , jladu, | Slaed
. 3laedne* 3lade 3iaed
. Sladum* 3lfedre* 3ladum*
. 3Iade glade
. 3lades 3lasdre* 3lades

. h,
, p. , p. C p.p.
., . slade* 3lada, |e 3ladu, |o
---- v ' - - ---- J

. (.) Sladum
. jlaedra*

128
. : god-
. .
. . . . . .
. 3<ld sod god
.
. ,
. . . . . .
., . (1 soda, \ god
,
-. 1, ,
- . . . . , ( -jo )t ? } wilde , . .
. . ., . . . . -, -, ,
, .
2, , ,
, ,



( -);
,
- ( )
- ,- ,
.
- . .
. Ed. glad, good . , glade, gode
. glade, gode . gliide, gode


. .
. 1<!
. slacdra (. .) gladder ( .)
. 3ladost gladdest
(
, 1!!, , leiyest) ,
(3od . bctera, , betest), .

.
. 1&3 - . 1 = . . . .
nearwe

129
, . -lie,
- (freond-ITc
. freond-fice). -ftce
,
,
. =.
Ca.
ca.
. long -------- .
lange -liche, -ly,
bfithe -- blithe :
softe softe softeliehe, softely
especial especialiiche, especially

I,

1. ( ).
2. . . (1- 3- . .).
3. . . ( 2- . . , , .).
4. . 2-.
1
. .
1. writan writen
2. wrat wroot
3. wrilon writen
4. writen writen
2
. Ca.
1. fleyen, fly|
2. , |h neigh, fley
3. flowen
4. (losen flowen
. Ca.
1. ceosan chosen
2. ceas chees
3. chosen
4. coren chosen
0 (,) , :
|| bowen

130
3
. (a) Ca.
I. bindan bynden
2. band bond, |a|
3. bundon bounden
4. bunden bounden
. (6) Ca.
1. helpan lielpcn
2. healp halp
3. hulpon holpen
4. holpen holpen
. () Ca.
1. ceorfan kerven
2. cearf carf
3. curfon corven
4. corfen corvcn

. () Ca.
1. niman iiymen, ne|
2. , nam , nom
3. nomen
4. llOIIIC/f(6= u)
. ( ) Ca.
1. beren
2. bar, beer
3. lcrc/i, ba|
4. bore/;

. (a) Ca.
1. metan m eten
2. maet m at
3. niaston mctcff, ma|
4. meten meten
. (6 ) Ca.
1 cwedan quetlien
2. cwajd quulh, jd
3. cwcdon quethen,
4- cweden quethen,
. .
1. , 3i , yiven, ye|
2. 3eaf
3. even, ya|
4. fen, 3i| yiven

51

. Ca.
1. sittan sitten
2, saet sat, seet
3. ssfeton seten
4. seten seten

. Ca.
1. seacan shaken
2. scoc shook
3, scocon shoken
4, scacen shaken

6J

. Ca.
1. hebban heven
2. hof hoof, Imf
3. hofon . .
4. Iiafen .

. () .
1, hiitan hoten
2. het, heht (.) heel, hight6
3. heton, heht) ( -) heten, hight
4, listen hoten

. () Ca.
1, -allan fallen
2, feol, |U fel, fil
3, feollon fellen, fi|
4. feallen fallen

132

. Ca.
. .
. .
helpan bindan bynde/t

, . , ,
1 . helpe binde bynde
2 . hilpst bintst byndest
3 . hilpS bint byndetli
. helpii5 bindad bynden (. biridej:))
. . . .
. helpe binde bynde
. helpen binden bynde/r
. .
2 . help bind bynd
2 . helpad bindad byndeth, bynde
. 1- . 1-e
lielpende bindende byndynge (jende)
(. bm dinde)
, .
, . , .
1 . Iiealp bftnd bsnd, |a|
2 . liulpe bunde bounde; bond, |a]
3 , healp band bond, |a|
. hulpon bundon bounds;//
. coal. . .
. hulpe bunde bounde
, liulpen bunden boundea
. 2- . 2-e
()-1 (3<*)-bunden (y)-boundt'/i
II.

1
. (, )
. .
. erian
, erede erede

,
. () .
. fedan fedew
, fedde fedde
. () Co.
.
, cepte kepte
. (s) .
. stmdun send
, sende sente
. ,
, , , , j
. frcmman . fmnede, . scttan . sette [.
.Z-e3e-seted je-sett).
-, -, - ( , , .), -, -ende.

, ( ) i
. tellan telle/r
tealde
talde (.) toolde
. () .
. sccan sechew, sek|
. sohie soughte

2
Ca.
. locian, token
locode lokcdl
3
. () .
. habban have, haw
. hsefde havede
hadde
-s () Ca.
. seggen
seyen, say
. sgejde sayde,sey
ssde

. Ca.
. .
. .
locian, |1 loken (, .)

, . , .
led . locie, |i3 loke (|ie, .)
2 ed. cepst locast kepest lokest
3 ed. cip Q locud kepeth loketh
. lociad, 5 1 (|iet>, ,)
(|{, .)

. . . .
Ed. loke (|ie, .)
. Ifike/i (\ie.ti, .)

. .
2 ed. Idea keep, loke
2 mh, lociad, |1 kepeth, loketh, loke
. 1- . 1-
ccpcnde lociende, | 11 kepynge (|end|) lokynge
(|end|)
. .
, . , .
1 ed. cepte lucodc keptc lokedi
2 ed. cCptes(t) locodes(t) kt*ptest lokedest
3 id. cepte locode kepte lokede
. cepton locodon kepten lokeden

135
. . . .
. cepte locode kepte lokcd?
. cepten locnden '/j lokcdcw
. 2- . 2-
(3e)-ceped ( )-1(1 (y)-kpt (y)-loked

III. -

) ; ) 1 - 3- . . .; ) . .
, . 1
. . I . ,
. 2 - J
.
) , ) ah, | )
{alite
j ahton
1

) , ) * )
'

, ,
LciiO
a) durnin ) dear* ) dwrrou
dorste
[ dorston

) ) )
,
2, f m eahte, ||, |i|
3. 1 meahton, ||, |
4.

) * ) mot ) moton
,
2. ( moste
3. | moston
4.

1. a) sculan 6) sceal ) sculon, sceo|


2. scolde, sceo|
3. scoldon, sceo|
4.

136
| . a ) u n n a n ) & )

2.
3. \
4. [ (-)
1. a) witati ) Wilt ) witon
2. wisse, |st|
3. J wisson, |st|
4. [ witen

. Ca.
. .
wesan beon (< blon) been
, . . .
1 ed, eom, am (.) beo (bio), blom (.) (be) am
2 . eart bist, bis (.) (bist) art
3 . is bid (bij)) is
fsint, sindon
(beb) been, ar/i
H J (< btod)
[earon, ar| (.)
Ilacm . . . .
Ed. sy, si, (< sle) beo (< bio) be
Mu. syn, srn, (< slen) beon (< blon) bee/i
. .
2 . wes beo (< ) be
2 . wcsa|i beoj) (< blob) beef)
. 1-e . 1-e
wesende b eo n d e(< blonde) beynge
. .
, . /. waes, 2. w re , 3. wfcs; . wieron was, were, was;
weren
. ed. w are; . wairen were; ~n
|| . 2-e been
.

:
1. ,, 10. j 17, s
2. b {, . ) 18. t
, k, q 11.1 1 9 .M ,t h
4. d 12. m 20. u
5. 13. n 21. v
6 .f 14. 22. w
7-3, 3-1 15. (, . i)
8. h (q, . ) 23. z
9. i, 16.


.
.
, . doo , do,
, don; . caas cas, . oflde
, other. ,
: , = . .; back,
, bachelere . baic.
. se- . i-, -
. . 3t>-nfedc, un-jc-enaw en, . - . .
rasde, un-eniiwen, . . ,
<'- ( -) , ,
: . je -sijla n ,
, sijlan, je -s ijla n
sijlan.
(
); . . , -; . .
-1; . . ,
-ere, -; -yng', iiig, . -able,
, , , ,
,
, .

138

.
.

,
.
,
, . ,
fcaw lea feaw , feaw
.
,
- i-ocnoa ( , . deed'). ,
,
( , . hoi").
, . .
,
, ,
; , AN, AN
( ), , - . -
, , ,
, ; lAoverd ,
, , Ihoverd
, loverd.

.
.
(,) , , ,
, ,
, ,
+ =, ,
, .
: feorflinj, |, -. ( -. =
- ) , leorOins feorfllunj
- \ : . , . arms i-. (
i-. - / ) ,
arms - / ,
. arm r (
, arm r , . earm).
(;) . .
.
(:) ,
, , . .
, (
).
, , .
.

139
1


> *, .. *; cunnan,
, . .
, 3i
* , ,
, , ,

+ , , -
..
* , | ,
, ,
, (
, )
.
( ) |
, (
( ) ),
, . ,
, ( healf, || - healf, half; ni 3 n, |en a
, , .) S ni j on, nijeii; yrfa (< le|), |e = yrfa

- ( ) (< ierfa), crfn,


, ,
., . (
, .
, .) , . a. SLEEP
~ , . siep (,
||),
( , ) sliBp
= , / , ; ,
|| 1 , ..,
,
; ,
. ..: + ./. = + (.,
+ .
; t ,
* *
? ,
, * ; ,
,
[] ; : ?
. ,
( ) ; ? >
, ,
.
, ...* . ,
. , CAN
COULD
; ,
,
, - *
linan, -
. ' , -

140
t , \ 3, ..
, : ( ) . . . .
1210 .; (2) 1210
, 1290 .; 1290-1360; (*) 1360-
; , bed' 1400; (5) 14001500; (6) 1500-1600
bedd, bed, ..
2 , 3 ..
(. = , . =
(bedde) )
(.
, , 1, 2 , 3, .,
.
", ..

I, / / ,.
.

( )
.
, ,
,

,
,
: -. = -, ; -. = -,
..
.

. = . -
. = . -
, = . =
. - .
. = , =
. = . =
. = . =
. = .
. = , -
. = . =
, . s.
, = . =
. . -
. = . =
. = . -
. = . =
. - . =
. =
. - .
. = . =
. . -
. = . ~

!41
.-. - ,
. = . =
, = .
. = .
. ~ //. =
. = . =
. = . =
. = pea. =
. . -
, = ,
, . =
. = . =
. = () . =
. = 0 . =
. = . =
. = , =
, - . ~
!. = . -
. . =
. = . -
. - . =
. - . 5
. . =
. = . =
. . =
. = .
. = . =
, = . =
. . =
. = . =
. = . =
. = . =
. . =
. = .
. . =
. = .
. = . =
. = .
. = . *>
. = .
. = =
. - , , =
. = . =
. . -
. = . =
. . =
. = . =
. . ~
. = . =
. . -
. = . =
. = I.
.-. = . =
, = . -
, . ab +
hominc .)
( . = , he) -bidan . / > abide/; ABIDE; . .
( . . = . ) , , ,
. > : , -, , ; , ,
- || . , io, . ei, , , -., ,
aiw] = , iw , . || . us-beidan ]
( / = . of, on) able ,; A BLE: ,
- . (1) (. on-) = on -. : , able
. < . habilis
- . (2) (. or-) > -; -
( ARISE , able .\ -ABLE: . -able (
AWAKE , , . amyable ..,
.): . , , (. .), . -abilis, . |: .
able .
), -blendan . I > ablenden (npoiu. |ntc,
-; . . (. . . 2 - |nt): , ;
.) || . - (. ir-), . us-, ur- : . , ;
( )1 || . blenden]: blind
( ., . habban) (ablent . 2 -, . . -blendan)
aj, aiw, i-. , , || . abbod, |bud, -. > abbot; ABBO T:
Ehe (. 6wa -. , : . . abbas, . |atcm,
.), . aiws , , |adem, . ubbiis
] (a-bouten . . = . -titan)
ahasslifn, |ai|, . //; ABASH: . (uboven . . - . a-bufan)
, , ; . - (above-written = . ~= . a-bufan +
, / writen . 2 - writan, . .
: . esba'ir, bufan-cweden ,
. esbaisse, , , , -nemd ,
, bah! . )
abaten . /; ABATE: . . (Abroad ., . . brad)
, , ; . . - absoludoun2 .', A BSO LU T IO N :
, , (.) , ( .)
: . abatre < , (wp.) : . ab-
. . abbattere solueion, |ioun, . absolutio, .
" ahbeye, |b|, .; ABBEY: , |i5nem, . absolvere
: . abbeie < . ( ABSOLVE
. abbatia . . abbas (. ) solvere (
. abbod) SOLVE ())
* abhomynablc, abo|, ,; A B O M I abbudisse, |de|, -.
NABLE: , : . . nbbatissn
: , abhomlnable, [, < (> , abesse, ABBESS
. abominabilis. ( h . ) ,
. . abbas . (. . abbod)

143
a-bufan1 , ( ? .) above - - ACTS . : . actc
. .', ABOVE: . .
, ; . , : - acte .\ ACT: . , ,
on-: . . . (<be-uftm) ; . , : . acte
, , <. acta . .
ABUSE5 . ; .
; . abusen . (. . (aquetlcn . = . a-cwellan)
abus .; . . . aquy(e, |cq|, (acwitew1) . li, AC
abusion) QUIT: ca. , ,
abuse/)1. //; ABUSE: . . -.;
, ; . ,
-., , ; -.; :
. . -., . aquiter
, : . quietus .
. abuser abus . = . ( QLHET ,
abiisus (. . usr) )
a-buta.ii (< -.) . . (+ ./ (accurst = accursed .,
dm.) > abouten; ABOUT: . . . . cursian)
, ; ( 1258.) accusation .', ACCUSATION:
abuten rende ( abuten : . accQsacion, |un
. . buten = . (.), . accDsatio, . |ioncm
utan, a-cwellan . > aquellen: ,
buten, - . ); ,
; . , (adayes ., . . die,1;)
, ; () (ffldcle, . . teOele)
(a-buten, . . -biitan) (adjudge . = . ajuggew)
> : J] . akj (adoun . = . of-dQne)
(accedent . = . accidcnt) tedre . , ,
acceptable .: ACCEPTABLE: || . adro; . . ,
, : . ]
acceptable accepter (<. ) (advance, |au|, . - . avauncen)
aecepten . //; ACCEPT; advcrsltcc .', ADVERSITY:
, : . accepter , : . adversiltS =
. aeeeptare . advcrsitas, . |tatem, adversus
accident .\ ACCIDENT: , , ,
: . accident,
. accidens, . |enteni, (advise . . - . avys . avysen
accioun .\ ACTION: . , .)
; . ; . uclda . ., . ylde
accion, joun (.), < . actio, aerist - icrest
. [ionem, (afarrc, . . feor)
acloycu . //; acdoy: , (affayre . ca. afere)
( ( -./, > even; ! EVEN * 2. EVE:
); , : . ca. , ; . 1.
. encloycr (. 2. , * || , Abcn(d); .
clo <. clavus, . |) . aptaii
aeordaunt .', ACCORDANT: ftfen-leoht -, > EVEN-LIGHT *:
; . accordant, |auiit
(,), , , accorder , |ff|, .', AFFAIR: :
(. . acorde/t) . afaire . < a faire (. +
aeordcrt . //; ACCORD- - .) < . ad . + fa-
(), : . cere .
acerder < . . accord (aforeselcd, |sald = . ,\ . on-forati
+ ssejd . 2 - secjan)

144
. //; I, AFFRAY f 2. (. . eigan , , .
2- >) AFRAID :. . , eign , , . aigan
; . 1. ; 2. : , ]
. effraier", esfreer' < , S-jan i. . (. ; . 2-
. cxfridare a-jan) > agoon (. 2 - );
, , , frid- (. 2- >) AGO :. . .
. (. . frid) , ,
jifre . > evrc, cvcrc; EVER: , ; . .
-, -: ? < *a-bu- age :, AGE: , ,
ri, *buri w jc-byrlan : . cage, age, < . .
, ; actaticum . aetns, . |tatem
, || . gebtihren] (ajeiii, |g|, = . on-jean)
beran. 1. &frc le . > tever-*lc', it jcn . (< . 2 -) > awen', ',
ctvric", everieh'", every'"; EVERY: . owen"; OWN; () ||
- ; . . . eigen, . eiginn; . . aigin -.
. 1. . ifclc + - eyericii- ]; .
:, every choon, EVERY (, |nst, ., . . -)
ONE: , . acfre 1 dacl . a-jetan jetan, . I (.) *
every-decl .: , , : sfiotan , 2
. 2. asfre l&stende . 1 - > , || . giotan, . gie-
everlastinde', everlKstynge", :, sscn, . gj6 ta, . giutan
EVERLASTING: , . -liwair . > ejwluer, aywhere:
3. ajfre + , Scfre + , , - || . iogihwar, ]
evermo, -re, :, EVERM O RE; * 3 -liwa:6 er', aijSer", , (<
, .) > |>, either; ether, EITHER:
. > after, |tir; AFTER: , , ( ); Ss-
I , aftnr; . . . aftarO -] ( ) ... , * 3 - ...
icfter-weard , > afterward . Slid, ... , ... ; . ,
., ~es :, AFTERWARD t , , ,
AFTERWARDS: . , ; . ,
, ; . . , I . lo-gi-ftwedar], (.
, ; a-hwaider, , fej-hwilc.) ne + &. >
. , , ; neither, nai|, (x nouthcr < . nfl-
. , , hwrefler) neither, , \
(aftir = . isfter) NEITHER: ca, ,
s-c. (. ) > (. eire"): || ; ; ; neither/
. Ei, . egg jo-.] || . . , noither... ne/no . ; .
. , , . oion] (. . , ;
egg) '--hwlle, , &
&3- . > ej-, ay-: , a - 3 yfan, -jifaii, (< - 3 ie|), (-jiaban,
|| , io-gi-j; = , || , io, .), . 5> agiven: ,
] + 1- (= - > . .) , , ,
(agayji, - , 'St, . . -) || . ergeben, . usgi-
Sjan .-. (, . ah, Ihst, all, banj
|, . ; . iihtc :, . 2 - aj-laxa jit-. * , : as ?
= - ., . .) > awen', , rope; I. .
owe/, (. . ah, ouh, owe, , ;
. ., . aiihte, ou|, ;
oughte); 1. OWE (-D ) 2. (. >) (seglogue . - ECLOGUE)
OUGHT: . , ; . agreable :, AGREEABLE:
, , , , : . agreable
, ; . (. . agreert)
, I , / , agreen . //; AGREE: ,
; 2. , || , ;

145
. agreer aileviare (. . |atus,
a gr -. - ALLEVIATE /
, , . ad )
gratum (aleggen ., . da. a-lecsan)
(tchc, EGCh, . = . 1) all-mectij a-l-mihtij
S-hebban . 61> aliebben, aheven: eelmesse n-. > almesse; ALMS: -
, || urn, er-he- : . . *alimosina
ben] . eleem osyna . eleem osiln6
R-hof ., . -hebban ,
-hoii . 7> 1, aliongen %l-militis, eal*-, . almygiity; AL- 1
ahsSan = ascian MIGHTY: ; 1- = !*;
i-. ( .) e^t, eight6; in, miht
, , || (almiien = . ffil-mihtijan . . .)
. Sht, . xtt , . aihts]; (almost . . -1)
ajan (alone, . . )
ahte ., . ftjan (als, - , -, -; . , alsua, *
a-hw0er', SwOer", 5"', , alswa; . = . -swa)
( .) 1. other, au|, (7 . ), (abuic, alswlc, . - . eal'-
2. ', 1, other 2. OR: . swilc)
( ), , - , (al-legaedere . - . eal4+ toseedere, 1
-, -, -; . .)

Ih w x d e r ... ... ; . (al-iliogli, |ougli, . . )
. . , (nlway, |, ~es, -, ., . . )
, ; ; . . || . (amanges . = . -&)
jeder (. ioftwedar ,)] AihIht -. , : . am
.] AYE |: . . , - phora . arnphoreus
-, -; , . Smhiht, |eht, -.
: . (. ei, ) || . .] , || . arnbaht . (> - .1']
? > ayen=blte . / - > . . Amt, . ,
>, , : . Postamt), . ambatt
= . - + bite ^. , . andbahis ] ;
ajugge/r, |ge, . ff; ( .) AD= . (. ambactus)
JUDGE: . , , amen > amen; AMEN: : . j
; . . amen , .
, : . ajuger . ,
<. adjiidicare amende/t2 , //; AMEND: ,
, : . amender < . ">
. (> at*, all) = . eal cmendare ,
11 (1.) [/2-j"hwj]c, -!iwy|, . > ale',
elch", sech", eeeh"; EACH: . ca, amendes . .; AMENDS:
, ; . : !. || , : . am en-,
. jeglieh(er) (. ioglllh)]: 2. |j de, . ~5, ~ . (. . amende )
. iogihwellh]: I. = - + lie amyable .; AM IABLE: , i
aldur -. Ualdor 6 -., ~ (> alder-), = : . amiable
caldor, - ( aimablc < . amabiliS
(ale . - . eatu) ) < . amlenbilis j
a-leejan . J > ( .) alegsen, ale- ( AMICABLE )
, alege, allj, ALLAY; . (amidden ., . . midde)
, , ; . (amis ., . . nils* .)
, , , (among, ~es, ~st, . = . -) .
(), . . > 1. , (.), ,,
(); . , . ., 2 . , , .; 1. ONE
(!)- , aiegier 2. AN: , , ;,
(, ) < . . ( . )',

146
; ; NONCE: . . ?
, , -; , . ( . ones . ,;
1. ; , ; 2. . . | .
. ein, . cinn, . ainsl || . Onus thenones
< . , osnos]. 1 . ea!-ana > al .
one, alonn; ALONE: ; . the + nones .)\ . ,
|| . allein, . aliens ( : ]>Sm
. allreinn )], 2. on dm, am |pffit, . si
> .', ANON f: . anger, angre, .\ ANGER: ,
, , ; . , , , ;
, ; . . : . (. angr ,
. (> ) = . on )
( " . and) an-1 -. ,
, , (. be-jinn)
-., , |, -. > ; (angles ., . . aungel)
anchor: , : angry ., ANGRY: .
. . anachoreta ( AN , , ;
CHORET, |JTE, , . : . anger ( .)
; ? .) , - asms . > eni, ( . minis) any, ony;
choretes anachorein . , ANY ['em]: -, -
, || . einige ,
and-, =, . > and-, a-; (AN-, . , ]:
ANSWER), A- (a ALONG < . b d - anlaus . ,
1): . ( ( ): . . .
, aneiatius, . . anglas
-.); . . (. iin-llc . > oonlich . (~ .),
, .) || . (.) ant-, ( oonly . .\ ONLY: . .
.) -, . and-, . anda-, and- , , ,
J | , ante-, anti- -, . anti- .\ . .
()- ( - .)]: ; || . einllh]
un- (2) and anlTpij . , ,
And, end, > and, an; AND, an (du- : ? hlsapan
ft/f,): . , a; ca. , ; ; . , a; (. .] . . gelaufig
(.) || . und (. anti, |, , , laufen )
|), . , , , ]: > and- (anon ., . . )
, nnnotacloun5 ,', ANNOTATION:
(snde . 5 . ende) . . , ,
and-!flng . , ( , ; . ,
)', ~ . (+ .) > : , aiinotatio, . |1,
anlong, along; ALONG: . ,
, ; . . (anujier, |ther, = . + )
and-swarian, -swe|, . 2 > answeren; (answcren . - . and-swarian)
ANSWER: : find-swaru Qn tTil h 3ic. ? (
anrt-swaru d -. (? >s o-c. .) > answere; )
ANSWER: || . andsvar c. (| . = . eorl)
( .)\\ sw. swerian . 6 (apace . a-pas)
and-weard . , ( . = . empeiren)
|| . . and-wairbs] apareil, |ai|, .', APPAREL: ,
( . . ., . . ) , : .
Ufle, Barbour'a, . ) rail, jail, pareil . , <
at!es, . (< . . .) > ones; . . paficulus, . |um, .
ONCE; , , par ,
, . 1>1 + 5. > &' a-pas, ||, .', APACE *: .
ones'i for the" nones"; FOR THE ; , : - . on

147
(appear = ca. apere/i) |r|, |ei, = (<. ad ) + rei
(a pcccc ., m. ca. pece) 7 . (. . rasde ; 7
, |pp|, . II: APPEAR: i'Sd )
, , : (arbor ., . . herbere)
. aparoir (. . -, asrce-biscop, |, |, -. > archebisshop;
. ) <. ARCHBISHOP: :
npiken . II ?: ; - . archiepiscopus . (. ,
, : ? . biscop); . . arkhi ,
, ; ? . piquer arkhos . , arkhein . *,
, ,
apoyntew, ||, \6 . II, APPOINT: (arch ., Layamon , . . )
: . apomter arend ejo-c. > erendc, ernde; ERRAND;
, , < . . , , ;
. appunctarc , . . || . anmti; .
. ad punctum (> . . prendi, |]
point) * {. . poynt) aerest, ffirst, . (< .) > erest, erst;
(apon ., . . ) earst, ERST f: . . -,
apostol -, > apostel, postel; APOSTLE: , ; . .
, : . aposto || , erstj:
lus . apostolos * argument .; ARGUMENT: ,'
apt :, APT: , : . argument, . ~um
, : , aptus ar-hwEt . * *, -
, ; liw. , 1
appurtenauncc .; APPURTE || . hwat, . hwa?, . hvatr
NANCE: , (aricht, |ght, Ijt, ., . . riht .) \
: . apurtenance, |part|, a risan . 1 > arisen; ARISE:
apartenir . , , , || . ur-
-. < . ad + reisan]
pertinere (fcr-llc, |, . erlich, erly; EARLY:
8 -. , || . eru, . ; )
, . airus] (arm . = . earm)
-. (1) >ore; OAR: || . ( annes' . .; ARMS; , ^
*airo; . . airo .)] , ; . ,
-. (2) > : , , : . armes . arm!
; ; || . Ehre . < . arma . . ,
(. era), . cir] || . . aestima- ,
( ESTIMATE (arrow . = . arwe)
, ., ESTEEM (arst . = . ibrest)
, )] -|]-|) ; .
., . (+ .) (. JuEt
. , . rost, ffirest, . arwe, |ruw|, -. > arwe, |rew|; ARROW:
.) > , (. erour); ERE f || , pr -. (. prvar); . ,
. ( . . . arhmzita -.]: earh - II
.): . ( . . arcus , ( ARC
, .) , , ); . ARCH
; ; , ; -, - . arche < . area
J3m-t>e, ; . . arcus, . ]
. , ; ; fts -. , ; ,
. ; || . eher || . Aas (, as, -
(. ), . airis . air ] . as, we. as)]: *sso < ed -1
array, ||, ; ARRAY: . , to, *ed-, . etan
; , , ( . - . eal-swa)
; , , aesc -. > assh; ASH: . !,, * -
; , : . arrai, ; , ; . . II

148
. asc (. coep. F.sche), . askrj || 2 , )
. . ] ;
^ - ASKANCE, ascaunce6, . , ;
, ; ; . 1 ,
(asken . = . ascian) ;
_ ascendent . (< ,); ASCEN , . .; 2 . ,
D A N T , |E N T : , : . assise .
; ( .) ; ( -., ; ; < .
, , . asseoir ,
)'. . ascendens, . () , ,
|entem (. ascendant), . < , assidEre
, ascendere araisc/j . II; SIZE: . ,
( ASCEND , , , ;
) . : assise
- - ASKEW6 . , , .
: = - ( on) + SKEW . SKEW assisour ,; ASSIZER, JQR f: .
. <. skewefl / ;
; ; : ? ; .
. esquiver . seiuhan : . assisour (
(. scheuen) ., . . assessor) .
icse-holt -. , assise . (. . ~)
, E-slttan . > asitten: ;
aseian, ahsj, acs|, . 2 > aschen, asken,
; ASK, ax (.): . (aslcepe, , . s!p)_
, ; . . , (asonder . . 3-sUfidron)
|| . eiskdn] || . . assottcrt , I/; assot: (.)
] ; (.) ,
i-scuFan . 2 , ; : . assoter sot
, . (. . sot). (.
asquint2 . .; ASQUINT: 1- >) assot . ,
: (?)
(asc . = , eal-swa) a-stellan (< on-st.) . V (. -
a-secjan . 3 , . . a-stelidie . I)
, , , ,
- assentcn . //; ASSENT: astrooomye1 .; ASTRONOMY:
, : . assentir : . astronomie,
, , assemlre astronomia . |ia aster
, (. . steorra) + n6mos
usslgncfl3 . //; ASSIGN: , a-sundron (< on-s.) . > asunder;
, : . ASUNDER: . , ,
nssigner < . assifitiare ; . . ,
, . . , , : s, sundor
assign . , assuraunce, |seu|, .; ASSURANCE:
; . ASSIGNEE ; ;
, . as- : . assuraunce (.)
5| . . (. , assure/))
a-sln jan . 3 , , assuren . 11; ASSURE: ,
|| . ussiggwan] ; : .
" assise ( ass|) .; 1. A SS IZ E ; aseiirer, ass|, seiir . (
2. SIZE: . , SURE ) < . securus
; ; ( SECURE ,
; )
/, , - aswageu, (|sua|3), . 11; ASSUAGE:
, ; ; . . (1. . , ; . -

149
( , ), ( . enjel (
)'. . assouagler . .)
svavis . a v a ite n , |11|, . //; AVAIL:
-sw ebban . I sw cfan , : - (? = . &- *
(. swcfn) . ad) + . valoir (
t . (+ dm.) > at; : , || . . vaille) <,
;, . at, . at] || . ad ] valere /
attach e/), ta c ch c/i ( *), avaucert () . ; (. (2 )) ADVAN*;
. II; ATTACH : . . . : . , ||
, , ); . (), .
; . , ; . avance avant <
) , : . (1) ab (, . of) + ante ; i
. atach ier (< e sta ch ier ) . (2) ad , ad- - (. . set; ,
, *stak- (. . staoa ~. , . avys, aventure, avauntage)
; sia c u n s - .1. *staclan avsunt .; VAUNT; :
) avaunten .
(atte = the; . . set S8) a v a u n ta g e .; ADVANTAGE: n p e l
(seten, eten, . . etan) , . avantage
. . (+ dm.) > atfo- avant < . . ab ante
: , -.
s t-s ssd e r e , - 3ed|, |dre, . : -> avaunte/? . II; VAUNT [|:|]:
rador (, jaderian); . . to-jw - ; : ,\
dere avanter . (.) - - (? . avatt
a-.t-hfTnan . I & atrinen: , ) + vanter . . vanilare
: hr, || . hrl- ,
nan] aventure2, auntre, .\ ( . ) AD
(attones = at ones, A T O NCE; . da. set VENTURE: . , *
anes) , , ; .
-. > oolh; OATH: , || , : .
. Eid, . eiar, . aips] || . . aventure < . adventora
<'] .
sc8ele . jo > athele . ( .): advemre . , ]
; , avys .; { .) ADVICE: . .
!! . edel, . !!]: 1 , ; . . : ,
-. . () , avis <. ad visum (. .
et; visum videre , . .
E0ele npiM.jo: , witan)
: 0! avysert . II; ( .) ADVISE: ,
ffiflclln j - . > athelln g; A T H E L IN G . , , -
(.)', . . , ; . ; advysen in ; coep,
|| . adaling]; ecOelo . ; . av y scr avis
a -|)e c ja n . I , . (. . avys)
: ] . S1 > thiggen (sevre . . ffifrc)
|| . thiggiaii, . dikken, (ijevrk, |he - |eh , . - . S fr e tele)
. Jnggja] S -w a c a n ( o n - ) . 6 (.) -w a-
(-| ~ . [; . ]) d a i i . 2 (.) > a w a k e n .
(aught , . S-wiht) ,; AWAKE: . , *'
auiicyen .; au iicy eild , |nt, A N , ; . . *
CIENT: : , ancien < || . e rw a c h e n .; . -
, . an tifin u s . ante usw akjafi (. .)\
, -* (. . And-) (away, -, , = , on-wcj)
aungel. ang|, .; ANGEL: : (aw en . s . )
, angel < , ange-, , | , -wend ( on-) , I > awfndex-
. aggeios , . . , ,

150
; (.) , (balder ., . , beald)
, || . uswandjan (- ? > balled :, BALD: ,
.)}'. (on- and-) || . . (.) btcldet
g-wilit, |uht', |aht"', |olit"', . > aught, , ]
ought, o|; AUGHT t *: . ca. - (1 . - . !)
, -TD; - ; . : balu, bealu, |, wo-. * bale; BALE f
- = . , || . balo, . bpl] ||
g .w y r ja n , -wi|, (< wie|), Ir^an, |rian, . 1 > . . ]
awarien . II: , ban -, >boon; BONE: || , Bein
$wisc-mod . , (. bein), . bcin]
: . -. , = -. > ( ., . .)
|| . aiwiskiJo-.] ban1; BAN: . , ,
(awnswereable = ANSWERABLE; , . ; . , ,
and-swarian .) , , ; ,
(awoke . . 2 -, . . a-wa- , , ||
) . , . ]: , ban
5-wrTtan . I > awritefl: , . . bannum .
; -. > banc; BANE: . ,
( . = . ascian) *; . ;
; . [| . ,
. bani , ]
bank5, bonke, :, BANK:
(> ~), . , , : .
haban, babe, .; BABE: . . *banke = . bakki , ,
, ; . .
-. > bak; BACK: , , banke5 .; BANK: . .
|| . bak, . bak], /;
on > abak, bak, .; ABACK , ; . . : .
BACK; , baiique .
-bord -. dm. banka = . . Bank || .
baehcler .', BACHELOR; ]
; : . bacheler < band1, bond, :, 1. BAND
. . baccalaris 2. BOND: . , ;
b&dan . 1 , (| ; ; . 1. ,
. bedian, . bcitcil, . beifla, . ; t ; 2. , ;
baidjan] || . fid , , : . (. band) || . Band, .
peitho ; . . , bandi, . beiici./-.'. (=- bindan)]
< -] .; BAR: ; ,
h&de . 2 ., . biddan ; : . <
bayard . ( .)\ BAYARD .'. . .
(): . baiard, , |, :. BARREN:
jrt, bal . ( BAY : . baraigne
) <, bad his bnrgayn <,i BARGAIN: ;
" baillf, ||, :, BAILIFF: : . bargaine
; : bam, , beam
. ballilf bailler . (barn, - , . - . -)
( BAIL bnernap, ||, , 1 (,), (1.) 2 , byrnan,
) . bajulare [, (bie|), beOrilan, . 3 (.)
, bernen, brenne/i, bimcn, (, -
tel 0. e i (.)", bail ( .)] .); BURN; . 1. ; 2. ;
ball, bale (.), bale: , . - , , , : 1, || , -
; ; . . (. brannte, . .), .
( .) || . brtl, . bfll] || (gn) -njnn (,), , brenna
. . : ] (.)]; 2 . || . brlnna, . brinnan]

151
I
baroun, baron, <|un*), .', BARON: benute, beaJtc, bewtie .; BEAUTy<
, . , (.) ; . . , : .
(.) : . , . baron, < beltd < . . "bcllitas, . *,
. . , . baronem, tem . bellus .
(? = , . );
(covert-baron . . covert) hc-hendan . 2 ,
bus .', BASE: , : be-bycsan . ,
. bas, . bassc be-bohte ., , be-byejan
bat -. > boot; BOAT: , || ./. . ./. ., . boc 1
. beit . ), (. . batr.M. (because . = by cause; .
., . Bool ,) cause)
(ba|>e, |th|, ., . . bcjcn) (beeomen, |mm|, . = . be-cuman) ,
badian . 2> bathe/i; BATHE: - (bequeath . - . be-cweOan)
(-), , || . baden, he-euniati . 4 > bleomen, be|; BE
. ]: -. (> BATH COME: . , *
, ) ; ; . -
be . ~ . , , ; ; <
he-, -, . (. - ; , !
s . ., . .) >be-, , ; .
bl-; -: -, - || . be-, . bi-] ; || . bekomJ
(be, bee, . = . beon) men (.) ]
beadu-csr . * || be-eweflan . 5 > biquctlien, be|; BE
. . a-kafr ]; , QUEATH: . ;
, ; -,, )}!
bcadu-weorc -. * , ; . -.;
; , I . bpd]: weorc ; ; !
beaj, h| -. > , beyg/i, bye; BEE: , ; . ,
. .
, ( bed' jo-c. > bed1; bedde, BED:
)', , . (.) ; ; * ; (.)
, || . bouc, . . || . Bett, . badi]
baugr]: be-ebbiau . 1 (.
bcah-jifa -. * *, ): . (>
, ; b. = beaj; S- . , ) ebb#
jifan jn-. (> EBB . ) |
beald, ||, npwi. >bold; BOLD: , . eb, ebbe]
; ; || hc-feallan, -fali|, . 7 > bifallen, be|;
. bulde . ; . . bal]>ei - BEFALL: . ; -
. , ] -.; , ; .
beard -. > <1, ||; BEARD: || , ,
. Bart] || . . , , - ; . ,
ba (< bardha < *bhardha . befallen ]
b dh )] be-fealdan, -fald|, . 7,
( . = . ) ,
-. > berm; barm': , || be-foran . . (+ ./.) >
. barm, . barm, . barms] hlforen, biforn, be|; B EFO R E
bearn, ||, -. > bern; barn', BAIRN . : . ,
(.): , || , ; . , !
. bam, . barn, . bnrn]; - ; || . biforan,
. biforan]
(beasts . = . beste) beggar, ( . -ere) |, .', beg*
bentnn c/in. 7 > beten ./.\ BEAT: ger, BEGGAR: ; . be*
(), || . bo^an, . gard, |rt,
bauia]
^ beggarly .', begerly, BEGGARLY: belle -. > belle; BELL: ,
, : ca. beggar : bellan . 3
beggen a 16. II; BEG: , /, || . bellen
: , begger; ]
. . beggar, hc-lcejan . 1 > hileyc/i; BELAY: ,
. . ; .
bejen, . ( . + .) ha, . ( . + .) , (.)\ lecjan
ha, (. . , , . , , ; dm. barn, bc-iyfan, .lefj, . I > bilcvc/i, be|; bcle-
|*|, . , |) > b eien , b a ', bo": eve, BELIEVE: , ,
, . bai, . ]. ba jia > ( . ( . . . . -
.) b a b e , bothe; BOTH: , || lyfan, -lief], ^15f| || . glauben, . ga-
. b e id c , . b a d ir, (. , . laubjan].)
bicrti), . 1)6 .; . . . (belove . . da. luftan)
bajobs] II . . , . am bo, . (been . = . beon)
am pho] (ben, |ee|, . 2 - been = . bfion)
be-jeo n d a n , |nde, . . >biyen* bena jn -. : b5n I-., ca.
den, l>lyonde, be|; BEYOND: . bene, , || . ]
, ; . bene I-. > bcnehe; BENCH: ||
, , , : -s. 3 eond . Bank, . bekkr, . bank]
(lieggere ., , . beggar) bendan . I > bendcn; BEND: .
- beggcslere . : . beggar , ;
b e -jle ta n = b e -jy tan (); . . (),
bc-jinnan . 3> blgynnen, be|; BEGIN: (), , :
. , ; ca. ! bindan; (bendan
. || . b e g in nen; . . band, ..
(d u )-g in n a n ], . bigynnyng' .\ /;
BEGINNING: *,
be-jyian, *3 i|, ( < - 3 ic|), -|, . 5 > b e ji- )
te, blyeten, (x gete/i .) bigete/i; benefice .; BEN EFICE: .
BEGET: . , , , ; , ,
; ca. , ; ; . , :
, , ; . . benefice, . beneficium
, || . bigitan; . . (. .
(. geta , )] (* ). A BEN EFIC IA L .: . .
. gelen) , ,
(hegoutb, ., . b e g y n n en = ; ; .
da. b e -sin n a n ) , ; . . benefi
(beguile . = ca. bi-gilcn) cial, . . beneficialis
bc-lienldan, -hald|, . 7 > bihelden, bi - B E N E FIC E N C E .
holden, be|; BEHOLD: . , , : . be
, , ; neficence, . beneficcntia
, ; . . , (benefyt, |itt, . ca. bienfet)
|| , bolialtcn ] benygne . > BEN IG N : ,
be-helan . 4 be-lieliau . 2> bihelen : . benigne <
, . beiiigniis
bc-hindan . . (+ ./dm.) > be-niman . 4> blnymcn, be|: ,
blliyndefl, be|; BEHIND: . , ,
, ; . , , || -norOan , (+ dm.) > bonorth:
. b ih in d a n ] ; h. -, (>
I I I N P . ) || . hinten] beo (> ~) ,, , bSon
(behold . = , h e-healdan) beod -. > hied: ; . biot,
^ 'la e fa n . 1 :> bilcve/i, be|, blevcn: . biu{>s, |d ] || . . ( --,
; : b e -It fan . I *-
|| . blcibcn, . bileiban] )]: >beodan

153
beodan cjIH, 2> beden (x bidden < da. bid- beran . 4 > beren; BEAR: . a. nepj,
dan): , , , ; ; ,,
|| . bieten (ge~ . . ; ; , j|
; . bioian gi~), . . (ge)-bnren (. beran J,
hjoda, . (ana)-biudan] || . . gi~), . , . bairarn
(), , (< . beryng' .; BEARING: . .
BiifltTn), ; , ; *.
. , -, , ; . ,
] ] || . (), . Jerrc
beod-je-neat -. . pherein, . bharanam iiccj!
beofor, befer, -. > bever; BEAVER: (bhdrami ); . .
|| . Biber, . bjorr] || . . ..]
(. . ), . fiber] (berd . - . beard)
beon . . (. . , bercn . ,
bist, biO, . ; . wxs . :
. wesan, . .; . (beren . = . beran)
, ) > been (. . ber-ern' < (-), bern", -. >;
be ..', . be>, been; . 2 - BARN: : i-. || .
been, ; . wesan: I. barizeins . ]:
. ed, am, art, is, . arn; . || . , . razn]. (BARLEY<
. was ... . weren); BE (, . bscrltc, . = .)
. AM, ART t , IS, . be, ARE; (b e rje n . = . b e o rja n )
. ed. WAS .., . WERE, bcrle . b eri 370-. > berye, bery; BER
. 2-e BEEN): ( RY: || . .; . basi
.) || (. . I j o -., w c in ab a si *,
. bi(it), 2 . bist] || . . fieri ]
, futUius ; . . ( beryng' ., . . beran .)
]. bOon wear . . + be-rowan . 7
. (. b. ware) > be war (. be
ware); BEWARE . ( ; (besastten, besetten, . . be-
. . . settan)
1.): , be-secan . 1 > btsechen, |seken, be|;
, |rh, || (.), -. > bergh, BESEECH: || . besuchen
berw; ( . , . besoka ]
XIV XVI .); BARROW: (be-semen ., . . suman)
. . , ; ; coup. . (besene . 2-, . . bc-seon)
|| . Berg , . bjarg . be-seon . biseen, be|; (. 2- ~)\
] || . ] besee: . , ,
hcorjfln . 3 ->, |rgh|: , , ;
, || . bergen, , ; . . . ,
bjarga, . bairgan] 1 . ()] , ; ;
beorlit, brlht, ||, . :>bright; BRIGHT: (/)
, , ; be-setlan . I > blsctten, be|; UESET:
|| . ber"ht, . bjartr (< +bcrht-), . . , ,
. bairhts] , ; . ,
beorn -. , >bern, burn || . || . besetzen, . bisarjan onpyJ
. bjprn -. ] * ]
je-beor-seipe 1-. , , (besiden, besides, . ,, . ,
: - -. , side -.)
; -./. (> BEF.R ) || '! > besight, (|3 t), bi|, . ,
. Bier (. bior)] : . b e -s6 o n ; . .
-. > here; BEAK: || . silid, |hl, 50 i-. (> SIGHT ;
(. ); , . bjprn -. (|| , ) seon
. beorn)] (besynesse . = . bisip es* )
j^.sjttan . S1 s bisittcH, be]: bc-weorpan . 3 ,
; , ; , || , bewerfen]:
, || . besitzen weorpan
] (. be-settan) (bewray ., . . wrcjan)
l,-slean . 6 , , bis, . . (+ ./,), bi,
(Best . ., . . betera; best () be, . (,', - ) >
. ., . . ) by , ., be .', UV: .
_b^sle, || (leal1), .\ BEAST: : . , ; ; .
. beste < . bestia , , , ; ,
jjc-siidan . (+ dm.) > blsouthe/i, |: ; ; ; , ;
. . , , ; -
be-swlcan . I > biswyken, |: ; , , ; ()-, (
, || . biswlb- ) ||
lian] . bei (. bi), , ]
bet . . ( wel; , be/st) > bet . > buggen, bigger, bcgg|,
(, best); bet, ( .) BETTER buyen, , ; BUY: . .
(. BEST): || . belr] (. ; ; ;
betera .) . || . buggean, . bugjan]
(bette/r, I , . 2 - betew = . (bid* *(., . . biddan)
beataii) bTdan . 1 > bidcn; BIDE (t,
(better . ., . . bet) BIDE ONE'S TIME
ttctera . . (beret ., jod; ): .
. bet ., best ., wel) > , ; , ;
betters, bettrtf (, best; . bet . ; , ,
., best .)\ BETTER . ; . , || . -
. (. B E S T ; . . tan, . be Ida n]
. . bet): , || . biddan . bidder; (x beden < da. beo
bessere (, bester), . betri (. dan); BID: da. ca. ,
beztr, . . betr), . batiza ; . . , ;
(, batlsts)] , ; . .
beterlan . 2 > betteren; BETTER: II bitten , . bidja ,
|| . bcssern , . bidjan ]
]: betera (byde/i . = . bidan)
(bityde/ ., . . tldan) ~ blenfet, bencfet .', BENEFIT:
(bettrc . . = . betera) ; , : . bien-
be1st , , . ., . bctera fak < . benefactwn
. bet . (byeji, ., ./, ., .
(betuyx, betwyx, . . bo-tweox) . )
botweohx = be-tweox (bifil . blfallCH, . . -
be-lweoiian, |u i i i , . . (+ ,/ feallan)
./.) > bltwenen, hej; BETWEEN: (blfore/i, |ru, . . beforan)
. , ; : . , btj, (< |), |, , ! >, -
tweonum . ( , ghen: , ;
be s&m tweoiium || . bcugen, . beygja, .
); . . j| . twei- baugjan]:
hnaim (. tweilinai )] (bygende . , = . he--
twjen dan)
be^twcox, -Iwux, -Iwix, |xl, . (+ bi-gile, bc-g. . //; BEGUILE:
./.) > bitwyxc, be|, |", |xt; RE- ; , : g.
TWIXT'h . , ; . guile guile , (
; . . || . bi- GUILE ; ,
twisch(a)]: -lw. || . zwiscli(cn) ) . (. , wijl ,
] twejen )
(beware = . beon waji) (bigynne/i . = . bc-jinrmn)

155
(bygynnynge ., . . bc-jinnan) biscop, |, -. > bissbop; HISHO
(biheold ., . . be-heaidan) : . episcopus
(bilevcn . = . be-lasfan) episkopos
bylj ( bic|), ||, |ij, i-. bel, bal, beiy; (bisekew, |chen, . = . be-secan)
1. BELLY 2. BELLOWS (< ca. bclwcs (blsemen, . . seman)
.): . () ; ca. . (bisetten . - . be-settan)
1. , ; 2. (biside = . be sldan; . . side -,)
|| ., . balg, . bisij, bysj, . > bisy, busy, bcsy; BUSY
beigr, . balgs]: 1 . 3 ['bizi]: , || . be.
, ; -boljen . sieh, . bezig]
2 - || 5., . belgan, . bisijues' -. > bisynesse, busy|, hsy|;
bolginn . 2 -] || . bolg , BUSINESS: , : bisl*
bolgaim , , - ? > bismoleren . II ,
. bol, boly , ] : . . be-smftan . I -
bill-je-slibt i-c. : . || . smitian . 2 , ,
]: -s. slean ; . SMUT ,
(biloven ., . . lufian) || . Schmutz
binnan . (+ ./.) > bynnen, byn: bysn, bysen, bt], i-. > bisnc, bisen', (x ,
, || . binnen]: bi + innan bysn ); uionu. bysen, |z|: . ft.
bindan . .?> bynde/i; BIND: . , ; . , -,
, ; ; . . || . -busns, a aimhusm
|| . binden, . binda, )
. bindan] (bisoujte ., . . be-secan)
blorh = (bit = biddcth . 3 . bidden; .
(byrd . = . brid*) . biddan)
je-byrd I-. se-byrdu -. > birde, bTtan . 1 > bitc/r; BITE: () |
( .) birthe; BIRT11: . , . , . b!ta, . beitan] bile /*
, ; . . . > bite; I. BIT 2. (x .) BITE: ,
|| . Oeburt , , , ; . , , *
. byrd i-. ( . .), ; ; . 1. ;
. gabaiirbs |: beran 2. I . , . bctl: bitan .
byrde . , , bitor, |, , > bitter; BITTER:
|| . . gebtirtig]: beran; ; , || .
. -byrd . bitter, . bitr; . . baitrs:
Se-byrdc . > : , (bytwene . . = . be-tw80*
: beran; . -byrd nan)
. (bitwixe . = . be-tweox)
byrdesl . ., . byrde TiiO, ||, . .
byrian . I > buren, biren: , (biwon . biwynnen, . . win*
, -, || nan)
. byrja, . . (ge)-buhren blsec . > blak; BLACK: || .
]: ? hcran blach ; . . black ]]
byrnan, bi|, (biej), beoriian, cjih. 3, . . . //; BLAME: :
brcrnan . blasmer < . blasphemaf*
byrne jn -. > buine, (x .) brinie, bryn ( . blasfemcn > BLAS
(.): , || . Briinne, PHEME , * ;
. brynja, . bfUnjo; . . , ) . blasphermiin
.] blanden-fcax . : .
(birth, - , ., . . se-byrd) blftndan (? . <|11
hyrflcn, |rd|, Ja-, > burthen', birthen', > BLEND )'! . blandeb
birdeif : BURTHEN. BURDEN: da. f. -. () || . fahs*
, , ; ca. , , . fax ]
|| . burOinnia; . . - blank /, BLANK: . . '1
de, . baurbeij; bcran , , ,

; . . , : . (. bl6mi -.) || . Blume
. . (. .]; ? < . bloma
blanch , ; . . * II .|
-. ? ), BLANK .-. ? blubre/i, |bb|; BLUBBER t ,
. . , , || , blubbem] (-
, , ., . BLABBER t ,
; . . , BABBLE ,
, , BUBBLE
bljgst -. > blast; BLAST: . , )
, (); . . (blwme, ., . = . blome)
(), ; .-. > b o o k ; BOOK: .
I . blast, . blristr , ; ; . . ||
(); . . blasen . ] . . Buche .
blSdan 016. I > 1; BLEED: (. buohhn), Buch . (.
, || . biuten, buoh), , -. , . bOkOS
. ]: blod , ] || . . fagus .
bletsian, bleds|, (. . bloed- , . phcEos . ]
sia) . 2 > blctseijen', blcssen"; (b o ck , bok, . = . boc)
BLESS: . , b 6 c -fe l -. > booklel1:
; . . : blod. -iiQs -. > book-hous:
( ,
b o c - s ts e f -. > b o c s ta f: , ||
.) . Buchstab(e), . bokstafr]
blgtsunj -. > blessyng'; BLESSING: b o d i j -. > body; BODY; ,
. , ; . , -. || . -
. : bletsian ta h , . botcch]
(bleven . = beleven = . be-l&Fan) , |, . > bou g h , bow ; BOUGH [bnu]:
blew , |, .; BLUE: : . ; ; ; . .
. bleu < . . blavus b o j a -. > bowe; BOW []: (
. (. , . blfiw, . blir) ) || . Bogen (. bogo), .
blTcan . I > bliken: . ; . bogi]: bujan
|| . blthhfin, . bltkja] ? boy .; BOY: (. .
blind . > b ly n d ; BLIND: || . boi, |])
. blind, . blindr, . blinds] boylen, huylen, boilen, . II; BOIL:
-h lin d - f e lliu n . 2 > bly ndfelle/, ( , , : .
felde/i, folden, < . fcaldan) blyudfel- boillir < y?<7W. bulllre ,
d c n , |old|; BLINDFOLD: holla -. bolle -. > bollc; bole,
: - fel . BOWL: , || . bolla .,
hl!s (< bllds) Ja-. > bliss*; BLISS: . .]
, || . bITdsea]: (bonkr . = bank')
bllde . b, + fur . > blisful, (bonld, bold1, . = . beald)
|ol; BLISSFUL: (. b o lt -. > b o lt; BOLT: ;
. blesse/j . , || . Bolz(en)]
bletsian) b o rd -. > b o r d ; BOARD: . ;
bUde . > blithe; BLITHE: , ; ; ; . . ;
|| . blTdi, . || . bord, . bord , , .
blidr , , blei]>s] -brnird (otubaurd ,
|(1 -. > blood; BLOOD: || . ]
Blut, . , , ])] b o rd -w c a l -. * (
toodis . > blody; BLOODV: )
, || . blutig, (h o rc n , ~, . 2 -, . . beran)
. blodugr]: bled b o r j , |rb . > borwgh, horow : ,
? blomc .', BLOOM: . , ; , ||
, ; . , ; ? . Borg ]: <*>

157
bar jian . 2> borwe/i; BORROW: . hrres a-. > bras; BRASS: , ca. ,
ca. / , , ; .
-. -.; , . bras
-.; . -.: , ]
b orj brauncli; BRANCH: ,
(born, -, . 2 -, . . beran) : . branche < . _
(born* . = . burna)
(borwe/i, |rrow, . = . bonsiati) . > breeth; BREATH; .
(borvvgli . ~ . borj) , , , ; ,
boost /, BOAST; . , . , || , .
; ; ; , Brodem]
: . bost . (brenhe /. = . brecan)
(, , baust , , - bread -. ^ breed; BREAD: . ,
usa . ) ; . , || . (,
bosni -. > bosem , Jen; BO SO M f b o - , . brand ]: ? brcowani
() ]: , ; || . (> BREW .)
Busch] . 4 ; BREAK: *!
bot -. > bole; BOOT t: . . (), (), () ||
, ; , ; . brcclicn, , brikan]
; . , || (breed . = . bread)
. , , . brejo -. , , ||
bota , ] . . bragr ]
hotun . . botew; BOOT: . , . jo > breme: , ,
, , - ; , (? bremen , < .
; . (.)\ = betan . 1 , ) --|
. I , , , ; ,
bot .] (bitan bOt) ( . = . )
bote ,', BOOT: , brcntinj -. * : brant ,
( ): , botte, bote * , || . brattr]
(bojhe, , . bejen) brEost - ./O C. > bresl, |i|; B R E A S T
(bough . * . bo;) || . brcost, . brjdst, . , 9
(bowe . = . boja) Brust, . . brusts]
(bowre . - . bur) breost-je-h yjd I-. #
brad , > brood; BROAD: , brCn.st-hord -. *
|| . breit, , breidr, , ,
. braids], A oil b . > on brood, abrood, (breclh . = . )
.\ AUROAP: . , , ,, . brodor
; . . , ; (brycht , = bright = . beorht)
, ; brid* jo-M. > brid", bird; BIRD: .
; , , , ; , ; ca. . :
, ; bredan ,
brag . : . . () . (> BREED 1*;|
; , (> BRAG , () . (
) i/ . brnguer . briiten] brod (>
, (. . braka , - RROOD , ) || . Brut]
. bragc ; brTdel (< ^brijdil) -s (< brijdils), -. >
) hrydel; BRIDLE: , || ,
brsejen, bre|, -, > brnyn, ||; BRAIN: brTdel, brittil, . brcidcl]: ^,
; , || . brciu, , , , (> BRAISI
, bragcn, . brein] , ; . , *
b ra n t . > ('! .) b r e n t; BRANT, de)
BRENT, (, , .): brim -. > brym; BRIM: .
|| . bratUr, "brentr , brattr, ; ; ; cfb
brettr] / / ; .

158
() || . brem , briin . > broun; BROWN:
, . bram ; . . Ge- || . braun, . ]
brame ] biinn . . (. bude ., .
briiH-clif -. > b rim ; BRIM: , 2--, -btid) (.)
, ; (.) ;
11 .-. . (. brolitc, . || . . ,
2-<? sebroht) > bryngen (. brough- (. buan; . . . Bau
te, . 2- -brought); BRING er ), . , .
(. . 2- BROUGHT): ] || . . , . iutunis
, ; , ]: beon; . neah-3e-bilr
. || . bringen (. bracii- ? > budden3 .; BUD: ,
te), . briggan (. brahta)] : budde , (>
bry tla jn-. * , BUD , ) ? < , budda
, ; -. budde -. || . butte; .
, , ; - . boton , (
tan . 2 , , BUTTON , .) ?
|| . brj6ta] .\
brytfian, |1 . 2 breotan hiijan . 2 > buwen, , bowcn;
(. brytta) BOW [bau]: . , ()
(broad . = . brSd) ( .), ,
broe -. >brok'; BROOK: , , ; . ,
I . broek ., . bruocli, . Bruch ; || . . biegen
./. , ]: brecan (. (. biogan), . bjiiga, . biugan] |[
. . ) . . fugcro (. / . filgi)
(broken . 2 -, . . brecan) ,
broehe /, BROOCH: . ; , . phci'igein]
; , ; (buy . - . )
, ; . : bunden . 2 -, . bin dan
, broche bur -. > hour, bowre, BOWER: . ca.
broclim . 2 ; , , ; .
/; : -. , * , t || , Bauer
; ; brecan ., . biir]: bQan
(brood, ||, . = . brad) , |rh, .-. > burgh, ||, borwe;
brohte ., . brinjan BOROUGH []; , ,
broflor, |ur, |er, r-. > brother; BRO , ,
THER: || . Bruder, . broair, ; . .
. bropar] || . frater, . phrator || . Burg , .
too, , . bhrata; baiirgs ]:
. . , , bratr] burgels /, BURGESS: .
Se-breflor r- , . (.) , ; .
(broulit . 2 - - ., . . (,) :
brinjan) . burgeis (. . bourgeois,
(broun . = . brim) BOURGEOIS )
(broute . - . brohte; , . brin - . . burgensis . burgus
) . . (. . )
. 2 > brouken; BROOK: . burgeon, burjouit, ,, BURGEON:
. , , , , : . boijon
, ; . , burh-waru -. (.) bur-
|| . brauchen . (. burj), . ,
, gc~ , (, brflhhan ', -w. . . weri-
.); . . brukjait . (2)
] I . . frux < *frflgs, . . - burna -. burne -. :>burne, brynne;
eis) frul , BURN f (, .): , ,
] , , ; . , -

159
|| , brunno, . brunna; . . csndel-massse -. >candelmasse; CAN*. caroigne, Jeyne, cliaroine, .) CAR
brunnr -.] challon, . kalla, . ~]; 7
DLEMAS; (.) RION: , :
(|) ., . . je-byrd ~u; burbe esnd^l-massse-dfcj -. > caiidel-masse, . || . . - < *gols-;
. caroigne (.), cliaroigllC , kail- , +kalz-)]
. . je-byrde byrde) day; CANDLEMAS DAY: Cpe. - carpenter :, CARPENTER: -. > cheep; CHEAP .: .
(burthen . - . byrden) ; . . carpenticr = , ; , ,
-busc . ( Warde-busc, ) eanenle -. s (x .) kanunk: (.) . charpcnticr, . . - ; , , ,
> bussh; BUSH: : ? . , : . . canonicus tarius . carpentum
boscus ; . : .
( . kanunkr) . canjd . ,
busshel :, BUSHEL: ( -, .
( CANON (cart ., , , crset)
. 36,3)', . bussel ( ) . * _ cartcrc .; CARTER: : . -* .-. > chapman1; CHAP
.), boissel cart . (. . )
(busie, |, . = . bisi;) (cannot = can + not; , . cunnian - MAN: . . , ;
, , -. > care; CARE: .
(busynes . ~ . bisbnes1) wiht) ; . (,)
, ; . . ,
bustlc/i . II; BUSTLE: cape!, caple, * : ? . = . || , chara , . (cease . = . cessew)
) , : . (. blistla kapall , ] ceint . , : ,
. .) . (. capall ), < . (c<ese ,- . cyse) ceinte . cineta . 2 - .
butan, |on, (< be-Qtan), ., . (+ caballus (. . ehyvalerie) caste! -. > castel; CASTLE: *1: cingere
.) > buten', but', |); BUT: . ~ capita) .', CAPITAL :, . casteilum castrum ., . - ecllc2 .; CELL: . , ,
, ; ; , , .: . capi stra, , ( , ccaster ; . ,
, , , , ; . tal, . capitalis . > -CASTER, -CHESTER, : , cella
, , , ; . , (.. ); ) (, ., , = , ')
; || . bifitan, . buiten] ; (CAPITAL7 . ; - caste//, keste/r, , /; CAST: . , , 1 > ( .); KEN
bute (< be + Cite) = butan ; . ~ ; ; , (,): . , ;
butere . > butere, bo|; BUTTER: , . capitale , , ; ; ; . , . , ; ; .
; . butyrum . , W>u- . capitalis), (. . cate!.) , ; .: . (. || . , .
turon . cardinal ,; CARDINAL: : kasta ) , , , kannjan
bOton = bitan . cardinal , . cardinalis catei, ehatel, ,; I, CATTLE ): cimnan
<. ~ , , 2. CHATTEL ( . S): , Ceorfan . 3 > kerve/i (, . carf,
C,K h Q ( CARDINAL , , , . corvew, . 2 - -ve/i);
, ; , ;
, k aeh en , . . (. ) CARVE . (t . 2- carven): .
; . 1. ; . , ,
caughte, . 2 - y-caught; , cardiiiaus . . cardinal 2, : . , ; . , ,
e a c c h e d e , 2 - ( . . = . . cate! (.), chatei (, .), < . || . -
y -ea cch ed ) > CATCH (. . earian .) , capitale (, . capital .) ben , ]
2- CA UG HT): . , (curf ,, . , ceorian) ~ cave, kave; CAVE: : . ceorl -. > eherl; CHURL: .
, ; , , carian , 2 > ; CARE: , cave < . cava , . cavus . , ; ; . ,
, : . . [| . , (. . cava , ) || . Kerl]
ca ch ie r , s . ] (kaught, |, . 2 - ., . . eEosan . 2 (. . , . 2 -
, . chasier ( CHASE . II; Carrie, CARRY: . cacchen)
, ), < . , , ; , ^^) > chosen (. . chees,
cause ,; CAUSE: , ||, . chosen, . 2 -. -eorcn, -
. captiare , . ; . , , * ; : , cause, . ca
capture; (. CAPTIVE ) cliosen); CHOOSE (. CHOSE,
:, . , , ||, usa. by cause, be .1, bicause; BE
(callen . = . ) = . charger . 2 - CHOSEN): ,
CAUSE: || . kiesen, . kj<Ssa
(cam, , ., . . cuman) ( ceahl, caid, . cheald, cold; COLD: (, . kaus, 1 . kurom), .
cflmp -. , , ; CHARGE , , || , kalt, . kaldr, , kiusan (. kaus, 1 . kusum)] ||
. campus , ; .), < . /. kaldsl: caian , . , gustare ( ),
( . Kampf , II . kala , - ; . geuein]
; . CAM P . (* . , ] || . . gelu , , k eep .; KEEP: , .
. ? . .) CAR , , " gelidus , geMlns ): /; , ; coop,
camp-stede i-, * ,) , , eol (i> COOL . . /, :
cin . (> can, kail), . . earrus ) || . kiihl], - !, |ie|, ||, .
(canceler , = , chaunceler) carl-man1 ,-, > carlman: : jj jtoaoa (> CHILL , ) . 1 kepen; KEEP: ,
cuniiel -./-. s> candel; CANDLE: , . (. karl; . knrl-1 c*iaIlian . 2> callen; 1.: ,
: , candela ); . , eeorl; . . wli-niin' | , ; ,
, ; : ? || . ; . . , ,
160
161


, , .: charme .; CHARM: ,
, - . : . charme
ecrteyn, |, . ( .); carmen
certyn, CERTAIN: , chasten ( \ieii) . II; ( . . -)
, , : CHASTEN: . , *
. certain, jain, < . ceri(us) ; ; ; .
, , ; ; : ^
, + . -anus chastier < . castlgare (. ^
c e rte y n . - . [aius, CASTIGATE ,
efise (.) = cyse , , ) castus
cesse// . II: CEASE [si:s]: , (
, : . cesser (> . chaste, CHASTE -
. cessSre / , ( ))
; (chattel . = . catel)
c h a m b re , |au|, .; CHAMBER: . (chaumbre . = . chambre)
, ; . t , chaunce, ||, .; CHANCE; ,!
(.) ; ; . , .;
chambre < . camera ( CA . chaance", chcancc', < .
MERA ) . eadentia . , -*
. kamdrfl , (> . cadenza, . [
eliaiiipioun .; CHAMPION: , |, CADENCE , i
, : . ) . cadere . ,
champion, |iun (.), < . CHANCE, (|au|6), . ;
. campio, . , campus
. , , ( chauneeler, (canceler1), cha|, <,|1
. cflmp ., . .) CHANCELLOR: : .'
(clian g en . = . ch a u n g e /i) chancelier, | (. .), . . |
chapele, |11, :, CHAPEL: : cancellarius . cancellus . - '
. chapele < . . cappclla , . cancelli , -1
c h a p e le y n , |, . (.); CHAP ( '
LAIN: , : ) 1
. chapelein < . . cappel- chaungcn, cha|, , II; CHANGE; -1
lanus cappclla (. . chapcle). , (),
. ch ap eley n e . (.) ( , ) . : . 1
ch ap e/i . II changier < . . cambiare
: (chauns ., . . chaunce .)
chape . (> = chek, ||, .; CHECK: . ()
) . , , ; . ,
chape < . . ; , ;
, , : . eschac, ||, (.) <
(ity . . scaccus . shag
, ; . . shah , (. CHESS I
. . * > (.) ; , . esches < . .
) scacci .). . cheker', |ir, {<) es*
(chapman1 . =. -&1) cheker0 ,', 1, CHECKER 2. (x
c h a rita b le .; CHARITABLE: . . ex- .) EXCHEQUER
, : [|ka): . ; -
. charitable charite/ (. , ( );
charitee) ; . 1. !
c h a rite e , (caritcd1 Peterborough ' ; ; -
); CHARITY: ; 2 , , :
, : . . eschequicr, |kier,
charilef", Cai'itad', < . caritas, . , , . seaceariuni '
|tatcm, . (. , eberisshen.)

162
(chorcli . cirice) * > killen, kullf, kell|, . . > KILL: .
cheere .', CHEER; . , , ; ; .
; ; ; . : < . *cyllan . 1 1 . kul-
; .: . len , ]; . *cul
chere, |ie|, , , < . . ( > . cul , ) *>cwellan
ein ./. ( ? -.) > chyn;
_ chcrlsshen, |ice/i, |isse, . //; CHE CHIN: || . Kinn, .
RISH; , : kinn , . kiimus -. ] || .
. cherir (. cherissc, . . gena , . gdnus
. |issant, . .) cher < . ]
cams . (. . charitee.) 1 jo-c. > 1, ", ; KIN: .
chevyssaunce /, chevlsance; , ; , ; ,
, ; ; , ; . ,
: . chevissance chevir , , ; . ,
. chief . , || . kunrti; . kun-
. caput. (. ACHIEVE , . , . kuni ,
. achever chief ] || . . genus, . gdnos;
< . ad caput.) . . . ,
(chiken . = . cicen) ]: -cy n d
(chttie/i . = . cldan) cynd, () -~, i-. > kynd*. cunde;
(child (. = . cild) KIND; , , , ,
(eiiyn' . ~ . cin) ; (je-cynd) ; .
(chireehe . = . cirice) , . , , ,
cliitere/i . II; chitter: , ; . . , ; ;
, ; . : *
( , CHATTER , cyiide, () -~, , > kyndc, cun
, , de; KIND: . ,
.) ; . ,
chyvaehie, che|, |vau|, |, . ; ,
; , , ; ; . , :
. clievauchie, chi|, chcval cynd .
. (. . chyvalerie) -/-, > kuneriehe, kynerlehe,
chyvalerie . > CHIVALRY; ke|: , : . = ';
, : . (. . cyninj-rice ,
chevalerie, chi|, cheval . || . Konigreich])
<. caballus, . jm cynins', ", k|, -. > kyng; KING:
chols /, CHOICE . . || . Konig (. kuning); .
, ; : . . konungr; . . kuningas
Chois choisir . , . , ,]
(. kausjan . I , , cir', (< cier), cer, i-M, > ehur\
kiusan . 2 || cher*; chewr, CHAR, -E , (
. ceosan . 2 , . .]) . -S , *-ES; CHARWO
(chosen, i- . 2 -, . . ceosan) MAN
eieeii -. > chiken (. chikncs); CHICK, ): . , ,
CHICKEN; , || ; ; . . . ,
. kiiken; . . Kiichlein, , ; ,
kiuklingr] ; ; . .
p<dan . 1 > chide; CI1IDE: , . (.
.)
cild, cyld, . (. -ru), > child (. -, (< |ie|), , . 1
c y rra n , c irra n ,
-, - ); CHILD: . . (. .) > c h u r r e n , c h e r r e n ;
; , , (.) . ,
; . , ; ;
(kild - killed; . . ) . ; , =

163
; coep. , clyppan , . > clyppctt, clipper
II . kerrian, CLIP t; ,
. kerren] .)
clr/ce, cyr/ce, -. > chircjclie, 14, cliur- *clatrian . 2 > clateren; CLATTES
chc, |c|, (x .) kirk (. .); , || . kiate
CHURCH: : , kuria- , . (.) klattem, kliittem]: '
. ( . |, . clatrung ,
. .); . . -. > clooth; I. CLOTH (kb:9]
. . + seard - . > 2, (. >) CLOTHES [kbudz, |z] .
cyree-licrd1, chireheyerd . .; .: , . , ,
CHURCHYARD; , . 1, ; 2. , || ,
Kleid . ]
eyrtei, k|, -. > kurtel, kirtel; KIRTLE f : claOian . 2 ( 1*3 . 1) > elothen
, ; , : = (, |ede ..; . claddc,!
curt-, . curtus . , . 2 - y-clad, = . .
+ . . -el (< Ml). (. . - clethew < . clsfian); LOTH
( ? .; . kurz (. . 2- - D f CLAD);] );
.) () || . Kleiden]: 1
cyssan . I > eussen, kissen, kess|; (clear . . = . eleer . 1
K ISS: || . kussian, . .)
kiissen (. kuss|), . kyssaj; cos* CLEMENCY: , -
-. || . ] : . dementia
cyse, , (< ||), else, ||, j o -. > these; cleofan . 2 s eleven; CLEAVE (
CH EESE; : . cascus ( CLOVE, CLEAVED): ,^1
. Kase); . . ; .
() || . klieben, . kljufa]
eitec .; cittie, CITY: (clepen, |ien, . . clipian)
: . cit<S < , clvitfls, , deer .; CLEAR; ,
(tfttem, , , .: . cicr, clair ,
, < . clarus ;
, |, . 1 ^ kuthen, kithen, |: ;
, || . kiiflian, derec ( |ic), ( .) clerc . > clerk;
. (ver)-kiinden (. kundcn), . CLERK: . ; .
(ea-swQ-kunhjan]: , , ;
(. .) . ,
, , -, > kithe, kith; KITH ( ; . . clerlcus .
KITH AND KIN k!crik6s: . clerc < . .
); : deren . II (. .); CLEAR:
(dz'd = sized; . . assise .) (), ; cleer
(clad . 2- elothen, . . claOi- .
) clergie .; CLERGY: ;'
clayme/j, clam], . //; CLAIM: , , clergie = . . clSri-
, , ; cus (. . clercc)
. , : , dlf -, > !1, ||, ||; CLIFF, ,
clnmer (. ) . claime) , || . klif, . klifl;
, < . clamare , Klippe)
clipian, cly|, cleo| (.), . i j l
clsene . . clene, kl|; CLEAN: Clepen; clepe, (. 2- >) YCLEf*!!
, , . f; , ,
; . || . klcin , , ; ,
( . kleini , ; , . . , 0&|
, )] . . ,
? > dupsen, clasp|, . II; CLASP: cloistre, |ster, ,; CLOISTER'
; , . (. . : . cloistre; , j01"'

164
claustrum claudere . , * wo-c. > knee; KNEE: || .
(. . cloos) Knic, . kne, . kniu, . kniwa] ||
^ cloos . .; CLOSE: . genQ]
, , , cnSo-mSjas -,, . ,
: . clos . . : . = cn5ow (.
lore < . claudere . . gcnO)
, (. . cla- eneow, -~, ., . cnawan
usus, . clausa; . |sc, cneowlian . 2 > knelen; KNEEL:
C LA U SE , , ,
, ) II . knelen]: cn5ow.
cloth - = . claa; elothen . = . cnlf -. > knyf; KNIFE: : .
claflian; clootb-makyng ., . . {. kn(fr)
macian .) cniht (<|ie| < ||) -. >knyght; KNIGHT:
(clout . = . clQtian) . , , ()
chiilij . >cloudy; clowdie, CLOUDY: ; . , , ()
. , ; . . ; ; . || .
: clud . Knccht ]. cn. + scipc i-. >
()', (> . cloud knyght-shipc .
(); ; , > knokePcym.; KNUCKLE:
C L O U D ) , , || . knook,
clutian . 2> cloute/i; CLOUT: . . . Knochen ]. . knokled;
, ; . . KNUCKLED: . ,
: ct -. ; .
( C L O U T . , ) ( )
cnafa -. > knave; KNAVE: . . (knorned ., . knarre, knorre .)
, , ; . ciioltu -. > knotfp; KNOT: || .
, || . Knabe chnoto (. Knoten); . . kniitr
]. . knavlssh .; KNAVISH: -.
: -issh, -ish, . < (knowe/i . knowledge ., . .
. -isc; . Enjlisc cnawan)
- knarre, knorre .; KNORR, KNAR, . > cook; COOK: ; . -
GNAR , (.): , ; quus .
, || . knarre, . , |, |, -. || . Kochcr
knar. , knorned . , (. kochar)]; (. . quyver.)
cofre, |fer, . COl'TER:
t'ltawan . 1>knowe/i; KNOW: . ; ; . cofre
je-enswan , ; - ( colia, . cofyn
; . . | . (ir)-clmaan; , > COFFIN ) <
. . knd(k) () ] || . , , . cophinus . kophinos
. noscere < gnoscere (. 1 .
novi < gnflvi, . co-gnoscere, co-^novi, .', COY: . ,
, ), . gignoskein , , ; .
(. . . )] , : .
. 1. . cnawlechefl1, knowlechen", COi", quei' . quietus
legen", . ( aknowen . ( QUIF.T , )
< , on-cnawan II - . , (-- <
); ACKNOWLEDGE: *-kei-)]
, , (cold . . ceald)
; -lechert . < . -; collect , : .
neal&can, . . . cnawle- collcetus . . colligcrc
chc', knowleche", |ege, . KNOW , . COLLECT .
LEDGE: ; . . collcctcr, .
C||(arr -. ( . collectflre .
.), . (. -.) collcctus . .

165
collcr .) coliar, COLLIER: c o m u n , |m m |, . com m D nis < corn-
: . . col -. (> COAL moiills || . . -]
) || . kol; . , Kahle \] comimc, |mm|, /, I. ( . .
colour, jur, .\ COLOUR: : COMMUNE 2. (. >) COMMONS
. c o lo u r (. . c o u le u r ) < /. . , ,
. color, | ; . 1. ; 2.
eoiouren . II) COLOUR: , : . comune, |mm|, (.
: colour . |mm|), . . (, . comune
. (> ~), . .)
comaumfen, | |, . II, COMMAND: comunycacioun .) comyncacyon,
, , COMMUNICATION: ,
:. . c o m a n d e r, : . communieatio, .
comm|, . commendfire , liaiiem
. (. . c o m e n d e n .) COMMUTUAL(coml) . ()
(comen, , com, . - , cuman) , : > npucnt
(com m en . - . c o n n in ') . -, . -; MUTUAL
comenden, |mm[, . II; COMMEND: . miituel . miituus
, : .
commcndfire. (. . coiiiaunden,) coneeven . //; CONCEIVE:
(comyn . = . comun0) , ; :
(comyncacyun . = . comunycacioun) , coneevir (. joir) < .
comyxtioim, eommixtion, . concipere
: . commistion, . conclude . II) CONCLUDE:
commistio, *|ixt|, . |ionem; . mi- , : . -
stus, mixtus, . . miscere cliidere
conquests .) CONQUEST:
(comlynj ., . . .) ; :
eompanye, |aignye, /, COMPANY: , conquests < , . -
, : . - quista , . conqulslta
|gnie, < . . co m p a n ie s,
p a n ie , . . . conquTrere
. |iem, , , , ( . conquer-
, , , CONQUER ,
- !* + panis )
COMPARE . ; condleloun .) CONDITION: ^
. comparare; . . comparer , , : .
. eondicion, |un (.), . con
compelled . II) COMPEL: ditio, . |ioncm
, : , - condole5 ,; CONDOLE: . a,
pelief, . compcllcre , ;
complcynen, |ai|, . //; COMPLAIN: ; . . , *
: . eemplamdre < : . coil* + dolere
. . complangere , confederal . /, CONFEDE
RATE; , ;
compleynt, |aynt, /, COMI-'LAINT; , ,
: . complainte < . ; , confoederatus .
. . complaindre ( .) < . . confbederare
eomplcxioun /, COMPLEXION:
. , ; . ; confessioun .) CONFESSION:
. complexion, [ioun (.), , ,
= . complexio, . |16nem, : . confession, -
, confessio, an. |ionem
6, |, | |, .) comyn, confounden . II, CONFOUND:
|mmen, COMMON: , , ,
; : . ( ..): . confondre,

166
|ouj (.) <. confundere continue!2 .', CONTINUAL:
, , , : . continue!, .
, ; (. . continufilis. (. . contynuen.)
confusus, CONFUSE conlynue/i . II ; continewe, CON
, ) TINUE: ,
conscience, (kunscence2), .', CON , : . con
SCIENCE: : . consci tinuer < . eontinuare ,
ence < . conscientia , contimius
(conseille . ~ . , counseii . . ( CONTINUOUS
~1 .) , )
consideracionn _<.; CONSIDERA (contray, [, . - . contree)
TION: . . , contrarie3, |aire, .; CONTRARY:
, ; , :
; ( ); . . contrarie, |aire, . contrari-
. , , us contra .
; : . con contree1, cu|, cou|, |ey, [ay, eyw<.; COUN
sideration, . conslderatio, . |io- TRY: , , ,
nem, conslderare . : . contree,
, ; (. considcrer, cou| (.), = . . -
CONSIDER , trata , ,
, ) , . contra .
- CONSIDERATE . (conlrefetew . = . countree)
, : . conside- ( . = . )
ratus . . considerate (. copie .; COPY: . ,
. consideracioun), (considerat ; , ; .
? , - , : . copie =
fe derat) . copia ,
(consyens . = . conscience) COPYHOLD, (|pie|), .
constable, conest|, .', CONSTA , ; -HOLD .
BLE; ca. , holder . 2 - (. . healdan .)
, ; . corage. ), cv(.; COURAGE: ca.
, : , ; , ,
. conestablc (. connct|) < : . corage, cou|, .
. . comes stabuli ; . +corat!cum cor . (, cor
(. . countee . stable .) dis) || . , heorte]
= construccloun .; CONSTRUC cordial . ,; CORDIAL:
TION; , , , ;
: . construction, () : .
. coiistiTJciio, . [ionem, . cordial, . . coidialis ,
constructs ( CONSTRUCT . cor (. cordis) || . .
. , , ) hcortc]
. . am construere (, . correclen . II; corecte, CORRECT:
coiistruen .) , : = correct
construes . II; CONSTRUE: . . correctus . .
, : . con corrigere ,
struct , ,
* ( . ) . 2 , . .
contenten .; CONTENT: corn -. > corn; CORN: , (
: = ~ . . . .) || . Korn, . kora, .
< . . continire kaurn] || . (< ), .
(> . eontenir, CONTAIN , . granum ( ^ < -J=)]
, ); . . - , cnme!, , .; CROWN:
tenter ., . . ., . , , , ,
. ; , , , :

167
. corone, |oune, <. corona . conteor, cu|, , crft -. > craft, |e[; CRAFT: . ; crQdelis (. CRUDE . crudus
, , conter, cu|, . ( ; , , ; , )
, , , . ; . counten, . .): 2 . . . . , , ? crul . , ||
CROWN: , , * contouer (= . . computato- ; , || . Kraft . . crulte, . krul)
, : . coroner, rium ) , , , . kraptr] (erunlng" . ., . . -
|ron|, corone . (. ) comer (. . counien) , cragge, .; CRAG; )
cost .', COST: , ; (countre, ), , - . contree) : . quantitee .; QUANTITY:
costen . . coster (. - coiintrcfetwi, !, . II: COUN :1 -. ( ,); cart, k|; CART: ; . quantity . quan-
ter) . constare , TERFEIT: , , || . (.) kartr] titas, . |itatem, quantnm
; , ; : countrelet, |feit, . . crawa -. crawe -. > erowe; CROW: (= . quantus ,
contrefait . . conirefuirc || . kraia, . Krahe .] .; . .
cote :, COAT: , , <. con ereatour :, CREATOR: , t , . ,
, , .: tra + : . creatour = . )
. cote . (. kotta , . II: COWER; , creator, . crcatorem cuekyng-stoo! . > COCKING-
) ; ? . + (. , creature ,.; CREATURE: STOOL: (.) ,
(koude, coulde, ., . . cunnan) a sitta oclt , , :
counseil, |, 1, .; COUNSEL: ) . creature =. creatura -: ., .
, : . conseil, cours .; COURSE: , creviss', cravass*, .; (I) CREVICE, . . ; St. < .
cou| (.), <. consilium , .; . cours < . (2) CREVASSE: ca. , stol -. , (( , Stuhl
, ( cursus, . | , . ; . ( 1) , . , . st61l, . stols]
concilium > court, (lul1), .; COURT: , : , ; (2) (quell .= . cwellan)
. councylle, COUNCIL . curt, |, (. ), <, (., ): (cuen, quenr, queen, . = . CwCn)
, , ) cohors, . |ortem, cm # , crevace (. crevasse) < . questioun . > QUESTION:
coimselllen, |. . II; COUNSEL: ; ( COHORT . crepatia crepare . ; . question = . quae-
, : ) stio, . [ionem, ,
, counseiller counseil . courtepy :, , crinjan . 3 , ; (quhar . = . hwair)
(. ) ; . kortc pie , || . . Kringel (qulien . = . hwsenne)
eountce .; COUNTY: : , . kringr ) < ^ (quic, |yk, |ck, . = . cwic)
. contfi < . comitatus co (coujif, kouthe, ., , . cunnan) . /, . (> - quyver , > Q U IVER: :
mes, an. |rnitem, , coveilise . , ; gon; CRINGE cuivre ? . (. . cocur)
(> . comte, jnt|, |u|, ; om- . covcitise . . cupid- -.) . 4 >, cu|; , :
icyda COUNT . ) ( cupidus -., CrTst -. > Crist; CHRJST: : , . !1 .
counten . II; COUNT: , cupiclitfis ; . Cliristus . khristos kominen (. quemati), . , .
; ; . . . coveitus, qiman] I . . venire (. / .
conter, cu| (.), <. compu- COVETOUS , ) cilsteii . . -. >cristeu, chr|; ( venio *gyemi6)]. . comlyns
tare , ( covercliief, kercheef, ..; KER .) CHRISTIAN: ; ,; ME LING f: ,
COMPUTE , , CHIEF: , ; . : . christianus : -lyug . < . -ling
) covre-chef, , Christus (. ) ( dlorling -,, . DAR
countenauncc, |nsc, c.vk<.; COUNTE , , ; chef crTslen-dftm . > eristendom; CHRIS LING , deore .)
NANCE: ca. , , ( CHIEF , , TENDOM: . . , cumbol-je-hnast -.
; . , ) < . caput. (. covre ; . . , ; . ,
, ; . covert.) || . kumbl ,
. coiitenance < , conti- covert . .; COVERT: crop* -, > crop1; CROP: . . , ]
nentia (. COilti* , ; ( , , ; ; cunnan .-. (. . cSn,
nence; CONTINENCE ) .: . covert . (); , , ; cdnst, *, . : .
, ) . < . . covrir ( (crow , . crawa. we) .; . 2 - ; ~,
countesse, cu|l, :, COUNTESS: COVER , , ' (crowne . = , coroune) . ) > (. .
; . contesse, cu|, Conte, ) < . . COVERT" ertidan, ||, . 2 > croudew; CROWU: , . , |eth; . couthe,
cu|, conite (. ca. countee .) UARON . (. . . .)'- , , , , |de, ]; . 2 - . couth, / coud);
eountour .; COUNTER: ca, 1, (w* ; . , ( , con, ( ) . CAN, .
eouniere) , , (kowth ., . . ) , CROWD ) || am. krfl- COULD (coude); . . ;
; 2 . eradol -. > cradel; CRADLE: ' den, . kruien] ; . . ,
; // ? || . . Kratto ); j cruel1, cruwel', :, CRUEL: .. || . (. .
; . ; : 1, ? KejibmcK. (. craidlial) : . cruel < crudel < . , . , . konntc; .

168 169
kunnan ), . kunna, . kunnan * > euttcn, kitten, . /; CUT:
(. . , 1 . kunnum, , . :'!< . *
. |>)] || . . , . 0 . ., , I
noscere ( - < gn-)]: cnawan, cunnan
. . cweilan . > quclien; QUELL: . . I
(, ||), , ., . , cunnan) , , ;
(kunerice, |che, . = . -) . . , , . I
(cuntesse . = . countessc) , , ,jjj I
(eanlre, |, . = . contree) . , || . quel-
(quod . quethen, . . cwe- lian , . k v e iia ): . 1
) cwelan . 4
cuom, cwom, ., . cuman ewin ( ||) i-. > queen, quene; 1
cuppe -. > cuppe, ||; CUP: , QUEEN: . ; , -1
, ; . . cuppa (, ); -
( . K.opf , ; . . || . k v in 1
, ; . . tSte , . gens ) || . . ,]
< . testa , . g u n e (. g u n a ik o s ), . . 1
) . , GYNA- 1
curat, |aat, :, CURATE: ECOLOGY): cwerte ~. - 3
: || . q u c n a , . q in o ; . . ] 1
. . curatus, . | , (> . cweflau . 5> quethen (. . quoth, 1
), . (. . ) q u o d ); ( ) . ( , .) 1
. > CURE: . , QUOTH f: . . , rouo-
, ; . , ; . . , .. '
: . cure . || . quedan, . kvefla, . ]. 1
( . BEQ UEATH , - ]
curious . > CURIOUS: , < . be-cwcaan.)
, , cwic, cue, . >quyk; QUICK: . . I
, , ; . ; , ; . - |
, : . || . quec , - ]
curios, |ious, , , . kvikr ; . . qius
, , <. curio- ] || . . , . vTvtis; , ,1
sus , , . bios (. , ,
. BIOLOGY, .)]
curs . > curs; CURSE: , wild i-././. : cwelan
( (. cweilan)
; ., ., cwom . . -tin . ., . cu
XI .) man
cursiun . 2> cursen ||; CURSE:
, , , D
.) : curs, 4
1 . - + . > ucurscij , dd, tied, i-. > deed4; DEED: . ca, i
; ( ) . 2- > ACCURSED, , , , - S
[ST, . , ; . , || . Tat, .
; 2, for- ( , .) + . > (ga)-dg])5] || . . , ]: 1
forcursen (. 2 -) forcursed don. . in dede; INDEED: .
, ,
curteis, courtels, :, COURTE ; . ,
OUS: , ;
. curteis, |, |ois, court . dies -. > day (. dawes, daycs); DAY:
(, , -) || . Tag, . dagr (. da-
curteisie, courtcisle, :, COURTE gaz), . dags], di3c > aday; aday,
SY: , : . (. .) A DAY, ( -s)
curteisie curteis . (. ) adays, NOWADAYS

170
, ; . , nus (. |m) , ; (.
; . . , , . dame)
; , , , (Danes . ., . . Dene)
(dar, dar, ., . , durran)
daggerc :, DAGGER; ; ? (daire . - . dyre)
dagge/! . . dagu- darod -. > (. .) dart; DART:
dague . ; ? , () : . . dart ?
. dagarius . (. .)
datfes-Saje, -, -. >dayesje; DAISY: (iiart ., . . darod)
. , , ; , date .\ DATE: ; , :
, date . data .
daij-ifc . > dayly; DAILY: datum . {.
,
(did, day, . = . dag) )
dm! -. > ; DALE * ( . .. (daughter . = . d eb to r)
|| . dal, . tal, , dal; . dauncerf . //; DANCE: ,
. daln'-M.] : . dancer, |ser, ?
\ i-. > deel; DEAL; . . , . danson
; . , || . daunce . > DANCE: ,
Tcil , . del , . dails ] .: . dance,
II . . ()- (< -')]; dffllan |nse, ((, . dauncen .)
dsclan . 1 delen; DEAL; , , daunten . 11, DAUNT [daint]: .
, ; ; ,
; ; . , ; . ,
, ; : . danter, *domter,
; ; (. . dompter),
-., ; ; . domitare
. ; ; dead . deed; DEAD; ,
-., [| . teilen, . , . || , tot,
deila, . dailjan] || . (< -- . daudr, . daufis]. (. . deyew.)
)]; d&l dead-lrc . > deedllch, dcdly: DEAD
daltaunce; DALLIANCE +: . LY; . ca. ,
, ; ; .
-., , ,
; . , deaf . > deef; DEAF: || .
-.; taub, . daufr, . daufs]
. daliance dcajlan , 2 > deyofl, dies; DYE;
d&lins -. > ilelyng-; DEALING: . , (); deaj, |h,
. , , - . , ,
; ; -.; (dealing . = ba. dSlin.s)
, ; (.) dear* ,, , , durran
, : dSlan deaO -. > deellu DEATH: . ;
d am e 2 :, 1, DAME 2, DAM: . ; . || . Tod, ,
, , , dauflr, () dauSi -., . dau])US
; , ( ); , -.} dead; . . deye/i
!. , ; 2. , ( deaw wo ^m . / c. > dew; DEW; || .
): , dam e < , , . dpge]
doinitia , debate . If', DEBATE: ca. .
damnrn , //; DAMN: , , , ,
; . , , , , ; coop. .
; , d a m n c r < , , : . dcba-
damn are tfe < . . de- + baltei'e (.
dan , , , : batuere )
. dan . danz < , domi- (debt ., . . dette)
dekaye, decay; DECAY: .,
, , : ; . 6 . .^
. decair , . dE-ca- $*,
derc . de + cadere . . : 1
(deceas ., . , dccees) dead
dcceyven . ; DECEIVE: deyritee111. () .; DAlty,
: . dcccvoir, |eir , (. TY: . , ;
deceive), . decipere , , ; . .!
: . deinte, |ai|, <
deeees, |ess, :, DECEASE: dignitas, . [taiem, *
: . deces < . decessus , (= . digllite, (WirtydjJ
DIGNITY UCTno)
declarer! . II; DECLARE: dels :, DAIS: ca.
, : . declarer, , , ; ,
. declarare , , : . deis <
, . discus ,
declynen . II; DECLINE: , , ; () ;
, , . diskos
; : . decli (. DISH , < . disc
nes . declTrtSre .; DESK .
(decrease, dccrese, . ., decrees dcsco < :, DISK ,
., decres ., . . descrees ./.; . . Tiscli , .
. descrcsen .) tisc, .)
(ded, deed, . . d id ) del* jo-./. > dell'; DELL: - |
(ded, deed, . - . dead) , || . delie]
(ded ., ., . don) (deel . = . dSl)
(deef ., . . deaf) (delen . - . d&Ian)
(defalt . = . defaute) delfan . j > delven; DELVF. . f:
defaute, |alte, :, DEFAULT: . , || . tclban]
, , dcliberen . 11, deliber, ( . delyve-1
; . ) deliver, (x . -ate .)
, : . de DELIHERATE: . , CO-J
faute, deialte, . (. . d^faut-u.) , ; . , 1
=defence, |se, :, DEFENCE: : . dBITberare (,
, ; . (.) : . dellbcrfluis; DELIBE
. defense : . delensa . RATE . , -1
. . defendere (. . defen ) libra . . (-
der) . delyvc-
defender) . II; DEFEND: , . )
), (): . dclit(I> .; DELIGHT: :
defendre, . defendere , dclit deliter . . defe
(defens . . defence) cts re
(degysen . . disgiseri) delyvere .; DELIVER t:
degree :, DEGREE: . , , : . delivre
, , , ; delyveren . II; DELIVER:
. , , : , : , de-
dcgr4f< . de- + giadus , livrer < . . de-
, , ( GRADE llberare , ITbcrare .
, , ) liber .
dehter . ., . dohtor (delyvere ., , deli-
del (.) = daij . ~)
? deyen (< desan1), dlen, ,; DIE: (delven . = . delfan)
|| , doian, . touwen, . deman . /> demcri; DEEM: .
deyja] || . . ): , , , , ;

172
. . , || . IUO- descendel3> . II; discend, DES
niian, . -domjan): dotn CEND; ; :
(dfijnises, , devises) . descendrc, . desccndere
pone i-. . > (x DanT , descrees .; DECREASE:
) Danes; DANES: || . , ; . descre-
Danir, . Danen], (Cp. Denise.) is descreistrc . (. . dcscrescn)
(jemiian . 2 ? deseresen, |, deer|, . //; DE
(hdpax legimcnon) CREASE: (), :
pcnija . ., . Dene . descreistre, . de-
pcnisc . > Densh, (x , crcistrc (, . decreisse) <
) Danyssh; DANISH: . dScrescere
|| . danskr, . danisch]; Dene (describe ., . . descryven)
deofol, |ul|, o-M. > devel, |il, dele; DEVIL: deseryve/1 . II; descrive, ( .)
: . dinbolus . dia- DESCRIBE: : .
bolos ( . ) descrivre < . descrlbcrc. (. .
deop . > deop; DEEP: || scrlfan.)
. ticf, . djiipr, . diups] || . desserve/i, |s|, . Ii, DESERVE:
. dubisj : . deservir < .
deop-llc ., ~ . > deepliche, deservlre
deeply; DEEPLY: . ( desire/ . II; DESIRE: :
.); . . (. . dcsirer < . deslderare
.) desperacioun, |ion, :, DESPERATI
deor -. > deer; DEER: . . ON: ; :
( ), ; ; . desperation, (.) |cio-
. , || . Tier , un, desperer . ( DESPAIR
, . djur , . dius, (*, . ) < . desperflre
, ] || . . (. . |eratus,
, ( , < 8, < sj: . DESPERATE .
), . , )
animal anima , cfesport, rf/spl, :, 1, DISPORT +;
animus )] 2, SPORT: ca. , ,
deorc . > derk; DARK: , , ; . 1 .
|| . . . tarch- tar- , ; 2. , :
chanian . . ] . dcsport (= , . disportus
deor-wyrfle (< -wie|), -wurae, . > de- , ) ? . se
r-worthe; dearworth: , desportcr . (. . rfesportew)
, : d. dyre f/f-sporlc/i, <Wsp|, . 11, 1. DISPORT
(deovel . - . deofol) (.); 2. SPORT: ca. ,
(deep , = . deop; depe ., . , , ,
. deop .; deeply ., , . ; . I,
deop-ffc ,) , , ; 2.
departen . II; DEPART: . , ; (.)
, ; ; : . se
; . ; : , desporter ,
departir , , <. dis-
(dcrk . =. deorc) . + portare
(dere . - . dyre) destroyed, |uyc, strye ( ),
* > dcrthe .; DEARTH [|:||: . . ; DESTROY: ,
; ; : , destruire < .
. , . *destiiigere , .
: < . *dyrrtu, *deor<3u II destrucre
. diurilha , . tiuridn deslruecioun .; DESTRUCTION:
, , . d^iO , , : .
]: . dyre destruction. (. . destroyed.)

173
dettc :, DEBT: : . clctte dyde . (> dide, did), . don
< . debita . . . (1- (dye, die, . = ca. dcye/i)
-,, difference :, DIFFERENCE:
, : . difference
determynerr . //; DETERMINE: . differentia differre .
, ; . ; ,
determiner < . de- + terminnre . . ( DEFER
, DIFFER
. d6n , ; .)
(deth . = . dead) digne . , ;
(devlde . = . dyvydefl) ; : .
dcvys, ~, .; devise, DEVICE: . digne <. dignus
; ; dihtiin > dlghteri (. 2 - y-dight);
, ; ; ; dight, (. 2- >) DIGHT f .
. , ; ; ; . , ,
, : . , ; . . .
devis . , , , < , ;
. . dlvlsium ., . devise , ; ;
. ; , ; ; . . ;
; ; < . . dlvlsa ; : . dictare
1.; . . . . , (. . dictatus, DI
, , , < . CTATE , )
. dividere (. . dyvyde/i) diligent :, DILIGENT:
devysen(3> . ; DEVISE; . , : . diligent,
; ; ; . diligens, . |entem
; ; ; dyme :, DIME: . .
. , ; (.) ; . . (.)
: . deviser devis, 10 ( 1/10 ); .
~ . (. . devys.) disme < . dccima (* pars)
dcvncionn .; DEVOTION: . () decern
, , dyppan . 1> duppcH, dippe/i; DIP:
(), ; . , ) || . dyppe]; ~ deop
, (.) : - DIRE . : . dirus
. devocion, (ioun, . devotio, dyre ( |ie|), deore, . > dere; DEAR:
. |i6nem . de- + vovSre || . tcuer (. tiuri), .
() dyrr]
devout :, DEVOUT: (direccion, |ction, .; . . direction,
, ; : . directio, . jionem; . . direc
. dcvot < . devotus . ted .)
( DEVOTE . direct .; DIRECT: :
() < . . dcvo- . direct, . directus
vere) director) . I!; DIRECT:
(dewly . . duely; . . due , : direct .
.) dis-, dcs-, .; DIS-: . dcs-;
(dyad, ., . = . dead) ( // , . disavauntage,
dlcian . 2 > dyken; DIKE: . . discharger) ., .) <. die-;
; / .
; . , dKavauntngc : DISADVANTAGE:
, , : . des-
: dtc ./. (> avamage dcs- (< . dis-) + avan-
DIKE . , , tage (. ca. avauntage)
DITCH ) (diseend . = ca. descender))
(dyereasc . , = . descrees . discharge/), de|, |rdg|, . ; D IS '
descresert, decfj, /t.) CHARGE: ,

174
.: . deschar- ty, . diversitSs, an. |tatem, di-
ger . dis- + . . carricare versus . (. )
(. . ). dyvyden, dej, . II; DIVIDE: -
DISCHARGE . ; (), (): . divider,
; . . dividere
diseonfortcn, |omfj, . //; DISCOM dyvyn', dc|, , :, DIVINE: ,
FORT: , (.) , ;
: . desconforter < . (.) , ,
dts- + . . confortare ; . (.) ;
discreet :, DISCREET: (.) , f :
, : . discret < . divin, de|, < . dlvlnus
. discretus . . disceme- .
( DISCERN , (do, doo, . = . don)
, :, . DIS doctour :, DOCTOR: , ;
CRETE , . . ( ): .
.) doctour = . doctor, . |,
disdeignen, dc|, |aign|, . \ DIS , docere
DAIN: , : (doc . = . don)
. desdegtiier (. desdeigne) < (dojian ., . . dugan)
. dis- . + dignari . riojor s-., -./. : da:;
(> . degnier, dohtor -, > doughter, dowt|; DAUGH
DEIGN , ) TER: || . Tocliter, . dottir,
dignus . (. . digne) . daiilitar; (. . . dohtriz)] \\pyc.
disgisen, dcsg|, dcg|, :, DISGUISE: , . (. ),
, (): . tliugdter]
. desguiser d6m -. >doom; DOOM: . ,
disgisyng' :, DISGUISING: . , ; ; -
; , ; ; ; ; ;
; . : . , , , ,
disgisen ; . , , ,
dysij . > dusy, disy, ||; DIZZY: . t || . tuom, . domr, .
; . . domsj: don
; -dom , -. > -dSrfi; -DOM (
|| . tusig] WISDOM) || . -turn, . -ddmr];
dispence, de|, |nse, , , ; dom .
. despense despenser . { doniynacioun :, DOMINATION:
DISPENSE . , , : .
) < , dispensare dominacion, . dominatio, . |ia-
; ; ;
don <. . (. dyde, . 2 -
- DISTRIBUTE , , -don) > doon (. dude, dide, ||,
: . distributus . 2- v-doo/i); doe, DO (.
. . distribuere DID, , 2- DONE): , ,
(dlstroyen . - . dcstroyc/i) , ( . .);
DISTRUST . ~: ; ; ;
(.); (.): < . dis- ; . -don ( . + .
. + trust . ~ . , ): () ,
dyvers . (. "-); 1. DIVERSE ; , . . , (
[dat'v3:s] 2. (.) diverse, DIVERS , .);
['daivs:z] t: ca. ; ; ; ()
; . 1 . ; 2. : ; , . , , (
, divers < . divcrsus . .),
dyversiCee .; DIVERSITY: (. . ., , ,
, : . diversi , . . ) || .

175
tun] I . . (< ), .', . : . drajan . ? . draft
ti-thein , thesis ( (. drditr ,
, )]. un- (1) + se-don )
. 2- > ondoon; UNDONE: (drawen . = . drajan)
dreccan . 1 (, drehtc) > drecche
(ilone, for to done, , :, dretch: , ,
. . don)
(dong . . duns) dreojan . 2 &dreyen, dryew; dree ,
dorste . (> ~), . durran (. .): . . *
dosnyn, dosryn, (3) :, dosen, ;
DOZEN: : . douzalne , ; . ,
douze . < . ; (.)
duodecim (.) || . driugan; .
* > doten (< |ie/f*) . //; DOTE (f dr^gja . , ] 4
. /-): , driorij . > drery; DREARY: ,
, ; ;
: . *dotian || , ; .
. doten] , ; .
(doth . . . don) , f || . drey
double2 :, DOUBLE: , rigr, |ugr, ; . . trauri
: . double, do|, <; . (. trflrec)]: dieor -
duplus duo . ./. || . . drey
doute :, DOUBT: . ; ri] dreosan . 2 || . dri-
; , : . dou- usan] drusian . 2
te douter , (. . dautew) , , (> DROW
doutc/i . Il\ dowte, DOUBT: , SE , ) || . ,
() ; () triiren > . , trauern ]
; . , - drepan . 5 > drepe/i; , ||
: . douter < . dubitare . treflen , . drepa]
dryctin = dryhten
dowaire, dowere, :, DOWER t * (dryde . - . oibdrSdan)
; : (dryc . = . dryje)
. douaire < , . dotari- drffan . 1 > dryven: DRIVE: ;
um . dotare . , ; ; ; ||
dos, . dotem , . treiben (. triban), . drifa, .
. DOWRY dreiban]
(dowgliter ., . , dolltor) dryje, . . >druye, dryc, drcye; DRY:
(down . . = . ol'-dune) || . . trocken; . . draugr
(dowrey ,, , , dowaire) ]
(dowte . ~ . douten) dryhten, dri|, -. > drighten, |in:
(dozen . = , dosayn) , || . truhtin, . dr6t-
drajan . 6 > drawe/i; DRAW: , , tinn; . . draiihtinassus
, , ; , dra- ]
w after -,, drincan . 3 > dryuken; DRINK: II
; , , , . trinken, . dricka, . drigkan]
. || . tragen , , draga, , driorij - dieori J
dragan ]. wid + d. & with- (driven , = . drifan)
drawe/i . 6\ WITHDRAW: (droghf . . dru^oO)
; ; drops -. > drope; DROP: ; -
(drapen . ., . . drepan) . || . Tropfen, , dropi]
? > draught' (< drahtc1) :, DRAUGHT druggc, drogge, .; DRUG;
[dro:ft]: ca. ; ; ; , : . drogue
; ; . ; drujofl, |, -, > droghf, |ou|; DROUGHT
; ; ; - [draut]: , : drvjn

176
(lujan .-. (. . deaj, |h) ,
, || . dugan, , diota . || . beod); 1
. tugan, . duga, . dugan] || . /. duitsch || . deuisch]
. , ): dojlan . 2 (dutchessc . - . duchcssc)
, || . fldo- dwcllan . > dweller ( .)', DWELL:
gian , . dogen] . , ,
_ duk1 :, DUKE: : . , ; . ,
due < . dux, . ducem, , ; .
, , ducere || . , || . twellen ;
[Soil . 2, . .\ ; . dveUa , ~sk ];
duchesse .', dutchessc, DUCHESS: (. . dul)
: . duchcssc due
(. . duk)
due, dewe, :, DUE: ,
, ; . .-., , (. .\
deii , ., . deiie, <; . . , , . eas; . ./. , ~,
. *debutus, . |*ta, = , . dm. in, -um, . 6) ( . [i:a,
debitus, |ta; (. , dettc) i:]): , || . . aha,
* > dul, dir, (2) :, DULL: . , . , . aba] || . . aqua]
; , ; . > eek; EKE f : ,
, , ; . , || . auch, , ok , , .
, , : < . *dyll; auk ]
- . del || . toll -. > eke; (eke, .).
, ] . (;e)-dwol , , : ? -
|| , dwals ]; (. cian . 2 ( EKE, f,
dwellan) ~ OUT
dumb /!. >domb; DUMB; || . ) || . ouhhon; . . auka .. 7,
tumb , , . dumbr, . . aukan . ] || . augere]
dumbs] (each . - . )
duns -. > ; DUNG: , || ead mcdaii, =, . 1 ,
. dung, . Dung ( .)', : ead-mod, -
. . dyngia ; ead-rmid, - -mede, . > edinod
]: . . duttj .- edmede: , ,
. ; , ||
d urran.-. (. . dear', . . odmodi, . Odmuoti]: ., .
durron; . dorste .) > durre/t,
dare/i, (. . dar, . durren, ead-mod-lic . ,
. dorste, |u|); DARE (. ~D,
DURST): , , , |, -. * , ||
; -. -. || , , , afarn] || . . dparas
. turran (, , tnr), , (ga)* ]
daursan . . (ga)-dars)] -. > , eye, y e ; EVE: || .
duren . ; dure, (. 1- >) DU- , . auga, . augo]
R1NG : . . , eahta . > 0310., cighte; EIGHT:
; . : . du- || . aclit, .. atta, . ahtau] ||
rer <. diirare . atau; . octo, . okto
~~ Dutche . :, DUTCH: . , (-,
, ; -); . ,
, ; / ( -), .
; . . ; ]
;, / eahla-teoOa . . > e^tetej>e,
: . diutscli Itenpc, cightc-tcnthc; EIGHTEENTH:
(, . dcutseh . eahta-tyne (>
, ) . diutisk EIGHTEEN )

177
eal', , , , > al; ALL: , 1. ; 2, , ,
, , || . all, . 11, . || . also , ,
alls], 1. eaine wej ( ealnej . als , , ]
< . w.) > alwey, |, ( . .) eal-swilc . > alswie; ,
alwayes; ALWAY t , ALWAYS: .
, , ; . 1 t-. (. ~, ./. ealoO; . .
. , . 2. mid ealle, ealeOa) > ale; ALE: , || .
mid eallum, , , alu-, . pi, . 61]
, ; . ( wifl -, > ; (. . -);
mid) willi-atie , , . . (
, ; ; ); , , || .
WITHAL t Il'oil] , Oheim]
, |, -,, ~ -., > arke, (
eald, aid, . (. yldra < ie|; |; .) arche (Layamon)', ARK: .
, yldest < ie|; |) > eld, old, (. . , ; , ; .
eldre, cider, , eldest); 1. OLD , : . area arcus
(. -ER, . -EST); 2, (. , ()', . . arwe
) ELDER; (. >) ELDEST: . e a rd , || . ard]
ca. , , ; -. > e re ; EAR: || . ori (.
. 1, , , Ohr), . eyra ( < < ), .
; 2. ; || auso] || . . , . auris ( -- <
. all; . . albeis . -Jo-] -S -)]
eal(l-hrT6er a-. ear-sebland -. * *:
/ * + jebl&nd; < klandan . 7
caldlan . 2 > elden; eld: : (. . blftnden-feax)
eald earm -. > arm; ARM; (
caldor, ald|, -. > elder, alder: ) || . Arm, . armr, .
()', , || . arms i-.] || . . ()
. Eltem . ]: eald ( *-)]
caldor, aldf, -. , , [| . > arm: ,
. Alter, . aldr; . . (fram)- || . arm, ., . arm, . armr, .
aldrs . ]: eald arms
ealdor-lflnj . * * (e a rn . = . )
caldor man', aldor-, . -. >alder-man*; (earnest . . - . eomost
ALDERMAN: . , , . - .)
, ; (earst . = . Srest)
. . e a r t . 2 ., . wesan
ealles . ( .) , ( e a r th . - . )
: - e a s t . ( ? ./. ~, .
ealjian . 2 : ealh, |, .- -mcst) > ee s t, - , ., . .',
. , || . alah; . , EAST: ; ;
alhs .-.] || . Ost-; . . ostar ., .
cal-mfcst, -mast*, al-, 1-, . > al- austr] || . . aurora ( -- < -s-)
mest, almost; ALMOST: . ]
, , ; . . eastan , || ., . ostana,
. austan]
calncj . , . eal' East-cnjle i-. . ,
eaP-swa . > alswo', also",
alse'", () 1. also", alse'"; 2. ase"', east-rlhtc, -|, . ,
as"", . ( .)', 1. AL
SO, (als); 2. AS: . . . Eastru, |, |, |, ./. . > E s t r e ,
, , Ester, ~n; EASTER: .
, ; eal-swa... swa, ; ; . .
.,, ; . . . || . Ostein]; Bast
gast-scnxan -. mii. -seaxe i-. . > (efter = . teller)
ESSEX: . ; . egg .; EGG: : . (. egg
. Jo-c:, . . Ss)
. . ( cgal :, egal: : .
Sad-) > etlie; eatli (. egal <. aequalis ( EQUAL
, [i:0, i;0]): . , )
; . || . oSi ., | es-hwylc (.) - Sj-hwilc; . Sic
:, . Odo ., . aud- (Ejlond . = . TjlAnd, . )
] (ejt . - . icht)
(e e k , eke, . = . ) (e3(e-ten])e, . . eahta-teoSa)
. > eche: (ej-whter = . 3-hw&r)
; ja -. > egge; EDGE: . . ( . eye ., . . )
, , ; . , (eight . = . eahta)
, || . eggia, , ekka (eyren . . = . )
(. ), . egg] || . . (, |th|, . $ 3-hwa:dcr)
dkros, . , ele (.) = 1
. ( , -t-)] (elder . = . yldra; . . eald)
(ech, ~, . = . 1) ellen -, ; , || .
gel . = eilen, . cljun, . aljan]
- ECLOGUE (.) : . ellcn- .
ecloga ;
. eklogc ( elles . (< .) > elles; els, ELSE: .
) . eklegein . . , ; ,
. ( , ;
segtoguc . , ; || . elles,
, . aljes]: el4- (
) || . aljis] || .
'. 'They ( alius]. elles liwir . >elleswher*;
) were first of llie Greekes, the tn- ELSEWHERE: -
venrnrs of them, called /Eglogai, as it
were aigon () or aigon6mon eln -. > elnc, elle; ELL: .
(, ) 16goi ( ; , 18
) that is, Gotelieards tales'.) 24 ; . . ,
ecnes1, lisSydkwc, > ecc lie ness0: 45 . Llle (.
( con/in); elina), . alin, . fllclna]
equal :, EQUAL: : . (els, ~ , else-, = . elles)
aequalis (> . egal, . el-|>eodis . , ; el-
. . cgal) (. elles); ]>. ]>6od
equytee :, EQUITY: embleme .; EMBLEM: ,
, : . ; . embleme, . em
equite = . aequiias, . |tltem. (. blems ,
. egal, equal.) .
, efen, . > even*; EVEN; . . embrace// . II; EMBRACE: .
, , ; , ,
; , ; . (),
; . , , || : . embracer
. eben, . jafn, . ibns] enibroude/i, ( breidc/z .) embroiden,
efne . > evne, evene; EVEN: . . II; ( embroiderie .) EM
, , , , , BROIDER: ;
; . , : . enbro.tder breeder,
, , ; . |oud[, . . . brosdus, bru|,
, , : cfn , , ? . (. brord
cft . > eft, ( . -) efte; eft: -. , , . brodd): .
, : . asftcr breiden . (. braid0; . 2 -

179
broiden, |oud|; .) entitle . II; 1. INDITE; 2. ( -i
, INDICT [|'ait]: ca. ,, iu,ipa'|
, ; ; ; .
, ; (> BRAID ; . 1 , ,
, , ; 2. !
); < . brejdan , 3 . endiier < . . inctic
/ , tare ; (. , dlhtan) ]
; ; , endure/i . II; ENDURE: ^
, ; || . breg- : . endurer durer
dan, . bregOa] . . durare -.
empelre/i, |, . II; IMPAIR: . enemy .; ENEMY: ,
, , ; : . enemi <am. inimlc^B
. , (), . < in- (|| . un-)
; . empeirer . amicus
peior engendrc/t . II; ENGENDER: no*
e n ip e r e s s e , (emperice1), ,; EM : . engendrer < ,
PRESS: : . em ingenerare ,
perice, [resse, < . . - 1 i-. . > Engle; , -
torissa , . impcratrix (); (. .
- . (- b/m/p); EN-, Angli): , A 1130I, |1, -. (,
( .) IN-, (-, IM-, / ,
/); . -, (cm-) ( . ; . Angeln, /.1
, . enditen, endure )
,, .) <. in- (im-) , Enjlise . > Englissli, Ingl|, ,
enable// . II; ENABLE: .; ENGLISH: . ,
, : able ; . . ;
, || . cnglisch]:
c n a c tu re , |nn|, . , 1
: enact . (> ENACT (ennaclor ., ENACTER; |
; ) < . cnacture, . .)
enacten . acte . enoynten . ////; ANOINT:
enchaincn, |ei|, , II; ENCHAIN: , (/1.) : enoynt I
. enchalner , , , enoint . , 1
( , ( enoindre) ^ , in- + unctus
) . . ungerc , - 1
e n c r c e s .; ( ,) INCREASE:
, : - ensainple, |au|, ess|, sample, (2) .;
sc . 1. ENSAMlLE t . (x .) EXAM- 1
encresc/i, ( .) iucr|, , II; IN PLE 2. SAMPLE: ca. , - j
CREASE. , , ; . 1 , ; 2, :
f: , encresse . ensamplc (.); j
(, encreisire) <. increscere essample, ||, < . exemplum
(end . . - . ende . endian .) ,
end (.) = and ensue//, ensyew, (}) . ; ENSUE:
ende jo -. > ende; END: || . , - ]
Ende, . etuli -., . andeis] : , ensivrc (. 3 . j
ende-byrdnesy-c , ensiut) < . . insequere, - i
, , . insequf
ende-laf -. : Iaf -,
, || . leiba; . ENTANGLE . : < . - '
leif, . laiba] w lSI'an . + tangle/i . II (> TANCII.E
endian . 2> enden: END: () || () tang, - le, (c^e.),
, enden (. endion), . - . .
da]; ende tongul || . byngutl]

180
entente /, INTENT: . . -. >e rtlie ; EARTH: || .
, ; Erde -., . jorS -., . 1
, ; , . , : -.]
. e n te n te e n d e n d re . < eoton, |, (.), eton (.),
. in te n d e re ; -. * ctcn: , , (<
, , ) . jptunn];
_ entren . , ENTER: , etan
, : . e n tre r < Sow, . 35 .
. intrare erba* (. .) = yrfa
- entrctcn . II, ENTREAT, (intreat): (erbe . = herbt)
. , -., (e re . -. )
; ; . : e rla n . I > e rc n ; ear: || . eri-
. e n tre te r (,), e n tra ite r, , . eria, . aijan] || . .
, < . in - + tractare . (), . . ]
, -. (E ris e h , , . Tras)
entuncn , II] ( .) INTONE: (erl . = , eorl)
, (e rn d e . = . Srende)
: . e n to n e r ( . tun cscliaunge .\ ( .) EXCHANGE:
.) < . . in to n a rc . , ; ; :
tonus, . | , , , (> , . . eschaungc (.), ||
to n , . tu n , I, TONE eschanger = es- . (< . -) +
2 . TUNE ; Changer (, , chaungcn)
2) e s q u ie r , = squyer
endan, |, . Code cse/i , II] EASE: .
code . ; . /, ; ?
eoletcs (, 224) 7 -. - ; . ,
., . * ? , ; : . eser
; . ; lad (.), aisier, ? ese, aise, .
. 1 ., . wesan ( EASE . ,
(com . - . ) , )
cured-cyst i-./. () csy :, EASY: .
, () : So , ; ,
-. () < eoh -. ; . , ,
* II < . jor] II . eqvuis] + - : esc . ( .)
rad rldan (.)] cyst . ese (.) . ,
, -. || . kusts] eser (. . es i/l.)
ceosan cspyc/t, spien3, . II] 1. ESPY; 2. SPY:
corl -. > crl; EARL: . . , , ,
, , ; * , ; . 1. ,
; . . || . 1 ; 2. , ,
, . j a r l (. e rila z ) ; 5 , espier ,
, ; (? = (H)erul- spiar . (. spehiin ,
, , ;> . spiihcn)
) (cst = . east)
cornost -. > ernest; EARNEST . ( ta t5, ||, ,] 1. ESTATE; 2. STATE:
IN EARNEST, . oil - . . ; , ,
ste ): . , ; . ,
; , ( ; , ; . 1 .
) || ; , ; 2.
. E rnst (. e rn u st) ]; ,
(EARNEST . < . , ; , :
eomostc .) . estat (. <5tat) < .
eornost-Iice . >ernestlichc, crnestly; status, , | , ,
EARNESTLY:

181
cstatly (estatlieh) :, STATELY: ca. exercise :, EXERCISE:
; ; . : . exercice = . cxeifl
: estnt tium <4
(Estern" . = . Eastru) exereisen . Ii, EXERCISE: .
et (.) a a:t ; ; *
etan . 5> eten; EAT: || . essen, ; . . ;
. eta, . itanl || . edere (. ; : exercise ,
I ed. edi); . . ( tcTb; - exit . , : *
. < 1 ii . .)) (:,
Oflcl-turf .-:, , ) , . 3 . .
: , -. exire (. 3 . exeunt
, exeunt1 . 'exit') |
/ || . adil, . uodal; .; EXPENSE: ,
. . ocdii .]: t. , , (> : . expensa <
TURFaepH, ) || . ztirba, . . . . expend ere (;
torf] EXPEND , )
(ether , = . -hwoeOer) experience, |ns, :, EXPERIENCE:
(eve , s . ) , : . expe
(evel . = . yfcl) rience = . cxperientia ,
(even, -, . . = . cfn .
~ .) expressen . Jl; EXPRESS: .
(evere . = . ffifre) , , ;!
(every, everich, -on, , evcrydeel . (): . exprcsscr,
., . . Sfre .) . . expressare . expres-
(everlasting = . ffifre lasstende, . . sus . , (>
liestan) . expres, EXPRESS .
(evermore, . . acfrc) , ,
evydenee :, EVIDENCE: ) . . exprimere
, , : ,
. evidence . cvidentla ---- EXTANT . ,
(evyn . = . ffifen) : . . extans, .
(evlry ., . . .) lantern, = . exstans . ,
ewe f i-. eowii -. ewe; EWE: exstare , ,
|| . Quwc, . ] || . ovis; .
. (< . )]: . eowestre extremytce .; EXTREMITY:
. || . awistr] , , :
excellence : EXCELLENCE: . extremite extremitas, .
, : |tatem
. excellence . excellentia
excellent :, EXCELLENT: F
: . excellent .
, exceller ( EXCEL fable :, FABLE: . ;
) . excellere , ; . , ,
EXCEPT . : - .< . : . fable < . tabula
exceptc , ( .
exeepten :, EXCEPT: , )
: . exceptcr, . face ,; FACE: ,
exceptSre , : . face <. facies, . |
executour :, EXECUTOR: faedcr -. > fader, FATHER: || .
: , executor, |our, Vater, . faflir, . fadar] || . pater,
executer . ( EXECUTE . pater, . pitii (pitar-)]
) . cxsccfltus . faerie, |aie|, <,; faerie, FAIRY: ca.
. cxscqui , , ; ; .
: . faerie
. . . fata . fantasye :, fantasy, phantasy; FAN
. 15 (. . fate) CY: , : .
f$3e > 4>1. > ^! . fey: fantasic < . . fantasia, ph|,
( ), || . phantasia
. feig (. feigi fr, fEr, -. > leer1'; FEAR: .
), . feigrl , ; .
fjejen . > fayn; FAIN: . . ; ; . ,
, , / || . far; . far ,; . .
( -., . Gefahr . ]
/ ( faran . 6 > ; FARE: . ,
-.) || . fagan, . fegirm; . . , , ;
faginon . , ] ; , ;
fsjer . > fair; FAIR: . . ; je-faran ; (
, , ; . . + . . ); ,
; ; |] . fa- , , , ;
gar, . l'agr, . fagrs ] , ; ;
fiejre ., . fffijer . ; . , ; ,
fall, -~ . ( . || . fahren, .
:, ./. . . . . () > , . faran] || . . ,
fo, >-fo, . <.; FOE: . ( )]
, , f&ran, 1|, . 1 (.) > feren; FEAR: .
; . ; . . . ; . : fSr .
; . ; . (fare . ~ . fam)
fall, |s, . > fogli, fow; , (farre . . = . feor)
, || . feh, . farse/i, |rcl, . //; farce: ,
fdr, . . filu-faihs , ; : . far-
] || . . ( -- < cir < . farclre ,
-- -1-), . poikdos] (. . . . . farsa
(fayn . = . fasten) > . farse . ; ,
(fair . . fa:3cr)
(fnyt . = . feet) ; ,
(faith , . feith) ; FARCE , ;
faldyng . ( ) )
(fallen . . feallan) faru -., fser -. > fare; FARE: . .
fIs :, FALSE: ; , ; ;
, : . fals ; ; ,
(. faux) < . falstis ; . ;
laiul-heals . : ; , || . for]: faran
famij . (> FOAMY , fasst . > fast; FAST: . ,
) fam -. (> ; . , ;
) || . feim] || . . ; , , ;
< nitia), . pliena] ; || . fast,
famous :, FAMOUS: : . lastr; . . fest (. festi). on
. () famous <yfom. fa- + f. > -fas, on-fcst, .,
mdsus
famullcr, |ller, :, FAMILIAR: fxstnian . 2> fasfnen, fe|; FASTEN:
, ; . , ;
familer, |ier <. familiaris ): fajst .
(fancy . a ca. fantasye) fffit* . >fat*; FAT: ,
fandlnn . 2 > fonden, fa|, fond: . || . feist (, fei^it)]: <
, , ; (Slid
; || 1 . fahnden fetan . ! , ;
-, (, fan.dOn, |nt6n, || . fetjan
)] ]

183
fate :, FATE: , : felth, fey; FA ITH : ,
. fat, , fatum : . feirf < . Tides' I
fe llies', |isJ a -. > fatnesse; FATNESS; . |em]
, .: REt' -. > fel; FELL: , . ,
. , , ; . , I I
favour :, FAVOUR: . Fell, . fell; . . J>ruts-fii[
, , : ] || . . pellis ]
. favour < . favor, , (fell ., . . fcallan)
|6 fela, feolu (.), . . ( !
- FAVOURITE . , - ., + .) > fele: , ||
: . favorit (. favori) < . . viel (. ), . Qq I, . filu]
. favorir . (. . favour lelan, |, . 1 > felen; FEEL: ,!
.) , || . fiihlen] '
(fee ,, . . feoh) felaw e (< feline1) :, FELLOW: , ]
feallan, fa|, . 7> fallen; FALL: , , , ; , I
, . || , fal , (
len, , falla] , FELLOW-TRAVEL*?!
fealdan, fa|, . 7 > folde/; FOLD: LER .): . (. felagi -. -1
, , , , ,
|| . fatten ,, , falda, ASlag'c*; !
. fal]>an] felag , *, - 1
fealo, ||, . wo/wd > falcwr; FALLOW ( f e ) ; . . 1
['fsebuj: . , feo h )
; , ; . felawc-shipe :, FELLOWSHIP:
- || . fahl, fall, : *sh, < . -scipe
(. falo, falawcr), . 1 feld -. > feld; FIELD: || . feld,
] || , , . , veld ., . Feld .] || . . 1
) ]
(fear, ~, . . s , & . (fele . , = . fela)
.) f e lic ile e :, FELICITY: ;. ]
" . . ( ., +:, . ; . feliciti = .
. . feawe) > fewe . .\ FEW: felicitas, , |taiem
, , , (fellow . . felawe)
; || . fao, . fen -., . > fen, fcnnc; FEN; ,i 3
, . . . fawai] || . . paucus, || . fenna (. Fenne ., Fehn
. . . ; paulus ] .), . fen, . fani]
ISdan, foe), . J> feden; FEED: . fffn j ., . ton
), (); ; (fend, ||, . = . feond)
. . (), () || . feoh -. > ( .) fe; FEE: . ; 1
luoten , , . fccOa , , I
, . f o d ja n ] :fodn ; . ; - '
fejan . / > , fyen; FAV: . , , ; , ,
, , , ; , ,
, ; . . , || . Vieh (.
, fth u ) , . fd (. . felaw e), .
|| , fogian, . faihu]: . fd (.), fiu, - j
fugen , ] , - 1
feyncn, feign|, . //; FEIGN: . , . || . . , . ]
. , , ?]
, ; . . feoh-leas . .. (,
, : )
. feindre (. feigne) < , (feoht, jefcoht, . . tilit)
fingere feohtan . 3 > tighten; FIG H T: - j
(feir = do, fscjer) , || . fecllten]: (Hit
Itjond ni-M, > fend; FIEND: . ca. , feerd . : < . 2- fere
; . || . Feilld, . = .
Ijdndi, . fijands): icon , fcrjcn-bcrlj ( ) . ?
|| . . fijan] ('! ): f, = fyrscn
feor* . . (. . fyr', |i|, ( fyrcen-bSam -.
(< fier), ). fyrra ..; , ) || . . fjprgyn . , . falr-
./. fyrrcst . .) >fer, (. guni jo-c. ]; b. ? = . ,
ferre, ( . -r) ferrcr, ( fur . (. .)
ther) ferther; , ferrest, fenhesi); ferlan, lijan, . 1>( .) ferrie/i, fere/;
FAR (. FARTHER, . FAR FERRY: . . , ,
THEST): || . fer .; . , ; .
. , fjarri, . fairra]: ? = ( , ) ||
for, forO. . (1) of + fer (2) on + . ferien ,
fer, .; AFAR: (1) , (2) , . ferja
, , ,
(feorden . ., . . fcran) / ( ), ,
feorran, - , . >ferre/, feme, . farjan ,
.; farren: . ; ): faran
, ; . ; (fern . I. = . fyrn; 2. . . feorran
, , || .)
. fern (. ferrana, |, .)] (ferre I. . . . = . fyr'
feo rli -./. , , . ~ .; 2. ./,
, || . . ferah, . fjor, . - . feor')
. fairhws ] fers . > fcrs1, ( .) vers; V ERSE: .
feorh-leju in/-. * : -!, || . ; ; , . :
lega -. ] . . versus, . |um, , ,
reoreins, |unj, -. > fe rth y n g ; FAR , , (> . vers)
THING: . , fersc . > fcrch, ( .) fressii;
; . , ; FRESH : . ; . .
. ( 1/4); feoriucrda || , frisch, . ierskr]: .
feower, ~, . > fower', frcs, jeis, . -che, , (ferthcr
~', four", foure"; FOUR: || ., . . fyr*)
. vier, . , fj6rir, . fidwor] | . (ferlliinj . . feordinj)
. , . quattuor, . tdt- feste .; FEAST: , :
tarcs ( 1- < ku*; , f- < ku-, . . . feste (. fSte) < . festa
, wull)] (festnc/i , = . fcestnian)
feower-tij . > fowertij', fourty"; festre/i, |ster|, .; FEST ER : :
FORTY: || . vierzig, . . festrir festre, fistle, .
fjorir tigir, . fidwor tigjus] , , < . fistula
leower-lijofla . . (.) > fo- ; ,
wertijjae', fouriithe; FORTIETH: ( FISTU LA , )
: -t. *tij fet . (> fet, feet), , lot
feowerOa . . (.) > fcrlhc, feet, |ei|, |ai|, ,; FEAT: . ,
fourthe; FOURTH: : ieo- , ; . : ,
wer fet (.), fait, . factum
(fer , . = . leor) , , ,
feran, f|, . I > feren: , , ( FACT )
, || . (Brian fetis, |o u s , .] featish, featous:
, . fuhren , , foe]: , ; . feitis,
faran fctis < . factltius ( FACTI
fcrcian aiO. 2> ferken; FIRK f: . TIOUS )
, , ; fetor, |cr, -. > fctcr, |tt|; FETTER:
. , . , , , || . fe^ara,
; . : ? , fer . fjpturrjH.; . , Fessel]
feder -. fether8; FEATHER: . ca. fyr, |i|, . ., fyrra, |i|, ., .
( ); . feor'
() || . Feder, . fjodr] || . '-. . , || .
. , . pter6n ] firihos, . firar]: feorh
(few, ~, . = . flaw, teawe) fyrd (< ie|), ||, i-. > ferd': ,
(flede ., . . fejan) ; : fa-
(field . = . feld) ran
fff, ~, . > (If, fyve; FIVE: fyrrest ./. :, . feor'
|| . funf (. fimf), . frnirn, fyrhtan, fryhtj (.), . 1 > firj. 1
. fimfj || . quinque ( qu- ten, frighten; fright, (x . -)
- , -qu-), . FRIGHTEN: . (.) ; "i
pente ( -t- -"-); . . (< (., a-fyrhtan, > AFFRIGHT
*penkti; . -- < -"-, . feower, *) ; . . ] || ,
wulf)] (sich) fiirchten ; . fai'irhtjan
fifla . . > fifte, |fthe; FIFTH: ]
|| . funfte, . fimti] || . fym , , . > fern: , - |
, , . quintus] || . . firni, , fairneis ; 1
flf-tlj . ;> fifty; FIFTY: || . . forn, . foin]: for; I
. fllnfzig, . flm tigir, . fimf ti- ? feor*
a'us] first, ||, frist, i-. first, frist; FRIST; 1
fFf-tyne (< -tie]), -te|, . >fiftene; FIF , || . Frist, 1
TEEN; || . funfzelin, . frest] 1
, fimtSn, . fimtaihun] fyrst (< fyrest) . . > furst, first, ]
fiht, |eo|, () -~, -., feohte - ferst; FIRST: . , ; 1
, > fllsl, fyghf; FIGHT: . . . . || . F u rst . V
, ; . , (. furisto . ,
|| . fiuhte, . . fehta (. ), , fyrstr]: for; . "
Gefecht)]: j feohtan form a |
fyllan (< fie|), fe| (.), . J > fille/i, fysan . I > fusen, fisew, |e|; feeze, |ea|, "1
felle/i; FELL: ; . pheese: . ca. , - I
. , ; ( (); , , 1
); . , ; . ; - '
(), || . , : (us . -
fallen, . fellian, . fella]: feallan / || , 1
fyllan . 1> fullen, flllcn, fe|; FILL: . fuss]
. , , fisc -. > fissh; FISH: || . Fisch I
; . || . fiillen (. |sc), . ftskr, . fisks] || , .
, , fylla , . piscis]
fulljan ]: ful' fisc-flodu ( ) -.
(fille . ,, . . feallan) *, : . = flod
fyn ,', FINE: , ; fiscofl, |, -. : fisc
, (fissh . . fisc)
:. . fin <. finus fit :, FIT: ,
findan . 3 > fyndefl; FIND: , . : . fitten .
, , FIT . , , - |
; ; . , ; ) ,
|| . flndeil, (. fitja ) . feet (-
. , . ] . .)
flnjer -. > fynjer; FINGER: || 1 - , > filhiMi, fid|; FIDDLE:
. Finger, . finger, , figgrs] || . Fiedel, . fidla]: . jj
flnt , 3 , {> - ), . findan . . vidula (> .
fyr -. > fur, fir, leer; FIRE: || , viola, . viole,
Feuer (, fuir)] || . . furr ., fyri VIOL ( ))
. )] || . . pur .] (fyve, |i|, . . fit)

186
flcfesc i-. > fleesh, flessh; FLESH: . ca, scere , ; . flos ,
, ; . || , Fleisch; (. , flour)
. . flesk ] (! . = . flota)
flflteren , / / ; FLATTER: : flota -. ( 1 .) 2. flot -.. > flotc (
. flater . flaterie . (> .); FLOAT: . J. ^;
FLATTERY ) . flaterie ; ; 2, ,
Fiauiidrissh . , ; 7 ; , ;
: Flaundres ; . , ;
fleam -. - flem: || . flaumr]; (), . 1 . ||
fleo n , flyman . vlote, . flot!]; 2. || .
(fleh ., . . flEoit) Floss, . floti: fleotan , 2
Flemmynf FLEMING: (> FLEET
: , . Viaming, . Flaming , ) || . flie-
. 2 > ', ", '"; ] I; . , , ,
FLY: || , fliegen, . fljiiga] , . ple(w)ein ]:
, 2 (, . fleah, . flujon, flod
. 2- flojen) > , ( .) flour .\ FLOWER: : .
. (. fiedde); FLEE (. flour, flor (. fleur), <, flos, .
FLED): , || |
urn, fliehen, . fl$a ., . feliuhan]; -dc-Ils; FLOWER-DE-LUCE
(. flSo^an) (. . ), FLEUR-DE-LIS
(flesc, |ssh, . =. fiSsc) ffbida'H;]: , ,
[let- jo-c. flet* (x flat); FLAT: . ca. ,
; , ; , ; , ; , ,
|| . Flotz (. ,
. flet ]: . flat . (> FLAT : . flour de lis (
. , ; ,), . , . fleur de lis
, ) , (, flatr . ; . lis . lil
flet) < . ( . lilie
(. , ) -, > LILY ) . leirion
= flyman .', FLOWER: , .
nyht i,M. > flight; FLIGHT: , - , ; . . :
; || . Fiucht . flour .
]: 1 . () ; 2. ( (dowring11 . .; . . flourcn .)
) fleojan (fliigisn, |, . ., . . fleon
flyman (< |), |, . 1 > ; )
(.): , ( ., . . foil)
; fleam ffidn -. > fnde; FOOD: : . fedan
' -. flok*; FLOCK: . , folc -. > folk; FOLK: . , ;
; , ; ; , ; , , ; . t
, ; || . flokkr] , || . Volk , ,
-. (< -,) >flood. FLOOD: , f61kj; , , < ,
; ; ; ; . . .
, ; f * , , || folc-je-feoht -,
. Flul ., . .; . flodus 1 . folc-stede i-, *
? .] || , plotos ,\ . folde -. folds: ,
ploein ]: fleoian, . llota , ; ? ield
fioyte, flou|, . II; FLUTE ( ? FLO (folecheden, |ghsd|, . .,
UT): ; (? . . fotsiail)
); . flauter flaAute, foljian , 2 > fol^hen', folwcfl'', fo!e*
|/, , ( FLUTE ) wen"i FOLLOW: ,
~~ florischen , II; FLOURISH: ; -, || . fob
: us . floilr (. ftori- g6n; . fofgen (. |, |5)]:
sse) < , fl&rire . - fylsan , 1 || , fyiaa]
fon . 7(. fens, . 2- fflnjen) > (forerun . . . rinnan)
fon am., fongt'!, fa|, . .; fang: fore-secjan . 3 > for<?scyc, (. 2-
, , , >) forpsaid .: .
; || . fungen ; ; . ,
(. Khan), . fii, . fahan]
(fonden . = . flndian) fore-weard -. > foreward: .
for, fore (.), . (+ ././.) ; , ; . cqJ
> for, fore, . ; FOR: . ,
. , ; , -; ; . for-faran . 6 > forfarcn: (.)
, , , ; , ; .,
|| . vor (. fora), . , ; (.) '
, ~ ; . . fur (. forfeturc .\ FORFEITURE:
furi), . fyr, ~i, ~ir] || . . pro ; : . forfeture
( ), , per (.), |ait|, forfet, |ait, forsfai
, ; . . ; . < . foris factum
]: for- ; ;
for-, () fer-, . >for-; FOR-: . for-gan . . > forgon; FORGO:
. -, ( ., , . , ; . .
, , , ; .
); . ( . ,
. ) || . vcr-, (forget ., . . for-jytan; forgetful
. for-; . . fra-, () fair-] || . ., . . for-jytol)
. -, -, . per-, pro-] for-syfan (<-3ie|), -$|, . 5 foryivc/t,
foran . fore (., .) |ev|, ( .) forgyven; FORGIVE: .
. . > forcn ( fore); FORE , ; ; . .
., ., . .: . || . verge hen, . . fy-
. , , ; rirgefa; , . fragiban]
. , , -; . . for-jytnn (-3ic|), -|. . 5> fo^iten, -
; . ; . ryelen, ( getew .) forgeten; FOR
: for . GET: . vergessen]; (.
(fo rb ad ., . . for-beodan) , geten)
(fo r-b a re n . .', . . for-beran) for-jytol, -|, |el, |ul, . > ( .
fo r-b e o d a n . 2 fo rb ed e n ( bidden); -ful) foryetful, forg|; FORGETFUL:
FORBID (. |AD, . 2- : forsytan
|JDDEN): || . verbie- (forgyven ., . . for-jyfan)
ten, . faurbiudan] for-jrindan . 3 , -
f o r- b e r a n . 4 > fo rb e re n ; FORBEAR: , : jrindan
( . . ftifh)
(fo rb o d cn . 2-, . . for-beodan) for-iaelan, ||, . 7> forleten; forlet: o f-
fo re a n-M. >fo rk e ( .)\ FORK: - , , ,
; . furca (> . forque). , , || .
, fo rk e d .: FORKED: - verlassen; , . fraletan]
, for-lcosnn . 2 ( . -luron, .
f o r c e , fors, ., FORCE: : 2- -loren) > forlcsc/i; (. 2- >)
. force < . . fortia . FORLORN .: . . ,
. fortis . , ; ; .
(fo rk ed ., . , forca) || , verlieren (.
(fn r-c n rs jc d . 2-, . . c u rsia n ) farliosan) ; , fraliusan]
(fo rd . - . forfi) ? > forlond, |and; :, FORELAND:
(fo rd fc o rd e ., . . -feran) , : ? : ,
fo re ( ) ./. -- ., *fore-14nd . Copland, . Vof-
, foran . for . land); ? .
f o re - c a s te n . /; FORECAST:
, (forloren . 2-, . , for-lcosan)

188
forma, (x , -cst) formcst, ~a, |, .) ; . (.)
. (.) . > i. forme, ( ; (.) :
. -cr) former, . (.)', . fortuncr < , fortunfire
2. formtSl . (.) || 1. FOR fortiina . (.
MER; 2. ( most) FOREMOST: . . fortune)
, ; . I. forS . > forth; FORTH: . .
, ; 2. , , , , ;
; . 1 , , ; . , ; ||
; 2. , . fort ]. forO mid ealle; .
|| . fruma, frumists] || . . primus ( wiS mid) forthwithal :,
( : FORTHWITH: ,
, ); for-|)im, -]>am, s for-|ion '. >
. . , . protos ( . for-Jjan, -Jjon, -]>en: ; ,
.)] , ; -[5-[>
- forme, |ou|, .-, FORM (fourme): .. , : jiiem, ||
; . forme < . forma ., ] = ., ])t (. sc)
(former ., . . forma) forfl-ffiran . 1 > fordferen, farthferen:
foineis, fou|, :, FURNACE: , ,
, : . fomaise, fou|, < for-ty > forthy: ,
. fornax, . | : [ij - me. am |jet (. SE)
(forrow ,- fore, . . for) forOian . 2> for(; forth:
for-pynchen . , , : fort
: pynetie/) . pincher (era.), for-|)on , . for-])ffim
pincer; . , pynsors (> PINCERS (forthwylhe/ ,, . forrt
, , ) mid ealle; , . )
(fur-pyiie/i ., . . pJnian) (forward . = . fore-wcard)
for-sacati . > forsaken; FORSAKE: for-weorflan . 3 > forworlhcn:
, ; ,
. . || . forsalihartj: s. ; || , farwerdan; . . fra-
|| . sahhan, . St ; . . wairjian)
saka . ): sacu . for-wundlan . 2> forwoimden:
(forsaid, foresaid = .
fore-siejd . 2- fore-secjan) (, , = . for)
for-sofl . > forsooth; FORSOOTH: fot .-. > foot; FOOT: ,
, ( ( ); ; ||
. ) . Fufl, . fdtr, . fotus -.] || .
forst, frost, -. > foist, frost; FROST: , pes (< *peds; . pedis), .
|| . Frost, . frost]: pous (: pods; . podds); . .
frSosan . 2 (> FREEZE , . ( ), .]. f. + lima
) . > fot-lame .
forstlj . > Torsty, frosty; FROSTY; , ]
: forst (, | -. >father; FOTHER ():
(for-suoren, forswo), . 2-e, , ( ) || . Fuder]
. da. forswerian) (foul . imiiia - . fu^ol)
for-swapan , 7* , (foul . s . fill)
-swerian . 6j > forsweren; FORS (four, ~, , = . Rower)
WEAR: , (fourth . = , )
(foi'tie, |y, - da. feowcr-tij) (fourth . = . 0)
= fortune .-, FORTUNE: , (fowel, fowl, , = . !)
; ; , fortune < (fowertijtw - . ieower-tisoda)
. fortOnn (fowling , = . fujlunj)
- fortune/ . If; FORTUNE t: ea. (rani . . > from; FROM; .
(.) , ; ; , ; (), .
/ -,; (- , ; (); . , || .

189
fram, . fra (. ca. fro), . frarn]: w , ; . .
for ; || .
? > frame FRAME: ca. frankisch ]: Franca ,
, , ; , || . Franko]; (/, frankeieyn) 1
; . , , (frend, ||, . = . freond)
: ? . (. frami (Frenssh = . Frencisc)
); 7 . fr&ma -. || freo, |. . > Ire; FREE: ||
,] frSmian . 2 . frei (. fri), . frcis; . . frjals]
, , (> FRAME freo-dom -. > fredom; FREEDOM: ,
, , , ; . - ;
; . . fremman, . , ; .
. - freond nt-. > frend; FRIEND: ||
mlan . frame .) . Freund; . . fr6ndi ; . \
. , , frijonds] || . . ]; < .
|| . framr]: fram 1- freon . . || .
. . , .^]
frankeieyn, |1, .\ FRANKLIN freond-lrc . > frendlich, frendly; 1
(.) FRIENDLY;
: . fraunkelayn ( frere . ; FRIAR: : . ]
.), . . francalanus, = frere <. frater, . |trem
. . (.) Frank- + (fressli ., . . fersc)
-ling, ., ; (. Fresisc . : Fresa (. '
. Frencisc) Frlesa; . FRIESIC, .
fraternltee :, FRATERNITY: .)
, : . fraternW = (friend . = . freond)
. fraternitcs, |tatem FrTesa, ||, |8|, -. ; (Fresan . || |
frsetwa, | (.), wa-. . . Friesen]; FrTsan . || . Fri- 1
, , ( sar]; . Frlsii, Frisiones, . .
): ~ frffitwian . 2 frailwan : FRISIAN, . =
. 1, || . (us)fratwjan )
]; (? fret . frete frljnan, frinan, . 3 > ( .) freyncn; "
, > . frette/r > FRET frayne (.): ,
, ) || . fregna, . frathnan;
frauds :, FRAUD: ; . . fragen] || . . ,
: . frande = . fraus, . . precarl ]
Idem frid -./. ( fri -./.) > frith:
(free = . ) || . Friede (. fridu), , fridr]
frca -. * , || . fro, fro (< fra1) . :, FRO:
. frauja; . . Frau . , , ; . (, frd , || .
, (. frouwa) . freyja ])
. ] frod . * , || .
(fredom . s . freo-flom) fruot, . froSr, . frojjs, |d-]
frcltour, |ur, . ( from (> ~) =
): . freitour (frosty . - . forstis)
fremman . / > fremmen, ||: froten :, FROT: . . ,
, , ; ; (.) ; - . ,
/ (| . frem- : .
mlan, . fremjnj; fram; (. . frotter (?)
frame .) frownen . //; FROWN: :
fremu /-. > frcmc: , . froignier
, : M m ; (, fre fruit, frut, :, FRUIT: , ;
mman) . fruit < . fruclus, . |.
Frencisc , > French/sh', Frenssh" UNFRUITFUL: ,
. :, FRENCH: .

190
frumn -. , ; . 1/S : fur- = furh
, ; * |[ . fruma -. (> F U R R O W ) || .
. (.) , Furche]
; . Frums . ]; , FURNITURE .: , . ,
forma, frftm , ; .
frum-cenned . : , : . foumi-
fruma + . 2- . I ture
, , || (furlh = . forS)
. kennian] 1 furOor, fo|, , > further, fo|; FUR
frum-sceaft i-. > frumschaft: THER . :. . .
, ; = fru , ; . . ;
ma + seenft , , : ; (. feor)
scyppan . furOuiu . forthcn;
fujlunj -. > foulyng'; FOWLING: , , , ,
. . ; . . ..: ford, for
: fujlian . 2 fustlnn :, FUSTIAN: ;
{> FOWL . , . fustiane, jalne
) fusol
fujol -. > fowel, foul; FOWL: . .
; . || . 5 ,3hG
Vogel, . fugl, . fugls]
fiihton . . (> |), . feohtan Saderlan, jadr|, , 2> gMtere; GATHER:
ful . >foui; FOUL: . . , (); : jador
, , ; ; . ()- ,
. , || . || , Gatte ]
faul ; , . filll, . , 3fldr|, -. > gaderyng; GA
luls] || . . pulidus ] THERING: , ;
ful4 . . > fill1; FULL: . . : jaderian
. ; . , jafol -. > gavel: , ,
; . || . voll ,, : jyfan
. fullr ., . fulls .} || . gay :, GAY: : . gai
; . . plenus] . walti
fuF-fyllan . I > Fulfulle/f, fulfille/i, Cgaeild . =. )
volvellc/i (,)', FULFIL: . galaunt, [ant : GALLANT:
; ; , , ; ; ; t
, ; . : . p la n t . <
fuUuin (< lul'-leam) -. > fultum; . . galer ()
gallcn , /; gaul, GALL: ,
fuliuht (< ful'-wiht) . > fulluht, fullought: , : . nealled .
: ful'-wian . ( ), , ||, ,
(. . weihan , (? = 11 . .);
weihs . ) . galler t , ,
- FUNCTION; , ; , , galle . ('!
: . fonction, . functio, . -. galla . ;
lionem GALL )
funeral c.vi.; FUNERAL: : galyngale :, GALJNGALE: (
. funeral < . funerarius ,
. ): ,
furh .-. > fu rj, ||, forwe; FUR galingal . galanga {? . ?
ROW: || . furch, . . ? . kollang-
furuh (, Furche), . for; . . kiang)
] jamel, |ol, . # , ,
fur-lAnj -. > furlong; FURLONG: . I . gamali]: < 3- (= -) +
, 1/8 ; . | -, , ; * ;

191
(> MEAL , . 2 . (. cowic, eow, dm. cow;
) || . , Mai ; . 1] . Sower, . . .) > 3, ,
-. > game; GAME: , . ./. (. 3CW, ou, yow); Y[J ?
, , , ; t *, (. >) YOU: || , g|t M
, , . || . . ihr . (./. euch), . dr; , 1
gaman, . gaman] . jus] || , . jus, . ]
. 2 > gamenlen, ( gamen - . (.) > i-, -; (-,
.) gamen; GAME: . , AWARE; -, ENOUGH; . wa>r
; . , , je-noh): . . .\ \
; (.) me gameth ; .
; . : . ; . 1
jamen . .; . , - J
jan . . (. eode, -~) > , 'I
goon (, ede, yode, yedc); GO , , * I
(. WENT, , wendan); , ..); . (. .,
. . I . gehcn (. ); . ( . -
gen, gan), . ga|; (. ) .) || . X
(jan* ., . . on-jinnan) ge- (. ga-, gi-), . ga-J. (, - V
(gane . 2-, . . ) . -, - .1
. 7 > gongen, ga|; GANG . -.)
(.): || . gangan, . 3? ... 3 ... , ... || . gi, 1
ganga, . gaggan]; (. ) ge]; (. .')
-. * > got*: , || . 3ta >; YEA t [jei]; || . ja, . jd, I
Ger. . geirr; . . , (- , ja, jail
rio)-gaisus). (. -1 , ||, -. > gaile; gaule, GALL: I
> GARLIC .) , , || . Ga-
(gmr . = . ) , . galli , ]
gardyn c.vh<-; GARDEN: : . , ||, -. > yeer; YEAR: || . I
gardin (.; , . jardin) Jahr, . , . jer]
. gardo fl-M. || . Sear-fic, ||, . > jerlich, jrly; YEAR- j
Garten (. garto), . garda ); LY:
. . seard (= YARD ) || . , |o, . wo/wa > ; yare: - 1
gart, . gardr, . gards ) , , - 1
garren . II; aire: , ; || . gar . J
, , ; (. garo .); . gprr]
.: . . jearwe wa-. . > ( .) gcrc; GEAK
.; , . garren fgis]: . , , - 1
(garrynge, . garren .) , , ; . - |
3iir mitfiiij -. , , , , , - 1
, : . = mctinj: ; , - 1
metan , , - I
jar-wija -. * ; , , - 1
, : w. , wljan ; , - j
. 1 || . wihan, . wei ; ; || . . I
han; . . vega] || . . vincere gervi -.]: .
(. vlci) ] jearwe . . ., ,
jasrlc ( ) . ? , ? jearwe . , , : 1
, ?
3iist -<> goost; GHOST; . . , 3earwian . 2 syrwun <Vjie|) . / > ( I
; . , || . .) ger, ||; (. gar): . - ]
Geist] , , ; - I
(ga:t . . 3yt) , ; . , - ]
(giiulc , = . ) , || . garuwian, . (
(gauled . 2-, . . gallcn) garawen, , gorva, ||, gcra]:
jcaI -lie . * , (jerde . . syrd)
, : j.- (jerly . = . -llc)
;eatwe (jerne ., . . .)
jeatwc (.) wa-. . , ( . = . )
, : jea-, . gesse/ , II ; GUESS: . ,
. -: -(we || . . (Swa , ,
. , ]; . . , ; ; .
jeaiwan . |[ . gatewjan , , : ?
] . (. . gitse, geise,
(gef ., . . fan) . . gisse, . gissa , .
gentll .\ GENTLE: . . gissen)
/; geste .; JEST: . ,
; ; , ; ,
; ; . . ; ; , ; .
, : in . gentil < , ;
. gentllis , : . geste ,
; . GENTEEL ; ,
, ; upon, ; , < ge-
. GENTILE . ; sta . . (< . .) , (res)
./. gesta . . ,
gentil-man', [el-, .] GENTLE < . . . gcrere,
MAN: . , ( ,
) ; . . gesten . //; JEST: .
; : . . geu- geste (. ),
tilhomme; {. . gentil)
- gentll-womman .] GENTLEWO (gestour); , ,
MAN: . . ; . : . geste .
. : w. = . wlf-1 (get, ( . = . jyt)
jfojo5, |, -. > 3iiwedc', youtlic"; jet . =3it
YOUTH: . ; ; gete/i . 5\ GET: ;
, ; . ; : . (. ge-
; ; || . ta) || . -jytan (
Jneencl, . junda]; . 3 + ful ] . be-~, for-~,
. YOUTHFUL , under--")]
(geven . 2-, . . syfan)
ftcuiid, ||, . . yond, ||; (jew ., . . )
yond: . ; . || . . 3yd, |i| (< jie|) -. > '; YET) (.
jatnd ]: jeon . . (> .); . . ,
YON * t ; ) || . ; , , :
jenertoT; . . jains ]; (. bescon- Syddiaii .
dan) , ,
jeon;, , iu|, , (. 1, jydduiu, Si|. (< jie|), |iiii -. > yeddyiig1'
, jinjest; . |) > , , :
ycng, yong, |; YOUNG: . 3yd
, ; (.) 3iefu . - 3yfu
, ; , . || 1=3?1
. jung, . ungr, . juggs *jungaz jif > 31 yif; IF: || , iof,
< +juwiingnz] || , juvencus (< juve- . ef; . z. jabai ibai ,
ills ; , ), .] . . iba -.
, juva^dt); , . ] , . et' . ibu
. ': ~.] = ./. iba]
, , || , jiran , ( jtej), . 3 > yiven, even,
gem . , . gjarn) ( .) gyven, ge|; GIVE; || .
. (> jer5) = gebeii, . gef'a, . gibaiij

193
Sift i-. >yift", (x .) gift'; GIFT: da. glpoun . ,
, ; ; , . gipon
; (.) ; . . gipsere . , :
, 1 . (Mit)-gifl , , gibcciere
. gift, |pt, . (fra)-gil'ts]: syfan syrd (<1||), | J a -. >yerdc; YARD: ()a
3yfu, >|. (< 3ie|), |, -. > 3ive, 3cve, (x ca. ; ; . || . Gertc],
.) gyve (.)'. , || . II . . ]
geba, . ejyf (< *getu), . giba]: 3yrdan . I >gurde, girden, ge|, (,
jyfan |rte); GIRD: ,
51(1 ( sicld), |e|, c. & jild, yeld; YIELD: . giirten, . gyrQa]
. ca. , , , sirden, ||, ||, . /; GIRD: . .
; , , ; . , . . , *
/-
: wjyldan jyrdel -. >gurdel, glrdel, ge|; GIRDLE: !
jyldan (< jie|), |, . 3 > jilden, yclden; || . Giirtel, . gyrfliil]: /;.
YIELD: . . , syrdan
, ; . * > girle. (guile), gerle, (3) .; GIRL; '
, ; , ca. , ; . ; ?
|| . gelten ; . *gyret-
, (. |), . (< 3ie(), |, . 1 (+ .) > yir- J
gjalda] , ; earn, YEARN: . ,
jyldan . 1 ->gilden; GILD: , , , ; ,
: sold , , ||
jylden . => gulden, gilde/i; (x .) . gimian, . girna(sk) ., .
GOLDEN: , || gairnjan]: .
. golden gulden (. guldin), (girt . 2-6, . . syrdan)
, gullinn, e. guljjeins]: sold . S-swom (. .) .. . swimman
3e -3yld-heal -. & yeldlialle, (x .) 3it . 2, (. incit, inc, dm. inc, .
glldhalle; GUILDHALL: ( incer) ; ( .) ... ||
); , . git, , it; (. ., . igqis)]
: se-jyld , , , 3yt = jit
; . . (.) gildi , Sjt (< jTetfl), set, . > jit, yet; YET:
, (. . jy!d): heal' > . , , , *
HALL ) || . hpll] , ; t>a 3?t ; . . ; j
sylpun (< 3ie|), sl|, 3t|. . 3 > 11, || . lela]
yelpe; YELP: . ; . syta=3yt,3iet
, ; . , (gyve;/, give, . . Syfart)
, || . galpon, giacen ( glenten) . II; glauncc,
, (.) palpal GLANCE: ,
jylt i-. gull, gill, ge|; GUILT: da, : . glacer, |ier, - ,
, ; ; ca. . , , , glace., "
. tf . glacies, . |.
(gilt . 2-, . . syldan . 1) glaunee, GLANCE . ,
jyltij . > gllty; GUILTY: .
, ; . . * 3 ld . (. ~-Iice, . ) >
: ! i-. glad; GLAD: . *; , J
(ginne/r . ^ . on-jinnan) ; , , - |
jiiijcBst = jinjest, cm. || . glatt , . gla3r| |
gynglen . II; JINGLE: , . . , . glaber
; ? ,; , ( b <dh ; . . word)] Jl
JANGLE , 3loEd-lrcc . > gladliche, gladly!
< . janglew , jan- GLADLY: . ; , '
gler ; . , ; jlsd-ltC ,
jioliOu, se|, . * , ;

194
jlffiS -. > gias; GLASS: |[ . (goe, go, = . sail)
Glas, . gler] jffis , = 35s; . as
(glaunce . ., . . gtace/i .) said o-c. > gold; GOLD: || .
(glcman . - . jleo-') Gold, . gull, . guljo; . .
jjenjan . 1 ; -" ; kulta .] || . . ]
d , : (golden ., . da. jylden)
jleirj ./. ;old-lali, -laj, . /-
glenten . II; GLINT: .
; ; . ; (. Sold-smid -, goldsmyth; GOLD
. glace ) SMITH: || .
jlco-mftn* .-. > gieman; GLEE- Goldschmied, <. gullsmldr]
MAN (.): (gon ., . . on-sinnan)
jlco* wo-. > gle, glcw; GLEE: , . (good . = . )
, , ; , (gond . . = . seond)
, ; . , (gong . - . )
|| . giy] 30s .-. >goos; GOOSE: || .
jlidan . 1 > giiden; GLIDE (. Gans, . gas] || . . , ,
GLODE t): [| . glldan, khen]
. glTtan (. gleiten)] (gospel . = . 3od-speI)
- glodo . (.): , (goost , = . jfist)
(? = G LA D E) goune GOWN: (),
- glose .; ( .) GLOSS: , : , goune, gonne, =
: . glose . . gunna 7 .
giossa . gldssa , governaunce , ,
(go, goo, . = . 311) , ; :
sod -. ( .) -. , governance . govemer .
(.) > god; GOD: || . ( GOVERN ,
Gott, . gud, gofl, . gu{)] ) < . gubernare .
Sod -. > good; GOOD (. GOODS): kubemain
. . , ; ; (gowne . = . goune)
; . ; (.) grace .; GRACE: . ()
, : aod . , ;
Sod . (. betera, . be/st; . . ;
betera; . wel, . .) > god, , ;
good (. bettcrc, bcttre, . : . grace < . gratia
best); GOOD (. BETTER, . ,
BEST): || . gut (.
guot), . g66r, , ^, ] !! . . gracious .; GRACIOUS: . .
] , ,
Sud-cimd , j] , ; , , , *
got-kund]: . * : . gracious < . gratio-
(gimdes ., , , ; 6d ,) sus gratia . (. , grace)
goddesse .; GODDESS: : SrSdij, || . - gredy, GREEDY;
, jod ; . -esse . (. . , || ck gradag, , gratae,
duchesSe, eiiipcici.sc. in .) . graflugr, . gredags] || . .
sod-iTe , > gadlich, goodly; GOOD grdiiyati , gnJlimis ,
LY: ; , , gaidliiis ]
Sud"$pc! (< 30d-spsl) o-c, > gospel*; Sfan . 6 > grave; GRAVE: . ,
GOSPEL: . ; , ; .
( , ,-, etiange- , || . graben
Uum ); . . , . grata , . paball
]
5od-simu -, >godsoue; GODSON; 31%$, |.1, ., grey, |; GREY, GRAY:
, . gran, , grsir]

195
gram . gram, |o|: , . <?. Greumngl . . (,
, || . . gram, )]
. gram ] (greet . = .
grammere, |m|, .; GRAMMAR: jretan, ||, . 1 gretew; GRF.ET:
: . grammaire < , , '
. grammatica . gramma- ; . .
tike || . grotian, . griiflen (. gruo-
jrapiau . 2 s gropcn; GROPE: . 55)]
; , (grelterc . |est ., . . ^reat).
; . ; , jretins -. > grelyng'; GREETINQj
, , / : jre ta n
; . , / (gretly ., . . jreat .)
|| . greifon, . Jreut (, .) = jrcot
grcipa]: gripan . 1 (> greven . II; GRIEVE: ; *
GRIPE , ) || . grei- : . graver ,
fcn {. grifan), . grtpa, . grei- , < . gravare
] (. . gieef .)
jrses, jasrs, -. > gras, ||; GRASS: grewis (.) . . , *
|| . Gras, . gras, . gras] : . jiowan
graunte (2) . II/, GRANT: . (griefe . . = . greef . greven
. , , .)
; . . , sfis-hund -. > grihond, ( grey . J
, : . ) greyhound, grehound; GREY- !
. graantcr, creanter, < . HOUND: : ? || . grey
. credentare { . , - hundr]; ? . .; 7
dentem . credere . , ; (jnj- .
) .)
(graven . = . jrafart) -helm -. * -,
! . (. jrylra, . |test) ( , *
greet (. grcttere, . |ttest); ): -. |
GREAT: . . ( . . grima ,]
.)\ . , || .
0]
grece .\ GREASE: ; .
gresse, |ai|, gras . <. crassus
, ( CRASS
, )
greet .; GRIEF: .
; ; . : . gref
. , , < .
gravis, . |, (
GRAVE .)
(grehoiind ., . . -hund)
3rendel -. (
) ,
: jrindan jr in d a u . 3 grynden; G R IN D :
, |oi|, /i, > grene; GREEN: (-), (), ?
|| . griin (. gruoni), . () || . . grint , ]. >
grcenn]; growan , gryn<1e!*sion, grynd*~ ; GRIND*
Jrcot ( rjreut) -. :> greet; STONE:
greete, GRIT: . . , , jryrr-jefltwe (i-. . *
/ ; *, "
. / : gryrc i-. ,
|| . OrieB, . grj6t; . || . gruri]

196

(ha .= , habban)
habban . J ( . ,
.) > have/!, ha, ? (.,
, .)', HAVE: |[
. haben (. |), . hafa, .
baban)
haberdasshere .; HABERDA
SHER; . ,
; .
: . (.) Iiapertas (
)
habergeoun, hau|, ,; HABERGEON:
gris . ,: ; : (.); , ,
, gris . grls . : . haber
. . greis , )
(s- geon , hauberc -
srlst-bltuns -. > grisbltyng', griebait]; . hals-berg
GRISTB1T1NG: had /()-. >had, hood; (-HOOD .):
: srist-bitian . 2 , ; ;
; jr. . , ; , || . heit
(> GRIST , (. -heit .), . haidus ,
) Jfladan; -b. bilan ] | . kgtiiS
grom, grome, ,; GROOM: . ]
, , , ; . (hadde, had, ., . . habban)
, : .', . . hador ,, ? hadar; ? = ha
, gromct {. gourm et). dor -. , || . hei-
(-GROOM BRIDEGROOM . , , ]
. junta.) heefde ., . habban
, ; (hafen , - , habban)
(ground . - ., . . jrund) h je fe u e 1 -. liajven -. ? havene;
srowan . 7> growcw; GROW; || HAVEN: , || , -
. gnioen, , groa] fen, . hgfn]: heef -. *
jrund -. > ground; GROUND: . || . haf]
, ; , ; hafoc, hea|, -. ? havek', Iiauk"; HAWK:
; . ; , ; . Habiehi (, habuh),
; . , , . haukf]
, || . h a ja -p o m , |-, -, >hawe-thorn; HAW
Grund, . grimnr; . . grundu- THORN: (.) : h a ja >
(waddjus) ], &, grounden . || . hagi]: [>. (>
. II; GROUND: ; THORN , ;
; ; |>) || , Dom, . [ram, . .
-, * > gome: , || taumus ,] || , , .]
. gomo, . ginni, . guma] || . h a jo lia n , ha:jl[, h e je l, , 2 & haileu ;
homo (homin-)]; (. bryd^um a > HAIL: /
brid- me ( grome)); BRIDE liajoi, h s s l, heijel, -, & hawei,
GROOM: |j . Bniutigam] hail; HAIL; |[ , Hagcl, .
103 -. * , || . gund-, hagi]
. gunnr, guar, *1 hiil , > bool; hole, WHOEE; , ca.
Jiid-byrne jn-. * , , , ,
; , ; , ,
Sufl-hafoc -, * , ; t || . hell, .
Jlid-searii, || -. $ heiU, . bails] ||. (< )],
, h,- + -sum . . > hoolsom

197


.\ WHOLESOME: , hftnd -. > hond, ||; HAND: ||
|| . heilsam] Hand, . htmd, . handus]
(haldc/i . = . healdan) Mndlian . 2 > handlen; IIANDL?
hale 3 3 hSlij / -. , ,
liiilellun . I , -. || . handcln
: hal ? hatan , -.,
hseleO * t-, ( ./mi. . heeled, as) hpndla]: hand
heleth: , || . Held, . hflnd-locen . *
holdr] , ,,
(half . . . healf . .) : 1. = Iocqh
halja -. (< . .) > halwc; . 2- . 2
HALLOW ( ALL HALLOWS , , !
): : halij . (ga)-lukan ] ? 1 -. (>
. LOCK , ). (LOCK *>.
halij (< hales) . > holy; HOLY:
, || . heilig, . .)
heilagr; . . ? hailag (.)]: lial haiid-pleja -. ,
lialij-dics -. holiday: HOLIDAY: .
, (. haiijian . 2 ( 1) (., .)
); . , , 2.hon . 7 (.) (. lie 113,
; . , . 2- hanjen) > hongcn, ha| (-
, . .; . heng, hee|, .
hilisnes* jk -. > holynesse; HOLINESS: 2- hongew); HANG . .;
. , , . 1 . , ; 2.
; . . : halij ; . . , 1. 1|
hrclflH -. > helthe: HEALTH: . . . . hengja . I ., . han-,
; () ; . gen .]; 2. || . hangen .
: hal . (. ha han . 7 .), .
(halve . half = . healf hanga . 7 ., , hahan .
.) ]
(halvcn-del, . . henlf .) hap* ., f , ,
(Italwc <. = . halja) : . (. happ); . ,
ham -. (dm. ltame 1 ) . (< 3e-ha;p . . HAP
, ed.) > hoom; HOME: . (cyu<.) LY t .: . . ; .
( . .), , .
; . (), || (happcly = haply ., . . liap)
. Heim, . heim r , happenen . ,; HAPPEN:
; ; ; . : . hap .
halm s ], 1 . h .- + lie . happy :, HAPPY: . ,
. > hoornly .; HOMELY: . , ; .
, ; ; . : = , hap
, || . heim lich (haply ., . . hap)
]. 2, . hoomly . liar . hor, hoor; HOAR: ,
(ham . 3 . ,, . . hy, || . her (. hehr
hi) ), . harrj
hamor -. hauler; HAMMER: || hara -. > hare; HARE: || .
. hamur, . hamar (. Ham Hn.SC]: . hasu .
mer), . hamarr] || . , , (hard . - . heard)
, (. )] (hardncssc . ^ . heardnes1)
ham-weard ~es . > hoomward (hare . = . liara)
~cs; HOMEWARD . -S .; ha . .; harr, hurr, (.
; , || .); (
. Iieimwfirts .] , );
(han . . habban) , (. . garren)

198
_ harlot .: HARLOT: ca. (hatte ., . . hatan)
(. no . hatlan . 2 >liatcf/: :
. ); / . hassen (. 1??), . hatan
; /; ; . . 3, hatjan . /]
: . herlot, arlot, liictu, |, /-, > liete; HEAT: :
; hat
_ harlolrye .', HARLOTRY; . hiefl i-./. > heeth; HEATH: . ca.
, , ; ;
; ; ; . ; . ,
, : harlot ; || .
(harm, ~, . = . hearm) Heide, . heidr. . haijii ]
(liarpyng' . = . hearpuns) . ( , ., ,
barsk . ( 1 .); HARSH: ) > hethen; HEATHEN:
, : . . (. harsk || . heiOinn]: h3
|| . harsh, . harschj) 05./(?-. > hetbenesse: .
(hart . 1. = . heorot) , , ;
(hart . 2. = . heorte) . , ,
hass (Us <s Iss) -. > best*; HEST f: , : licEOen
, || . (Ge)heiB): haOor -. * ,
hatan || . . hehjo -. ]
baso-pad . , ; (hank .=, hafoc)
b, . wo/wa || . hQSS] || . haunt .; HAUNT: . ,
, canus (<*casnos)] hara -. , ;
( HARE ); (. salowis- ; ; ; .
pnd) ; ;
baste2 :, HASTE: : : . haunt (.)
. haste . haist || . haunter . (. . hauntcn)
h$st t-. , , . haifsts haunten, ha[ . .; HAUNT: .
] , ,
hasten2 . II (. .); HASTE: ; ,
(): . haster ha ; . ,
ste . (. . haste .) : . haunter, lia|,
hasty ,; HASTY: , , ,
: haste .; . . -, ? . hamettan . I
liastif . hastif , :
(hastly ., hastily, . . ham
hasty .) - HAUTBOY (hoboy, hoe], 1|)
hat . > hoot; : , ['hoobaij: : , hautbois (.
|| , heiB, . heltr] hflUt + bois )
beet* . s> hat*; HAT: , || (haven . = . hnsfcne)
. hottr, hattr, -.] (have/i , = . habban)
hatau . 7 (!. . hSt, hcht, (hawthorn . = . ha.^a-Jiorn)
, . (<. hatle) > ho he , 3 , . (. . . hi-, .
ten (. hatte, he|, highte; . 2- , ; , .
y-hoten, hight); () . 2-e HIGHT f: . . .) > 1. he,
. . , ; ha, (. hine, him, hym); 2. (.
, ; (,) ) his . .; 1. HE ()
; . || . hei- (. HIM); 2. HFS: . ; .
, ; . 1. ; 2. || . lie, hi, . hii; (.
; . heita , dm. hint , d a g a ,
, , (. led. licit); ] II . , . (.
(. I . heiti); . haitan . -s -); , . cis
(. . I . ], A him . + self . .,
heita, , . 1/3 . haitadn)] ~ . ., "um dm., > hym-self, |!ve,
|lve, . ip. .', HIMSELF: hearm -. > harm; H ARM : .
;, , , ; . , || .
(head . = . heafod) Harm, . harmr]
hEafod -. > heved, heed, had; HEAD: hearpe -. s harpe; HARP: || .
|| . Haupt, . haufod, Harfe, . harpa]
hpfuO, . Iiaubij)], Ii. + . .
-l-inga > heedlynge ,; HEAD
LONG; ca. ,
; . ,

heah . (, . heane, |nne; ..);
. hyrra (lile|), . hylist (hle|) >
lieh, I3, heigh, high, hy; HIGH:
|| . hoch, . liar, . hauhs; .
. haugr ] || . . ]
heah-fasder r-. , -

heahnes\ hiaii|, ja-. > hejnesse, hcigh-
nesse, highnessc; HIGHNESS: .
, ,
; . , -. > harpyng'; HARPING;
, ; , : ; hearpian . 2 (>
heah HARP . ): hearpe
liealdan, ha|, ~, . 7> heelden, hool- (heart = . heorte)
d; HOLD: (), heaflo-, |u-, -. * ( ~m$re, -Jjrym*,
, , ; -wylm) , || . hadu-,
|| . halten, . halda, . . . Iiaflu-]
haldan]. . with + h.; WITH heado-lind -. ,
HOLD: , - , * /

hcalf, ||, -. >half; HALF: . . heaSo-wylm 1-. * ,
, , ; . : w. ( wielm)
|| . haiba, <?. halbaj; healf , , , ;
. ; weallan . 7 ,
healf, ||, . > half; HALF: || . wallen]: wylla, |, -. (>
, , || . WELL . , )
halb, . halfr, . halbs], healf dSI (heaven = . heofon)
. >half-deel, haivendccl, , heawan . 7 v liewen; HEW (.
, ; ( HEWED, . 2- I1EWN): ||
hcalf . ) . hauuan, . houwan (. hauen),
heals, ||, -. >hals; (. . hals, . hoggva] \\. kauti ,. ]
~, [hails]); , || . Hals, hebbaii . 6! > hebbe/i, hcven ,
. hals, . hals] || . . collis] ,; HEAVE: . ; .
(health . = . hffildu) . ;
heap -. heep, HEAP: . , ; || . heben, . hefja, . haljan] ||
; . . , || . . . (. 1 , capio) ,
Haufe (. hufb)] , ]
heard , > hard; HARD: , hebbe (.) , ., . habban
, || . hart, . heben (. .) . ~ heofon
hurrtr, . hardus] II . kratiis (lied, heed, . = . hcafod)
, ] hedan . 1 > hede/i; HEED:
heardnes -. > hardnesse: HARD ,
NESS: , : -, || . hodian, . huteii *
heard , ]: hod, , M e

200
:, HEED: , , , ,
; hind
|jefaenrTcaefi (. .), . h e n '-fiijo l -. -,
heofbn-rTce ,
(hcfdcn . ., . . habban) (heens ., . . h o n )
(liefed , . hSafod) (heiijen ., . . lianjian)
hefts . > lievy; HEAVY: , hentan . 1 > hente^; hent, HINT: ,
|| . hefig, . hpfugrj: , ,
hebban ; . . . ,
]ien3=tymc, |tl|, , , , ; . . :
, : t, team . huntian; (. . . .
(. tyman .) . 2-, . tf
, -~, (.), . J ?, .)
, || . heyja] heo, hlo, . 3 . . (. . .
(he3cs .., . . heah) lii-, , , ; . .
heht ., . hatan . . .) >
- heir1' (eir) :, HEIR: : - 1. heo, hue, ho, 3I10, 1, (? . seo
. heir, eir, < . . he . .) scbc1, she', sho3, (.
rein, , . hercdcm, . hire, here), 2. (. >) hire, here, .
heres :, 1, SHE ( . HER),
hel Ja-. > helle; HELL: || . 2. HER . :, . ; .
(. hella), . hel (. lie!jar), . 1, , 2. : he
halja]: helan heo . 3 . (> heo) = hy, hi
liela -. > hole; HEEL: , |] heofon -. > hevcn'-; HEAVEN (. #;
? . . hat]: ? < *hohilo hoh -. .) , j| he.
, , (> heban; . . himinn, . himins; .
HOUGH [huk], HOCK Hlmmd)
, ) heofon-lie , > hevenUch, hevenly;
helan . 4 > liden; (. heal, hele): HEAVENLY:
, || . hehlen heofon-riee jo-c, > heveneriche:
(. helan)] || . . celare (.
concelare, CONCEAL Mold ., . healdan
)] lieonan, hio|, |, . ^ henen, (x
{hec!<! ,, . , healdan) . *s) hennes, hens; HENCE t *:
helm -. >helm; HELM f : . , nop,
, ; . . || , ; hi- (, he)
Helm, . hjalmr, . hiims; . . lieorenian . 2 . . ^ herknen;
, . , .]'. helan. HEARKEN, |, *: ,
(HELMET = . helmet . hel ; . . herkien (- HARK
met, , .) ) || , hcrkla, , horchen]
help -. > help; HELP: : > lieurd . > horde; HERD; . ,
heipan . ; , ; . .
helpan . 3 > helpcn :, HELP: ; || . Herde, . hjprO,
|| , hclfen, . hjalpa, . hitpan] . hairda]
(hem, -.Retvcfl, . , , hy, hi) hcorot, heort, -. > hert; HART: ||
hen" ja -. >hen; HEN: || . . I-Itrsch (. him?), . hjprtr] ||
Henne] ' * hina . || . . . cervus] * horn
Hahn, . hanl, . hana] || . . heorte - . herte; hart, HEART:
canere (. . , . S . H en. (. herza) ., . hjarta
, ntnr) | ., . hairto .] || . . (<
(hence ., . . heonan) , , .,
je-hende . > hende; . , . ), , cor (cord-),
, ; . , . kardla (. . .
, , .)}
(heep . = . heap) (hethen . -esse . = . 10
her . > h e e r, (x , na -e) hert; . ~nes .)
HERE: || . hicr (. Iiiar), (hetherto ., ., hider)
. , , her]: lie. 1. . . (heved . = . hSafod)
h e r e - h e n c e . , , (heven . = . heofon)
; (. . heonan). 2. HEREUN (hewe . . hlw, hyw)
TO . , (hewen . . = . hiwan)
(hy . - . heah)
h e r b e , e rb e , .; HERB: : hy, hr, (< hie), heo,/. . (. , I
. herbe , herba . hi-; . , ; ,
herbere, erb|, :, ( . 2) AR . , .) > 1 , hi,
BOUR: . ; , hco, he, (. hem, ||, ||, ||; .
; . . , they . ., ,, . -1
; ; . . . , , |nnm /
: . hcrbier < ., ., . . they); 2. (. >) Imre,
. (1) herbarium , . ||, ]|. [|, here, |ij (tt hcire .
herba (. . herbe): , , (2) arbor , .); 1 . (,
hem, EM, THEM, . THEY <
( . = . heorcnian) . they); 2. (. . THEIR): , 1
(herd . 2 - , ., ~ ., . . ; . . 1 . ; 2. : lie
hynm) hyejan . 3 hosian , 2 >howe: . 1
iiere j o -. > here: , || . , , . -
, . herr, . haijis] , ( .
(here . = . her) . !, !) || . hugBean, .
---- HEREDITAMENT . huggen, . hyggja, . hugjan]; hyj
: . . hSreditamentum hid ( hljid) -. HIDE: (.)
here- -. / ,
: f. fleam (. 100120 )', j hiwan
(hcrehence ., . . her) hyd i-, > hude, hide; HIDE; , -!
here-lafa-. + |1 . Haut (. hot), . 1
( , = . hyran) !)0]
herenes-, : m herian hydan . 1 s> linden, hiden (. |dde,
(hereof = . hcr-of) . 2 -e hid1); HIDE; (),
hcrc-sccaft -. t , ()
hider . > hider, |th|; HITHER: :
heretik, |, .; HERETIC: : oa lie. ca. hider-to .; HITHER' ,
. heretique, , haereticus TO; ,
, liairetikos . Iiidous, hydwiO, :, HIDEOUS:
, : -
(h e re u n to ., . . hir) iiidous, [os
h e ria n , ||, ||, . 7 > h ert , hcren; hTe . . = hy, hi
liefy: , , (hye ., . . heah .)
|| . hazjanj . . ., . hy, hi
h c r - o f . > h cro f; HEREOF t : , hTcrru ., . heah
, his, hi, . J . . ., . heO
( h e rte . = , heorte) his, hi, . 3 . = hy
(hest- . = . lues) hisan . -. a hiwan
(h e t = he it = da. he hit) se=hysd ./. , || . ga-
h e t ., . hatan hugdsj: hyse
(isetecy^. =*da. hietu) hyse, hi|, i . * > high: , |[ .
<, :
h e tte n d n t-. hugr, . hugs]
*hettan . 1 || . liyje-|jryiii' i-. $ , "
hetzen ]; . hatian ctbq; br. , , ,
(h e e th . = . heed) || . jnvinil
(highness . . hSalines) , .; .
ilyll i-., . > h ill', |u|, |e|: || . , ,
hull, . hel] || . . collis .., , || . hTwo
, culmen ( ., . hjdn . ,
CULMINATE), . calnas ] .. I . hciwa-(frnuja) () ].
>. holm * li . holm , iuwna, , , . . >liyiie . .;
. liolmr ] (. HIND: . . .; .
.) *, , ,
hilde-rinc -. + ; b.Ja-. * || ; ;
. hlldl, hild, . hittla, hilta, . . ,
hildr, . hilti- ( .)] hlSb . - hlaf
(Iiym-seif, |lve, |Iven, ., . . he) hlaf -. > l/jof, loofL O A F : . ,
hyne, hine, ., . lie ; . . , || .
lilndon . . = be-hindan Laib, . hleifr, . hlaifs; . .
(hyne ., . . hiwan) (')]
liyr ja -, > hure, here, hire; HIRE ; hlsfdTje .-. l/(svedi'} lafdij', lady";
, , LADY; . , ; .
t [] . hure, . huur, , , : < hlaf + *dl3 e }
. Heucr] , . ;-.
hym . .., . hy, hi |! . deiaa ; . .
liyran ( hle|), heran (.), . 1 > digan ]
Ini, ; HEAR: . , (+ iilatbrd -. Moverd', lord"; LORD; .
.) , ; . , , , ;
. , , || . U. , , :
. horen, . Iieyra, . hausjan] || ? hlaf+ weard,
. . akoiiein (. . lilafurdin; -. lordyug;
. akoustikc hiaforda (), ,
akoueiu)] : hlaford
(hire, 3 . ., . . heo) hlffine , > Icnc; LEAN: ,
iiyrins (< hle|), he|, 36- - , -. >;';
HEARING: , , * hlfiw, hlaw, -./, > low, law0 ; (-LOW 0
: hyran ; TRIP-
hyrned-nebb . : , LOW); , II . hlaiwa -
horn; 11. (s N E B , . ., , hlaiw . .; . ,
) || , nebbe, . ? ( xtu)]
his, ||, . 3 . ./. . (> his), . he hlifian . 2 ,
. h it .
hit . 3 . . (. , , Ideapian . 7> lepen (. leep, ||, ||,
. . . . 2- 1, 1|); LEAP: ,
. .) > 1 . hit, it, , (. , , ; ; .
), 2. (. >) his . .; 1. hit, IT; , , ; ,
2, his (<? . , , || . lauleu , .
it), ITS: . ; . hlaupa, . (us)-hlaupan , ]
. 1 , , 2, : he hlyhhun, hli|, (< hlle|), lilxhhan, . 61 s>
hitteB . 1\ HIT: , lihje/;, laghe/, lauRhe/t; LAUGH:
, ; , (. hitta) || . laclicn ., . lilai-
(hither, -to, . . hider) ja, . hlahjan]
hlw, hyw (< hlcw), hQ,Qw,jOC, > heu, hlystan . 1 (+ piI.) hlysnan . 1 >
hew'; HUE; . , luster, listen, histne/i, listne; LIST T
; ; . ; , LISTEN: ,
; . , [| . hy || . , hlusta . lyssna]:
, hiwi , ] hlQd
hiwan, I1T3I, -. . hewen (. hewe): hlot -, hlyt (< |tc|)i i-, >Sot; LOT: da.
, , , , , ; . ,
, ; (hony . =. lumij)
|| . lot, , hlutr, hluti; . . honour (|ur3) :, HONOUR:
hlauts] . honur, |our, . honos, |f|
htud . > loud; LOUD: |j . . honsrem
Inut (. hlOt) || . . ; ; hoiiouren . II, HONOUR: -
; ., . cluere , , : . honorer < .
, . klc(w)os , , honorare honos , (. )
kliieln ] liopa -. > hope; : || ,
hiiccca -. > nekke; NECK: || . hoffe]: hopian
nek ; . . Na- hupian . 2 > hopen; : . .
cken , . hnakki , ; . || ,
, ] . hoffen]; hopa
? > ho .; hoe, , : !, ( hord -. > hord; HOARD; . . I
, , , ; .
. .) || . . h6] || . Hort, . hodd, . lutzd]
(hoaten . . hatan) hors -. > hors; HORSE: || !.'!
(iiohoy ., . HAUTBOY) Ross (. hros), , hross]
hod / . hood; HOOD: , hors-hwsel -. -, ||
|| . Hut (. huot < hot) ] . hross-hvalr; . ( -
(hoe . 3 . . ., at. . heo) ) . vallross,
(hoc . = . ho) , hvalros, . walrus ( 1
hoi -. >hoi'; HOLE: . . , - WALRUS )]
; . : hoi . , hors-hejn -. , ,1
I . hohl]. (. . holh,) ; ( ,i[
hold . > hold: . , ) *
; , ; . liosa -. hose -. > hose (. ~);
|| . hold, . hollr, . huIJjs] HOSE: (.) ( - 1
(holder; . = . healdan) )', , ||
lioih, holj, -. > holow; HOLLOW: . . Hose , , . hose i
, ; . . ] 1 3
, I . huliwa ]: hostclrie :, HOSTELRY: . - 1
hoi . (. hoi -.). . holow , , ; ,
. (. |!we); HOLLOW: , , : . hoslellerie
hostel (. . hostilcr)
(holy . = . hillij) hostller :, HOSTLER, OSTL|: . V
(holiday . = . hlllj-dtej) ,
(hoiyncsse . = . hnlijnes1) ; . (
(hollow ., . . holh .) ): . hosteller hostel (
holt -, > holt; HOLT: . ; , HOSTEL ) < .
; . ; . , . hospiialc ( HOSPITAL
|| . , . holt , ) . hos*
] || . . ] pes, . |spitcm, , , (>
(holwe . ., ., ., . . . hoste, HOST , [
liolh .) )
(hoom . ., homely, lioomly, (hoot, hot, . = . hat)
. ,, . . ham) (hoten, , . 2-, . . hatan) |
(homeward . ham-wcard) (hooth, ooth, . - . )
lion . 7, . hflnjian . 2 (hou , = . )
(hond . . hSnd) (. houe . = . hOjian, . hyejan)
honest .', HONEST: , (hound , = . hund)
, ; . : . houre :, HOUR: : . hore,
honeste, . honestus; (. , ho lioure (.), <. . hfira :
nour) (hous, -, ., household ., . .
(honger . - . hunjor) hQs)

204
(liovv . - . !) hrlnj-Trcn Jo-c. * *,
(hows, ~e, . = . hfls)
(a* (hr*") o(/i)-M. || . hr, . hrysean . I > russhe/i; RUSH: .
lireo] , ? ,'?
lirffid, fl, . (. hrade, . .) ; . . .
> rad, rath; RATHE f : . , ; , ;
, ; ca. . , || . rau-
, , , schen , . ruska
; . , , ; , ]
/ || . hrad, , hry|, -. > nrther; (.) rothcr:
. hraflr] , ,
hril-lic, |-, . , I . Rind]
; ; ~ . > radly, lirof -. rliof1, rof, roof; ROOF: da.
|thl|, [the!: , ; , ; ca. . |
; . hrof, . hrdf .
hran -. || . hretnn { ]
REIN- REINDEER liroii . =
)] ! . >hou, how; HOW: | .
iiran -. ]: hwst
)ira9e, |d|, . {. hraSor, . (huanne, hw|, = . hwannc)
|st) > rathe {. -, . ~st); hucche .\ HUTCH; . . ;
rath, ~ (. ~, , -est), . . ,
(. >) RATHER: . , . .: . huehe
, , ; . humour .\ H U M O U R : . ,
. . , ; (.) ;
, ; . . , ; (, ,
, :
hrad . ; , -
hrfcflre, . hrefler *
hrStnari . ~ hrymaii *,
hiW -. > rewe; RUE t: . . , ,
, ; . , ;
(. RUEFUL , ); . ,
) || . Reue - ; , :
(. hriuwa); . . hryggrrt/. , hum or . humor, . |,
]. . (? .) reouthe2,
reuthe, |cwth|; RUTH ]ru:0] f: 11 -. ? houud; HOUND: , .
, ; (. RUTHLESS , ; .
): . . hryggO I . Hund, , htmdr, t.
, hunds || . . canis, . kuon (.
!> -. * , || . liaii])ra kuntis)]
', .] hund -. :> hund: ,
(; hrle), 1| (.), . I (. hund-seofontij
, ..) || . hunt; . hund,
hrinj -. > ryiig; RING: . , (Jirija hunda 300
, ; . , || ..] 100 . .
. Ring, . hringr; . . tnlhrmtg-hund )] ||
rengns .] || . . , . . ( ), . centum, .
] (he)-kt6n, . (jatam, .
hrlnjan . /> . . 3\ RING satom]
(. RANG, . II RUNG): . (hundlr = da. hund-red)
, , ; . hund-red, -, o-c. i> hundred, |th, hundir
. , || . luingja ( (.)', HUNDRED (. hunder):
. . ringcn] || . Huiidert, . liUiidraO]: -red
? , ; . <?. rafijo -. SOEVER: , 5
, ; (. . wer auch immer) /J ^ H
hund-leontls . : -t. = -tyn-ti3 -hwa (. ~, . -hwict) . .^
huiid-twelfti; . ; -I, = . .)
twclf-tij liwsel -. > w bal; WHALE: ||
-. > h o n g er; HUNGER; .
hUflSOi', |, Wal(fisch), . hvalr]
. ( , Invjcl-huuta -. .
); . ( ) ||
. Hunger, . liungr; . . hOhrus hwicl-huntoO, ], -, .1'
-. | ,
hunij -. > h o n y ; 1IONEY; || . hwnnan, |, . ( hwdnne) > whan*,
Honig (. honang), . hunang] ne, wo|, (x . -s) whannes, (*
liunta -. > hunte; : >huntian whenne) whennes; WHENCE:
huntian . 2, . . > huntcn, || . wannen]: hwa
lionten; HUNT: ; , hwanne, hwienne, . > whanw, |o|, 1
(): hcntan WHEN: || . wann, wenn.'ll
hunta. . huntere .; . HUN (. hwanne, |e|); . . ban]
TER hwair, |a|, hwflra, . > wher', |a|, |o|j T
huntoO, |, -. > hunteth, ho|; ; whore; WHERE: . ; -,
: hunta huntian -; ca. . || . wo (.
huntunj -. > hunting', HUNTING: hwar); . . hvar, . hmr]: hwS.f
: -> huntian hunta liwaet, ca. wher (+ .) (.
(huo, hwo, . = . hwa) +) which; (, +) what; .
h u r l i n ' . /; HURT: . , wherhy; WHEREBY f: '
; , ; wherof; WHEREOF t: .
/; . / , (. of , ); .
: . hurter , ; whertliurgli - ,
, ; wherwith; WHERE.
has -. > h o u s, how s; HOUSE: . ; WITH t: ; (. . wobel, wo-
; ; durch . .)
, . || . Haus (. lifis), hwrct . . , . (dm. 1
. hiis; . -hus, gud-h. hweeni, ||, me. hwy, hwon, . hwaes) >
, . h . + (se)-heald -. > what, wat, ( .
h o u s '- h o l d ; HOUSEHOLD: .); WHAT: || . was (.
; : . hwa;), . hvat, . 1] ||. quod; .
-heald <*=healdan . (< < *-), ..]; '
h fis-b o n d a -. > h u sb o n d e , h o u sb o n d e ; hwa . ( .) . hwa;t. swi
HUSBAND; , , IiwsbI swa > whatso: . ;
; . , . , ; swa
, ; , : . (. luSs- hwiBl swa nsfrc > whatsoever; WHAT
bdindi: . h. || . hfls]; . b, = bu- SOEVER: ,
andi , 1- biia || . buan]) hwibte Jo-, > whete; WHEAT:
hwa , , ( .) , . || . Weizen (. hweizi), . hvei-
(, hwone, dm. hwa:m, ||, . hw*s) ti, , hiaiteis]: hwlt
> hwo', w h o ", w|", ., . hwaet-liwuiu, |iju, -huju, , .,
., {. - , . ~s); -,
1. WHO (. ~); 2. (. >) hwsefler, ||, ., , (< .
WHOSE . .\ . ; . .) > whether; WHETHER (. t) :
. 1. ; 2. , || wcr . ; (< * 4
(. hwer), . bas ., .] || .. ); hwaeSer ( )... [)=- I
(< *-), ,.]: ~ ... ; . .; -
hwest. swS hw a sw a > w hoso; WHO , , * II
SO f: , ; . weder (. . , newedaf **
swa hwS sw a ffifrt > w hosoever; WHO , + hwedar), . ] || . j
, . polcros ( hwltan . 1 (\) 2. hwTtlan . 2 >
)}'. hwa, hwtet white/i; WHITE f: . 1, ; 2.
jt-liwieder , ( ), , / ; .
, / ;
InvseOre . ( . hw3er) . :
, , hwit
hwelp -. > wclp, wh|; WHELP: , hwSn . . ,
|| . hwelp, .
Iiwelf, . hvelpr] I Y
(iwct (.) = hwiet
liwettan . I > whetten; WHET: . (i, I, , . - . ic)
, ; . , (I . = . in)
, ; . , (i-, -, . = . -.
: liwiet . , . i-, -,
I . hvair] .)
hwy . ( . hwa;t) > why; WHY: ia =
|| . hvf; . . h)6]: hwa, (iaf, yaf, . ., iafen . ., .
liwcet . syfan)
liwil -. > whil; WHILE: . , (1- ., . . )
; . . ic . 1 . (. . -,
|| . Weile (. . , ;
hwlla), . lueilaj. 1. hwile ./. > . .) > ieh, i, (//,
while . ; WHILE: , . me); I (. . ME): ||
. 2. Iiwilum, |, . ( . ich (. mich, dm. mir), .
, .), > whilom, |; WHILOM : (. mik, . , . mtn), . .
. , , ; . , , . ik (. mik, dm. mis, ,
. , -. 3. ymb/~e hwtle meina)] || . ego, . ego; ? . .
> umbewhile, umwile, :. , (< , )]; (. mln . .)
Tdel . > idel; IDLE: . .
hwilc, ||, ||, , , . > , , ,
which, ||, , :, ; . , ,
WHICH: . , , || . eiie! (. Ttal)
; -, ; . ; ]
, ; . , || . Idelnes' ja-. > Idelncsse; IDLENESS:
Iiwilic, . welcher (. hwelth), . , ,
. livilikr, . hnleiks, hve|]: ; *hwi- , , ; .
lle ; hwi- , , ; .
. ., . hwa, hwait , , ; Tdel
-hwilc, |ylc, , , - IDYLL[ai|, 'i|] (idylllon6,eidyl7) .
hwilon, . Iiwll : . cidyllinn (
hwyrfan (< |ie|), |e| . I , )
, || ck. hwer- (idilnes . . idelnes1)
bian): hweorfan . 3 ( . - . )
, .. || . ( . - . )
weiben , , . ( = , )
bflirban , ] (year . = . )
hwistiian . 2 > whistle//; WHISTLE: (' . ., . . jear-lic)
|| . hvlsla , . (ieden . . . iodon/ue-codon;
vissla ] . . )
liwlt . > whit; WHITE: || . (yeddynge . = . ^yddunj)
weilJ (. liwl^), . hvftr, . hvcits] || (yclde . - . jyldan)
? .. , (< ; (yeldhalle . = . ()--)
, -- , -t- ? > yemun1, yoman', :, YEOMAN: .
I - d )] , , *

207
; . , yldra (< ic|), eldra, . eald
: ? < . *- || , ga- yldu (ie|), a|, in/-. > elde: ||
mann ]; , + eltT]: eald
( SOOri-) || , ga, (i-leawede . = . - + ISwcde)
. Gau, . gawi]: ? < . + (-left . 2-, . . ISfan)
man' (i-lesten . . . l&stan)
(yen ., . . cajc) (l-let . 2-, . . lettan)
( . = . ) ylf (< iclf), *|, asIT, i-. ( ./
(ycrde . - . syrd) ie- .; . ylfe, ie|
( . = . ) *|; . elfen -. , ) >elf
(yerelie . ., . . -) .): 1. ELF (. awl); 2. aulP, |pi^i
(even . = . ) OAF: . ca. , , ; ,
(if = 3if) 1 . , ; 2. || .
yfel . (. wyrsa, wi|, (< wie|), Alp , . alfr -. || . ,
., wyrs (< wie|), :, . .]
wyrsta .., :, wyrst .., (y-llke ., . . - .) *1
.) > uvel, yvel, evcl (. wiirse, (ilond . = . Tj-lflnd)
worse, werse, ., wurse m.n,, (y-mad . 2-, . . macian)
.)', EVIL (W O R SE , W O R ST ym age : IMAGE: ,
. , BAD ): , : . image < .
. . , ; . || imago, . Iginem
. libel, . ubils]; (. . wyrsa) ymb, ~, cmhe, . (+ .) . >
Tflj -. > yvy; IVY: umbe, |: , , (),
(i-foa . . = . -fa; . . fah, || . urn (. innbi), .
-~) umi] || . amphi ,
iS, IJ a --. || . ]
, (. ouwa), . ymb-Iiycjan* . 3 (. -hosde)
(., . Skaney = Sca(n)din* , , ; h. ||
avia), . ], -lAnd (<(ej-), csloiid, . hyg&ja, . huffl'an]:
-. > ilond, ||; ( ISLE) ISLAND: - IMMEDIATE .
|| . Eiland, . ey-land] , : . immedia
. (ISLE . ile . tUS (= in- p. + mediatus . .
ile, isle, < . insula; median; )
s (y-mendan, ., . - . -mynd-
. .) jian; . ltiyiidjian)
(y-goH . 2-, . . ) - IMPORTUNATE .
(l-grctlnge . = . - + jritinj) , : IMPORTUNE
(y-holdeti . 2-, . . henldan) , ,
(i-hoten . 2-, . . hatan) . importune .
(y-lad . 2-, . . ) , , . im-
(i-Ucrde ., . . (3e)-lfired) portunus ,
ilea, |, , (., . .
. .) > ilche, ilke; Impotent .; IMPOTENT:
ILK (:, O F THAT ILK, ., : . impotens, . |-
Grant of that ilk, tern, ; . . impotent
, ,, (in . , . . inne)
, .. ): In . (+ ,/.) (1), 2. in ' .
: = I* || #, i-s ] + 11; (. ) 3. in n e . > in , i, ine, In 4, in n e;
(ilcli . = . Sic) IN: , 1, (, )',
(llehe . = . iica) 2. , 3. ; . . .
ylde, |, relde ( ), i-. . (); , , . I, II
, , || , c!di, . iu, . 1, . in] || . in (< );
. aldir; . . Id . ., . aids, . ; ? , . (< < < *,
, ]: =eald . s )]; 2. || . ein

208
(. ; ? i - INVULNERABLE .
), . inn]: *> in 3. || . : . Invulnerable, . invul-
inne, . inni, . inna]: in . nerabilis
. in-with ,, . (= within, In-weard-ITce . >inwardliehe, inward
. . with-innan) ly; INWARDLY: , ,
, (), .', INK: : : in-weard-ltc . in-W.
. enquc < . incatlStum, ], . , (>
- , , INWARD , )
. egkauston in-wit . ; . . witan (.
(increase . . = . encrees . ,
encrcsc .) . in-wit,
lindede ., . . dad) . )
indigent .\ INDIGENT: , in-witta -. , : inwit
: . indigens, . . || . . inwinds .
|ntem, . , indigcre , ]: 7 wlndan
; . . indigentc =. (yong . = . )
Inne ., . . in (ioutneyes, , 2-
(ine ., . . in) , joumeycs, . .)
infect . : . in- (youthfull ., . . )
fectus . . inficere (yow, ~, ., . . )
; ; Iras -. . : . (.
infectect . II; INFECT; : - . Erlu ). !r- + -isc
infect . . . > Irish, |, . .;
(inoj, |ouh, ynough, inow, . II ., IRISH: ;
. je-noj, |h) . Irlsli-man, E|-m an, .;
Inspires, |, . II; INSPIRE: IRISH-MAN:
, : . inspirer, 1, .\ jo -., Tsern -. > iren
|, . insplrare , (yzen3); IKON: || . Eisen
(. Isarn), . jarn, . eisarn]:
instaunce .; INSTANCE: . ,
, ;
. . , .
, , Tren-smlrt, Tsen-, -. > irensmyth; yron-
, ; . . , smyth;
; , Tren-|>reat -. * ,
: . instance, . instantia ( ); |i. -.
, , , , (> THREAT
(in stedo, . . stede) ), ? ()-|1 , 2
Inslructour .; INSTRUCTOR: , || . (vcr)-drie-
, : , , . (us)-jmutan]
instructor, . |; . . lnstruete/i yrfa (< ie|), |,jn-M. || Erbe .
. (> INSTRUCT , (. erbo), . arbja; . . flrfi]
) , instruct . . in* yrfe (< ie|) jo-c, ,
structus , . instruere || . Erbe . (. erbi), . arbi .;
) . arfeija . . ed; . . at .\
in-til, ||, . , : . (. in-til yrfc-numa, yrf-, -. ,
= Inn . + til .; . , til; . , || . erbl-no-
. in-to) mo]: . nlman
intinja . , , (y-ronne , 2-, . . rinnan)
in-to . (+ /.) > inlo; INTO: (yrnnsmytli, ~, . . irensmiS)
(): = in' . + to . is . 3 , (> is; LS) wesalt, .
(intreat . - . entreten) na. /cbectt, , . . beon
(Invcet, inf], ,-, , . infec- ys . 3 . = is
t) (i-seid . 2-, . . secjan)

209
issue .; ISSU E: , , (< . ju n c tu s) / jo in d re ; (. c a j
: . issue . . jo y n e n )
. issir . exire joyous .', JO Y O U S : *!
Issue . //; ISSUE: , . joious (.) joic ,\
, : issue . (. . ~)
(i-sworen . 2-, . . swerian) joitruee (|eie: ) :, JO URNEY: . .
(It . = , hit) ,
ytt, itt, . , etan , ;
(y-taught, I-, [3!, . 2 - , . . t - . , (
) ), . journee, .
ITEM ['ai|] . . , ; |eie (.), . diurnus ,
/;
. item jowel :, JEW EL: -1
ytercn . : otor, , : . jouel,y
|tt|, . (> OTTER ) ||. Otter, joel, < . . jOcale, . |1,
. otr] ||. . ] . jocari . ,
(yts = it is = . hit is) (judgeraent, |(lgin|, . = . jugem ent)
yfl j a -. ||. tiflia, . undea] juge .\ J U D G E : : .
, |, |, . 1 , juge .jOdex, . jodicem
||. ]: *, , . jugement ., JU D G E M E N T;
||. dde (. odi), . , , :
eyOi . ., . aubs] . jugement juge (. . ~)
(y-vci = . yfel) just :, J U S T : . ,
(liven, yiven, . = . ) ; . :
(yvlc . = . 13) , juste, . justus
(y-went . 2-, . . w e n d a n ) juste/i, jou|, . I i , J O U S T [d3 U:st],
(l-whlted . 2-, . . hwltan) |U | []: /
(iwys = . -wis') : . jouster < . ,
(y-wytera ., . , witan) juxtare ,
(y-wroght . 2-, . . wyrcan) , . juxta ,
justice, |se', :, J U S T IC E : -
.
, : . ju- ']
stice < . justitia
jade . 1JADE:
(jest . . = . geste . ~ .)
(jewel . = . jowel) ( , . )
joye3 .', JOY: : .
joie . . . gaudia . . (.
|ium)
joye/i , li, JOY: (): 1 . > lo; LO t : !, !
. jour < . gaiudere (. ) labour :, LABOUR: , :
joi-ful ., JOYFUL: : = . la b o u r < . la b o r, , \
. jo y e + . ful |
joyne, |gu|, . li, JOIN: ca. labouren . l i , LA BO U R:
; , ; , : ;]
. (): . joindre . labou rer < . lnhorarc
(. , join-) < . jungere " lac -. > lak, lok: . , , -
, ; . *
joynt . .', JO IN T ., ., , || . lek, . leih ,
- :. , , :, , , leikr , . laiks ] I
, , :, I . , laigyti , ];
, , , : . , * /|
. joint . . = . . , , . :.
. 7 ,

210
? > 1 .: LACK: ca. , laju -. lawe; LAW: : .
, ; . , (. log < *lagu, . lag -.
; (. . lek , , , , ;
. lac, . lack; . . ; ,
. lakr . , - ; liggja . 5 ||
): ? . . Iicjan); . lag ) || . lag
Ixecan /16, (. leehte) > lacchen , (. lagu)]. . 1-
(. laughtc); latclie (. ~d): weful* :, LAWFUL:
, , ; . lay :, LAY: , :
. lacche . (> LATCH . lai < . laicus (
, ), LAIC , ) .
., laikos . lay
. . laclie = . las (. fc . ,
. las; LATCH . () ~ (lay ., . . )
.) (Inside ., . . lecjan)
(lake ., . 1 . lacu) lama . . > lame; LAME: . .
(lak e . = . lakken) , , ; .
Ikkcrt . //; LACK: . ; || . lahm, . lami]
, , ? - LAMENT . ,
; . , : . lamenter, . lamen-
: Iak . tan lameatum .
? 1 . ( Peterborough , ( LAMENT
656 .) > ( .) lake, lak; LAKE: . ,
. , ; ; . ). (-,
, ; (.) ? . lacus, . ., .. .
|, (> . lac); ? lamentable
. ( XV., . lamcntacioun .)
.) liuan . / > lenen . I II, ( .
(lad . . ladde) lende ., wenden, sen
(Iffid ., . . licdan) dee) lenden (. lente); LEND: .
(lad , , . 2 -, . . lSdan) . , ,
l& dan . 1 > lede/t (. ladde, ledde, ; . , ||
. 2-- , >-ied); LEAD: . . ]: ! ./. ,
. , , ; , , || . Lehen , , .
|| . leiten, . lei- (, LOAN , .
]: liOan .)]; Icon . I ,
la d d e .; LAD: , : || . leihen (, iThan),
(?) . , . leihmn]
L*den, Lc|, Ly|, . > Leden, (x ., Ifind -. > loud, ||; LAND: . ,
.) Latyif, . :, LATIN: , ; .
; : . , || . Land (.
. Latlnus , |nt), . land, . land]
(, , 1 . (. lenjra, , longest) >
), (> . latiti) long, ||, (. longer, . |est);
( . . hlSfdije) LONG: || . lang, .
laf -. , || . lelba, langr, . laggs] || . longus], lanje
. leif, . laiba]: . (. leng. . ~cst) > lon
l*fan . ! > Icven (. lafte, ||); ge; LONG: . , , ;
LEAVE: . . , . . ,
, , lungage, 1|, .-, ( .) LANGUAGE:
; ; , , ; . laugage langue .
|| . leila, . (bi)-laibjan]; , <. lingua
-llfan, be-lifan , 1 || hinjian . 2 (+ .) > 1, ||; LONG:
. bleiben (. blliban)): ]gf . ;

211
, ; . , , ;
. . , ; , ,
; . . , ; . ,
, || . langon, . , , ;
langa; . . veriangcn , . , ,
] || . leisten ,
1 -. > lore; LORE: . . , , . lalstjan ]: 'last
, ; . || . .
Lelire (. lere)]:<-Ifleran lait , (. ketra, , lietesi;
1 . / > lere/i; Icrc: . , . , ) > lat
, ; . ; (. latere, |tt|, , latest', latst",
, || . lehrcn last'"; . late); 1. (x .) I.ATE
(. leren), . 11, . laisjan ( (. ~R, . -S T ), 2. (. >)
*laizjan)]: lar LATTER, 3. (. >) LAST: . ca.
(lasrd, i-~ . . = . je-lred) , ; . 1. ;
JC-l&red ./. > /-lsered, j-leretl: 2. ( );
()', ( 3. || . lafl ,
, , . Ifltr ]
) || . Gelehrte ]: . (lat ., . . lactan)
2- lffiran Ietan, || , 7 > leten, )|, (. tcct,
large1 .', LARGE: . lette, lat); LET: . . ,
, , ; . ,
: . larg ( ~), , ;
. large, < . largus, . larga, , ;
, ; ; .
las, ||, .; LACE: . , , , || . las-
, , , ; . sen, . lata, . letan . ]
, : . las (latche . = . loeccan)
. lauqueus , (late . = . Istan)
, (late . ., . . ISt)
lacs . . Isessa . . (Latin, . . Ueden)
(. I&st, |sest; , lyt lafl . > both; LOATH: .
., -el . .) > lees, ||, , ,
., lasse, ||, . (. leest, ||; ; . ,
LESS (. LEAST); , , , ,
|| . lessa . ; . ,
1 . |jy ls 1> (+ .) > leste2; I . leid; . leiflrj
LEST: . , , (lauglien, laugh, . = . hlyhhan)
. 2. . on-lessc, ~ (hat, launce .; LANCE: , :
(+ .); ( un- .) UN , lance ( ' .
LESS: . , Lanze, . Ians .) <. lancea <
..., . 3. . lasse/i, 1|, . ?
. II; , LESSEN ( (laverd . . hlaford)
. -EN): (law, lawe, . = . laju)
lussc, |sc .; LASS (.); , (lawe , . lilSw)
; (?) llfewcdc . > lewede: LEWU: . .
(lus.se ., , IfGs .) , ;
(last, ~, . ., . . ISt) , ; ( <.)
last 0 M. > last; LAST: . (, ; . ,
), . . (
) || . Lelst, , laists]. on I. lecjan (lawfull ., . . 1)
. / la?,nr .; LAZAR: ;
Iseslan . I > lastcn, lesten; LAST: da. : . Lazarus (
; , , ) , Laza-

212
ros . Eleazar ( (left, y-~, . 2-, lefte ., . .
.) Isfan)
load -. > Iced; LEAD; , . ; leg11; LEG: : . (. leggr
, , ; , ; ; . Jagg
. || . Lot (. ~ )
)) legacie, |sie, |sy, .', LEGACY:
(lend . -. ISdan) : . legacie < .
leaden . > leden; LEADEN; . legfltiu . ISgatus .
: lead legatum .
leaf -. leef; LEAF: || . Laub legaciuun, |tlon, . LEGATION:
, . lauf, . laufs .] ; .
leaf ~ -. leve; LEAVE: . , legation, . legatio, . |i6nem
, , , (legge . = leg')
; . . , (leyd . 2-, , . lecjan)
1| . (Ur)-laub; . , leneten . . -. > lenten; LEN
leyfi]: (be)-iyfan TEN , LENT .; . .
leas . ( .) > 1 . lees , ( ) -
. 2. -les . ,\ (2) ; ; .
-LESS .\ , , I, ; 2,
; (+ . .) || . Leiu (. lengijin)]: ?
-,; - 1
.; , , (Iccne /1. =. hlaine)
; . 1. , ; (lenen . = . 1)
2 .(.) -, leiij . . - . ., .
, . (.) 14 .
-. . los (lenglen . = . lencten)
. lauss lenjflu -. > Icngtlie; LENGTH:
(. . laus, lous, loos > LOOSE || . lengte, . tengd); (
, , .) Icod (,) i-, (. leod -.) >leed,
. laus , ]: ? lede: . (
(for)-leosuil . 2 ; . , ); , ; .
losian ; . ,
? - LEASE ( ): || . liudi . , . Leute
. lais, || laissicr, lesser (- . (. liuti)] II . ,
,), |s|, . ( LEASE . )
) <. ! lend -. (. * i-. , .) > leed,
, , , lede: , ; . || .
taxus . ( LAX Hut i-././. ]
, ) leof . >lecf (. levere, , est);
(leave . - . leaf -.) LIEF . * . f ; . ,
(leave . = . l&fan) , ; . ,
(Icawede . ~ . Isewedc) (,
1 . I (. lejde) > legmen, , ., him is leef
Icycn, |ai|, (. leide, |ai|); LAY; , ); ,
]| . Icgeu (, ~, leggcn), ; , .
. leggja, . laejan]: llcjan ; . || . (.
(leed . - . Uad) liub), . Ijiifr, . liufs, |b-] \\pyc. ]:
Uden . = Laxleit lufu teaftf-jtt.
(leden . - . l;vdail) leof-lrc . > leeflich, lecfly; liefly:
(loef . = . leal) , ,
(leef . s do, leof) || . licblich]. A leof-ITce
je-lefed . *, . > leeMiche, leetly; liefly:
, ; lef npwi. ,
|| , leQ lenfnde ., , libban

213
Icojan . 2> 1, |i|", lien'"; LIE: ? > lesyng . , : lese/?
|| . liigen, . Ijuga, . liu- lessoun (lescun3) ,; LESSON:
gan] || . . (< -), : . legon, joun, .
(); . ()--|. A LIER'1 lectio, . |ioiiem
(lest ., . . lust)
leoht, || (.) -. > light; LIGHT :. (lcste/i . = . l&stan)
, |[ . Licht (. lioht); . let . ( leet), . Is ta n
. 111|] || . . (1-), . lettan . 1 > letten; LET t (.
leuk6s , *, . . . 2- - T E D ); ,
: leet .
, .', ? . ): (leten, let, . = . )
leoht . I lettre, jttere, :, LETTER: :
leoht, || (.), . ( 1 ) light, . lettre < . littera, |,
LIGHT: . . , ; . |
, ; . || . (levedi . = . hISfdije)
licht (. lioht)]: ~ leoht -. (\. = . Ifiefan)
leoht, || (.), . (2) light; (levere ., . . leof)
LIGHT; . . , (lewede . = . Iffiwede)
, ; , (Ihoaverd, Ihord, . = . hlnford)
; . , , libban . 3 liflan .
2 > lyve/i; LIVE:
|| . leicht (. . , ; . .
lihti), . 14ttr, . ieihts] || . libbian, . leben, . Ufa
ieoht-IToe . > lightliche, lightly; , , , . li-
LIGHTLY: . ti ca. , , ]: > Ilf
; . , ; - leolit-lxc lybban s libban
. Uc o-c. > lieh; ; ( ca. )
leoinu ., . , || . Leiche
leornere jo-. > lerncre; LEARNER: . (. Ilh), . lik, . leik]: . -.
, ; ; . (. LICHGATE
. : leornlan .)
le o rn ia n . 2 lern e /i; LEARN: . -lie . . ( . -) > -llch, j
, ; . , , -1, . . 2. ( .) -liclie,
( leren . Ixran) ; -1, . .; 1, -LY (
. () || . lernen (. - FRIENDLY . = .
, 1|, . J)]: ltSran freond-lfc) 2. -LY ( LIGHTLY
leormmj, |1, -. > lernyng"; LEARN . = . 16oht-lTce) || ,
ING: . . , ; . -llch, . -Ugr, . -Ieiks]: . ?
; leornian - , >>'-lleh, lik; LIKE; . .
leofl -. > leeth: , || , ; . ||
. Lied, . Ijofl] , gleich (, galTh), . gllkr, t.
1- -. , , galeiks]; 1. . ( .) liknen
. //; LIKEN: . ;
(lepped ., . . hleapan) ; . : . .
(lered ., . se-lared) (.) likna .
(lerne/i . = , leornian) (like, lyke, . . = . je-ITc . W
(lemyng* . . leornum) lician .)
(less . ,, . . Is . llcenciat, |ent|, :, LIC EN TIA T E !
lytcl .) . ,
? > lesc/i , 2 (. lees, . 2- (, , "
lorcn); leese, (. 2- >) LORN npiw: -
. . ; . . *:
, -liosan, for-ISosan ); , ,
(lessen . lesj :. . . lies ; . . IlcentlStuS
.) , , licentiHre *. 41

214
centia . (> LIMIT . , , ?
. licence, LICENCE .)
, ) lymytour . (
(likewise . . -llc . , ,
+ wlse .) .
licsan CjIH. 5j > liggen, lyen (. lay, ): lymyten
. 2-e layen); LIE (. LAY): -limp-lic . ,
|| . liegen (. liggen), . , || . lampligj: lim-
liggja, . . ligan] || . (. . J ,
,.)\ . . Idkhos . , || . . litmpa
] . ]
(licht . - . leoht ( 1)) -. > 1: , :
Ucian . I > like/;; LIKE: . . . llntim || . . (< .)]. &
, ; . . lynen . //; LINE:
. , , , , ;
; . . , || (LINE . , . <.
. lihMn , . line ., . ltnca llnum,
, . leikan ]: lie . lignc . lltiea)
(. se-llc) lind -. liude -. lynde; (? - .)
lieour (|ur') .; ( .) LIQUOR: LINDEN . . , * ,
. . , , , = * ; . || . lind, .
, ; , . Linde (= Lindenbaum)]
, :. i i p ] > a lippe . lippe; LIP: ;
. licur (.) . liquor, (. . Lippe ., . lepor, .
. |, , leflur, . 1)
lid -. || . , (lipsen . = . wlispian)
]; IWan (lyre = LIER, . . ISojan)
Iff -. -> lif; lief, LIFE: || . Leib list i-./. > list': , ,
(. lib ), . Ill]: lib , || . List, . list, .
ban lists]
lyft, left (,), . > iuft, lift, left; lystan . 1 . (+ ./. ,
LEFT: . , ., . . )
(. lyft-adl . lusteM, listen, ||, . .; LIST t
*, ); . . || (3 . ~, . -E D ): .
. luftj ( . ,
winster || ; . . ;
. winstar, . vinstri].) , , ||
(lijeii . = . leo^an) . (ge)-lusten, . lysta; . . Iu-
(light . = . Ieoh!) ston]: lust .
(lightly, Ijtll, . . ISoht-lice) (listnen, listen = ., . . hlystan)
lyhtan, |l|, (< lle|), . 1 (!) > lighten; lytel . (. ISssa, , lffist; .
LIGHT: . ca. , ; Iss) > lutel, litel , . (.
; . , || . lasse, ||, , least, ||; .
. leuchten (. lillhtcn) ., . . lees, ~); LITTLE ,
liuhtjan .): leoht . ( 1) . (. LESS , ER
lyliliin, |1|, (< |), . 1 (2) => lighten; ; LEAST ,'
LIGHT: , , ; .
, || . , . SMALLER, .
. lotta]: leoht , (2) SMALLEST SMALL < . smsel);
Ihii -. (. ~U, leomu) S. lini; LIMB: ; |j , luttil, .
, || . limr .] lutel, . luzzil]
iyinyten . 11; LIMIT: lid . 1 > lithe/): , , -
: . limiter, . limitare |] . ITdan, . , ,

L .......
( ) - 1]; ^ Ifficlan

215
[ , - lithe; LITHE: . , , ;
( , .), ; . . , ,
|| . (ge)-lind (. lindi)] ; ; . ; (.
(live . ., . . loos ., . . leas): = .
(lyven, live, . = . libban) lesen. ( propose/lose
lyveree .', LIVERY: . , lose,
; ; . : .)
. livcre, |vr|, < . . - (looth . - . lad)
vrer , , < . (load . = . hind)
. lTberarc = , (loupe . ., . . hleapan)
. ~ (love . = . lufu)
(loo . = . 1) (love . |, |, ., . . lufmn)
(loand . = . lflnd) (loverd . ~ . hlaford)
(loath . = . lad) (lovten . ~ . lufian)
loc -. > lok; LOCK: . , , low (< louh2 < lah1) .', LOW:
, ; , : . (. Idgr)
, ; . . , lowly, Iowely, ., LOWLY:
|| . Loch (. loll ,
, , ), . lok , : low
]: ? lucan . 2 , lownesse, lowen|, :, LOWNESS:
|| . luhhan, . luka, . . low
. (ga)-lukan]; . hind-locen. . ; ,
lokkcn , //; LOCK . () ; . . low
1 -. lok1 ; LOCK: || . : low
lokkr; . . Locke] (lafe . = . lufu)
loeian . 2 > loken; LOOK; . . lufian . 2 > loverr; LOVE: ;
, , ; lufu. . lovere, (. . -icr)
. || . lokon| lovyere, .; LOVER: ,
logiki1 .', LOGIC: : . , -.
logique, . loglca . logiktL lufu - . lufe -. > love; LOVE:
- || . luba, . (brot>ru)-lubo -.
; logike . logikos . () ]: leof; . lu
, fian. I. + cnotta -. > loveknotte
Lollard, |1|, .', LOLLARD: . ,; LOVEKNOT (
, )
(XIV.) ( . (lundcnisse . ; .
. . . 1 12)
; . (.) ., last -. > last, ( .) list, lest; LUST;
)-, - . . , ;
. lollaaid , ; . || .
, lollen, lu), . , Lust, . lustus]: lystan . lust + -is
. (. Lo- . . lusty .; LUSTY: .
llardus . , , ; .
.) , || , lustig]
(lond . = . land) lust-Hec . ,
(Iohj ., ~ ., , . Ifinj)
(longage . = . langage)
(longen . - . linjian)
(lope ,, . . hlSapan) , , ( micle), .
(lord . ~ . hlaford) . . ( micel)
(lording , = . hlafordins) (, , , = macian)
(lore . - . 13) macian . 2 s> (. makede,
loslan . 2 > loson ( loos . lesert made, , 2 - - mad, (||); :
. ); LOSE: . || . machen (. |)]

216
mede, |ee|, mcriwc; MEAD +,
liiffit) wa-. gos . ma
MEADOW: || . mate]: ma- gus
wan . I (s. MOW , ) m a j i s t e r , mceSesler, -. > maistcr, (
(mad, -~ . 2-, . da. macian) .) n ia istre ; 1. M A S T E R 2. M I
(nmd . = da. je-m&ded) STER: . . , ,
iiia dame' (.), . madame ; . 1. , , ;
madame .; MADAM: . 2. ( ); .
madame ma dame e magistcr (> . maistre,
. mca dom ina . (. . )
ca. dame.) maso-hejn -. * -, ;
(made, mad, ., . . macian) , : ., maju, -. *
je-mieded . (< . 2-) s>mad; MAD: , , ,
, || . , / || .
metddrj; *je-ma;dan. / magu , . mggr (< *maguz, .
|| . meiSa , . maidjan . . magu), . magus ]:
, ] je-m ad . madden
|| . gim eit , <?. -. , , : mffij
gamaijjs, |d-, , (m ay ., . . majan)
] (m ayden . = . m tejden)
maeet, macht (.), - miht (u iain e . . = de. mfsjen)
. (> , )< - . majan (mayntencM, |, . = . meyntenen)
-. > may: || . maire2, |ci|, .; ( .) MAYOR
mag, . mdgr , , , . []: : . maire, |ei|,
megs ] . major . (
majan .-. (. . mjsj, meaht, MAJOR . . ,
1, . ; . meahte, ||", ; , . majcur, ,
|if") > mowe/i, mown, (. . may, major < . majorem . majoi)
. mowen, . myglite, 1|), ( ) ( in a is te r ., . . m ajister)
. MAV, . MIGHT; . . maistrie .; MASTERY: .
, , , ;
/; (.) ; . for the m. (. .
, pour 1 .); . ,
|| . mogen (. magan, ): . maistrie niaistre <
muj), . magan; . . mega] || . . (. . m a jis te r)
. (, .)} majestee, mage|, .; MAJESTY:
maajden, md|, -. >mayden; MAIDEN, ; (
MAID: || . magatin .]; ): . majeste/ < . maje-
t * 1. , || stas, . |statem, ,
. Magd , . magabs] ,
, , -. > . ( .) maladie .; MALADY: ;
.; 1. MAIN . ( WITH . maladie malade .
MIGHT AND MAIN . . male habitus .
) .; 2. (. ) MAIN .: + . . ,
. , ; . , ; ; habitus .
, , ; . . habgrc ,
1 . ; ; ; 2, male .; MALE . .:
t || . magan, . megln, magn, ; ; : .
.}: .; . . megn, masle < . masculus, . |
meginn, . , ; m alice, |sc, .; MALICE: :
, 7 megin , . malice . malitia ,
unigik .; MAGIC: , , malus .
: . mngiqiie < . magi
cus . , * , ? > **; MOAN: . ,
. magiktfs = - ; . , ,

217
* .-. s 1 man*, monS 2. rne/i man-s)eaht, -sljcht (.), -./
. .', (1) MAN: . ; -. -slyht (< |ie|) i-./. > man-i
. 1 . , ; 2. (. sleiht, manslauglit, (x .) ~er
, . one, . man); . MANSLAUGHTER: . ca. ,
, . Mann, man, : . : si. ,
. maftr, . maim-, . manna] , * || . Schlacht
je-mana -. , || ; . . Slatr ]:
. gi-melni, . ga-mainei - ]: slean
- . . ( micel; . mSst,
mffinan . I > ; MEAN; . . ||; . ) > (, moost);
1 . , , ( . .) MORE ,
2, ( mSne .) , . (. MOST): . .
; . 1 . , , ( ),
, || . mcinen); ? ~ , ;
mynd (. .) , ;
-* ja-c. > mankyn1: , . ;
(MANKIND < . mankynde ; || . mSro, . meiri, .
mankyn) maiza);
-, () , . > -. > mark: MARK: . (, ,
( .); MEAN: ); (
. , ; . , ); . . . (. .
, , - ,
; . , 13 4 )1. ?
, || . ge mein , . (. mprk ) ? .
(. gimcini ), . . . (. . )
gamains] (mark . ., . . ;
Maher .; MANOR: , . = . mearcian)
: . manoir manoir . marehaunt .; ( .) MER
, < . manere . CHANT: : . merchant,
, , |aent, < . . mercatans, .
manere .; MANNER: , |antem, . , mercatare
: . manlcre, | (.), ! . (. .
. . <. manler . , fatus > . , , > .
, . . het, market, . .
manarius . manus . market MARKET ); . .
-'1- .; M ANFUL: mercer
: = . mfln + fur (marre . - . )
(manyere . - . manere) mftre, ||, . ( .); MERE:
inanij, me|, . > many, mo|, me|; MA . , ,
NY f'mem]: . . ca. ; ( )
, , ; . , ,
; ; . . . ; ,
|| , manch , , , ; ; .
(. manag), . mange, , manags] || , || . man
. . ] , , mairr , . rnErs
*man-lie . (. ~ .) > manly; ]: . merus ,
MANLY: ,
(mannour . = . muner) (mare-scal . = . marcschal)
mftn-r*<(cn . > manreden: mnrescha!, |sh|, .; MARSHAL: .
, (), , ; ; .
; . : . marcschal (= .
, (> *RED .) . mafisCaicUS , irmrahscalc
rCfcdan 61, , , a marah || .
(manslaulit . - . man'-slenht) mearh] + scale || . scenic, .

218
Skalkr , , . -skalks ]; mealt -. > malt; MALT; || .
(. . ) Malz, . malt]
mariage :, M ARR IAG E: , (mean, ~, . 1 = . -)
: . mariage < . (mean, ~, . 2 . = . )
/tarn, inarltaticum (m ean , -, . - . )
(marl-boon . ; . , || (.), -. > mark, merk*;
mearj + ban) MARK: . . , ,
iiiurit.; , MARRY t: ( , ( );
, ): = . , , , ;
Marie, MARY; (. || . Marke , ,
. by seinic Marie . marcha ,
) . mork (), . marka
marie . //; MARRY; , ]
: . tnaricr < . marltSre mcarclan . 2 > marke/i; MARK: .
, . , , ,
martyr . >martir; MARTYR: : ; . , || .
. martyr . mdrtur marka]:
& -. , ; , |rh, -./. > , marwhe, -
|| . msritha, . mSri* row; MARROW: || .
]: . Mark, . mergr] || . ]
insesse. ||, -. >masse, ||; MASS: , |rd, -. || . mprflr; .
: . missa . . . . Mard(er) (. mardar)]; .
mitterc MARTEN <. martryn .
msssc-preost -. > MASS-PRIEST: () : .
. ; . martrin martrc . .
meek (< meoc1), meke, :, MEEK:
niaist . , ( micel), . . , , ; .
= mate :, : : . : . (. mjukr ,
mate . maat < gemate || . , )
gimazijo ]; {. . mete) Jo-M. * > ()'. ||
matere<2) .', MATTER: , . maki, . maikir, . meki (,)] ||
, : . matierc, | . . ]
(.), <. materia med, meord, -. > meed, mcdg; MEED *:
rnaOeiiaii . 2 * // median . 1 > . . , ;
1. mathelen 2. mcllen: . , ; . || . Miete
, ; . 1 . ; . . mizdo -.] || .
, ; 2. , , . 1
|| . mabllan . /; . . (mccde , I = . mSd; . 2 = . med)
mahalon . 2\. ! -. metier . ., . modor
() || . 1 | nwdlee . .; MEDLEY :,
, |0, -. > madmc: . . , ; .
, , || . meiOm(ar) ; , ; ,
. ., . ] : . (.) mcdlcc <
maunciple, |, :, MANCIPLE: . . . . medler ,
, (. . ntedle/i .)
, ; . : . medlen, 11, . //; MEDDLE: .
manciple, |ipe, , , < . ; . : .
mancipium ; medler (.), mciler, metier, <
. I ., . . (> me; ME), . . . mlsculare . misccl-
ic lus . , (, MISCEL
( . , . ) LANEOUS ,
alit . 2 . mealite ., . . misceUaneus)
11 (.) . -
meaht . = mi lu elite ., .

219
meynpernour .', MAINPERNOR: (<? . .), ,
: . meinpcr- ; mean season - ?
nour s , . mein + preneor . ; , ; Hg' J
. prendre . . ( .
(. . meynprise) . ; , , !
meynprise mainprise, |ze: : . ( |
, , : mclen , <. medianus (o<n.
. me Inprise = . mein, MEDIAN ) mediug I
main, . < . manus + . ; ( . . -
. prise . < . )
. . prendre < . mcnjnn , I (. .) > mengen;
prehcndcre , ,
meyntencfl, may|, (? attcynen) |eyne, || , metlgen, . f
. II ; MAINTAIN: ca. , menga); . on-mSnj
, , (m e n je . s . menyee)
; ; . , ( >= . mflnij)
, , : m en y ee, meynee, |ai|, :, meiny: - 1
. maintenir < . manu tcnc- , ; : ,
(. . me*niee, meune, < . , -
manus ): . . , ||, siOniSta . mansio, . |ionem,
. II (> ATTAIN , . ( MANSION -
) . ateindre, |ai|, < )
. . attangere , . m e o le ( |luc), |i| (.), .-. >
attingere , Ik; MILK: || . Milch,
(melre . = . maire) . mjplk, . miluks]; (
(melle/i . . medte) . .
melodic .', MELODY: , , . )
: . melodic = m eo to d (.) . - metod
. melOdia . mcioidia (merely ., . . .)
(mellow . = . melwe) m e r c e r 3 :, MERCER: ^
? > melwe, |lowe, .', MELLOW; . : , merci- 1
. , , < . , *merciartus; , 1
; ; . , , . . merccrius -
: ? < . melu wo-c. , ; (. .
, (> marchaunt)
MEAL ) || m e rc y , li1, :, MERCY: - 1
. Mehl, . mjQl] , : . merci</<,
memorial . :, MEMORIAL: merces, . |gdem, , 1
; , (.)
: , memorial, m ere i-. > m e re ; MERE * ( .)'! , j
. memorialis . memoria , ; * ; . * , j]
(. . memorie) || , (. meri), , 1
memorie, |oirc, :, MEMORY: marr; . . marei in-.] || . .
: . memorie (.), , . mare (. . maria)]
me moire, . memoria; (. ME (m e ry e , |, . = , m y r jc )
MOIR , (.) merit* :, MERIT: : . !]
, . .) merite, . meritum . - |
men* . ., . ; men* . ( -), < . . . 1
. *
( , . = , .) (mcrn, meren, . ./. |
(menden, --, ., , . myndji- mere ., . . mffirc)
, - ) messagcr' .; MESSENGER; - j
, :, MEAN (. >) , : . messa- 1
MEANS . .: , . . ger message . ( ME- 1

220
SAGE , ;) < melud . - mctod
. ., . . missaticum (me rhynketh, |es, thinks, . .
. missus . . mitterc ])
( . , . mln)
roesehaunce, |, ( . mys-) micel, |, . (. , ,
myschnunce, /, MISCHANCE: . niiEst, ja|, . miclc, . m3,
, ; . ; . mSst;
. meschunce , , + .) tniehel, |k| (. .),
; . mcs- <. minus moche/, mu|, |, . .
; . chance . . chaunce (, . , , moost;
meschief, |cef, ( . mys-) myschicf, . . , , moost); MUCH
.', MISCHIEF: . . . (. MORE, .
, , ; . MOST); . . ,
, , ; ; ; (.) , ; .
. meschief ( meschever . , || . mihhil, . mikill, i.
); . mcs- < . mi inikils] || . . mtSgas, megdlos, ,
nus ( . missi || . megdlS]
mis- .])-, . chief micelnes*, \ls, Ja-. ; ;
( CHIEF) <. caput
(m essenger . = . m essager) (mycht . = . miht)
messuage .\ MESSUAGE f ['mes- miele ., . micel .
widj]: : . mcsuage mid . (+ ././:, ,
< , . *- .) > mid, ~: , || . mit,
su fiticu m (. . . m a n s u - . , . ]
agium) . . mansa . mid* , (, midemcst) ^ mid (
( MAN3E .
) < . . )', MID:
. . manere , , || . mitti, .
je-met -. > met; , , miOr, . midjis]
( ) || . gimez]; = metau niiddan-seard -. > iniddenerd; ,
. 5 || . mittin-gart, . mi6-
me tan . I > mete ; MEET: . gardr, . mirtjun gards]; . midde,
), ; . midf
) || . mdtian, . mcSta]: mot midde -. > midde: , ||
( ) . , , . Mitte, . miaja]: mid* .
(> MOOT on mlddan > ammiden, (x .
-s) amiddes, .', AMID, AMIDST:
) , *
metan . 5> metcn; ; . . mlddel . > myddel; MIDDLE:
, , ; . || . Mittel ]: mid-
* , / dcl .
; || . mcsscn middel . > myddcl; MIDDLE:
, . mcta , . || . mittel (. . metal || .
mitan ] meOal-)]: mid'
mete i-. > mete; MEAT; . ; . mid-niht i/.-. > inydnyght; MID
, , ; . NIGHT: || . Mitt(er)-
, t . matr, <\ mats] nacht, . miQildtt]: in. mid*
mete-Irst (< -ITest) i-. niiddun- middan-
: mcte-16as , (mieknesse . = ineeknesse ca. meek
(f-. leas .) || . matlauss .)
, |ud, meo| (.), . * (myght . = . milil)
; ; metan . 5 (niyghte, |jt|, , , . majaii)
inetod-sceaft d/i-, * mlht (< |ie|), |ea|, || (.) i-. >
, ; myght'; MIGHT: . ca. ,

221
; ; . , || . (< n\ie|), ||, . I > ; MAR;
Maclit, . mahts] || . ., . . , ,
(.) ] ; . , ,
milite . (> myhte), . . majjari || , mcrrrian, . marren,
mihtij . myghty; MIGHTY: merren, . merja, . marzjan]
, || . mach- mlrcc . . . > ( .) ;
tig, . mahtcigs; . . mdttugr] MIRK, MURK (): .
(milk . = . meole) . , ||
, ;
milde . > mylde; MILD: . . . mirki, . myrkr], MURKY
, , , , ,
; . , || . (< ||), || (.) J n -. > m ere;
mild, . mildr, . -mildeis, unmil- MARE: || . Mahre (.
deis ] meriha)]: mcarh -. ,
mylen, myln, ./ . > mulne', mylne', mu- || . marah, ]; (. .
lie", mylle", |e| (.); MILL: da. mareschal)
, ; ca. . myrje, |i|, || (.), . (. -
: . molma, . mulnere', .., ||; - ) > murye,
my|', mull|", myllere'', |ej, . MIL , ; MERRY: . .
LER: , , , ^
niylen-scearp . -, ; .
. . ( , , || , m urg-,
) ~fari ]; . myrjan
( ., . . mylen) . 1 , || .
111T11 . . > ; mine ( (ga)-m ailreian ]
)] MY (. MINE): myrdran . I s- (. .) morUiercs, mor-
|| . mein (. mln), . dre/i, mouj; im irther, MURDER:
minn, . meins]: >. . .] : morflor .
. ic. . + self ., , + sclfum . mis*- npucm. > m ys- (x .)] MIS- ||
( selfum), > myself, |lve/i, . m ifl- (. . m issi-,
. . .] MYSELF: , ja-), . m is -, . m lssa -]: . m is '
.: x . m es- (x .) <
-m ynd ( mynd, . m in u s ( MI
) NUS ); . . m eschief, m es-
i- ./. > !6; MIND: . , e h au n c e
; -mynd ( ) nils* o-c. > mis, miss'; MISS: .
, ; . , , ; . , ; ca. ;
, || . gimunt, . gamunds ; , ; . ||
.] II - ( )- 1,, . ]: . . missir , , ]:
munan .-. . mis- . on + misse
(minde . = . -!) on + mis1 ,, > ( .) on misse,
royndjian, () je", . 2 > myndcM, amis, .', AMISS: ,
rneiiden (,), -~] MIND: . || . a miss]
. , ; (. + .) mys-ayyse . II] MISADVISE: ,
, ; . ,
, ; ; myndij, ; ;
je-~ , , ,
: mynd, () -~, , niis-bcodan . 2 (+ dm,) > mysbeden;
m ynsler -. > mynster; MINSTER; . ,
. ; , (mischance . = . mescliauncc)
; . (mischief ., . . meschief)
; . . mona- mis-d6n . . >mysdoon; misdo:
sterium ( MONASTERY /,
) . - ,
011 , (mysclf^ecfl),, . , min)
- MISERABLE . : , , ( .
. m iserable - . miserabilis mynet -. , , > MINT
, ), .
- MYSTICAL , , , -
: MYSTIC ; ( moneta
. m ysticus . m ustikds . .
- MIXTURE . , : . ,
. m ixture, . mixtura .
(mo s . ) ; .
( /1. = . ) .)
(moche . ., . . micel) moral .; MORAL; ,
mod -. > mood; MOOD: . , , : . moral, .
, ; ; moralis /
; . , , ,
; ; ; (more . ., . . )
; . , morjen -. > morwew, *; 1. MOR
|| . Mut ., . ., . ROW 2. MORN *: . . ;
rnoj3S, |d-, . ] ; . 1 .
(moder . = . modor) 2. || . Morgen,
m5d-se-l>anc -. , , ? . morginn, . matirgltis]
, ? morjen-tTd i-. ,
mSd-jj-danc = mod-se-Jjanc (morne . = . morjen)
modijs-tfc . , , (morow . = . )
; . , , morsel .; MORSEL: :
mod . (MOODY . morsel, ||, (. . morceau),
, . morsum . ,
-, . . . morderc
.) m o rtal .; MORTAL: ,
modor -. > moder; MOTHER: || : . mortal, |el,
. Mutter (. muoter, mo|), . , mortalis
modir] || . ( . .), -./. > morther, ( .)
, mater, . meter, . mata mordcr; murther, MURDER;
(matar-)| || . maurfrr]: ^ -.
in6dsefa -. 1 , , ; ; || . Mord ,
: s. , , , . ] || . , (<
|| . sego, . sefij ), ( ),
moiste .) MOIST: , , . mors (mort-) , mortuus
; . , : ]: . . (.) -
. moiste ? < . mu- dre .
steus , , mucidus (m orwen . = . )
. inoste . (> ~ ), . m ot .
( . . man') m ot, () - ~ , -. > m oot, m ote;
-, > ; MOON: || . MOOT: . . , ;
, . mani, . ; . . (
, Mond] || . . (< - );
), . m ensis () . . (
, . () ]
t-. > monelh, month; MONTH: ) || . itiuoz, . m dt]: ~ -
|| . Monat (. manod), ta n . . + h e a l' - . & m ootlialle;
. , |, . ]: ~ MOOTHALL
( = , +) m ot , 1/3 . * m 6 ta n ,-
(monk . . ) . (.
.; MONEY: ; ; . 2 , m o st, . m o to n ,
. m oiiele <. rnonetn , . m oste) > m oot (2 . m ost, .

223
mote/i, . moste, |u|); mote, (. miifl -. > mouth; MOUTH: . ; ,
>) moste, MUST: . , 2. NOR: . ; ; . 1 . , (.) ; 2. .
. ; |[ . Mund, . ; na-liwEe0er nS ... ... ; . . noht bot, nohot, nobbut,
, () : . munnr, . mun[js], . mouthen
, ; . || . 1. ; ; now-
. II; MOUTH []; . thcr ... nc/no, ... ; 2. , niiwfler = na-hWffiOer
mufl (. miissen, . - ,
( -,)', ; . 1 . (.) ; [$ . , ; : .
, ; ; 2. , : = + 3- ; ; ... ... ; . ,
. . gamot / ] ; ( ) \\. mentum
motelee, |tt|, ], . .: MOT liwseder; (. ag-hwasder) ; . || . ni, , .
, ]
LEY .: , nay . .; NAY t: : . (. (), . ni] \\pyc. ]
mufla -. , : mud ( nei, . nej, || . ]) n ead n j d
. (.) : (?) . mflda)
(nought ., . . ) nnlies, nales, . , ; , ]|, ., . . (+ ,)
(muwen , ., . . ) ne + ealles (. . , . ?1 < |1|,
(ntous -. miis)
(mousetrap . =, mus +trteppe) -. > name; NAME: , ||; . . , , nyhst
(moulhen ., . . .) N || . Name, . -.; . . . .) > neigh, nygh, (. . >)
woven, ineven, |, . //; MOVE: nafn < -,] || . . ] ( .), (. ,
, |, . > , ( ) , ( naniian . 2 ; NAME: , , next, nehest, nest; .
(), : . , .)'
. raovoir (cocjI. m uevc) < . . . , , , next ..) ||
1. NO .; 2. N 0 . .: . > noon, ; 1. NONE; 2. NO: 1. NIGH t * (.) . .
m overe . ; , (
(mowe ., . . ) . , ; . . (. near, N1GHER, , next,
.); . , , ( N1GHEST); 2. NEAR: (. ~ER,
(. ., . . majister) : = + ; ( . ).
, . ., ,
(muclie/. ., . . micel) | -. > no-thyng .; NO . -EST); 3. (. >) NEXT; .
, . .); . 1. ; 2. || . THING: , . ; , ;
muet .', ( .) MUTE . Hie (. nio), . nei , .
.: : . muet < , ntenij , ( ., + .; ; ; (.) ,
niaiw]: ^ + 3 . (. ) .) , , : = ; ; 1.
. *motettus , minus -. * , jj . Na-
( , ., . . ) + ; ; 2. ; ,
chen ( )] ; 3. || . nahe
(muhtc ., . . niajan) lixs . || . nas]: ? <
(naked . =. nacod)
, |, -. > munek, monk; MONK naljes ? < nal/es = nealles = ne + ealles ., naeli . , . ni-,
nacioun ,; NATION: .
[]; : , . - Hass . npout. (;- nas) ne was; cm. , . n e b , ~, .]
, ; . : neah-je-btir, nJali-bur, -. > neighebour,
cluis . inonakhds . ( ne w csan
. nacion, . natio, . |-
. ) < . , nat , , s ne wat; . ne witan ny^A|, |, |ur; NEIGHBOUR: ||
, , , . Nachbar (. nachbiir, nach-
nacod . > naked; NAKED; ||
,~,
(murder , = . ) (nat . . , na-wiht) gebur): bur ( -~)
. nackt, . ngkviar, . naqajjs, |d-]
(muryc . = . myfte) (nation , = ca. nacioun) , || . (
|| . . ]
murnun . 3 (. meant) . 3 natyvitee NATIVITY: d o o r ,
iiaidl, (|i)l), ||, - , > n e e d le , n e d ilt;
(. murnde) > ; MOURN: ; : . nativity = ), . Bauer]:
NEEDLE: || . Natlel (. neaht . = niht
, || . mornon, /. ilatlvitas, . |t5tem
nldela), . 1>. ]1]
. , . - nature .', NATURE; , je-neahwian, |, . 2 > ^, -
na:fre . > nevre, neverc; NEVER:
, . morna ] || . . , : . nature = , ghen; nighc: : nCah
: = ne + Efre. n. + by lies natura , |1|, . (+ dm.) > nelilechen
smard- , . mirimna . n e v e rlh c le s .; NEVER
, , . memoria iiatureel ,; NATURAL: , || .
THELESS: ; ( nfllka(s)]: = iieah + liieean
(. . memorie) , : . nature! =
nothelees < . na^y kes)
(murther . . ) . naturaiis , : lac
n tu jle d -en e ar* -.
(inurtlierer . rmirther ., . . na-]jy-l*s, -jje-, . > nothelees, ( n e n le a h tc ,, , !
: ~ nasj(e)| -. > nell, . ., . neah
) ) natheletis:
nail; NAIL: || . Nagel, . nearo-hcarf -.
uius ,-, > mous; MOUSE: || ,
nagl; +. , || . knprr , : . . wo/wa ,
. Maus (. mus). . rmls] [| (nau^te , , = . na-wiht)
-.]
. mtis, , . ] (nsevre . . niefre) , , (> NARROW
nali = ne +ah; . ne
musike .: MUSIC: : . na-wlht', |uht", nauht"', noht"", noht, ) || . naru]: t>. ,
nS ht(> naht) = na-wiht
inusique, . mosica . moust- . , ( , .) > || . darha, . ])prf, t>ar-
na-hwEcr . > _\, nawhar, n o
kd < . mousikos . naught, nought, ||, not, ||, ., ba] ; burlaii
w here; NOWIIERE: (.
mousa . ., . (.); 1. NAUGIIT neat o-c. > neet ( m h , ~); NEAT (. ~):
hwffir)
(must , . mfiste .', . mot t, NOUGHT; 2. NOT: . , ; (.) || . noz,
n a-h w a:3 er', n a w 3 er"', n a O ei'", ,
.) ; , , ; . naut .]: neotan . 2
(< .) > 1. nuuther, nau|; 2, (1 no
(mute . ., . . muet .) ( .) , ; . , || . (ge)-nieBcn,
< . na) nor \ 1. nauther, nother;
, ; , ; , iijotn, . niutan]
224
J I 225
Je-neat -. , ; NIX (.
|| . Genoss(e)] nihhus), , nykr]
.; NIECE: : (nyelit, ., . = . niht)
. (.), niece, < (nychtingale, ., . . nihtesale)
. . ncptia = , . ncptis nyd (<=|Ie|), ncd, i-. > need, nede; NEED;
, ; (. . neta) . . , , ,
(nekke . = . hn ecca) , , ; . || ,
nccessarie .\ NECESSARY: Not, . nauOr, . naujjs, |d-] || ,
, ; : ,, . noudja, ()
. necessaire, jaric (.) ]. . + -1 . . > nedy
, necessarius .; NEEDY: ,
neeessltee :, NECESSITY:
: . necessitee, = . nydan (< ||), |, . 1 s neden; NEED:
neccssitas, . |tatem . , ; .
(nede, |ce|, ., . . = . nyd , ,
., nydan . nyde .; needes ; . || . noten,
., . . nyde; nedy ., . . naubjan]: nyd .
, nyd .) nyde (< ||), ||, |5|, . (< ./.) (
nefa -. > neve, ( .) nevcw; NE . -s) nydes . > nede,
PHEW: . , , nedes; NEEDS:
; . . || . Ne- nyd .
fle (. nefo)] || . . uepos, . nyg . : (?) . + -issh ,
|6tem, , , . . (< . -isc); . . nyggish,
. neveu <.]; (. . ) nygesh, . ,
(neih ., . . = . neah) (nighe . - . je-ncahwian)
(neither = . + aej-hwa;der, . (nighebore . = , neah-3C-bur)
.) (nyght . = . niht)
nolle, note, , . (> ncl) = nyghiertale . : .
wille, ne wile; . willan (, nfittartal = nattar . natt
. 1 , , || . niht] + tai . ,
|| . nennen (. nemnen), ; . . talu) . niht talu
. nefnn, . namnjanj: (nyghtyugale . = . nihte-jale)
(nephew, - , ., . . nefa) (nyggysh ., . . nyg .)
( ., . ., . . neah) nijon, |, . ~, . > nl^en, ~,
nerian . 1 > : || . - ; NINE: || . (.
rien, . nasjan] nlun, nlwan), . (, . niun] || .
nest -. > nest, NEST: || . Nest] novem]
II . nidus] (nyli ., . , = . neah)
net' jo-c. > uet'; NET: || . Neiz, niht (< |ie|), neaht, .-. ( i-.) >
. net, . nati] nyght; NIGHT: || . Nacht,
(neve . = . nefa) . natt, |6|, . nahts] || . , .
(never . - . nsefre) , an. noctem], . + spel -. >
(newe . = . nTwe; newely . = nyght-sper .; N1GHTSPELL (
. niw-llce) ,
(next ., . ., . . neah) )
., NICE; . , nihte-salc -, > nyghtyngale, |cbt|
, ; () (.) ? NIGHTINGALE:
; ; . , || . Nnchtigall (. nahtagala.
: . nice , |htl|), . nattergal]: ., . niht:
, < . nes- 3. jnlan , || . galnn,
cius . gala ] , |, . 3
niccr, |, -. > niker; NlCKEK. . (^
, ; YELL .
, . || . Nix, )

226
niiiian . 4 >, |: , ( hora ) () . no
|| . nehmen (. neman), . rms ); .
, . niman]
( . = . nijon) (nor , . . na-hwEeSer)
je-nip -. , , : Norman :, NORMAN: ,
. 1 , : . norman .
nis (> ~ ) = is; . wesan (. , . Normand ||
nyt-wyrde ( -wie|) . , . Nord-man*])
: ^ - 1, , . (. -or; , nord-mest,
, || , Nutz(en) ]: . .) ? . (. ~,
~ neat: w. , , ~ . ~mest)> north, ~, ., .
weorO :, NORTH: ; ;
mfl -. > nlth: , ; || . Nord-, |, . ()
; , || . N c id . .]
, . 1 . , . nei]> . || . ]:
, ] nord
niwe (< |ie|), ||, . > newe; NEW; norOan-wlnd -, ,
|| . (. niuwi), . ,
. niujis] || . , . novus, . > , northren;
. n8(w)os] NORTHERN: . (,
iitw-Iicc . > new'ly; NEWLY: ,
; : n lw -lic . )', . . ||
: .- = nTwe , nordront, . ]:
( . - . ; . - . ) NorC-hymbre i-. . Nor|>humbres
. (> ) = ( ): ; -h.
( . = . ) Humbre . (> (the) HUMBER
noble, nobil (., .) .', NO )
BLE: , ; NorO-man* .-. > NORTHMAN: .
. noble <. nobilis , , , .
, || . nordman, . -
(nobot , . . na-wiht) maOr, |]
j e - i i o j , |h, . (.) . > inoli, nordmcst . . > ( moost = .
|ou|, ynough, ||, ynow, (mii. ~); mffist) northmost; NORTHMOST
ENOUGH [i'nAf], ENOW [I'liau] *: . . ()
; , -rilitc, -|, . ,
; ; ;
. ; ; . nordweard . > northward; NORTH
, ; || WARD: , : nord +
. genug, . gn6gr ., . eanohs weard
.\. je-n ea h . 3 . ,- nose -. ; ? nosu
. (.) || . ganalil nosu, ||, /- . > nose; NOSE: ||
noht (> noht, |cht, |ght) = . tia-wiht . Nase, . iigs] || . . ]
iioyse; NO ISE: ca. . , (not . = . note)
, , . . : . (not . . = . na-wiht)
noise < ? . nausea (noot ne woot . nat - wSt; . .
, witan)
(noitlier, . . ) note :, NOTE: , ,
(noon , - . nSn) : . note = . nuta
( - . ) ,
(nones, the ,, . . ) note . > NOTE: ,
nfin-tid i-. > noontid"; NO O NTIDE: . : . notcr - . notare
, iiota . (. )
(. ./. , .. (no|eles , - . na-hy-liPs)
> NO O N: : . (n e th e r , - . iia-liw w der)

227
(nolhyng = , nan + Jjinj) ; . ; , ,
(non da. nfl) , , ; . , ( . = . ) (- = -)
(noujt = da. na-wiht) (o je /i . = . ) (on-jietan - on-jytan)
. , ; . ,' ( . . = . -) -1, ii-., , 3> gynne/i; gin,
(noiithcr = da. ni-hwEOer) ; -, - (
(now, ~e~da, nu) (oh . = ) gin: ; (+ .
); . . . , ; . . .)
nD , > non, now; NOW: , , ; ; , (oystre ., . . ostre)
|| . , . mi] || . (), (old = , eald) on-sytan, (< -jiel), -|, . J -
-, - || . ober- .,
. ()] ombiht s ambiht , , : on- <
ober(er) . (. obar, ubar, ., ]
-. > ; NUN: : on, an (.), (< 4n) , . and-; . ftnd-syt . ,
obaro .), . - ., , ; 1
. . , )| (+ eH ,/d m ,/m e.) o n, (x r*r.) o; O N : (oni, |, = . ainij)
. . uber, . yfir] || . hupdr,
. s-upe]: ufan . (.) , , , (); (onless , . . las)
ofer-euinau . 4 > overcome/;; OVER , (); (.) , (only, - , . da. -1)
; . . (.) , -, -- ,, . (+ dm.) >
COME: . . ,
(, , . = . on) (); (); (.) , among', ||; AMONG, -ST: .
, ; ,
? > .; , : . || . , , , . ti, , ; , . : -
; . || . . 1 mang -, , , ,
yfirkomiim .)
. , . ] || . -]
Ob (, ,) of (oon, on, , = . )
ofer-drTfan . 1 overdryve, ourdr|; 1
, : . (, og , (once . = da. anes) on-ndan , / ,
OVERDRIVE: . , 'i
. ocli , , . ok auk || ; . ,
(o n d e r-v o n g e , ., ., . . -
Sac]) d e r -f o n ) on-sl&pan, -slS|, . 7 . 1 ,
, ; . , - I
occasioun .; OCCASION: . on-drffidan, a-drffidan . 7/. I >
, , , ; . adreden .; DREAD; , on-stealde ., . 5-stellan
- /). . > VOTE; overgo
, , : . : . on-dr, < iliul-rffidan, d (onto . - . unto)
(.): (.) , - | on-weald, ||, -./. onwald: ,
occasioun, . occasio, . |10, ; , ,

; (.) , . || . in tratan ; ? . .
of . . (+ dm.) of, off; I, . I (.) ] on-we3 , awe3 (? |), . awey. Jay;
orer-seun . 5 > overseen; OVERSEE:
OFF 2. OF: . . , (o n e = . ) AWAY;
. , , open . ; OPEN (ope):
; . , ; , (onely, |lic, . ., . da. -1)
; ; ; .
, ; . . ; . , (o n e s . = . anes) || . , . opinn]: 0
. ; ; - j - operant . :
, , , . ; o n - f e n j ., . o n - fo n
-.; ,
. 1. ; 2, ; ; , , -.
(o n fesl . ; . . fast) . operant- . . ,
. || . ab , o n -fo n . 7 o n fo o n . o n fo n g cji, ||: 1. ( (. . -
- office, |iz|3, .; OFFICE: . -
, . af, . av, . af) \\. ab on- on) , tus, OPERATE )
, ; . ,
(< *-), . ] , || . anfangen opinioun .; OPINION: :
; ,
of-clfinc', a-dune", . > odunc, - (. )]; 2. ( - < . opinion < . opinio, .
: . office < . offi- |ionem,
doune; ADOWN f , DOWN . a n d - ) , , ||
ciuni ,
.: . , , ; . em p fan g en (. a n t l a h a n , i|, opposit . .; OPPOSITE:
offrunj, |inj ( ), -. >
. . , ; dun -. |)] ;
ofrryng'; OFFERING: . ,
(> DOWN . , on-foran . . > ; AFO : . opposit, .
, ; oppositus . .
) ? . (. dim RE: . , (
. . ;
, ) ); . (.) , ( . &oppositio,
; ; offrian
offense, |, .; OFFENCE: . ) .
(> OFFER ,
, ; ; ) . - (< |cajn < |), -seajn, -, oppressed . II; OPPRESS: .
; ; . , - (< |), -jejit, . . (+ , , ;
of-slean . 6 > ofsleen, : .
; : . offense ./dm.) > 1 . , |, , |, . : . oppresser <
, , ;
< . offensa . , . agen .., .; 2. *5, |", . . opfessSfe . -
. ,
offenders / ', |", In' m.d., .; ssus . . opprimere
oft . > oft, ( -) ofte, (
, , (> . often- l! AGAIN 2. agayn, AGAINST; da.
) often; OFT ( ] , . -, , ; :
dre, OFFEND , + , I- 2*), OFTEN: || . ; . ,
; ) ; . 1 .., ; 1 . ,
. oft, . oft, opt, . uita]
ofer . . (+ ./.) over, |ir, 2. ; . 1 . , ; 2, - . (.) > or-; QR-, O R
oft-sia -. , (on) oft-
., . . , (. , || . angegin; . DEAL (.) (
sTOas > oftcslthcs .:
est); OVER: . . . , entgegen (, ingagcne, |geg|), ) - da, or-di; (
of-wnndrian . 2 > of-wundrien:
, , . I gegnj: 3., , jejii, . {> , , , ;
di/. gain) |j , gegn] , , ) |j , - (. ~
228
229
. .), . or, or-, . (oterauns . = . outeraunce) parcel, ~1, .; PARCEL: . ,
., . us-, Liz-]: = - (2) . ( + .) , - I ; (.) ; .
( ,, . . ) , ; : , -
(or , . a-hwasder) , ; ( . - >
paclent, |t|, . , (< .); celle . . particella
oratorie, oritort', .; ORATORY: ) : < * (. . unba- . ' 1. PATIENT :. ,
, ; ): aild- , . panicula ( PAR
; 2, PATIENT . TICLE )
. oratorie (= . oratoire) < (|), ooth, . = . )
. . oratorium ( ( . .) ; : . patient = . patlens, pardee, ( .) |, . :
. . ORATORIO . |ientcm, , , am pan pardie, |, [pai'di:]: -,
... ... (. . -
: . oratorio) hwffiSer) || . odo, eddo; . . , : . par de < .
pad -, || . pfeit, , paida per deum (. dens )
- ORB , ; ( odc(r); . , . aiau]
(. . . bdite)] pardouen .; PARDONER (.):
)', . orbs, . orbis, > other; OTHER: . . .
page .; PAGE; : . page
. | , , , . , ; 6 ... : .
. pagglo pardonere pardon, |oun, c.vh(. (
ORBED . , ; . , || . ander,
, paie/j2, . I/IJ ; FAY: . PARDON . ), -
. annarr, , ]>] || . ,
, ; . , pardoniier . . . . peidoniire
ord -. > erd: , ; . , . antaral>]. ; , paler ,
, ; || . Ort healf, oder-healf,
, < . pacare parfit :, ( .) PERFECT:
(. ort , , ), , || . anderthalb (.
. oddr ] . halvannan; . . = , , ,
ordeyncn, |eignj, ||, . II; OR= )] (paynfui ., , , .) : . parfit, |eit, < .
pale :, PALE: : , perfectus , ,
DA1N: ca. (ojier, |th|, , . . -1)
; , od-rowan . 7 pale, |11|, <. pallidus
; ; . oO-wiudan . 3 , paleis :, PALACE: : parfourncn, ( . per-) perf|, (
; , (ought ., . . ) . palais < . palatium forme) perfourmen, . I i , PER
palfrey, |, (palefrai1), .; PAL FORM: : , parfo-
: . ordeiner ( ouer-growe/t .; OVERGROW: - .1
FREY t" ca, , (.) urnir = par- (< . per- .
.), ordener, < . ordinare , (
, . ^ = per .) + fournir"
(. . ordre) . 2- OVERGROWN)
ordrcJ /, ORDER: .. , (ourdrlffln . 2-, . . ofer-drlfan) : palefrelrf < ( FURNISH ,
. . palafredus'", paravredus', ; ), formir', fro-
; ; . (ourejnecffi. ^ . Ore)
paraveredus', , |m, rnir', ? . (. frummen; . .
, ; (.) (ourselves ., . . Ore)
, , = .
: . ordre < . (out . . ut) fremman), PERFORMANCE (|ans)
purd , (> ) + , . ,
ordo, . ordinem, , outraunce (|ltr|) ,', ( UTTER .) . veredus ,
, . ORDERLY UTTERANCE: . , (.)
. (. . parisslie :, PARISH:
. , , ; ? ; , - 1 Fferd, . paard 7 . .
; ; . - ' : . parolsse < ,
, : . ou/tran* paraveredus) . parochia < paroccla . -
ordred . palm, , . >palm, ~; PALM: ,
: ordre ouftre , . roikla ,
: , palma
(ore, , . . ) ultra; (UTTER . . iitera .)
() (s> parisshen ,; (+ -er) PARISHIO
(ore = over = . ofer) (outrely ., , . utera)
oret-mecs jo -. , : S. -. (outridere ., . . Ot-rjdan) , palme, , ; NER: ; . parois-
(over, = . ofer, ~-) . ~, PALM). ( .) sien : . . parochianus pa
* ( ),
palmer*? :, PALMER rochia (< . parisshe)
, |[ . urhez] < *or-hct, over-curious :, OVERCURI-
( parlement, |am|, :, PARLIAMENT:
+-het ( ) hatan: m. OUS
(over-lippe, . . ofer . lippa .) , . ; ;

over-plus ,; OVERPLUS: )-, . . palmier = ; . : . parle
ort-seard'j orceard", ~. > orchard;
, ; . = . ofer: plus
. . palmarius ment , ; ^
ORCHARD: || .
panne -, > punne; PAN: . , ; (; , . parla-
aiirtigards]: ,- ? hortus : . plus
; , , , menumi, |!|); - ,
3. (> YARD ) || . gardr, . (oversawe ,, . . ofer-seon)
(overseer , oversee ., . . ofer- ; . , < . . parabolare
Bards ]; (, , gardyn
, || . Ffanne , . , , parabola
.) seon)
(overwent , , 2-, . , ofer- , . ; ] . < , . " (
-|> -. , , ,
(pans . ., . . penninj) PARABLE ; . , parabo
|| , urdank] ostre jan)
papa . > pope; POPE: : 1, ,
-, > ( .) olstre; OYSTER: (ovlr = . ofer)
; . ostrea (> . (own' . . ajen) . ., . papas, parole , .
owt . = . 01) ||, , . ~
oistre) , ristreon

230 231
, PAROLE pas, paas, .\ : . ,
, ) . parabole ; . : . pas <
, . passus, . |um
par seintc charite (.) passe/;-, ( ,) , . //; 1. PASS;
2. (. 2- > PAST ., .
parsoncr, parsc|, parcel, ( part) partc- . 3. .: . ,
ner, :, 1. PARCENER; 2. PART , ; . 1 ,
NER; ca. , , ; 2. ; ;
; . 1. ; 2. , , ; 3, : . passer <
, : . . . passare . passus .
pargonier, parsoner (.), ||, < , (. . pas .)
. . parliormrius, *- PASSIONATE . ,
tTtio|, . partltio, . |ionem ( : . . passio-
PARTITION , natus . passio (. . passioun)
), pars, . p artem (. . passioun, Inn1, /.; PASSION: .
part). ( part , ; . ,
t .) : . passion <
part .; PART: : . part . passio, . |i6nem,
< . pars, . partem, part-taken (past . 2-, . . passen)
. 6', PARTAKE: . . , (patient . = . pacient)
; . , pawa, -. > , : : .
: . . dcltage, . teil- pavo, . pavonem, ? . taos
nehmen, . participant, . tawus, taus, :
, tawus. . pe-eoek, -; PEA
; . - COCK: : . .
. TAKE PART (:,
; (PARTICIPATE . hflna , no-,
. . .) . < . .
(pnrtener . =. parsoner) coccum ,, .)
particuler .', PARTICULAR: , :, PIECE; , , 1
. , , : . piece, (
, ; . . ): , . . pelium ,
, , : ; ? . ;
. particulier, |ler (.), <. APIECE . ,
. particulars , ||, :, PAIN: . ,
partienla (. . parcel) , ; . ,
partie :, PARTY: . , ; : . peine .
. , : . - ( . pin, . .). &PAIN
tie . , , ( FUL: , . ,
) < partita . . ; ; , .
partlfT pars, . partem, ,
(. . part); . parti . , , |, . //; PAIN: .
, , < . partitum . , ; (.)
. . ( . .) parlTrT , ; . ,
parvys ,\ PARVIS: . : . peiner pei
, , ne . (. )
; , ( pcnnunce :, PENANCE: .
. )', , , ; .
. parvis, |rev|, parans, . : . peiic'ance <
paradisus, . |m, ( PARA poeniteniia ( PENITENCE
DISE ; , , paradis) . , ) (
paradcisos , . pin, . .)
, . paridaeza penount . :
. penanl < , pocnitens, .

232
|entem, . , poenitere peril :, PERIL: , :
, (. . . peril < , pericuium
pin; . )', . PENI - PERIPHRASIS (. IASES)
TENT . . ; . . periphrasis
. peri . , , + plirasis
( . ., . . ) , (
prime :, PEN: : . PHRASE, . .)
, pernelle :, pnrnel; ,
, < . (), : .
( ) ; Perronelle ( = coop. ,
(. . pin') pSroiinelle )
penninj', |1", -. > , ||, (. -es pers . :, PERSE: . .
pens, jal); PENNY , --
(. |1ES PENCE): . ( ( ); -/-
, 1,5 ); ; (.) ; , () -,
. ( , (
0,7 ); . )', ; .
|| . Pfennig, . penningr], . -; -
. + -leas . . > peny-les; : . pers; . .
PENNILESS: perse . <. Persa (. -
pensif : TENSIVE: . . Sfte, . Perse .) -
, , Pars!
, ; . . ---- PERSONAGE :, . ,
: . pensif penser . ; , ;
<. pensarc , , . , ;
; . personage: persone (,
(people . ~ . peple) , persone)
- PEEP , : persone3, persoun, (|un3), :, 1, PER
. . pie SON 2, PARSON: .
peple, ||, jeo[, |u|, : PEOPLE: , , ;
, : . pueple, ( ; . . I.
.) poeple, ||, ||, < . populus, , ; 2.
, jm; (. . popularis ., ; coop, , 1, ; 2.
POPULAR , : , persone <
) . , persona , ,
pereeyven . U\ PERCEIVE: ; , , persona
, : . - ,
vuii (. perceive) < . pcrciperc , ,
, ,
(. . hebban) ~. > pere; PEAR: ; .
/: . li, PIERCE: , pirum. . + treo" wa-c. > PEAR-
: . percicr < TREE
. . *pertusiare . pertusus pees, |ai|l, :, PEACE: ;
. , pemindere . pes ( ), pais, < .
, , .
perchnnncc, |, :, PER pestilence :, PESTILENCE: ,
CHANCE t: , : : . pestilence .
. per (> . par) + , pestilent ia
chance (. . chaunce) (phy, play, . . pteja)
(perdlc = . pardcc) philosophic :, PHILOSOPHY:
(peere-tree ., , . ) : . philosophic, .
(perfect ., , , parfit) . philosophla
(performe . perfornians ., . . * (phflos , sophla
parfourne .) , )

233
philosophic :, PHILOSOPHER: ( , .) (. , penne): 1
: , philosophre, ? . pinna
ph ilo so p lie, |fe, = . p h ilo s o plnian . 2> ; PINE: . .
p h ic . phil6sophos (. ca. p h i , ; . ; pin .
losophic) for- + pinlan > for- . II.
pliisikt-, (j, .', PHYSIC: : ,
. phisiquc, f], |ke, . physi- pmiinj -. > pyning; PINING: . .
ca, |, , . , , ; .
phusikc . pluisikos . : plnian, pin
, , philsis pipe -. > pipe .; PIPE: : 1
. || . . , . . , *! . ,
] ( . pTpian s> PIPE
phisicien, f|, |ian, |ion, .; phisition, . , )
PHYSICIAN: : . phisici pilaunce, |, .; PITTANCE: .
en phisique (. ca. phisike) , ; ; .
(phisition . = ca. phisicien) ;
pilen, |11|, pe|, . II; 1 . pill 2. PEEL: : . pitance? pit6 (. .
. . ; pitee)
; , pitee .; PITY: ,
; . , 1 . ; 2. : . pitdi1< , pietas, .
; . piller (< |tatem, , (= ,
. *piliare, pilare), peler, < piet6, PIETY ,
. pilare, , ). PITY (pitiee) .
, pilus ( PILE
, , ), ( . . pil pitous .; ( pity) PITEOUS; ,
ler , peler , , ;
) , ; . ,
pilgryin (pelegrim1) .', PILGRIM: : . pitous, |eus, pitc i (cm.
, ; . *- ca. pitee)
legrin (= . . p&lerin; . . pil- place .; PLACE: : .
grymage), . pcliegrino, < place < . platea
. peregrinus , , , . pla-
tcia platiis ,
pilgrymage .; PILGRIMAGE:
: . pclegrinage, (play, ~, ., playen . = . 1 .
pelrimage, ( plejian .)
. pilgrym, . playn, pleyn, .; PLAIN; . ,
.), "pelegrin , ;
pilory .' PILLORY: ( , , ,
: ; . , ;
. plain < . planus
, ( PLANE ;
)
): . pilori playntr. |ei|, .; PLAINT f" ,
pin -. > '; , , : : . plainte .
. , , (> . . . plaindre . (.
. peine, . . ), . COMPLAINT < . compleynt)
poini , ( (playse . . plesert)
. , .) |( . < plate .; PLATE:
koina] (, )
pin* . pyn, pyune; PIN: , ; . ( . .),
, ; : . plate < . plat
, ; . , . : . . platta
; . : ? . peima , ? <

234
*plattus . ? . platus plucctan . 2 > plukken, |ck|; PLUCK:
; (. . place) . , ; . . .
(picas, -, . ~ . plesen) , , , ;
(pleasant, |aunt, = . ptesaunt) . . , || . pluk-
pleja -. > pie, |ay; PLAY: . ken, . plukka; . . pfliicken]
; ; ; . , poete :, : : .
; ; ; . , . ( , poietOs

plejlan . 2 ( plesan) > pleyefl, poetical .', POETICAL;
||; PLAY: . ; : poetic , poctieus
, ; , (. . poetique) , poictikds
; . , ; . poietes (. )
: 1 poynt2 :, POINT; . ,
plcyn :, plain: , , , , ; .
: . plein < . ple- , : 1. , point .
nus; (. PLENTY . ptenti/ < , , < . punctum . ;
. plEnitas, an. |tatem, ) . . . pungere) 2,
(pleyn . - ca. playn) . point , < , puneta
pleoh o-c. (j)d, pleos) , , , , pungere
pleo-lTc . , : (poysner . = POISONER; . . poi-
pleo- < pleoh .)
(plesande, ., . ., . . poison, |, (puison2), : PO I
plesen; . plesaunt) SON: ; . poison , ,
plcsauncc, |ans, :, PLEASANCE < . potio, . jionem, ,
t'plcz|] f: . . ; coop, , (.) , (
. ; : POTION )
. plesance plesir . (. . polsonen . //; POISON: ;
plesert) . poisonner < .
plesaunt, |ant, :, PLEASANT: - potifliiire polio ., . )
; . plesant . , (pope . - . )
plesir (. . plesen) (, poor, . - . povre)
plescfl, plaijt . li, p l e a s e : porcioim, |rt|, .; PORTION: ,
: . plesir, : . reion, |rt|, . -
p!si|, <. piaeere tio, , jionem,
plesure :. PLEASURE: port ./. > port; PORT: . ,
; ( . -) . plesir ; ( )', . .
< . (. . plesen) : . portus
plit, ~, :, PLIGHT: . . port :, PORT f: . .
, ; ; . . * , ; (.)
( ): . (..
plit .., - . (.), pleit (- )-, ,
PLAIT , ), < . - ; (. , ): , port
cirntn , , ,, | . , porter , < ,
., plicftre port-je-refa, -. > PORTREVE;
plOJ1, |h, -, > plough, plow; PLOUGH (.) /
[plauj: . , 7 ; possessiouii :, SESSION:
, . || , Pfhig , , , ; , possessi
plogr ; . . ? .\\ on, . possessio, . lioiieni
? . (03 ^ ow > [0] - post , > post; POST; ; .
; , . a, [plau], postls
[] < [0], fij pnsteritee ,] POSTERITY;
. .). A pi. + mSn ,- : . posterity, . posteritas,
. >plnwmnn; PLOUGHMAN: . |tatem, poster, ~, ,
(plowman ., . . plo~) post . ,
pouche .; POUCH: ca. , . II; PRAY: . ,
, ; ; , , ; . ,
, : . pouche, - : . preiier < .
che, poque (,; .; PRAYER; :
; . . . , poqu- . preiere . < . precaria .
ette, POCKET ); ? . ^
, (, poki, . . ) *, , (
poudrec.vjw.; POWDER: . , PRECARIOUS ,
, , ; . , ), precarl . (. ,
, : . poudre < pol- prey)
dre, pu|, <poire <, pu 1vis, . pul- preisen , II; PRAISE: , ,
verem, , ; , . :
poudre-marehaunt . ( . prcisier < , preisier .
, , , prettum . (.
): . poudre-mar- . pris)
chand prelat, |aat, <1( .; PRELATE:
(pound . . pnnd) ; , prelat . ,
(poure . = . povre) . - .
. II ; powre, POUR: , -. . . praeferre
: ? . . , (.
. pflrus . (. . pu preferer, PREFER
re); . . , purer )
, , < premisse .; PREMISS, PREMI
povertee .; POVERTY: : SE: : (.) ;
. poverte < . paupertas, ; ; . 1. (.)
. Irtatem, pauper . (. . ; 2. (.) .
povre) ,
povre, |vertf, poure, pore, poor, .;
POOR: : . povre < ;
. pauper, . ~em ( PAU ..;
PER . ) .
power, pouer, .; POWER; ; *
, , ; : misse, . praemissa ( - sen-
. poeir, pouer (.), < . leniia) ,
< . . potere ?. (. - , missa . .
, , . potesse, . mittere ; . .
posse (= poti-i . . potis se)
, , +esse . ) prcost , > preest; PRIEST: *
(powre . - . ) : 7 , presbyter . pres-
- prukUsour . / Mteros ; ? .
; : positus ,
. practisour . practfeir . -.; (. . Priester, .
[ PRACTISE pretre presbyter; . prestr, prest-
) < , . +practiciare . .)
practicare . pi'acticus . presse, prees, ,; PRESS: , ;
. pr.nkTikc'is ; , ; 7
(pray, -, . . pfeyeri) ; .
(proyse . = , preiSCfl) : , presse < . pressa
prechert . II; PREACH: , . . premere
: , prcchior < ,
praedieare presence, |, .; PRESENCE:
prcchour ,; PREACHER: - : . presence < ,
: . preeliour ( praesenlia pfaesens (, . present
,) , (, , prech) .)

236
- present . (1.); PRESENT: preinte < . . . -
: ii , present < , indre (, <.(
(. . present .) . emprentert . > IMPRINT
present . (2.); PRESENT: ; ) < . imprimcre (.
, present presenter . ( impressare, IM
PRESENT . , PRESS )
) . praesentare prioresse ; PRIORESS:
-., : : . priorcsse .
praesens {. . present .) priour <. (. . -)
present ,', PRESENT: priour .; PRlOR; :
, ; , . priour < . . prior, .
present < . praesens, . |sentem, |iorem, . . (
, PRIOR . )
. presently . PRESENT pris .; PRICE: , ,
LY: . , ; . , ; ; . : , pris
. pretium ,
preserve/) . II; PRESERVE: prisoun, jun1, |, ,; PRISON:
: . preserver, . - : . prison, | (
servare .), < . prehensio, . |1,
(preest . = . preost) ( PREHEN
preve, preef, (preove2), .', (x .) SION (.))
PROOF: , prylo, |d|, |, in/-. > ( .) prude,
: . preuve, || (.), pride; PRIDE: : prut .
<. . . proba . probarc ( ( .) PROUD ) ?
. ( . , . .) . prud, ||, .
(preven ., . , profian) - PRIVATE . , :
(previe . . pryvee) . prlvatus, , .
prikasour . (. . prlvare , ,
. prician) (. DEPRIVE
prician . 2 > priken; PRICK: . . depriver <. de- + private);
, , ; . . (. . pryvee)
. , , , pryvee, ||, .; pryvie, jej, PRIVY (f,
, ; (.) . ):
; . . , , ,
: ? prica -. , (> , .; pryvy to
PRICK, , ) || . . prek , -,:
1 . priv6, |ei, < . prlvatus
pricuris '. > prikyng; PRICKING: . (CM. PRIVATE)
; ; . proelame/i . II; PROCLAIM:
: prician : , proclamcr,
(pride ., . . prylo) . prodamare clamare ,
prynee .', PRINCE: , ;
. prince < . prineeps, . procure/) . Hi PROCURE:
Incipem, : . procurer, .
, , ,
pryneipal .\ PRINCIPAL;
, : . principal, (proofe ., . . preve)
. principalis , proflan , 2 > ( .) proven -
prynten, preiiten, |, |, . II; ve//, preven; PROVE: . ,
PRINT; . , ; . . .
; . : pryme, rente , , ; . .
.., , , , : . probarc ,
( PRINT , - ,
; ; ), . - (probus . ,
), > , prover (. 1 . , ,
preuve, , ||); . . , , ; . .
, . , ,
profit *.; PROFIT: , , : . < .
: . profit < . - proprius
fectus, . |um, , propretee, |plrte, .', PROPERTY:
, prOficere . , . ; ;
: . ,
profitable .; PROFITABLE: . propretd < . propri-
: . profitable pro ctas, . |tatem, proprius . (.
fit . (. . ~) . )
. II; PROFIT: . . - PROTEST .: . .
; - , ,
; . : . - ; , ; . .
fiter profit . (. . ~) : . protester, .
, |fetf, . ; PROFFER: protestaii - pro- + testarT
: . profrir, | (.),
(, profere), < . pro- + . proiestacioun .; PROTESTATION:
. *ofTerire , , olTer- , :
(. . oflrunj) . protestation, . prOtestotio,
praluge. |gue, .', PROLOGUE: an. |ionem, (. PROTEST)
: . prologue, . prolo (proven ., . profian)
gue . pr61ogo!> - PROVIDE . (. 2-> -D ):
. , ,
(property, |ie, . = . propretee) , ; . .
---- PROPOSE . : . , ; (, 2-)
proposer pro- . , < . : . providers
pro- + poser , , ,
. . (> . porvceir,
, () , . purveier; PURVEY
, , . (= . ) videre || . wl*
pause, PAUSE) . patisis tan, . *.}
. (. POSITION provysioun01 .-, PROVISION:
, , . . , ,
PRO-, ~, ; . .
, position, . positio , : . provi
; , sion, /lam. provlsio, . |ionem,
pr5vlsus . . providers (.
PROPOSE , PROVIDE)
COMPOSE .., provysour .; PROVISOR: (-
. .) /
, . poser. . ..; ,
positio , positus . : . proviseur,
. , > . . provisor, , |0rcm, provlsus
pnndre ; , . . providere (. PRO'
. VIDE)
POUND, a COMPOUND prudent .\ PRUDENT:

< . compoune/i . , : . pru
componre <. ; . dent, . prodens, . Jenterti,
. post. prOvidens . , providers
*POUND POUND , . . (. PROVIDE)
. pund.) - PUBLIC, (|ke, que|), .:
.\ PROPER: . , , : . public
, , (. |c[ue), . pubiicus

238
publisshen, |iee, . //; PUBLISH; purprc1 . .; PURPLE:
ca. , ; . ; ;
: . publicr < . - : . porpre, ||, < . pur
blicare publicus . (. )', pura . ;
( . ,
., chcrisshcn, . .) , . porphd-
pulliau . II > pullen; PULL: . . . ( .
, ; , ; . )
, : . . pulen, . pursue, lewefl, . II; PURSUE: .
. pulle , ,
pumic ? . ( ~-stan -.) > ( .) - , ; .
mys, (, |cys; pumie, |my, PUMICE; , ,
: . pQmex, . |micem, (> : . poursuir, |, <
. pomis); ( . . . prosequere, |1,
STONE , . prOsequi (. .
= . stfln, , proseciitrs, PROSECUTE
-, ,
. ) sequl ;
. , s . seon
. : s piirtrcye/i, |, . 1/II; PORTRAY:
. , ,
: (. ; ; ,
pomys-ston) (. ; . , :
pumy-stone)) . pourtraire, |, <; . protra-
puiid . > pound; POUND: , liere , ,
: . pondo , trahcre , (,
w pondus . (. ponderis); . . tractor , .
. Pfund ( .), . TRACTOR, . .)
. pundts weorO -. > pounde- * ^ puten1, (? .) putten, . /; PUT:
sworth; POUNDS-WORTII . , , ; .
punisshen . li, PUNISH; : < . putian ( putunj -.
: . punir . ( ) = potian
. , puniss-) < . : || . putje , . poten
. . . poine , ; . . (.)
, , . . pin putte , (. .) putta
(puple . = . peple) ]; ? . (. pwt)
* .', PURE: ,
: . pur < . purus
purfil ., PURFLE f: (Q , . )
: purfilcn .
purfilen . //; PURFLE t (? * PURL R
, ): ;
. pourfiler = pour- ., < -. > rake; RAKE: || .
. pro-, + filer 111 . < ; . . Kedien; , .
. filum; (. PROFILE fikan /1. ]
. profllo < . pro- + ftlum) . (. rahle, |i6j) > rcchcn
(purple = . purpre) (. raughte, |ci|); REACH: .
purpos .; PURPOSE: , , ; . ,
: . pourpos, porpost, < ; -r. || . rci-
, propositum , chenl
, , < . - -. > rake: . ,
c. propone re ( ; . (? - .) || . rdk *
. PROPOUND (. . , ,
; . PROPOSE) )]

239
rati -, s rood; ROAD: , ), ,
, ; ( draco , . |co n em , (> . dragon ,
) ; , , DRAGON ), .
; . |[ . reita; . reis
( RAID , rind -. >rand, ||: . ; *
, )]: 7 rldan , ; . , || .
<1, ||, -. > reed, REDE f: . ; R and (. |nt )]
; ; ; to rte- (ramie ., . . rinnan)
de -niman ; . ; RATE . , , - ;j
; take/) (.) to rede ; , : , rate
; . ; || . Rat , , . - )
, . .]: > radan , , . .
r$dan, |, . 7 (. reord red) . (, |us) , ,
. 1 (. raidde) > reden (. ratio . (. . resoun)
radde, ||, . 2- rad, ||); REDE f (rather ,, . , hraOe)
READ (. ~): . , (ratighte ., . . )
; ; , - raunsoun, ra|, |ncz|, |on, (jun2), .;
, , , RANSOM; : . raenson
, ; . ; <. redem ptio , . |ioiiem , ( ;
, ; ; REDEMPTION ,
; . ; ; )
; ; j| . (raevere . - . rSafere)
. , , rdOa . (rsvlen . = . reafrnn)
, , read . reed; RED: || .
, , . (ga)-redan rot, . , . rauK |d-] || . -
. ]; cu raid ; . , ( dj),
. < ; . eruthros (,
raede, je . > rede, . -
*; *)]
, ; . || . (readie, |, ., . . rffide)
reili (. . . bereit); greidr reaf ~, > reef; reaf, reif [|i:|] (,
(= ga- + reiSr), . garaibs, |d-, .): . ;
, ]; rad. . , ; () ,
rffidi3], redy, ,; READY: , ; . . ;
riBdes-maii* .-, > redesiiian', |oil! j| . Raub
, : . . rSd (. roub, -, ;
, ||, .; REIN: , ), , rauf . ]; (. . [
, : . rene, redne < robe . )
. . *retina - , retlnere renfere jo-. > revere; REAVER, RE!|,
. , ( f: || . Rauber (.
R E T A IN ) roubari)]: rcafrnn . reaf ,}\
. rank, ||; RANK: , . (. ca. robben)
, , ; , reafian . 2 > reve/i (. rafte, |c ,
, ( . 2*e y-raft, |e|); REAVE, |E1,
); ; , [|i:|], t * (. . 2-e REFT);
|| . , ; || -
, , , rauben , . raufa , ,
,, ]:'! rine (bi) raubon , ]: |
ranklen ", //; RANKLE: . . reaf; (. . robbe/i)
, ; ; . . reeean . (. reahte, . *
; / (): ||) > recche// (. raughtc, |el|):
. (.) raneier timon- , || . rek-
clc , < kian]: racu -. ,
. . draeuneulus ( ; . (. receTSas)
reeed -./. : < *ra;kid || . . , ;
racod] , ; , ; .
receyven . II; RECEIVE: : . , ;
. (.) receivre < . , ; , :
recipere , , . regard regarde .
rcec leas, |, . recheles, reccli|, , , ,
rek|, |es; RECKLESS: . . - . , , < .
; ; ; re-, + guarder . ,
. ; || . ( GUARD ,
ru chlos , : .- ), . (. warden, .
, ( , . .) |, wcardian, . 2 ,
, I , (> RECK , , . WARD
-.) || . - , ? . weard -.,
klan, . rouhhen, . roekja] - -., . ); (. . reward
recompense/i . //; RECOMPENSE: . - .)
, : (rejhelboc . = . )
. recompenser . - + - rejn-heard . : ,- ||
pensare . regin, . regin -. . ,
(. . |atus, , , . ragln -.
COMPENSATE , ]
) pensare; . . pensif resol, |, -. rejhel: ,
reeordilre (.), , . ( ; ()
) recordarl, , ; : . regula , (
regularis .', R E G U L A R
(red, ||, . = . rSd) , ) regere
(reed, ||, . = . read) ; , . riht .
(rede . ~ . rSdan) resol-bbc .-. > rejhelboc:
(rcdcsmcn . ., . . r;edcs-nn'm) , ,
(rcdy ., . . rde)
redrcsse* .; REDRESS: reysen .
, t redressen, . , / ||
redresse" . II', REDRESS f: . . reison ,
, : . - , (. reisen
+ dresser , ), reisa -.
. . dlreetare (. ? ntan || . ndan, . .\
. direct ) relief, |eef, .; relyefe, RELIEF:
- reducen5 . I i, REDUCE: , . , : . relef
; , relever . ;
; , ; . . ( . releve/f, RELIEVE
, : . iedu- , ); < . rele-
; , vare , levis
,
- jn -. > revc; REEVE (): . religioun (]lunl) .', RELIGION: .
, , ; , ; .
. , ; . : . religion, |iun (
: ? rof ), = . relieio, . |iOnem,
refresshen . //; REFRESH: ,
, (); religious .', RELIGIO US: .
; , , ; ( )
: . refreschif fres , ; . :
., . ~ehe, , in . (. . (.) religious, |ius, =
, ferse) . religinsus ,
regard .; REGARD: ,
, ; ; ( . - . rewme)

241
5 . 11; REMAIN: pausare = . re- + pausSre pausa
: . remaindre ( J . re . . (. PROPOSE)
main) . rcmanere manSre represser1 . 11; REPRESS:
; (. R E M A IN D E R . , ( ..):
. .) . represse . re- + prcssa
reinembraunee, |, .; (mbcrj; . , . (. . presse)
REMEMBRANCE: , reputaeioun4 .\ REFUTATION:
; . remembrance - : . reputatio, . {-
membrer (. . remembren) nem, , ;
. II; REMEMBER: ; (. . reputation ,
, : . - )
membrer (.) < . rememorarT resemble . 11; RESEMBLE:
memoria (. . memorie) -.: . ressembler<
( ., . . rinnan) . - . + . simula-
renij . >reyny, |ie; RAINY: . simiiis .
; re;n, ||, -. > reync, rnyn;
RAIN: || 5. . regan (. reserve . II; RESERVE:
Regen); . . regn, . rign, .] , : . reserver <
re n te 1 .; RENT: . . - . + servare
, ; , ; / (. . serve)
; : . resetfe, recet; RESET t: ,
rente < , . "renditn (= . (. . .):
rendita), , . reddita . recet <, reoeptum
, , . residue .; resldcwe; RESIDUE;
. reddere , , (= ; . residu . (.
. rendre, RENDER | .) = . residuum . .
, ; ) . . (, . . . |)
reordian . 2 > rerden; . residere . ,
(), ; . (, ., RE
(), , SIDE , )
; reord -. , , resoun (reisun2) .; REASON: ,
|| . rarta , . rgdd , , ; ,
, razda , ] ; , ; .
reotij . , ; , ; , :
tan . 2 , , . raison, |, < . ratio, .
|| . rio^an, . ijdta] I; . jiOnem, , ; (
. RATIO ,
repentaunt, |antz, .', REPEN RATION , ; ,
TANT: . , RATE)
; . : . re - RESPECT . : ~ -
pentant , , repentir ( (. ; . . respecter
REPENT , , = . |
) < . - . + * , , )
nitere . (.) , respect5 .; RESPECT: . .
, ; . ; ; ;
. pin , . ; ; )
report4 .; REPORT: f, . respect, . respeclus (. |>
, , 1, : , ,
. report reporter . < , , < . ). respice
reportare , (- ,
) rest Ja-, rccst -. > rest8; REST
REPOSE . , ; - . , ( je-r.) ''
. . rcposer , , - ; . . || , RaS*
, , < . . - (. rasta ; "

242
), . rpst rcwardew . II; REWARD: .
/- , ;
, , . rasta] ; . : . (
- REST cj'Wf.; , , .) rewarder (= , . regi<ar-
: . reste rcster . der; . . regard .)
. restare rewme, reaume, realme, rcrae, .;
, , = - REALM: , ;
, + stare , : . reiaume, real-
restau . I > resten ( .); REST: me, < . reemmc < . regimine
. ; . . ; . regimen (
: . rest :, . . REGIMEN (.) , (.)
restore, (. REST .) , () ),
returnen, |tou|, |to|, . II; RETURN: . reial .
; , . rcgalis (. . royal)
; . returner, |to|, = re- {< rlce/o-c. > riche, ( .) |ke; (-RIC, BI
. re- . ) + turner (< SHOPRIC < . bisc(e)oprice
.; . . turnlan) ); ; ;
rcule, rcwle (|i|3), |ul|, .; RULE: || . Reich ,
, , ; , . rfki, , reiki]: rice
: . riule, rieule, < am. regu- .
la ( . rejol) rice . Jo > riche, |cch|, ( .);
(reuthc ., . . hreow) RICH: . ;
(reve . = . ) ; ; . .
(revc . = . -1') || . reich , . rfkr
revelen . II; REVEL: ; ; ;
, : . , . reikeis ( . .
reveler ; () |kjane); . . riche
, . rebellare .}: rik- . ffg- (.
rebellis . ( rix = rig-s; . ri , ,
. rebelle, REBEL rig) || . rex (= regs, . regls); ,
. ) . regere]: rice .; . . riht
rcvcngen . II; REVENGE: .
. revengier < . - (ricli, |cch, -, ., . . rice .)
. + vindicate richesse (|ches') . . ( .); RI
; ; CHES ( .): ,
(. . vindicatus, VIN : . richesse riche
DICATE (), , . (. .
), REVENGE .: , . - .)
(rycht . = . riht)
= reverencc3 .; REVERENCE: rlcsian . 2 , ,
, : . reve rice .
rence < . reverentia rcvcrcri . ridan . 1 > rldcn; RIDE: .
( REVERE , , ; -. ; ;
.) , ; .
revoke5 . II; REVOKE: . . , || . reiten (. rTtan),
, , ; . . rlfla]: rfid
. , : . riRor, |ry|, |our .; RIGOUR:
revoqtier, . revocflrc (voca- , : . ri
) (- .) gor, rigour < . rigor . rigere
~ reward .; REWARD: . () . ,
, ; ; . riht, ||, (; |ie| ||), 56- , 0-. > 11,
: . (.) reward right; RIGHT: . ;
(s , . regward) rewardef . ; ; ,
(. ) ; ; . ;

243
/ || . Rccht, . ,
,]: riht . on riht > aright; )
ARIGHT; rine -. rink, (~ .) : ,
riht, ]y|, |e|, . > rijt, right, RIGHT. || . rink, . rekkr]: ? riinc
, . , ; . . .
|| . reciit, . rittr, . railm]: (ring, -, . = . lirinj)
. rectus regere ]: risan . 1> risen; RISE: ;
riht . ; || . rlsan,
rihte, ||, ||, . > rihte, right, ryjt; .. risa, . reisan]
RIGHT: , , || ryvertf .', RIVER: : .
. relito, reht, . relito, rechto {. riviere, jvej (.), < . .
reciit), . rett; m riht . rlpat'ia , , .
rlhtan, |y|, . 1 >right#! . II; RIGHT: . rtparius . . rlpa .
. ca. , , .
; . , ; robe .\ ROBE: ,
[| . fihtian, . , * : . robe
riclnen {(. rihten)]: - riht . . (. rauba ? -. ,
riht-nordan-wind -. , roub, |au|, -. || . reaf -.,
. .])
-. > ( .) III; RIME, ( . I i , ROB: :
./.) RHYME: . , , . rober . (. roubon, .
; ; . reafian; . . robe .)
, ; ; {. . rokke roehe, .; ROCK, ROCHE
, - (.): , : . roque,
); . , roche (. roche)
|| . , . rim -. rocciaii , 2 > rokken; ROCK: -
]: . . rim e . , () || . nikkian, . rokke]
, <. rhythmus /., . | , { (roche . rokke)
. rythme, . RHYTHM ), rod -. > rode; ROOD; . ,
. rhuthmos ; { , 1/4
rlnian . 1 > ( .) ?, RIME, ); , ; ; .
RHYME: . , ; ; t || . Rute
; . , , . roda ,
, , ] ; ( RO D ,
; . , , < . . rod!
: . rim .\ . , )
. . {. ), rimeie . , ;
(.) . 1 . , || . ruotj
. 3, () yrMn, i|, (< |1 ) (rof, . . hrof)
(.), Ionian, |, (.), ruial, real, .', ROYAL;
, 3 (. flrn, ], . urnon, : . roial, |eia|, ||, < .
. 2- ) > , eriiefl, ( regalis ( . regal,
.) (, ran', rende, . R E G A L ,
2- fOiliien); RUN: . (, ) = , reg- (. |gem)
, ), ; , regere ; 9-
(.) ; . . , rice ., riht .
, , , rolled . //; ROLL: , "
, || . rinnen , ; : . roller, 1>
, rinna, ( . 1 <. . rotulare , *
) i'eitna, . 3 ; . rinnan]. , = . rotula y!*eHh"
fore + , > FORERUN ,: . rota : ;1
, ; . . - romarfl . , 11 .
yrnan ( ; , romicr Rome,
., . ., - Roma
? da.*ramian . 2> romen; ROAM: , () ; ;
, , ; || . rfma
Rome-rennere . ; , , . nin , ,
, ; R. < . . , ]; (RUNE
Rom -. .\ . Rome, .,
. Roma ; . . (. .)
. rinnan) (., . . rinnan; ,
roost :. ROAST: . , )
, ( ); (ruslie . = . hryscan)
; . + ( ): ? > RUSTLE /i. : ? <. hrux-
. rost ? . (. rest . Slian . 2 || . .
, ( . . russeln ]
)) ruwa, . rflh
roste/i, |, . / ///; ROAST: *
: . rostir ? . *-
tjan (. rosten > . rosten; - rost S
.; . )
? rote . (1); ROOT: : ? sfe i-./. (dm. s, -we, . sss, s, ~wc,
. (. rot .-. < *wrot; . . ./. sses, dm. pd. swa)
. rota . || . wro- > se, see; SEA: . , ; ca. ii
tan . , . wrote/), . || . See (. seo), , ster,
. ROOT ; ? sj6r (< *seor), . saiwsjw.]
WORT < . wyrt] [| . seeec ja-. , ,
. radix]) sacu
rote . (2); ROTE: ( (sake . - . sacu)
. ): . rote sacrament1, |em|, .; SACRAMENT:
. ratte, . Arota, . , , : .
(. crot ; . . , sacrSmentuni, sacrare . (. .
chrotra .) saerefl)
rote, . (3); ROTE f: , sacrefise2, |ifl, |, .; SACRIFICE:
, : , , ;
. rote, rute (. route, . sacrefise < . sacrificium
ROUTE , ) , ; *-
ro u n c y . *, sacrare . (. .
, : sacren)
. roiici, |in sacren1 . II; (. 2- >) SACRED
round .; ROUND: : .: . , ; .
. roont, . |nde, . rotn- , : . sacrer,
ndus, . |nda ( ROTUND . sacrare saeer .
, ; ~ sanctus . (. . saner)
) rota ; . . rollen sacu -. ? sake; SAKE ( FOR THE
rowan . 7 > rowen ( . . SAKE OF .): . ,
.); ROW: . , , , ; ; ;
; . , . ..; ; (<? for +
|| . . (. )] . . + sake) , ; .
rude, rewde, .; RUDE: , || . Sache ,
, : . rude . (. sahlia , ), . SOk
rudis , , , . sak ,
1|, |j, . (|w- ) > , , . . salyfi jn -. ,
rough, row; ROUGH: , ] ? sacan . 6 (. for-'-):
. rauh (. roh), . s3can steec
_ niugj sajd . > sad; SAD: . ;
, -.. > rune ., roim: . , ; ; .
, ; ; . , ; ; .
245
. satt (. sat) , sanct . ( ) > sant1, ( .)
. zac ] || . sat(is) seint1, seynt, ||, . (./.) :,
(, . satisfycrt)] SAINT: . ; . ,
ssede, s 3dc, ., . secsan ; . : . sanctus
(salitlie/i . 2, . . seht) . (> . seint, |ai|) <. .
(sayde ., saye ., . . secjan) am sanclre ,
(saylc ., . . sijlan) , sacrare . (. . sacrcn)
(saynt . ., . . sanct) siind -. > sand, sond; SAND: ||
SSII3, () -~, . > sely; seilie, . Sand, . sandrj
SILLY: . , sin s -. > song, ||; SONG: . ,
; . , ; ; . .
; , ; ; || . Sang , . spngr
. ..-, ; . , . saggws ]: ? sinsan
, || . selig sangwyn, |nguin, ~, . ( .):
]: sail i-./. , SANGUINE: . , -
; , ; (-
; SCI .
s-l73ed nt-. * ,
, ; I. . ', . humour);
saluwij-pad . , (.) -
, ; . ,
, ; s. salo, |lw- , ; , sanguin, ~ <
{> SALLOW) || . salo; . sanguineus . ,
. salu , ( SAN
] GUINEOUS , (.)
(salt . . = . scalt) ), sanguis .
s&-mJ.n .-. > SEAMAN: . sar . (, -) > soor (. sore);
, ; . . , SORE: . . ,
sflme . ( swa same...) ( , , ;
.) same . :, SAME: . . ,
. swa sinie ( swa) ; f , || .
( ), ser . ,
; . . () , , (. ~; . . schr
|| . sama ., . samo . ), . sarr ,
, (.), . sami , (.) ]; w sar . -. (<
(| .), . sama , (.)] || . .) ; ; ; (>
, , ~): <" sum SORE . ) || . ser, .
s<e-nieOe . * , sflr , . sair ]
siirjian . 2 (. je-~) ,
: . || . miide] ; (. .)
samnian . ,?>$, somnen; (.) : sarij
sarnn: , || . sa- saris . >sory ( sorwc); SORRY: .
mnon, . samanon, . safna < sa- . , ;
; . . sammeln]: saman , ; .
. || . (zu)-sammen( . , || .
saman, . sainana]: sum . serag, . sJrig ,
samod, jed, . . (+ dm.) > ea ]: sar . (. ~ :,
rned, som|: (); .
() || . samt . , . sorwe, SORROW ; . . sons)
samab .]: s&mnian ssc-rima -. , : . 4
S-n5CS* jo-. (? -.) , , , (> RIM , ) II
, : ., nes, , . rimi ]
, (> NESS ) || . nes jo-.] salisfyen3 , 11, SATISFY:
? >nosu : . satisfier < . satis*

246
facere ., (saw, ~, ., . . seon)
-ficSre (. . si- sawol, sawl, saul, -. saule, saule;
gnefyen); . sntis (. . SOUL: || . Seele (. seula),
sxd), facere . saiwala]
- sauce .', SAUCE: : , sawoit, -", . ., . s5on
sauce < . salsa - Saxon-Ilehc . -;
< . . . salire . ( ,
sal . . . Saxanlcc -
saugli ., . . seo 11) ); spekeb Saxonliche
Su! . (> ~) =sawol - (. . -);
- sautrye .; ( .) PSALTERY: Saxon . . (. . Seaxe)
(. , (sea ., . . heo , .)
): . sautrie scncan, scea|, . 6 (. .) >
sautier, | (.), . sliakew; SHAKE: . . (),
< . . psalterium (), : .
= , . ( () || . skaka]. un- (1) +
, . psaltcrion gc-scacen . 2-, > UNSHAKEN
. ,
) skaync/i . II ( *);
, : . (. skcina
, )
scflmlan, scefl|, . 2> shame; SHAME:
. (., + .) ; (.
., + . .,
); .
); . || . . skaman
. 3 .]: scamu
scimu, ||, -. >shame; SHAME:
|| . Scliam (. scama), . skpm,
. skam]
scant .', SCANT (t, .
): . ,
; . . .
, ; . ;
- sa v e, saf, sa u f, . ; SAVE: . . , ;
: . save ( . (. skammt , skammr .
. .), saul' (, .; < .) < ). SCANTY .
, , salva, . salvo, (- ,
- ) (scarce . ., . . scars)
, ( SALVO . scarlet, |at, . .; SCARLET:
), = . . Sfllva, . |us, : . escarlate, , .
. (> . saf, sauf, . jve; scarlatum . . saqalal,
SAFE . , si|, . ,
)
- save/i (suup) , II; SAVE: , scars .; SCARCE (. - f): .
: . saver (.), , ; -
sauver, < . salvftre , ; ; ,
salvus . , ; : .
, (. . save) escars (.; , , eseh| < .
saveour, [iour, .; SAVIOUR: ^ . scarpsus < . . *|,
: , saveour (.), , . excerpttis (
saul (, .), <. salvator, . EXCERPT , )
|, salvare . . . ;
(, . savc/i) ( carpsi . =

247
-cerpere cx-), A scars-liche, sears- scearp . > sherp, sharp; SHARP:
ly, :, SCARCELY: ca. || . scharf (. scarpf). .
m, ,\ . skarprj
* > scaterert (. II |red'), sliatcre/i, sccawian . 2> shewe/i, |ow|; SHEW +,
. //; 1. SCATTER 2. SHATTER: SHOW (. 2- -ED ,
ca. ; ; . I. ~N): . , ;
), (); , ; ; .
2. () : < . *sca- / ,
tcrian . 2 || . schateren , ; . ||
, . schetteren , . skauwon, . schauen ,
]; ( sea-, ? (. scouwon)]. A . shewe
., , - :, SHOW ,
, . scenwunj -. > shewung", |ow|; SHO
; WING (SHEW| f): . ;
; ; .
, sc . : sceawian
[sic], [J]) seel (.) ., . sculan
scathe :, SCATH E [skelfl] (, scendan . I > slHMiden (. shente,
. WITHOUT SC. . 2- y-shent); shend (.
): . , , . 2-) |nt): , ;
, ; is scathe ; . ; : sc&nd, ||, -
, : . (. skafli -. . , || . Schande];
, || , Sehade, . scaSa scamu
-. , sceolde ., . sculan
, ; * ; * seeop ., . scyppan
]) ge-sceot . = je-scot
scaft -, > shaft; SHAFT: ( sreotan . 2 > shetcn; SHOOT;
), , || . Schaft, , || . schieBen, . skjota]
skapt, |ft] sccppend , = scyppend
je-sceaft a /i-. , (sehal, |ll, ., . . seulan)
(. ge-sceap) scyppan (scharp , = . scearp)
sceal ., . sculan (schire . ., . . sclr .)
(gkeant ., . . scant .) schore :, SHORE: ,
sceap, || (.), -. > shCCp; SHEEP : . schore, sc hare || . schoor
(. ~): || . skap, . Schaf ., schorre .] ? . . sceran . 4
(, skaf)]
30-sccap -. > /-shap"; SHAPE: . (schrewe . , = . screawa)
, , ; ; (schuld ., . . sculan)
; scyppan (schullen , ., . . scillan)
sceap-hyrde (< -hie|) jo-. > shepherde; sky, |ie, :, SKY: . ,
shephcarde, SHEPHERD: : It., , ; . : . (. sk^
. hiofde, |eo|, jo-. > HERD: , . . sky)
|| , Hirt (, hirti), . hi- scieppan, j e - - , . s scyppan
rflir, . hairdeis]: heord skilc :, SKILL: ca. ;
se-sceap-lic* . > shaply; SHAPELY: ; ; . ,
. (. . . ge-sceaplice , ; , (. skil . . -
); ca. , , ; skilja . .
; ; . , )
, scyld, |i|, jie|), sceld, -. > sheld, |*
sccard . , SHIELD; . ; . , (
, || , skarti, . , !
scarl, . skai'Or]: sccard -. > , 3'/; lUUJ~
sherd4; SHARD (,): , , - '
, ; sceran . *
. escu < . scutum ); . scyppend, sci|, (< scie|), see], nt- , >
|| . Schild (. skill), . sheppend: : scyppan
skjpldr -., . skildus -.} seip-t'Sp -. ,
Selldinj, Scy|, |, -. - ; . (> ROPE ) || . Reif
; (.. , , , , (. reif
) || . SkjQldungr]: Scyld ), . reip -., . -raip eska-
( , ) uda-raip . -./.
scyld , ]
scillinS -. > shlllyng; SHILLING: sclr -. >shire; SHIRE: . ,
( ; , , ;
/i - . . || . sklra ]
, sclr . > shir, ( . 2) sheer; SHEER:
12; . . , ,
, ; . ; || .
1971 1/20 , 1.skirr . , (
VII, 1485 1509) 2. skoerr , , <
|| . Schilling, . skillingr, . skil- *skairiz), . skeirs; . . schler
liEEs] , ): sclnan
scylun ( sciulun . :, sdr-se-refa, |yr- J n -. > shlrreve, she|,
? scylen . . .), . |r|, jrive; SHERIFF; . ,
sculan *; ca. .
scluau . , shyne/i; SHINE (. (scituat . = SITUATE)
. 2- SHONE): , || selaundre, scla|, (scandle2), ,\
. scheinen, . skina, . skeinan] SLANDER: ca. , ,
scyne (< |le|), ||, . > shene; SHEEN ; . , :
*: . . , ; . . esclandre ,
, ; . , < escandle < , scandalum ,
|| . sclion (. sconi), . , ( . scan-
skauns, ; . . kaunis dale, SCANDAL ;
.\\ sceawian , ), . skan-
selp -, > ship; SHIP: || . dalon ;
Seliiff (. skit), . skip, . skip] sclave :, SLAVE: : .
scip-flota -, * csclave . . sclavus ,
, , , sklabos
; scleitdre :, SLENDER: ,
scyppan, scl|, ( i scie|), sce|, . & > ( ; : . esclen-
, 2- , jc-sceap .) shape/i dre (? .)
. 6 (. 2- .)', Scoh, ||, -. (dm. sco, . ~s, . ./
SHAPE: *<, , ; . ~s, dm. ~ , ~, . ~na) > shoo
, ; . (. S, ~); SHOE: ,
, , || . Schuh (. scoh), . sk6r,
; . || , skohs]
. schaffen (. scepfan), . sco 1 d -. > ( .) scole; ( .)
skepja (. skapa ,), , (ga)-ska- SCHOOL: : . sehola (>
pjan] , escolc) . sk hole ,
-scipe . t-. > -slilpc; -SHIP: ( ,
FRIENDSHIP) || . -schai(t) (. ; () ,
-seal), . -skapi, , -skapr]; = scipc ; (. [:] ,
i-. , ; ? ; .;
scyppan , . seol
scypen, sci|, -. > shupene, shipene; . (e)scolc)
(. . shippen, |on); scold, - , sk|, . (. .) || SCOLD:
, || . Schuppen]: : ? , (,
sceoppa -. (> SHOP) skald . ; SKALD )

249
seolde npotu., . sculan screawa -. > shrcwe . .\ SHREW
s c o le y e n . II , . :. . (
: . escoleier . , ,
cscolc {. . scol) )', . ,
seop ., . scyppan , (
SCOPE .: . . , ): .,
; ; . . , - . . , ; .
: . scopo . skopos ; || .
; . selirouwel . ], (
, (= -SCOPE TELE . .,
SCOPE ..) , .,
(score . . = . scoru) .)
sc o rn (ska)1, scliap) :, SCORN: ca. scrjdan . I > sliruden, shri|, slire|, (
, ; . .) shroudc/i . //; SHROUD: .
: . escarn (.), ||, . , : scrod
escarnir, |orncr, . (. . scornew). .-. (> -.) , , (
SCORNFUL . SHROUD . ); .
., . . sc o rn .)
(sco rn efu lly || . scrud ;
sconien (ska|) . II, SCORN: . ]
, , scrTfan . I > shryveri; SHRIVE [|ai|]
; . : . eseamir (:, . |0 |, , 2- |IVF,N
(:, , . esch|), ( . corn [|ivn]) f: . ,
. ) escomer, . (. sker- ()', ;
non) . . ,
se o rt, ||, . > sh o rt; SHORT: : . scrlbcre (
, || . scurz; . . . schreiben .
skortr *, . , skorta . , . skrifa . 2 ); (.
, ]: ? scieran -SCRIBE PR E- .. .
; . scoru -scrlbere ,
s e o rt- lrc . , :, . . descryve)
sc o ru ? -. > s c o r e <, ( .); scrift . > shrifte; SHRIFT ( SHORT
SCORE . ( -S SHRIFT
., . . ): .
; ,
.): . ( ; . . . ,
) || . , ; . ()
; ; . , :
; ; ; (.) scrifan; . . scriptus . .
: . (. skore-. scribe
< +skom skcra . 4 || scrowe2 <.; scrowe: (
. scieran, sce|, . 4 (> , )' . escroue,
SHEAR , )] || . . |, ( . ES
( < ), CROW ), ,
, .]) (. skroda
j e - s e o t , s c o t, -. > sh o t; SHOT; . , ); (. SCROLL,
, , , . , Sefowl, ~, < .
; (-|) scrowe rolle (> ROLL , *
; . ; ) . rolle < . .
; , ; rotulus, . |, ,
( ) || . . rola (. . 11 .) ?
GesehoB, . skot]: ~ sceotan . escroele . es-
s c o u t, |w|, .: , )
: . (. skiiti , . 2> shouven, shoven, schwuen;
) SHOVE IJXv]: . , .

250
; . , , be) ; . , lxes
, ; . , , ; , . by, , (+ .
I , skiifa, styfa, . schie- .), ( ); >
ben, . skiuban] ... , by 1 be ,
squyer (< csql), e~, .; 1. SQUIRE (. Iks; . by);
2. ESQUIRE: ca. . , . 1. , , ; (., XIV
; (no XV . + . 3- .)
; 2. . .; 3. , (.
1. 1) , 2) , . ); . 1. ) , , ; )
3) , 4) ); . 1. , , , ; 2. . .;
; 2. : . escuier 3. , || . . der, die, das, (.
< . , scBtarius die), , sd, , bat. (. . beir, .
. seClum . , they), , sa, so, bata, (. . fmi)] |
sculan .-. (. . sceal, sce- . (< + ), , , (. <
alt, sceal, . seulon, sceo|, , ); . ho, he (< so, sa), to (. .
. ed. scyle, scu|, . ~n; . hoi, . hal, . ta); . , iste, ista,
scolde, sceo|) > ( ) . ed. slial, |ll, istud < istod (= is + tc m. 3.)]
.., . shulen, sliullcn, shul, npom. sc . = sy cm. wesan
sholde, shu|; SHALL SHOULD: da. (se ., , . scon)
f ; (sc, see, s e a , . = . sS)
; . ; , seah, se-~, ., . seon
; , se a ld e , -~, ., . sellan
; . , , . .; . (se a le . = ca. seel)
(), ; . . || s e a lt, |a|, , , o-c. > salt; SALT:
. sollcn (, soli , . , || . Salz ., .
sollte; . sculan, scoj, , seal, saltr ,, salt ,, . salt .] || .
. scolxa), . skulu (, skal, . , . sal, sal-]
. . skyldi), . skulan (, scaro-net>-c. -, *
skal, . skulda)] -, : s. = searu
(seulde ., . . sculan) searu, |, wo-c. ;
scur -. -. > shour; SHOWER: . ; , ; ,
; . , ; I . saro, . *sarw-,
; . || . Schauer . . sarwa ]
(. scur), . skiir , * searw-, . searu
, . skura d-. ] (se a s o n . s . scsoun)
(skwe , - skye) (scavcnth . ., . . seofoda)
SC, . seo, . . , ( Seaxe i-. . S e a x a n -. . > (
. .) .) Saxons (. Saxon; ~ .);
, . (, . . -, |*, SAXONS (ed. SAXON; ~ .):
|-, |- . 3.; ./. . ././. ; || , Sachsen (. Sachse); .
. , ) > 1. ( .) . Saxdnes (ed. Saxo) .]: 7
se, be, . syo, |, jl, beo, |, |, |, . bat, seax -. , || . snhs]
||, (. .) ./,/. pat, that, (seek . =. seoe)
(. .), . (, bat, s e c a n , (. sohte) > seehcn,
that) , . (. bo, (ho, , seken, (. soughte), SEEK (.
, ~sJ; . SOUGHT): . ; ;
1250); 2. ././. he1, the, . |wt, ||, . . || . sUchen ,
. . (. 1150 , . scbkja ,
1300); 3. (. . >) bi, >,hc. fM" , . sGkjau . I ):
. ; 1. a) THAT . , sacu. (. bc-sccan.)
(. tho; THOSE , , f>Cs, . s e e j jo-, * >sees'; , || . segg.
bits) ) ~ , .; 2. THE . scger] || , socius
.; 3, ~ , : . , , , sequl ]:
, . .; ( ., + . scon

251
sccjun cji6. 3 (. stejde, sde) > scg- seel2 .; SEAL: : .
gc/i, scyen, scyn, sayc/i, (. saidc, seel (. sccau) < . sigillum
|ei|, |e|, . 2-e -said, |ei|, |e|); SAY , ,
(. SAID): . , ;
; ca. . , sellan, sy| (< sle|), . (. sealde,
|| . sagen (. sagen), . |) > sellcn (, soldc): SELL (.
scgja] SOLD): . , ;
secoundc . .; SECOND: , ; () ;
: . sccond . se- . . || . sellian, .
cundus , sellen, . selja, .\ .
seeree, |et, . .; SECRET: saljan . 1 ]
; : . secret, , |, seld-cyme i-. * : s-.
. secrStus, . |, . . , (
. secernere ); . . seld-ilc
- SECURITY .; . . || . sildaleiks]); .: cuinan
; ; sele i-. || . salr]: sail o-c. ||
. . : . secu- . Saal .i
, . securitas, . |t5!em; (. > self, |y|, |eo|, . . (. sclfa)
. scurte; SURETY > self ( .
); . securus . |lv-; . selve) , ( .); SELF:
; (, . sicor) . ( . ,
sefte, ( . .) ||, . (. , , , ic
softe) > softe; SOFT: . , self/selfa , he self ..;
, ; . . , dm. me selfum ,
|| . sanft , ..; ic self
; (. samfto .)]: . . /() ): sS sel
s6ftnesy'd-j(c. , la . ; . (= .),
, , . . .
(segge/i . . secjan) . , .
sejnian . 2 > scynen, say|, ( .): , -self (. -selves) ,
1, . sain; 2. ( . signc .) . .); . , (= .) || .
SIGN: . , selb(si), selbc . , (.
, ; . . sclb, . -), . sjalt'r, . silba .\
. , ; (selve, ~, ., . . self)
, ; . . I. seman . 1 >semen . II ( .);
, ; 2. , SEF.M: . ,
: . signare , ; . ;
, {> . seignior, . si , ; . ,
gner), siBiium . (. . signe) || . stfcma ,
scht, ||, ./. > ( .) sahtc, saughtc; , , ? sb-
(. saught): , , . . ,
|| . salt, ||, i-., < +sah- !, . bi-semen, be-|; UESEEM f:
ti-]. . . sahtlien1 . 2 , ,
semely (semlich2) .; SEEMLY: ca.
(scycn . = . secsan) , ; .
(seigh ., . . seon) : . (. sucmiligr
(scllle . = . s&lij) s<Emr . ,
(sein . 2-, . . scon) , see :, . . semaa)
(scyn . = . secsan) (seen . =. sSon)
(seine/i ., . . seaman) (seen . 2- , -sync; .
(seint, seynt, . ., . . sanct) . .)
sel . >gel, ||, sole: . , sendal .\ SENDAL: (
; ; . , ): . sendal, |, ,
I . . s<cll, . scls] . cendalum, ? .

252
send . I > scntlcn (. sente, . , ,
2- -sent); SEND: || . )
senden, . senda, . sandjan]: sid scoOan . 2 (. . sudon, . 2-
-. soden) seihen (. . . 2-
(sene . . 2- = . je - s y n c sod|, soth|); SEETHE: . .
:, . . sc o n .) , ; . . ,
(sent 3 - . 2-, . . sendan) || . sieden, . sj6fla]
sentence2, |ns, .; SEN TEN CE: . sCowian . 2 ii svwan, sl|, sEo|, . 1 >
, , ; , sewen, so|; SEW [sso]: . ,
; ; . ; , ; ca. . ||
, : . senten , siuwen, . siujan, .
c e ^ . sententia ser* (., .) . ;
SCO , ., . se , ; :
seoc, |, . > seek, ||, |i|; SICK : . (. sc , . . . ||
|| . sic c h , . sju k r, . siuks] . sis]; .
seocnes1, |is ,./o-,*(. > sekencsse, siknesse; sr-hverr ,
SICKNESS: : seoc , )
seofon, sy|, . ~e, . r> seven, sergeaunt, |rjau|, |ant, (sergant1), :
sevenc; SEVEN: || . siebcn, 1. SERGEANT; 2. SERJEANT;
. sjau, e. sibun] || . . (< ['sa:djnt]: ca. (
, * < +sebd- !, . ); . I)
- < ? *septm6-); . septem; . ; 2) ;
hcptn (. hebdom6s ), . . sergant, |rj|,
saptd] , < . serviens, . |ientem,
seofoOa . . (.) > severe, ( . , servTrc (. . serve/i)
seven) scventhe; SE V E N T H : scrva.unt, |ant, ,; SERVANT: .
: seofon ; () ,
seolc, |io|, (<|luc), . > silk; SILK: || ; . : . (
. . silkl, iiw. sllke], ( .) servaunt < . . (
, ? ? - . . .
., . ., scrvir) . servans, , |antem,
., , . , , servarc ,
; . . sericum , . . ( . ,
, . sirkek .) servir, . servire,
seolfor, sio|, syj, (< siololV), o-c. > selver, :, , . sergeaunt serven.)
silver; SILVER: || . Silber, scrven1. //; SERVE: ,
. silfr, . sllubr; , f . : . servir < .
servire servus .
, . servyce, |se\ .; SERVICE: :
.] . service < . servitium
seolh -. (dm. seole ..); > sele; , , (.)
SEAL: || . selali (< *selh), servysablc .; SERVICEABLE: .
. selr] , ;
scon . 5 (. . stall, , ||, , ; . ,
. sSson, sflw|, . se^|, . : . serviijable service
2- sewen, ses|) > seen, ||, (, . . (. . ~)
seigli', sey", |"', saugh, . sey, sesslonn, |, .; SE S SIO N :
||, |ie|, sowch , |aw|, . 2- se , : . session =
wen, sejhen, scln, seic; y-scne = da. . sesslo, . |ioncm,
jc-syne .); SEE (npoiu. SAW, sesoun (sey|3), |oii, .; SEASON:
, 2-e SEEN = . .): : , , : .
< seolian || . sclien (. sehan), scson, sai|, sclj, < . satio, . |io-
. sja, iue. se, . saihmn] || . sequl nem, , , ( . .
]; (. . , , )
sesounen . //; SEASON: . a, (short . = . scort; shortly .,
, ; . . scort-llc .)
; . . ; (shotte ., shotte . 2- shooting
: . saisonner sal- . ., . . sceotan .)
son . (. . sesoun) (shour . = . SCQr)
settnn . / (. sette, . 2- - (show . ii show ., . . secawian
sct, -setcd) > setten; SET: . .)
, , ; (shrift, -, . = . scrift)
, ; , (shryvew . = . scriftm)
; . , ; (shroiidcn ., . . scrydan)
; ; (.) . si, sy, ., . wesan
I sette me (.) ; , sibling, je-~, -. > SIBLING ():
. || . setzen, . setja, . saijan, . ; . . (,
]: sittan
sell a-. > setlc, settel; SETTLE: . a, ): sib'yo-. ;
, , ; . . ; || . Sippe , . sibja];
( (. . god-sib* jo-.
, ) || > GOSSIP ,
. Sesscl , . setl]: siltan ; )
<set> . = . siOSan) (sik, sick, -, . = . seoc)
(scvent . . seofon) (sycken.es . = . seocnes')
- SEVERAL .\ . . sicor . >siker; (. sicker, |k]): .
, ; . . ; ; .
: . several (. . ; ; :
. separale . , . s5curus (>
) . sevrer . ( . scur, |u|; SURE
SEVER ) < . sepa- , ; . SECURE
rare (. . separatus, . ,
SEPARATE . ?,) .: . . sicher, . |ur, .)
syx
se x = srd . > sid, ||: ,
(shaken . = . scacan) , || . sidr]
(sh a ft . = . sceal'l) side -. > side; SIDE: , ||
(shal, |11, ., . , sculan) . Seite (. slta), . si6a|. be
(sh alb e = slial be, . . sculan beon) sldan dm. > hl-slden, (x . -s)
(sh am e . = . scflmu; shame . = da. bi-sides, . /, 1. HESIDE
scimian) ; 2. BESIDES
(shape . = . je-sceap) syfan . = seol'on
(Shelrc = schire . = . sclr -.) sis = si (< sie), ., c m . wesan
(she ., . . heo) sTjan . 1 (), ;
(shccld , = . scyld) || . . slgan, . sfga]
(sliene, sheen, -e, . ., . . si3e i-, sijor -./. : < sijiz ||
scyne .) . Sieg ., . sip -. (. ~s), .
(sh eiit . 2-, . . scendan) sigis -.]
(sheep, -, , = , SCCap) sijlau . I sejlian . 2 > seilen, sai|;
(sh e p h e a rd t' . - . sceap-hyrdc) SAIL: , ||
(shew . shcwon ., , . seeawian (. I) . sigla, . slgelen; (. 2)
.) , segcln]: sejl ./. (> SAIL
(shilling . - , scillinj) . ) || . Segel, . segl .]
(sh y n en . = . sclnan) signs, syngnt?, /, SIGN: :
(ship . , scip) . signe < . signum (
(sh ire , ||, . = . sc ir -.) . sejn, [jen, -./. ,
(shirreve . = . scir-je-) ; . . scgnian)
(sh o o . = . s c o h ) slgnlfyen, |efp, . Ii, SIG N IF Y :
(sholde ,, . . sculan) : . signifier < -

254
significSre , sinu, |io|, |eoJ, |o, we-, >synowe; SINEW:
* slgnum . (. , (.) || .
. signe) faecre , (. . afere Sehne (. senuwa, |aw|); . . sin
.) - .\
sitisl . 2., . seon sio!ii -. (dm. sTole) = seolli
syllau = sellan syrce, |{, jn-. ( .) serkc; SARK f :
(silk .= . seolc) . ; ; . .
sylf , self : sere i-. || . serkr] .',
(silver . = . seolfor) . . < *sorkbka
symbcl o-c. , ; * . am *sorka
|| . sumbil, . sumbl] sire .; 1. syre, SIRE; 2. SIR: ca.
symonyc .\ SIMONY: : , ; ; . 1. -
. simonie, . . simonia ( ); t
Simon ( ) ; + , ; 2. ;
. ., . , sire < . senior .
symple, |ip, .\ SIMPLE: : ( SENIOR .
. simple < . simplex, . ; . . |iorem > .
|iccm (slm- sem- -; . semel seigneur, SEIGNIOR
; . . sum) )
syiiiplicitee .\ SIMPLICITY: sitta n , . & > sittc/t; SIT: || .
: . sim plicity, , sim - sitzen, . sitja; . , silau . ,5] ||
plicitas (. |tatem) simplex . . sederc; . . , (
(. . symple) ]
syn' j a -, s sunne, synne, , zcn- - SITUATE . t :
ne, zen; SIN: . , . . siluatus . ,
; ; * ; . . || . situarc . situs .
sutidia, . Siinde; . synd, |0] , , -
sin {< slen) . .\ . wesan SITE , ?
(slnec, . . siOflan) .)
synd, sim ian , . . = Sind, ~on; . sifl -. > s i t h c: ,
wesan ; ; , ,
syndrij . > sundri, sondry, |y|; SUN || . sinn ., . sinfjs]: sendan
DRY I1: . ; , siOOan, sy], seo|, |on, siOOa, .
, ; . > sithefl', sin", silhe", se|, (x .
; . , : -s) sithens ; sitlience, SINCE, .,
sundor .'. . . . ,
je-sync (< |ie|), 8 (',), . >- ; ,
sene . . 2- . sce/i; ( : < sT3 j>sem/
SEEN . 2*\ . ; Jon *); . .
; . , : ; . , ;
; . , : < , || . seitdem ;
*sauni- *-sawni-: w sy, |5o|, i-. . . J)ana-sei|5s . ); sid
< *sinni- < +ewni-1| dc, siun, . , . , ||
syn, i. siuns]: seoii . seit . ,
(synewe . = . slnu) 6, . $! , , I. sei.lnis
sinjaii am. 5? Syiigen: SING: || . . ]; (jrcni ,, |> .
singcn, . syngva, . siggwan] 11 (. se)
singuler .', SINGULAR: ca. SlOe (=: |ia| )jo-M. > sy lh c ; SCYTHE:
, , ; , (. ) || /. se-
; , ged, seid, sich t, . sigOr], (.
: , singular < . singulfiris
, , sim- <: . scindere ; . . SCIS
scm- - ( . symple) SORS . eisoires.)
syiif . . =sind; . wesan sixties!, sithen, ~s, sithon, . . siddan)
syx, |i|, (< |ic|), |ej (.), . ~e, ; .
. > six; ~e; SIX: || . , || . schlitzenj: <
sechs, . sex, . safhs] || . sex; cp. . slittan . 1 slite i-. (>
. < +seks-tl-] SLIT , )
syx-tlj . > sixty; SIXTY: slltan
|| . seehzig, . sex tigir, . saihs tl- ? > slomberen, |mbr| (slumer|2), . ;
aus] SLUMBER: , || .
sizd, sized, . 2-e, cm. ca. assiser; .) schlummcrn]: . SlQma -. ,
slsec . > slakk; SLACK: , slumereyo-^f. , SLUMBER
|| . slali, . slakr] .
staciau . 2 (. ? .) > slaken smajl . > smal; SMALL: .
(. .); 1, SLAKE (.) , , ; .
2. ( .) SLACK (. .): , ; . ,
. , || . schmal , .
; . (.) . smal , , . *smals
, , ; (. smalista .), .
( .) , . smali -. ]
(, ), (smart ., . ., . . smeart
()-, , 1. (), . smeortan .)
(); 2. , smeart . ^ smart; SMART: .
|| . slakenj: slasc . ,
(slain . 2-, . . slcan) ; .
slp, ||, -. > sleep; SLEEP: || . , ; ,
Schlaf (. slaf), , slepsj ? || . , , ; .
; . . labi , , ; smeortan . .
], on s. ., on s=-e dm., s> smertc .\ SMART: ||
sleep/~e, asleep, aslepe; ASLEEP: . Schmerz (. smerza .)]
smcortan . 3 >snierte . /; SMART:
slicpan, sl6|, . 7 . I > slepc; . , ,
SLEEP: || . schlafcn . 7 (
(. slaien), . slcpan . , .
]: slap ); . ,
slspere jo-. > slepere; SLEEPER: ; (.) me smert ( )
: slap . ~an . ; .
slean . 6 (. sloh, |j, . 2- I . schmerzen . (. smer
slffijen) > sleen, ( . 2-) slayen, za II ) ] : smeart
(. slough, slow, slew, . 2- (smerte ., , . smeart ,;
slayen, |ayn, |awen, x .); SLAY smerten . ==. smeortan)
(npuiu. |E W , . 2-e |AIN): . smide, smofl, , (. srnoOe) >
, , ; ca. . sme|je, smothe, SMOOTH [|u:d]:
|| . schlagen (. slahnn), . , |j . smodl]
sla . slahan , ] ? > smylc/i . .; SMILE: : ?
(slender . =. sclendre) . *smllan || . smllan, um, smila
(sleep, ~, . = . slffip; slepen, sleep, , ]; '! .
. = . slapan) ( .)
slyfe (< |), ||, jn-. > sieve; SLEEVE: smitan . 1 > smyton; SMITE (.
|| . sieve; . . sloufe |Oj, . 2- |ITTEN) * f. ,
] , , ; .
slftan ,! (> ~ . slilten, . .) , ; ; , ,
, || . sehlei- || . schmciCen ,
Sen, . slita], lu-slTtan (. smizan ), .
(. , to-) (bi)-smeitan , ];
* >sllttcn . /; SLIT: . ( (. . . ,
), , , )

256
smifl -. > smyth; SMITH: . (somtyme somwhat, . , sum)
, , (son, sonn, . - . sunu)
; . . || . Schmied, sona . >sone; SOON: . ,
. smiiSr ; . . aizas- ; . . j| . sano,
mifcia -. ] |a; . . san, ||, . . san;
smoca -. > smoke; SMOKE: ; . !. suns (. <?!))]
smcocan . 2 || . . (Somlay . s . sunnan-dxj)
Sclimauch . ] (sondry . = . syndrij)
smocian . 2> smoke/i; SMOKE: . (seme, , , sonne, . = . sunu)
. , ; . , (sonne, ., , = . suime)
, : <*>smoca . (song . = . sanj)
(siiioot ., . . smitan) (soong ., . . siiran)
snaca -. > snake; SNAKE: || . sop* . >sop; SOP: (
snake; . . snahhan . 6 .) (, sop In wyn
] ): -
? > snaceheH, sne|5, . .; SNATCH: . 2 , (> SUP
, | . snak- . f ) ||
ken ; , . saufen (. stlfan), . sdpa];
] (. SO U P . , S U P P E R .
snybhofi, snubben, . II; snib, [|, SUP . , ,
SNUB: ca. , , , .)
; . : . (. snib- (sore . ,, , , sar .)
be snubbe, . snubba ) sors -. > sorwe; SORROW: .
snotor, |tt], . > sneter: , , , ,
, || . snottar, ; . . , || . Sorge
. snotr (. ~s), . snutrs] , . sorg, . saurga]; (
(son, so, = . swa) SORRY, .
subre .', SOBER; : . . saris)
. sobre <. sobrius, . |ium sorsian . 2 > sorwen; SORROW: .
(soe = . swa) , , ,
(softe . = . sOfte; . scfte) ; . . ,
suhte ., . sScan : 5013
(ssole = shollert, . .\ . . scu (sorrow, ~, ||, . , = . .
lan) soijian .)
solempne .; SOLEMN: . sorte .; SORT: . . ,
, , ; , ; . .
; . : , , : . sorte .
. solempne < , solcmiiis, |11|, . sort . . , ,
. | ( . sort ), < . sors,
(som, ~, . = . sum) . |rtern, . . , ,
(sonwlel, . . sum) ,
(some, |mm|, = . sum, . ~) (sorwe , , = , . sorsian
(somer . = . sumor) .)
(somewhat, , , sum) sot1 . . . >sot; SOT .: ,
somnour, |mpn|, |mon|, .; SUM- . . ; . , -
MONER; ca. (, 6 ; ? , sot,
. ); . (, . . sottus; (
)', ( ) sumenour, , S00 .)
so|, , somondre, ]oner, . (soote . ,, . . swSte .)
, , soHlee ,, , , sot' . -!
( SUMMON , .)
), < . sum- soft -. (< .) > sooth; SOOTH f:
monere , , ;
( . to soOi'/|nm ; .

257
to so]>e, for sooth, |o|, , especial); . 1. ; 2.
); (. . for-sofl .) : . especial <. spceialis
soO . >sooth; sooth (. ~): species (
, || . sand, SPECIES , )
. sannr] || . (.) , sped i-. > speed9; SPEED: . ,
. -sens (. -sent-) pracscns ; , ; ;
, absens . . . , ,
.]\ t is, sind, ~on, sint; , ; .
(. wesan) , || . Spod, . spu-
(S0|, to s., . da. sod .; |)c so|te = da. ot, U .] || . . (
Jjjct soda . (ai6. c) x px t sod .) ); ( -enfc-); ]
sOfl-fest, |est, up , > soothfast, |est; spedij . > spedy; SPEEDY: .
SOOTHFAST f: , ; ,
, , ; . . .
, , ;
(souht . 2-, . . secan) . . , :
(soul, - , . = . Sfiwal) sped
soun, sown, |nd, .\ SOUND: ca. spel' -. > spel; SPELL: . ,
, (.) ; . , , ;
: . soun (.), son, . , ; .
< . sonus, . | , || . spel, .
(sound . . soun; soundest . = . spjall, . spill , ]
) spendan . 1 ( , -
sounen, sown|, |nd|, . II; SOUND: ~) > spenden (. spente); SPEND
. , , (, |NT): , ;
, ; . . expendere ,
, : . suner ; ( EXPEND
S0|, < . sonSre sonus , (. ); (. . dispenee)
. soun) (spyde ., . . )
soupJe .; SUPPLE: , spirit3 .; SPIRIT: ( .
; : . soup- .): . spiritus , ,
1 < . supplex, . |1, (> . esprit, SPRITE,
, |IGHT )
(sou|), |th, ., . . = . SQ0) (sport . ., - ., . /port
(sown . = , soun; sownen . . . ~ ,)
soun ) ? > spot* .; SPOT: , ; ?
(sow[)erne . = , Sflderne) . *spot || . spot; .
(spae, |k, ., . da. sprecan) . spotten . , ];
space .; SPACE: : ? . (, spott ; .
. espace </. spatium . spott ). SPOTTED
sparian . 2 >sparen; SPARE: . . . (. - . 2- SPOT <: .
, , ; . spotte/r . II )
, || . sparen (. | s p r e e ' , | |\ spflEc", -. s> s p e c h e ;
. 2 |8 . 3), . spara] SPEECH: || . spraak, .
(speake , = . sprecau) Sprache ): ? sprecan
spec, ( ) spie, -. > spich, |k (., sprccan'j spe|", . S > s p e k e n . 4;
.); , , SPEAK (. (, t |);
|| . spek, . Speck (. | . ? || . sprechen , 4 (den.
,), . spik] |hhan; spechan)]: sprSc
(speke/i . . sprecan) s p r y n j, |i|, ? i-. > sp ry n g ; SPRING: da.
(speche , = . sprasc) ; ca. ; ; p a c -
special ( espj), ~, .; I. SPECIAL; ; . ; ,
2. ESPECIAL: . , ; || . Sprung ]:
; in special (, . sprinsan

258
sprinjnn . 3 > spryngen: SPRING; ) |[ . Stati, Stadt , Stii-
, || . sprin- tte; . staflr, . sta)>s] || . statl-
gcn , . springa statlm , statio ,
, ]: spryiVS ; . stasis (< *statis)
(Sprung ., . . sprin^an) ]; ? stad, " standan. . in
(ssrive . = shrive/i . sen fa) stcde; INSTEAD:
stable (~) .; STABLE: ; stedc-fsest . > stedetast, |est; STEAD
. establc . stabulum FAST, STE|: , ||
stsl . (> |aj), . stelan . stedevast, . stadfastr].
stiEl-hcre ja-. : . stedctastliche, |fastly, .;
st.- < stelan STEADFASTLY:
stfci-hrSn -. - ( stefu, |fen, |mn, -. > stevcn*, stemm';
, Steven: . , ; ca. ,
): s t.- stelan , , ; . .
stan -. > stoon, siflne (. .)', , ; || . Stimme
STONE: || . Stein, . (. stimna), . stibna ]
steinn (. staina .), . stains] || . stefn, |mnj, i-. (I.) stajfu -. > stem';
. < ] STEM; . ; /
standuu . 6 (, Stod) > stenden, ; . . , || .
|and|; STAND; . , Stamm , . siafn -.]: stref
; : . . || -. , , ( STAFF ,
. standa, . standan; . . ste- ) || . Stab, . stafr]
hen, . stfl] S . , , ; stefn i-. (2.) > ( .) steuen, stevyn;
. stare] steven; , ; . . .
(slane, . ., . = . stan) ,
stan-fah . * || . stefna -.
]
(stant . Jed., . . stiindaii) stefiian . I >stemnien ( ,); stem; .
sim ian . 2> stare; STARE; , ; .
| . staren, . stara; . .
. . starren stair . , || . stefna
, , ,
] ]
(stat, ~, . = . estat) stelan . 4 (. .) > Stelen;
stature .', STATURE: , STEAL: ; |[ , steli-
: . stature, . stattira len, . stela, . stilan]
statuere (. . statut) status (. stelinn . , || .
. estat) = stare (. . stSndan) stellen]: steal' -./.
statut .\ STATUTE; , : , , (> STALL )
. statut, . statiitum . ? stiiiidan
. . statuere steinn -. - stefn
status (. . estat) stare (. . stenc i-. > stench; STENCH: . ,
stAndan) ; ca. , ; -
staeO -./. > statli*, STAITH (.): ; . |[ . stank ,
. . ; . || ; , . . Gestank
. stad; . . . Gestade]: ]: Stincan . 3
stedc , ; ( ,
steap . >steep; STEEP, . . ..); (> STINK . ) || .
, ; , stinken , . stokkva
, ; . , , . stigqan
[| . stouf, |au|; . . steypdr ]
]; stiipian stEop- . > step-; STEP- (
stedc i-. > stedc; STEAD: . ca, STEPSON ^ . steop-SU
; . ( n u ) || . S tie f- ( - s o h n ) , .

259
stj'up- ( s -son/-)]: m (a)-stypan, ]: . . s tib . ,
-51|, . / || . stiufan) . < . stid ,
stoorra -. > sterre; STAR: || cp. , , ;
. Stern (dan. stem -., ~o -.), .
. stjarnn -., . stnirno - 11| . stTs - . > stije, stie: , ||
. stella < *ster-la, . ast^r, . Stcig (. stTga)]: ~ stijan
dstron] stijan . I >styezt . (. stall, stow,
stcor-bord o-c. ster'bord; STAR Steigh, . stijen, stye, stowen // . d.)
BOARD f|nd]: || . .; sty, |ie: .
Steuerbord, . stuurboord; . ; () ; .
styrbord; . . stjdrnbord]: st. -. . . , ||
; (> . store ); ? . steigen, . stfga, . steigan] || .
styran (< stle|), steo|, . I , . - .\ stlj;
, , (> STEER (. STY . ( ) .
, ) || . stcucrn, . styan s . stipend
. styra, stluijan ; . <. 1- stljan)
( . (stil ., . . Stille .)
, stille . > stille; STILL: . .
) , , ; .
stcorfan . 3 sterve//; STARVE: . || . still, . still]; stille .
. , ; . stille ; STILL: . . ,
|| . stcrban, . ; . ; 1'
sterben (. |), ] sty m a n (< stle|), Ste|, . I > ste iu e n ; (x
(step, ||, . = . steap) .) STEAM; . ,
stepan (., :, . stle- ; . ,
, sty|) . / > stepe/i; STEEP: . ; , ; .
; , ; ,
. . . , , : steam -. , ,
; . . : (> . stcem , , ,
? . steap -. , || . ?> STEAM , ) || .
staup] stoom , ]
(stcp-dame . ; . . stcop- s ty r ia n . I (. .) > S tu re /i,
. dame) stirc/z, ste|; STIR: (),
(stcrre . = . steorra) || . . storen ,
(sterve/ . =. steorfan) (. stOren < *stauijan); .
styeee-rnaslum . (< . .) . Styrr . . , ; ]
, ; : st ,jo-c. sto e ' -. >slo k ; STOCK: . , *
, (> . stucche, ||) || . , ; . , , ;
Stuck (. sttikki)]; ? stoc (.) ; . , ;
stieian . 2 > stike/i, |[, . . 5/4; ; (.) || . Stock
STICK (. . 2- |U|): . .]\ ? ~ stycce
. (.) , ;
; (.) ;
; .
; : 8 stlce i-.
, , (> STITCH ) ||
. Stich]: . . stckc/i . 5 (
. 4) , < ,
stecan . 5 , " ||
. steclien]
stlf . >stif ( sti|D); STIFF: .
, ; . , stod . (> Stood), . stdiidan
; , ; ; . (stonden . - . standail)
, || . sleif , (stoop . = . stfipian)

260
stoor .; STORE: ca, , , STRATUM , . .
; . , ; . . stratum)
estor < . . s tn u r u m , i n - , straunge (estraunge), ||, .;
in sta u ra re . (. . store/r) STRANGE: . ;
s to r e # 2 . It; STORE: . , ; ; . ,
, , . ; . estrange . extra-
: . estorer ; ncus ,
; (. . e s t o r e , extra
STOREY ) ; < . instaurfire stream -. streem; STREAM: .
; ; ( . . , ; (. *
, ; . ) || . Strom, . straumr] || .
. stoor) . , (*)]
storie3 .; STORY: , , Strocran . (. streahte, ,
, ; . : . , . 2- streaht) > !. strc e c h e /t .
s t o r i e (.), e s t o i r e (, (. streightc, |au|, . 2- |glit|
.), < . h isto ria ( 1.(. 2- >) streieh! . .;
HISTORY ) . h isto ric I. STRETCH 2. STRAIGHT: .
, , ,
; . I. , -
(storven . 2-, . . steorfan) , ; 2. ,
(stoup . = . stO pian) ; , ; .
slow tva- . > sto w e: , || I. , ; 2.
. s lo , . ( e l d ) - s t 6 || . strecken]
, , ]: . s t o w i a n streynen, ||, . II; STRAIN: .
. 2 (> STOW ; ; ;
, ) . , ; .
strayen . li, STRAY; estrcindre, |ai|, . stringere
, : . e s tra ie r ? < ; (. . streit .). & STRAIN
. . e x tra v a g a r l . ; ;

(straighte , ., . . stre c c a n ) strcit ,; STRAIT (+, , -
(stralne ., . . sire y n c n .) . ): ; ;
strand . :> strand, ||; STRAND; , : . cstrcit (. etroil)
|| . S tra n d , . strp n d . strictus ( STRICT
.] , ) < . . strin-
slr& ns . (. s tre n jra , . Invest) gere (. . strcynen .; . STRAJT
> strong, [], (. s tr e n g e r , . ., "S; . ., , .)
je s t); STRONG: . . ; streit .
; . || . strang]: s tr c it, s t r a i t . II: STRAIT f:
S t r c n j c . || . ,
s tr e n g (. slren g i strenjOo, |, S-. strengthen
)] STRENGTH: : strAnj; (.
(strange . = straunge) -)
strans-lfc . ; . strlf1 .; STRIFE: , ;
. > strongllchc, strongly, |aj; . estril estriver . (
STRONGLY: . . ; STR1VF. ,
; . ) ? . (. slriban)
street, ||, -. > strete; STREET: . strjnan (< stnc|), strco|, . 1 streuen:
, ; . . ; . , ||
strata (via) (), striunan]: strcon -.
(> . strada, ()- , , {> . streen
; . . StraUe ; ; ;
.) || . . , . ; streyn-; > STRAIN
stcrncrc , ; (. . , ; . . streynen)

2(51
(strond . . strand) -sull, |fel, . : sufT, |fel,
(strong . = . strflnj) -. (> . . sow) ,
(strongliclie ., . Sa. strSnj-lfc ) ,
,; , , = . (| . subal, . suvil,
straungelichc . . straunge . sufl]
.) (suike, swike, . = . swlca)
(strye . = . destroyc/;) (suyken, swyken, . ., .
stuiile /, STUDY: , . swlcan)
; : . (suyflc, swyfle, . = . swTde)
estudie, . studtum , sum . , ( .) > som;
; (. STUDIO , SOME: . ,
, studio .) ; . . ,
stutflen . II; STUDY: : (. syxa sum, = . + sum,
. estudier estudie . (. . *, . . ) ||
studie) . sum, . sumr, . sums]: same
studu, |0|, .-. > stude, ||; studde, . (,), sdman . (. s&m-
STUD: . ; . . . nian .) |] . . , ; ,
, , ; semel , similis (< *semiiis)
, ; . . , ; . homos {
, +somo3 ,
I . stut, . stud, ||] ) (. homSmimon,
slu[/e .\ STUFF: , , . , . );
: . estoffe . *sem-/solli-/sm -----
slupia]) . 1 > stoupe/i; stoup, STOOP , : , ;
( [:] , ;
): , , .]. 1. (-
1| . stupa, . stupa ]; ? mnc da:! . > som-deel .
steap , ,
(stwrven . ., . . stcorfan) ; (. A G R E A T D E A L );
(sua, , ^ . swa) 2. sume tTinan . > sum-tyme
subjeecioun, |e c t|, jion, .' SUB .; a) SOMETIME - ) (
JECTION: . , . -S .), SOMETIMES
; . : . ; 3. sum hwaot (.) >som*
subjection, . subjectio, . |1 what , .; SOMEWHAT:
s lis I ii ic. lance, .', SUB ,
STANCE: , : -sum . . > som; -SOME (
. substance =. substantia WHOLESOME; . . hal) . .
siicceSSioiiii, |ioil, .; SUCCESSION: - ( longsam ;
: . . iang . ), . -satnr
succession, . successio, . |ionem ( friOsamr )]
(such = clf7. swiic) (sumdel, . , sum)
sue, swe (,), = swa sumor, |, - , > somer; S U M M E R ;
sw elc, = swile
suelc, || . Soirtiner (. sumar), ,
= SUFFICIENT ,', ; su mar]
. sufflclens, . |1, . suunau-dsej, -dejj ( .), -. > so-
2- sufflcere (, . euffisen) nrmlay, sonday; SUNDAY:
suffisaunce evw<.; suffisaunce; , || . Sonntag]
, ; : siind -, > sound; SOUND: . *
. suffisance sutfire . (. , ;
. su(Tise) , ; . .
suffisen . ; SUFFICE: , ; ( ) II
: . suffire (, , sund]: swimman
suffise, . . |isant) <. sutTi- sundor . ( '! .) > sunder ,
, , ,\ , , ,
; . , swayn, [ei|1, .'. SWAIN: , ,
|| . sonder-, . sundr; , , ;
. . simdro] . : . (.
(sunc . =. sunu) svelnn, , sven, . svend || .
suniie -. sonne; sunne, SUN: swan -. , ; *
II . Sonne, , sun *; . suimo , /]): .
-./.] . . Swejn , .
sunu, |, -. > sune, sone; sonne, SON: ( ,, . Sveiiin . .)
|| . Soh n, (. su nu ), . (swallow . = . swealwe)
sun , sonr, . . stmuR, . swan -. swan; SWAN: || .
sunus] || . . < *sunus] svanr]
(suor, swor, ., . . sweri- swa-sum (., . .)
) , : swa = . swa (, .);
- SURRENDER . (), sum , . (.
: . surrendre = . sum; , , sem): , .
sur- , + rendre (. . rente) sasom, , sva sem
su rg ery c .', SURGERY: : swa-swa, . swa
. cirurgerie, cirurgie, s|, swat -1. swotc, (" . 7) swete; SWEAT'
. . chirurgia in . kheirour- [swet]: . , (. -
gia , * *, *
s u s tc n e /i, (? attaynen), su s te y n e n , . .); . . || . swet, . sweiij
. //; SUSTAIN: . . (. SchweiB); . . sveiti -.]
, , swealwe, ||, |lewc, -. >swalowe; SWAL
; . . , LOW: || . Schwalbe (,
, : . su - swalawa), . svala]
Stenir < . sustinere sweart . :>swart; SVVAKl 1+: . ,
(attaync/j . . m cy n - , ;
tenen) ; . , ||
sua . (. ~or, syS, . S0- , schwarz , . svartr];
Omest; ? ., .) > south, -, (. SWARTHY
., . /, SOUTH: ; SWARTH f = SWART)
; || . sund, . sudr (swceli . = . swiic)
. . (. sunnan )]: ? ~ swefn, |fen, o-c. > sweven: || dc. swe-
sunne ban, . svefn *.] || p. . <
suOerne , > 501, southeren; < *supnos, . htipnos ( hu-
SOUTHERN: || . sii6- pnosis , ,
]: sua; (. nordemc) ,, . )]: swefan . 5
sOfl-rlhtc, -|, . || . swefan, . sofa (.
Siid-seaxe i-. . ii -seaxan -. . > . svaDi . sova (, sov)] || .
Soutliscx .; SUSSEX: . . < , -
; . . .]
sud-stscd -, sweltun . 3 > swiilten: ,
swa, swai, | (. .), ,, || . swelzan, . svclta, , swil-
,, > swa (, ,), swo', tan]
soo", so", . , SO: . ; swencan . I (. swenetc) > swen-
, ; swa*swn , chen, |nk|, (? x swynk .) swyake/i;
; (+ .) swa... swa.,, ... swink: . ; ,
...; swa (+ . +) swa ; pea. ; ,
(. +) ( swa , ; . .
liwat swa , swa hwrEr swa ,
); . , ; (what-so ; : swincan
., ..), . , sweord, ||, |u|, -. > swerd, ||, sord;
, || . so, . sva, . swa, SWORD: , || . Schwcrr
sw] (. sw|), . sverfl]

263
sweorfan . J>swerv; swnrve, SWER swile, ||, ||, . > swich, switch, swech;
VE: . ; ; SUCH: . , ; swiic.,,
, ; . . liwilc ... ; swilc... swile
, ... ; . ; ;
|| . swerbean , . [| . soldi (. sollh,
. sverfa , . (af)-swair- swe|). . sllkr, . swalciks]: < *swa-
ban ] llc , *
sweostor, swo|, swuster, -. > sustcr, (x (. hwiic)
ck.) sister, (mh. suster, |stren, |stres, S w y lt-d a jJ -. = : sw, /.
sister, Istres); SISTER: || . . || . . swulta-wair])ja
Schwcster (. sw|), . systir, , ] sweltan
swistarj || . soror < *swesor; . pyc. sw im m an . 3 ;sw ym m en; SWIM:
] || . schwimmcn, . svimma]
Sf-sweoslor, |stru, |stra, . . (. swiii -. > swyit; SWINE (. ~ ); .
jo-c. .) || . Gescliwister . , ; ; .
] || . Schwein (. swln),
swerian . 1 sweren; SWEAR: . svfn, . swein] | . . ;
, ; . . sus ] sQ (> SOW
|| . schwdren, . sverja, . . ) || . Sau (. so), . syr]
swaran] || . sus]
(swerve , = . sweorfan) Swine, () , -. > swynk; swink
swctc . ( swot-; . (. . ~): . , ;
swete) > swele, ( .) swute, sote; ; . . .
SWEET (. sole): || . () : swincan
swoti ., . 5iiC (. su o |i swincan . 3 >swynken; SWINK (.
.), . sogtr; . . suts (. ||, |0| [], . 2- SWONKEN [])
)] || . Itediis {< 1-: , () ;
*swadiis) , ( ; ; .
hedone , . , () : swine
., . )]. swinsung -, ,
swotnes1, swe|, ja -. (> SWEET swTra, ||, ||, |0|, -. ,
NESS ); swotmete, swe|, /- || . sviri]
. (> SWEETMEAT , swTfl, ||, . , ,
) ; , || .
swet-tiee . > swetely; SWEETLY: svidr (. |, , , svinn)
, : . swor-ltc . , . swinps
, ; (. swete) , ; . . geschwind
swlca -. > swik.e: , ]; swiOe, ||, . > swythe:
: swtcan . .', ; , swiaost
swi'can . I > swykcn: . (+ .) , ; .
; ; (+ .) ,
; ; ; . ji-swom ., . swimman
; , * swor . (> swoor, swore), . swerian
|| . swihlian , sword . (>~)~ sweord
, (. bi~ ), (sworn . 2-, . da. swerian)
. svfkja . 1 ]: < swnra . = swlra
swlca swuster . = sweostor; je-swustor, cm,
(swich . = . swile) ae-sweostor
swift . > swift; SWIFT: ,
: SwTfan . 1 (.) T
,
|| , svifa; . . sweibon tabard ., TABARD: (ucm.\ ,
. 2\ 1 . . sweiban . I * ):
] . tabard, |ft

264
ta b le .; TABLE: , ; (> , ,
, : . table < . )
tabula (. . , ta p ic e r . , :
, , . tapieer (.), |ier,
.) tapiz . , , < . .
tncan1 . 6 > taken; : . , tapetium . tapetion tdpes
; . , ; (+ .) ( tapct-) (
; (. + to) ( . . tapete ,
-.); (+ .) ; . taeppet; . . tippet)
, ; . , ( ta ry e ., . . ()
; . (. taka; . . tekan . (tart . - . tcart)
) ta r t e :, TART: . , ; .
, |, . 1/ (. thte, ||) > : . tarte
t e c h e n (npotu. teihte, taughte); (tat, -t/-d, = bat ./.,
TEACH (. TAUGHT): . . . . se; ~ .
; , , ; b<et)
. . , : tacen ta v e r n e :, TAVERN: :
1, |, -. > tokcnr; TOKEN: , . taverne < . taberna
|| . Zeichen, . teikn ,
( lakn .), . taikn ( ( ta u g h t, l^t, --, . 2-; t a u j t c .,
-s i-.)}: t&can . . tScan)
(tjicche/i = p. attaches) taxacloun, |ion, .; TAXATION:
taffata .; TAFFETA, |Y: : ,
. taffetas, . tafTetA, - : . taxation, |cion, . ta-
. taftah xatio, . |ionem], taxare .
ta lu -. > tale; TALE: . , , , ; ; (
; , ; . . . . taxa, |sc|, . >
, || . Zahl . taxc, (. .) tasquc;
(. zala); . . tola -. , I. TAX 2. TASK )
; , , ]: ( te , - t / - d , = | ., . ,
tisl -. || . tal ; . se; . 2 ., . .
]; (talu -. 7 = ~ . tasl) . J>0)
tflm . > tam e; TAME: || . te a m . > teem ; TEAM: , . ,
zahm, . tamr; . . (ga)-tamjan ; ; . :
. 1 ] || , . domare teon . 2
, , domesticus ( le a rm e . = . terrne)
, domus || . ]: t c a r t . > t a r t ; TART: . ,
&J timbrian ; . , ;
tm p p e s tie -. > ta p p c s tc rc ; TAPS TER: , ; . ,
. , , ; .
, : tasppa -. (teken . . = ifi-Sacan)
tedious :, TEDIOUS: , a. ); (. . wantoun
, , . wan)
, ; . . teon . 2 (. |de, . . tTadse)
, : . tedie- , ,
us, jiam. taediosus , , , ||
taedium . ( . zchon; . tjd, tjoa,
TEDIUM , ) , , (. tjada)]
(teyd, *~, . 2-, . . tyjan) teofln, teojoaa, . . > I, tej^c,
tellan . (. tealde, ||) > 111 ( ten) tenthe, . ,\ 2. (?
(. |lde, tolde); TELL (. . 5) tithe .<.; 1. TENTH; 2,
TOLD): . . ; TITHE: . ; teofla d&l
; , ; , ; .
, ; . I. ; 2. ,
been y-told of , || . zehnte
; . , , ., ,, Z| ., (. zchanto
|| , zahlcn (. zellen . .); . tiundi, (), .
; ), . telja taihunda, . .]: tpn (=; .
]: <* talu ten); 2. ? . -. , ;
Tellus' . , : (. tTOian )
. tellus terme :, tcarnie, TERM: . ,
tempel, |mpl, -. > ( .) temple; , ; . , ,
TEMPLE: : . templum (> ; (),
. temple) (.)\ . tcrme < . terminus,
(ten, |nn, . - . tyn) . |, , ,
tender/ . IV, TEND: . . testament2 :, TESTAMENT: .
, ; . . , (.) : .
, /- testament, . testamentum
( -.): . tendre, textc, text, :, TEXT: . ,
. leudere , (), ; .
, : . texte, . textum
tendre2 :, TENDER: , , ; , * :
: . tendre . . . . texere ; (.
tener, . -urn TEXTILE . )
tenement :, TENEMENT:
, : ( , . )
. tenement, . . ~um
. teiiere . tiadas (. .) . s teode;
tenserie (Peterborough ), . teon . 2
'! eenserle . ticeen, iy|, -, > tlechen: || .
; . . - zikkin; . . . Zicke
seria; ( t Ziege ]
. ., , ltd i-. :>tid"; TIDE f: . ,
) , , ; . ,
teon . 2 (. . teah, . , , , ;
. 2- jc-tojen) tec/ (. . ; .
teigh, . tuwen, . 2- v-towe/i): , ;
(.) , , ; || . Zcit (. zlt), . U0,
(.) , . ( ]: tlma
) || . ziehen, . tiuhan, tTdnn, j c > tiden; TIDE: ,
, ] || . ducere , , . be-tiden;
. dux ]: *> to^ian . BETIDEf : lid
(> TOW . ), team - tij . ( . . -es;
., tyjan . 1, . togge/i . (> . .) > -ty; -
TUG . , ( e '1'WENTY :, . , twen-

266
tis, t>r!lil, (Sowertis, fiftij): < . *tls- . . (< *dek'm + ti-); .
/tcj- 7 -. || n. -zlg (. deccm, . ddka, . ddga): -tij
-zeg, |u|), . togr, |i|, |e|, -. (. tlpet, ie|, :, TIPPET: ca. ,
tigir), . tigus -. (. tigjus)] || . ; ;
. dekas (dekad-, . ; . ; ;
)]: tyn . . tappet, |d, -. ,
tysau, tl|, ( tlc|), t5l, 1> tyen, teyen; ; (. . tapicer); .
TIE: . , , . tipper . .
; ca. . || . ; > TIP ? . (. typpa
teygja , ]: tson . toppr . . , ,
. 2 || . top -. >
III (.) . (+ dm.) s til . , )]
; TILL: . , ; . . , tir -. , , || .
( . , to); Zler , . tlrr]
, ; . . ; tyrjan, ti|, te|, . I (.) > terie/i, (x
: . (. til . + .) .) tarie/i (. .); TARRY:
|| . til -, { ill . . , ;
, , ), ; . , ;
. Ziel (. zil), . til -. ; , ; .
( (ga)-lils . , || . tcrgcn
, ); . . tilian .]. , . . zergen
. until . ; UNTIL: . ]: . larger (
, ; ; . ; : U11- < . targen ) < . .
7 . *und (. . unto) tardicare . tardare .
tilian . 2> tile; TILL: . tardus .
( -.); ; , (tis = 'tis = it is; . da. hit wesan)
; ; ; (lithe ., . . teoda , )
. , , (Tfllan (< ti3fl|) . 2 ? titliew: ,
; ; . , : lid (< *ti30u) <-. ,
|| . zielen , ? tij-/tTh-
(. zllon ( -.)), . ; teon (< *tTlidn) . 1
(ga)-tilon ]; til (. tah, . tljon) ,
Inna -. > tyme; TIME: ; || || . (ver)-zeihen ()-
. t(mi, . timme ]: tid (. zlhan ), . tcihan
( (<; ttcj), te|, . I > t<>mcn; TEEM; , ; . . tja
. , , ; . , tiginn . (< .
. , , ; . 2-) ,
. . , ; ] || . dicere ,
/; < (. Jndlcflre
, ; . . )]; (. . tithe .)
/; (to ., . . twe^en)
, : team to . , (+ ./:, +
llmbrun . 1 Cimbrian . 2> tymbrcn1 .) > to ., . , (+
, ; || .); 1. .; 2. .,
, zimbreil zimbron, . timbra . . (+ .): . .
. 2, . timrjan]: timbor, |, -. , , ; (+
(> TIMBER ) || . .) ; ; , ,
Zimmer (. -mann (), ; + .
), . timbf] || . . ddmoin . ( ),
] tam ; , ; (); . .
(tymc . = . lima) , ; (+ .) ;
tyn (< |!|), || (.), . ~, . , , ; ; (. /ie-
. > te n , tene; TlN: || , , . . .); . I. ,
zehn (. zchan), . t(u, . taihunj || , ; 2, , (. -

267
) 11. to, te, . zu (. zuo, zo, toil/ . //; TOIL: . (.) ,
ze, zi)] || . ); ( . du ) ; (.) ,
t e - . (1) (.) = to . : . toillier (.)
. , ., toiler
(- . (2) (.) > to-: , (.) ,
, , ( t6-brecan , ? . tudiculare
. > tobrcken ; . ;
. tO-dffilan, . to-toillen; . (tonge, |ue, . =. tunse)
. to-twicchen . twiccian) || . tormenten . //; TORMENT:
zer- ( zerbreclien . )]: : . tormenter torment
? = - . (.) ( . ( TORMENT .
-.) ( tor-eyre . ) . tormcntum ,
; . ) ||
. tor-, . tuz-] (tornen . = . turnian)
(took, toke, ., . . tacan) to-sanine . > tosamne, |so|, |su|,
(token . = . tacen) tosamen: || . zusammeii];
to-cyroe i-. > tocume, tocome: , s. ~ sdman . (. samnian .)
; . (to-slitan, . slltan)
to-diil -, , , - TOOT . : ?
; : d, -. . ? . tutcn
(> DOLE , ) >dSl i-. to-toll/en .
to-daelan . 1 (. .) > to-delen: ,
, (), (to-twlht . 2-, . . twiccian)
(), (); tofl .-. lootli; TOOTH: || .
) || . zerteilenj: . t6-dal Zahn (, zand), . -tannr (.
? s todde .; TOD (.): . . ;
, ; .-.) || . . tunpus -.]
(, ); . . ; ? < || . odoiis (odont-; . .
. *todde -., ( *| -.) || . , .
Zottc . , ; . ucji. toddi ); . . dens (< 'dents; ,
; , ? .] , .); ? . .
(todelen . = . tij-dSlan) (
to-iaean . . (+ .) > teke/i: ?)]. (, .-.
, ; . = . . *dont-/dtjt-
. *ed- , : . ctan;
to-faran . 6 (.) > tofaren: . sod .)
, touclien . II; TOUCH: ;
, , : . tochier <
to-fornn (? . ) . (+ dm.) >tofo , . toccarc
ren, toforn, . .; tofore; . (toun . . tQn)
, , ; . . . to-weard . > toward; TOWARD f:
, ; . , || . ,
. zuvor . ]: . - ; , ; .
fofan . ,
t f i - j a i d e r e , |dre, jed|, . > ; , ;
gadere, to g e d e re , |gidrc;
TOGETHER: ; . .
: - j . m saderlan, e a l to - ; ;
S a sd e re > iil-tegdere\ a lto g e d e r e 2, || . zuowart]
.; ALTOGETHER: , to-weard (< ./.), -es (<.), .
. (+ ./.) toward, ~es;
toil .; toyle, TOIL: ca. , TOWARD, ( ) ~S, .: .
, ; ; . . ; , ; . .
. : toil/e/i .; . , : to-weard
. toy! . , .

268
trag^die :, TRAGEDY: ca. (treothe . = . tryw)
, ; . treow wo-c. > tre, tree; TREE: . .
: . tra g e d ie , . tra g o e d ia , , ; .
. tr a g o id fa ; || . 1, . trill, . triwa] .
* . *dcrwo-, |
* TRAGICAL . TRAGIC . treowe . (> ~) = trywe
, : . ira- treowflw . (s treow|j, ~) = trywf>H
gique, . tragicus ( .), . trcsoun, treisun2, trai|, |on, .; TREA
tra g ik o s ; SON: . . ,
trayii, - , .\ TRAIN: . ; , ,
; ? , ; . , ; . . ,
; ; ; . tram : . tresoun
. ; inline . (.), tralson, < , traditio,
, , trainer . . lionem, , ;
( TR A IN . , , , ( TRA
, ) = . . DITION , , ? -
trahinare2 . . ~ .)
irahere . tresour, |', ( . -);
translaeionn, |ion, ,; TRANSLA TREASURE: . , ;
TION: ; , . : . trcsor <
: . translation, . . thesaurus, . |, . thesa
Iranslfttio, . |i6nem, urus ,
, tra n s la tu s . . (treuthe . = . tryw)
transferre ( TRANSFER . (trewc . = . trSwe)
, ) iryew, |ie|, . II; TRY: , ;
translated . II; TRANSLATE: . ; . ,
; , : . trier ,
; . , :
. tra n sla to r, . . t r a m l l t l - trywan (< trie|), trSo|, . I treowian
\ . tr a n s la tio n , . trails- . 2, (+ ./.) > trewen, Irowc/i;
latio; (. . trartslacio u n ) TROW (,) f : . ,
trneppe, ||, .-. s trappe; TRAP: ; ; ; .
, || . trappe, , ; ,
. trappa , ; , , ; .
. ] , || . triuwen . /, .
(tropically, ? , tryggia . I ,
trop|; ? ]: tnlwian . 2 || .
tropically , truon, truoiaii, . traucn (. trOcn,
trap |iwc, . J), , tnla, . trauan .
; , 3]: = trywe . treow -.
, -, .. || . treuwa, , triggwa]
XVII .) trywe, |Tt, (< ||), ||, . > trewe, true;
(ravail/, |vci|, jve|, . ; !- TRA TRUE: . . ,
VAIL; 2, TRAVEL: , . (.) , , ;
, ; (,) . , || . treu
, ; (. (gi)-lriuwi), . tryf^r,
; . . 1. . triggws]; trywan, tryw^v
; 2. ; trywflu (< le|), treow3, -. treuthe1,
: . tiow th1, trowthe; I. TRUTH;
tr a v a illc r < . . *trepaliare 2. TROTH [||] ( PLIGHT ONES
* . trcpalitim . TROTH
( trc , tr e e , . = . trS o w) ): . . ; ; .
(treason . & . tresoun) 1, ; 2, (. ) ||
(trcls, ., ., . . tr e o w) . tryggO ]; trywe

269
trompelte .; TRUMPET: tOna/touna; ,
(. ): . trom-
pette trompe . , ( tiirnian . 2 tyrnan . 1 > turnon,
TRUMP f ); ? tou|, te|, ( .); TURN: .
, (. , . traba) ; . . ,
trope .; TROPE: (.); , ,
. (, . tropus . : . . tornare
trdipos , , , , (
TROPICAL . I) ), (> . turner, to|,
), . tormis .
trouble/!, tru|2, . //; TROUBLE: . . tbrnos
, , ;
. : . trubler, twejen, . twii, . tu, twa, , (.
tro|, truble, }, . ( ; dm. twam, |*|, . twfja >
TROUBLE . ) |, |) > tweycn, tweyne, |), two,
. turbula tlirba , to; TWAIN f *, TWO: . ; til swa
( trouthe . s tryw5) (+ /1.), ; ca. . || .
(trowble , = . troubles) zwei (. zwcne, . zwa, |, . zwei);
(trowcn ., . . trywan) . . tvelr, , tv , . jau, |rt, .
(trow|)c . = . trywS) twai, . |6s, . |] || . . , . |;
(tru, -, . - . trywe) . duo]
Irusti ,; TRUST: : tra- twelf, . -, . twelf, twelve;
. (.) traust . , , TWELVE: |j . zwolf
jj . Trost , (. s;weliF), . tolf, , twalif]:
. trausti jo-.); . . truw -., ~ twa- (. twgjen)
-. , , treow - twen-tij , >twenty; TWENTY;
. . (. . trywe [j . zwanzig; , , tuttugu,
trywan] . twai tigjus]: twen- = twejen
trnsten1. //; TRUST: : twiccian . 2 '"twlcean . I > twlkken
trust . . (. treysta , 1 1| . II twicche/i2 . I (. twi-
. trosten . ] traust ghte); 1. TWEAK (. twick);
.) 2. TW ITCH: . , ;
(til, -t/-d, = . ]) ca. , , ;
10 ., . twesen . 1, ; 2. ,
tOn -. > to tin; TOWN: . . || . zwicketi , ].
; ; to- + twiccan > totwicchen . I
; , ; . (. |ighte): ,
|| . Zaun (. zfln), . (twijes ., . , twiwa)
tun ; ] ? ]] twlncllpn , 2 > twynklefl; TWINKLE:
, (.) dun , : . . twynke/i
, (. of-dQne)]; (. . , )| . (
, ? ,) ) zwlnken ]
tunje -. > tonge, ||; TONGUE: twlwft, tu|, |ja, . > ( . -s)
|| . Zunge, . tunga, . tuggo] || . twines1, twyes; TWICE: :
, ditnjua ( . linguere ) twejcn
> . lingua (. . 7 *- (two, -e, ,, . da. twejen)
e liu-ko-,
?)] P ( ) T H
(iiii-jtj-rfa -. > TOWN-REEVE
(. ) |>a , ., . se
tuugol -,/. |] . zungnl, , (th|) . ii > bo, tho: ;
fungi , , tuggl . ] , ; ]> , ; ]>*
tun-scipe 1-. >*tuunshipe; TOWNSHIP: hfi ]),, fifl,,, ,,,,
, , ; ..,; ba 3yt , || . tlia, .

270
bal: p;c- . , , (, |ia . . ., |& ./. . .,
se); (. ijanne, |)4nan, b&r) (> bare), . sc
(Hi, (liaym, . ., . ca. they) litxr-ffifter . > theruftcr, |cft|; THERE-
(jjair . . = ca, peire) AFIER: , t
|n|, ./. dm. ., , se
(1). ., . . they) |>r-t . > theral; THEREAT t:
([inn ./. . . ./, . = . , ; ; (. )
pirn, ||; , . sc) |>-, -b ij, -bie, . therby;
()?, = -1)011, -) THEREBY: ;
(ban, th|, . , . . baunc)
1), |, |, . ( ) > 1>- (|) . = . ; . )
nene', bannc", ||, ( = . h*r-in, -inne, . >theriune; THERE
beenne) Isenne'", ( . -s) thnn- IN t: . , ; ,
nes, thcnncs; THENCE: . ca. ..; , , ; ,
/; ; .., ; . , ; ,
; . , || . dannen . ,\
(. danan, danana)J: . [nr-of . > therof, |=; THEREOF t;
. . (. Stl); (. ] , ..-, (. J>sr)
hwflnan) 1> . > thcrto; THERETO t:
lianc -. > thank, thoilk; (THANK-), , , ,
. THANKS: . , ; ,
, ; -ut, -Lite, . > theroute; THERE
; (. +) [ OUT t: . . ; .
; . ; ; . , , .
|| . Dank |>iSr-wid . > thcrwith ( mid);
, . fipkk . THEREWITH f: . ,
, . J)agk ): ~ ; (? ) ,
) ; , ; .
-1 -./. > /-thank: , . , ; ,
|| . gidank; . coop. . Gedankc]
pnclan . 2> thanke/i, tho|; THANK: lias . (> ~), . frcs
|| . dankeii, . - Jjaes . . ./. ( ,
]: 1 .), CM. S6
, ( ||), (isnne, . |jast (< ./. .; . se .)
> (tiun/ic, thenne; 1. THAN; 2. tiiEtte (< |3a;t-jDe) > bat, ||, that;
THEN: . . ; ; . . THAT: . , , ,
, ; ( .) ; , ; . , , ,
1. ; 2, || . dann , ; ( .
denn (), (. danne, , .,
||); . . [, . | ] : >| . when that , if that ); .
jjanan, |jr: *- - . ,
. (. ) \ixt, . (> ~, bat, that), . . se
1>, ||, [, . > ), ||, liastte , . bait
thcr0; THERE: . . ; ; [> 1 . 2. ./. (> the, |), . t>u
(+ .) s (/i. + . . . (fie, the, = THE, . . sS , .)
. .), ,, t>icr-of |)5 , , . > be ( be
/ ., (. . ., .
)', . || . da (. dar; . .; . . sc): , , ( .
. darin ; , dar-inne), . par, s, seo ,
, bar). br + for, ~es > b&r-fore1, . ,, S5 be ,
therfore; 1. THEREFOR t; 2. THERE , ..; ,,
FORE: . 1. ; 2. , -
, be ... );
flmr . , = . beirt) ; ; ; ( . .,

271
; THINK: . , ,
, ; . , ;
.) || <?. fei]: |>- . . . || . denken , .
. fckkja , , .
feah, ||, > fci/, ( .) fauA, fa*, fagkjan]; f3nc
||, rhoiigh, ||, tliow; THOUGH: (fene ./. . . - . fone; .
, ; , . s)
, -, || . docli, (tlienne . , . . frinne)
. fa (. < *t>oh < *t)auh), . t>auh feod -. > fe d E: , ;
, , ]. ear + J^eah ( / ( .
.) > al-though ..', ALTHOUGH: /) || . diota, ||, .
, ; fjdO, . fiuda]
feoitan (.), fydan (
fearle . , : fearl ), . 1 , ,
. || . ]>$0, ~sk .
(thef, ||, . = feof) , , . fiu-
fesn, |jen, fen, -. > Iheyn; THANE: fjan ( fiuf -.
. () , , )]
; ; 5e-|iEodeyo-c. , : feod (.
; * ; . . (.) . . )
(, feoden -. , ,
', ) |[ , || . thiodan,
. Degen (< ; . degan . fjoflaiin (? .), , fiudans]:
, . .), . Jacgn] feod
they (^1, theih), fai (, . feof -. > theef; THIEF: . ,
.), . 3 . ( (, . ; . . || . Dieb,
f e jjm 1, fe/'m, faim, ||, . . . fjofr, . tjuv, . f lufs, |b-]
., . .', . feon", |, . 1/3 (. . fall
hem < . heom, . hy); THEY feah, . fijon, . 2- fijen, fo|;
(. THEM, (hem >) EM): je-funjen > .) > thee/i (. .
: . (. feir, dm. feim) || , thc'gh, . thowen, . 2- ~); thee:
fa, dm. Ik'wti, (. se)] \\pyc. <)]). / ; ,
. fe/m-selve, |, . . || . gedeihen (, dT-
.-, THEMSELVES: , - han), . feihan , /; . . ge-then-
(. . hemselvew, . . hy; gian . ]
u hymself, . ; sclvc, ~, . feos . , (> ~), . feos-,
. self) |ss- + , . f es
(|> = . feah) feowian , 2 (+ dm.) > feowe/r
(theih . * . they) ( /): fco"'
beirt', baire (1), ||, ||, (., wo . , || . deo, |io, .
. . . .) (+ *s: fewaz, . fius, fiw-]
. .) fcires, fail, (fer ./. ./. . . ., .
(. .), . , ( faro, ,)', . $)
THEIR THEIRS: : . (. (ther . = . fa r)
feira, |rr|, . feir, (. . they) || (ferby . = . [iffir-hT)
. faro . fa (. se)]) (fere ./., . . s)
(thelf a the elf; . . ylO (fere, tli|, . = , fair)
(them, selves, . ca. they) (there . - . feire)
fern, ., , s6 (thereat . = . fffir-ajt)
fen . = fejn (therefor ., . . far)
then . , . . fftnne (ferefter . = . fiCr-ii'fier)
feucan . (, fohtc, . 2-- (therein /??*/, = . f*r-in', -inne)
foht) thenehen, theuken, thynltcrt, (ferfore, th|, ., . . fffcr)
(. thought, , 2- ^-thought); (ther in; therinnes = da. fr-in, -inne)
(thcr-outc . = . (-flte) ( METH1NKS, METHOUCHT;
tierscan, t>resc|, . 3 > tliresshen (. , ): . .
2-e throsshen); THRESH, THRASH, , ; , ,
.: , , || || . dilnken, .
. d resc h en ., . t>resRja, |i|, byklya . ., . Jjugkjan .
., , Jiriskan .] .. ., bencan .
(Jier-to, therto, . - . br-to) (thynken, thinker, , = . fiencan)
(herwith . - . bffir-wia) Jimen (< bisnj) -. :
|es, . |teos, . bis, . . (. jiinj -. > thyng; THING: . ,
, ., bis-, biss-; . ./. b5s; , ; () ,
. , ) =>t>es, |ic|, ||, ; . ; , ; ,
|ue|, |i|, , t>eos, |ue|, |e|, |a|. c. bis ./ || . Ding , , Jjing
./. (. .) bis1(), this, , , ; . , stor
(. ./. bos', fres', ||, tils' ting (, ),
..\ dm. . J>isje, -re', , ]
. 11501350 :, thes, je-jjinje jo-c. , || , gi-
~, bise); 1. THIS (. THESE); dingi]: binj
2. THOSE (< . >os . tho , . [tToden . = teoden
that, + -s; . . se): . . (third? . - . bridda)
, , ; . I. , , |yrs 1-.
2. || . dies(er) (. dese, ||, (thirteen? = da. fireo-tyne)
. bessi]: . , . (thirty uucji. = da. brl-tij)
be- (/bie-, . se, hi, . lie) + . j)is . . (> this) II bis-, |SS-, +
-si (. . . . . sa-si, , . (> thise,
ban-si .) |y|), CM. b&
(bestrien . = . Jjystrian) bJstrian, |, . 2 > bistren, thestre/
[let (.), b*t, 1. ./. (> : bystre (< ble|), beo|, .
bet), . s; 2. (> t>et) = bt , || . thiustri, .
(theevcs, thevys, . ., . . t>eof) diister]
|>, JiT, (< , .; . ss .) > |ii, ( ./., . . sc)
thy: ; ; (by + (1>, tho, . = . t>a)
, , . se; t>y Ifis . (Ihogh , . . beah)
. Iss) (thoght , = . l>oht)
|>! . > thlkke; THICK: ; ])5ht -~, -. > jiojt, thought, ||;
|| . dick, . ]. THOUGHT: . . ,
THICK .-, , . ; , ; . || . gidaht
; . . /-,]; bcnean
|)11 , 2 > thlkkcn; thick, ( . [lohte ., . .
-) THICKEN; - bolian . 2 > thole*; thole (.
// . -); (.) ,
[Hiler, b^l, . s thider, |ir; THITHER , ; (.)
['didal f: . , , , || . dolon,
; ; . . . bola; . . bulan . 3, , ,
; : be- (/1-> . , + . dulden]
hi-, . hider, lie) ( . brct, . sc)
(thies , ,, . . t>cs) . =
(ihilke = the ilke; . . si ilea) (:bonk) . = bftne
|)1. . >tliyn; THINE, THY, f *1 1> ./. . ., . se
; . mln |[ . dein bonne banne
(. din), . binn, t, bfiins]: <*pd, (thonelie = the onelie, . . se an-ffc)
borfte ., . burfan
, bi|, , (, .-, . (ihorow-uute ./. * . purh-
btihte) > thynkcH (npoiu. boughte); ( ) )
, -THINKS, . -THOUGHT, (l)ose, th|, ., . . Jjes)

10 273
(tliou , = . bu) ; ] . ], . (-
(though, thouli, , . . Jjeah) 1 . /
(th o w g h te . - . f>oht) (thrise, . . t>riwa)
(liowsand = . (jusend) |irist-liydij (< -hy3d|) . *-
lined . >threcd; THREAD: , , , : |ir.
|| . Draht |; prawan. . , , :
|t. + beer . > thridhar .; -. . (jc)-hyjd
T H R E A D B A R E : , (thrlsilll ., . . prostle)
: b. (> BA R E , |n-lij, |itt|, . > thrifty, J>irty; THIR
, ) || . bar; . TY: II . drciiiig, . brir
. ] tigir, . *]3reis tigjus]
lirawan . 7 > throwcn; THROW: . [iriwa, |ga, . >
, , prie, (x . -s) thryes; THRICE:
, ; . : brl
, ; . || . prostle -. > Jsrostel, (x da. jjrysce)
drehcn (. draen . /)]: thriistel, |sshil, thristil; THROSTLE *:
hr^d. ofer + I*. > over-Jjrowen; || . Drossel]: <*. firy-
OVERTHROW: . , sce ljn -., THRUSH
, ; . (through = da. purh)
, (thrown = da. prawan)
(lire, thrc, |, . . ^>) (liruiiiiuen ., . da. prym .)
l>reat -. > bfat, |>ret; THREAT [Qret]: -flu . d-. > -the ( gh
. , , , ; -te); -TH LENGTH <da. lenjau
. , ; . || . < *11; HEIGHT < da. hyhflu <
. hram 1.] || . . ]. *>- hle| "healiidu) || . -ida ( hohida
tan . , ), . -0, -d, ( ), . -
(thrcdlwr ., . brfcd) iba (hauhlpa ) || . - (
|>, . ! ), . -tu- -ta-s, . -ta-tis (veritas,
Jirfo-tyne (< -tTe|), -tej, . brettene, , veritatis, )]
thrittene; THIRTEEN: |j |>0 . 2 . (. , ]6; . ; .
. dreizehn, . br&tdn] pin) > thow (. thee); THOU
(thresshcn . - . pcrscan) [] t * (. THEE): || .
jirl, ]iry (< |Te), ./. |), . (dm. du (. dich, dm. dir), . [ (bik,
prim, . Jireora) > thre; THREE; b<Sr), . ]) (t>uk, bus)]
|| . drei (. drl), . brir, . |iuhtc . (> ~), . da. pynean
prjar, . firju, (dm. primr), . *]>reis, c. |> -. > [)umeJ, bumbe', thouibe;
brija, (. . Jirins, dm. f>rim)J || pyc. THUMB: || .
, . trSs (< trejes), . trdies] Danmcn (. dflmo), . tumme]
(thrice, . da. a. briwa) Se-|iurijeii . (< . 2-)
[iridda . . (.) > pride, th rid - , ; ,
d e , thirdc; THIRD: || . , : peon .
dritte, . ])ridi, . ]nidja] || . |>urfan .-. (. . t>earf,
, . tertius]: pri bearft, [)earf, . , . bor-
th rift :, THRIFT: ca. fte, . , purfe, ||) > ( ) ,
, ; . . thar/, . thurven, thuru, .
, : . (. thur/ic ( .): ,
prift prifa . /); . THRIVE , ,
. , . || . diirfen , ,
(. (irifa, , -sk, (. durfan ,
, ) ), . purfa, . Jmirban (, ,
(mm ., . , ]>arf, /. baurbum)]
i-. > l>rum: , , (1>ur j . purh)
; , ; 88 || |>urh, |ruh, . . (+ .,
. brymr , , + ./.) > thurgh, ||; |ou|, thonigh.

274
|ough, |ow, tlirug/i, |ou|; I. THROUGH (uuerse, werse, . .,
(thorough; THOROUGH-, -FARE . . wyrsa wyrs)
, ; ) ufan . , , ||
. :, 2. THOROUGH : . oben, . ofan]
. , ; ; ufe-weard . ,
; ( .) ; , ,
. I. , , , (-.); tct -urn (+ .)
-; , (-.) ufan +
; 2. , || . wcard .
durch; . , pairh] vgly, u|, . > UGLY: .
|iurh-brecan . 4 , , ; .
|)urli-QI . . (+ .) > (liurgli- : , (. uggligr
out', thorow| . ().; THROUGHOUT: )
. ; ; . uuldur-fadur, wuldur-f., t . .;
, , ; , . wuldor-fa:der
, ; . (umwilie ., . . hwll)
, ; , un- . (I) > un-; UN- .
.;
|)us . > thus; THUS; . , U N KN O W N ,
; . . || U N K IN D , U N JU ST
., . thus, . tlus] ..; .
|)Qsend . . . > pusend, |nt,
thousand; THOUSAND: || || . un-; . 6-, -, , un-]
. tausend ( . , ]| . ill- indiflerens
. dusent, junt), . |)tlsund, . - ( ) .,
sundi Ja-.) || . < *tusen- . -, -, dmorphos
tja)] ( . ),
thwert ., thwart . ., anonumos ( .
THWART , t i ~ .: . . ) .:
. , , tin-, 0-, . (2) > -; UN- (
(, )', . ; . ,
. . ; ; ., UNDO
; . (.) ; ,
( ); - , ) || .
: . (, |)vert = . |>verr und-]: and- . And
. , ) [| . .-. (. . , .
pweorli . , unnon, . fide, , 2- --
, , . (jwairhs ) > (. . an, , .
, ]. t>wertut', , . 2-f -): .
thwertout, . ; , , ; . -
( THWART . , || . (g)-onncn (. (gi)-un-
) ), . )
un-be-bobt . .
U , : -

uard, ward, . - weard unc . (> ~), . wit
(uuaren, uuaer|, wrcren, . un-je-cynde . > unkyndc; UNKIND;
., , . wesan) . , ; .
(uuenden, wenden, . ., , ;
. , wSnan) , ; . .
uerc, were, , = wcorc unjecunde + -nes ja-. > unkyndc-
(uucrre, werre, ., .) nesse; UN KIN DN ESS;
(uueron, weren, . ., . un-Se-cyiide-Ire . > unkyndlich, un-
, wesan) kyndely; U N K IN D L Y : . -

275
, , ; (unfruiefut, |fritif|, ., . . un- (I)
. ; ca. l'ruit)
, ; . un--. ,
(tirikymlnes ., . . un-(3e)-cynde .,
.) ,
un je-tnawen . 2-/. > - . -,
wen; UNKNOWN; un .
der . . (+ /.) > un
der, |; UNDER: . . . (, , un-jc-sccapen
, , ; /i. , ; ,
. . , ; . || /io unsceapen)
. unter, . utidir, . undar] (ungrave/i , ;
undcr-be-siniiuii . 3 , . . un- (1) i/^rafan)
(unhappy . = . . un- (1) + .
under-fim . 7 (. -finj, . 2- happy)
-fan^eri) > under-, under-fonge/i, un-se-hyrsum, -hl|, (< -hle|), .
|ang|: , , , : -h, hy-
under- jytan, -ji|, (< -jie|) . 5> undcry- ran; (. -slim <// )
iiew: , , UNITE . ),
: - j. . ): . Unit-, umtus
, .; . b e--, for--; . . . Quire
. get/l unyversitee UNIVERSITY: .
imder-nlman . 4 > undernynie/i: , ; .
, , ; : . university <
; . universitas, . |tatem
tmder-standnn . 6 (. -stod) ;> *
understonden, (andj; UNDERSTAND un-nut' . ,
(. . 2- |OOD): . . || . unntitz]: un- (I) + .
; , ; , , || . nfltze, .
nuts]: nSotan (. neat)
under-take1 . 6\ UNDERTAKE: (unjoin! ., . . un- (2) . joynt
. ; , . .)
, (unjust . . . un- (I) + , just
un-dyriK' (< -die|), -dej, . , .)
, : d, . un-je-lfc ., un-jc-ltee: un- (1) + je-
, || . tarnl] Itc
(undoii . ., , . (unpaied . .
don) . un- (1) . .)
uundra, wundra, . ., . (unprudeul . = . . un- (1) + .
mmdor prudent)
- . . :> unethe, unn|; (unpunished . .,
uneath: . , ; . . un- (1) , punysslten .)
. , un- -. :
rim
un-fnflc ifc . , , un-rjpe . * unripe, UNRIPE-
: un- (1)
(unnecessary . = . . un- (1) + (unrung = unwrung .
. necessarie) .; . . un- (!) wrinjan .)
(nnnc|)e, |(he, . . -. un-) un jc-sceapen . .
un-eOe-lie s un-iacte- >unshapen, unsch|i .: . -
un-fealdan, cjih. 7> unfoldew; UN , ; .
FOLD: || . entfal- , ;
ten]: un- (2) , :
un-frid - , un- (I) sc, . 2^ scyppan

276
(unshaken1 *. ., . sar]: ( user) . . ,
. un- ) //.) (. ), . + self . ., selfe ,
un-tellend-lt . ? untellendlich: ., sclfum , ed./., > ourcself,
; . (I); t.- . 1- |lve, |lven, . . .; OUR
tellan SELVES; () ; , -
(until /1. '. . til .) (uurecce, wrecce, . .,
* > unto, |, /?(>,; UNTO 1" > - . . wrecca)
; . .), || . us , ./. (=-), . we
unto]: = *im d || r)c. irnd, . und, usage .-, USAGE: ,
, ] +to ; . usage: us .
un-wealt . ; un- (I) u w. (. , usc)
. ,1 use (us2) .; USE: ,
un-willcnds npm > uiiwillynge; UN , : . us <
W ILLING; da, , . usus, . |, nti ,
; ; ca. .
, ; un- (I); w. u se n . II; USE: ;
- 1- wi||an ( .):
un-wrTtere J a -. , . user < . . fisarc ,
111|; un- (I): w. (> flsus (. . us5)
WRITEK ) writan usses . . ,/. user; . .
(unwrong . ., . usurer1 .; USURER: :
. un- (1) wrjnjan .) . usurer (.), |ier, usure
(uuolde, *!0(,^, ,, . . . <
willan) . Osura ;
up, upp. (I) I/ 2. ti|pet . > up, , , ; ~ Gsus (. . us5)
upe; UP'- da. I.miepx; 2. ; ca. usurpen . II; USURP;
. , ; 1. II , auf : . usurper < . Usur-
(. u f), .; . . uf), 2. || .
fiffe, iifc , , . uppi]; flt ( 1 ) . 2. n t a n 3. ute, . > o u t,
(. UPPOn) out , oute; OUT: . 1. ,
( , = <VBppon) ; 2, , ; 3. ,
Op-lendisc . >(* .) uplondissh, ; . . ; , ;
|and|; upinndisltdrt, 1, || . aus (. 07;), . it, . ut] ||
, ;w. . . . . - (< *ud-,
, , -d- w- : .
, : upland *Udh- . ()) ||
- . Od(er) > IJDDER ); .
, |, ./.) > , , . ud-]; 2. || . (.
( .) uppo,(XoiO , upon; ^), . , , utana]; 3. || .
UPON; || , |cn]: up; . uti, . uta]
(- _ uppjde, upp] + I , on]) n t-a -ja n . . ,
(, 4*jfl
Qtan, |, ., . Ut
, - ute ., . flt
; ., . i i t e r a , |rra, uttra, . . > o u te r ,
worn .) u t t e r ; 1. OUTER; 2. UTTER: . a.
> up-risefl . (UPRISE (. . , , ;
2- u p ry s t , . . . 1. , ;
U PRISEN ); (: = . + 2. , : ut.
risan ( .) outren . II; UTTER: .
up-so-doun : = . ; ; . .
+ swa + diii || . auDeni]: . ,
(U user) . (. . ) > iitian . 2 , ,
oure; O^jR; | . unser, . - (> . outen): . outrer .

277
, ; (, . out- . : . verai (.
rauncc) vrai) . verus || .
titer-mere i-. : . = iitor . , , . wahr, . w&r
Qtc=weard . > outward; OUTWARD: ]
, , ; (verely . = . verraiiy; . , verray
( -.); . . , .)
(verse ., . . Tars)
otor, |, . (. ut) (verst, . =. fyrst .)
, vcrtu2 .; VIRTUE: . ,
ut-ridan . / > <jutritie/; OUTRIDE: da, , , ; .
. , ( , , :
)', . , . vertu < . virtus, . |utem,
, . outrider? .; OUT
RIDER: . (, vexe . II; VEX: ,
); . : . vexer <. vexare
( ) vlage ,, ( .) VOYAGE: .
nd-witn -. , ; 03- || . ( ); .
- un[5a-t)liuhan ]: ( ): ,
. viage', || (voiage"), < . . via
ticum <. ~ / (
) via ,
(viali = . viole)
(vader, ., = . feeder) (vikkit . s . wikke, -d)
vnyn, vcyn, .; VAIN: , vlglle3, lie, .; VIGIL:
: . vain <. va- ; ; . <.
nus ,
vigilia
---- VALIDITY , village .; VILLAG E: ,
: . validlti, . validi- : . village . <. villa-
tas, . |tatcm, validus , ticu s . villa
( VALID villa ,
, ; , ; (vilanie = . vileynye)
. . valide; . . . IN vileynye, ||, .; VILLAINY: .
VALID, . .) va- , ; . :
1 . (. . . v ile in ie, ||, . v ilein ,
wealdan) |ain, . . , ;
varien . II; VARV: (): ; ; , (
. varier < . variare va- V IL L A IN ), < . .
rius , ( VARIOUS * villanus , ,
) . villa (. ,
vavasour .; VAVASOR, |SS|: (.) village)
(, (vyfl, ., . =. winnan)
(vyntir, , s , winter)
, , ..): (vynlirtyd = . wiiiter-tld)
. vavasour ? < . . vassus viole .; VIAL (x . .)
vassorurn * PHIAL: , ,
vcvne .; VEIN: , ( : . viole, fiole, < .
); ; . veine < . . pliiala .
vina ( . ) phial
vnerie .; VENERY ]: : = violence .; VIOLENCE: ,
. venerie vener . , : . v io
<. vSnari lence <. violeiitia
verray, ||> |, ., VERY . violent .; VIOLENT: ,
.: . , , , ;
; , , , ; . violent, , vjolentas

278
(vithi, ., with, with, = . . wadi , . wed1jo-c. ~
wid) . weddian
voidc .\ VOID: , wage/i \. ; WAGE: .
: . voide ., . , ; ; (
void, |t ), . (): . wager
(volvellen, . = . ful*-fyllan) (), gager (, .) .
(vor, . = . for) . (. . wage)
(voiil, ., . s , ful) was-holm -. * : h.
(vram, . = . Mm) , , ( . s , holmr -
) > HOLM
W waiter;, ||, . II; WAIT; . .
, , ,
wa . . . (+ dm.) > wo; WOE: ; . , ,
; ! || . Weh ., wch . : . , waitier =
(. . .), . vel ., , guaitier, , "wahtan (,
. wai .]; . wea . Wacht t , .
waean . 6 * (.) (1.) 2. wacian ) *wak- (. . wacan oweec-
. 2 (.) > waken; WAKE: . 1. )
; 2. , wifij o-c. (,
; , . , ); ; ||
1. || , wakan]; 2. || . . valr *. ( .)]
wakon, . wachen, . vaka]; (. wasl-feld -. *
wjcccan) je-waid . = je-weald
. 3 (. wacodc, wacian, wffil-reow . * :
. .) > wacchen (. wa- -. = hreoh . ,
cchedc); WATCH: . , || (. hrc]
, ; . . (Wahcli . - . Wylisc)
, || . wachen wffil-stow wa-. ,
(. waiihen)] wrecce . (>WATCH
. ; ) wacan wftn . ( ,; -
wacian . 2, . wacan .)
wffid, ||, -., wffide, ||, jo-c. > wede; , || . wnhn*,
weed, ( ) . WEEDS; . . . vanr, . wans], wan- + togen
, ; . . || (. 2- teon . 2,
. wat, . va6 , ] . .) wan-towen . (
wadan . 6 > waden; WADE: . . .); WANTON: , (
, , ); ;
, ; . wAndian . 2> wonden: ,
|| . waten, . ,
(. watan .), ; : windan
. vncWl || . vadere ] wfindriun . 2 > wandrtifi; WANDER:
wtej, || (., .), -. > weye; , || . wan-
WEY: . , dern]: wendan windan
(. SO); . . waiiian at6. 2> wanen; WANE: .
(100 150 ) || . ), ; ,
waga]; wcjan ; . . ,
wses, ||, -. , || || . wanon, , vana]; wan
. wag, . vagi, . wSgs]; wejan .
wage .; WAGE (. ~S): , wantc } .2; WANT: , .
, , ; . , ; .
; . wage , , ; .
(.), (, .; , , : .
GAGE ; ), (. vant, . vanr, . || . win]
< . . vadiuiii , (wantown. |, . . wan)

279
wsapn, |pen, o-c. > wepen (. wepne); . unria ? < *udna]: ~
WEAPON; || . WafTe (. w&tan
wSfan), . , . wepn] wa;tcr-leas . > waterless; WATER
wftpn-jc-wrixl o-c. ( LESS: || . wasserlos]
) : wr, *wrij-, . wavercn . II; WAVER: ,
wr'ijian , ( : ? . wa:fre .
W RY , ; W R IG G L E , ,
, . wrlg - , . vafra . ||
() || . . wriggeln, wriggen . waberen . ,
, , , vrigla] ]; < . +wafrian || .
wr . > war; WARE *: . .]
, , (weex ., . . weaxan)
; (-.)', (waxen , 2-, . . weaxan)
, , wK . I . (. usic, Qs, dm. us; .
, (-.); . user, , . . .) > we
, || . (. us); WE (, US):
varr, . wars]; (. -wtcr > AWARE: || wir (., dm. uns), . ver (., .
, || . ge- oss), . weis (., dm. uns/unsis)] || .
wahr]) , vay-am ( , ,
wfSran, |, . ., ware . *ns-, . . , . nos, .,
. 2 ., - . ., . , nas .)] wit
wesan wea, wawa, -. >wowe: , ,
(w a rn e n . = . wearnian) , || . wewo]: Wa
w ftro n . ., . wesan (weak, -, . . weik)
(w serse . . = . wyrsa . weadu (.) = wudu
wyrs .) (weal, - , - . weh)
w ar|) ., . wcordan weg!, ||, -. > w a i'; WALL: . (
ws . (> was), , wesan ) , ,
wsesc -. > w assh ; WASH: , - ; ; . .
(.) || . waska]:<* wascan : . vallum
w a s e a n , ||, . 6> w a s s h e n . 6/7; w caica n , ||, . 7 w alke/i; WALK: .
WASH: , || . was- ( ), ,
ehen (. waskan), . vaska] ; . , ,
(wash, ~, . . - . wxsc . ( . .), .
wascan .) , || . walken
wast . 2., . witan , . vrtlka ]
wastel-breed . ( -w cald , |wa|, -. , ||
); w. . ; . Gewall]: wealdan . 7
. waste! (.), gastel w oaldan, wn|, . 7 ,
(, ,) >coop, gAteau) , || . walten,
(wat , s . Iiwa;t) . valda , , waldan] ||
wfctan . 1 > wet (, wette); . , (.) ;
WET: , : w;6t , . valcre ,
. (> WET , ) || , , (. VALIDITY
v itrj: waiter , )]
(watchynge, . . wccan) w e a lli -. , ;
WEter -. >water; WATER: || . (.) , || . walah]:
Wasser; . . vatn . wato -,\ . vol-
. -- - (volcac, .,
. -- , . . .
. -r/n -j || , )
. . , , hudor (< "udor; Wealli-je-tera -, W ealh-ie-
. liiidatos < t udii-t-os; . . -. ?
-, a. HYDRO-, .); . : je-fera

280
, ; (? - , / ||
refa) . wetten ,
(wealth, ~, . , wela) , . veOja , .
(wear, ~, = . werian) (ga)-wadjOnj; (. . wage .)
weard -. (1.) 2. weard -. ward wej -. > wcy, way; WAY: . ,
ward6; WARD: 1, . . , ; ealne weg , ,
, ; 2, . ; . . , ||
, , , , Weg, , vegr, . wigs]: wejnn
, ; . wej (.) = wSj
, , , wesan , 5 > weyefi . S/. //;
, ; WEIGH: . , ,
; . ; ; , ; . . ,
; ()] || . wiigen
()] (. wegan), . vega ,
. 1.1| . Wart, , , , .
. vprdr, . (daura)-wards (ga)-wigan ; . . bcwegen
]; 2. || . Warte ] || . , . vehere
] ]: 7 wej, wffij -. w3 -.
-weard . . (. . ., , ., (wey . = . wej)
.] . -weardes) welk, ||, . ( .)] WEAK:
> -ward . ./. -WARD: : . , (. veikr || . wac
. ..., (> . wook), . weich
... || . -wart; . . -wert, . ]); . . . wiecan . 1 > .
-verdr, . -walrus]: weordan weken ,
-weardes . . (< . . ,) > (weye// . = . wesan)
-wardes, -WARDS . . (welll, ., < . we! = wel)
() . || . . -warts]: wel, w el, . (. bet, , belst) ?
-weard . . wel", w eel; WELL (. weel): da. U
wearnian, wa|, . 2> warnen; WARN: ca. , ; ; ;
. , . || . wohl (. welo,
; . , ||), . vel; . . waila]
, ; . w ela, ||, -. > wele; WEAL: . ,
, || . war- , ,
rien, . vama]; wasr ; . , ,
weaxan (< |hs|), we|, , 7> waxen, , , ; .
wexe, cm. 7/6] WAX: . , , ; (. wel),
; ca. . , , 1, wel- + -Ou . , > welde2,
, ; . w e lth e , .] WEALTH: .
. , || , wach- , ; , .
sen . 6, . vaxa 6, . wahsjan 61) 2. WEALTHY (. .
webba -. > webbe; : wefan . 5 - < , -ij)
(> WEAVE , ) || . we- (welkin ., . . wolcen)
ben, . vefa] (w elthy, . . wela)
(weed . . weed) w en i-. > w een: , ,
(weden ., . . wa;d) , , || .
weder -. :> weder, wether<3); WEA Wahii, . v;Sn, , wens]
THER: || , wedar, . wetar w en an , 1 (+ ./.) > w en e ; wene,
(. Wetter), . vcftr] || . . WEEN *: . , ,
( ), . vidnis, vydra ( ), , ,
] , ; . ,
Wederas -. . ( || . wahnen, , vrina, .
,''.) wenjanj: wen
weddian , 2 > wedden; WED: . . w endan . 1 (. .] , wen-
; ; Ue, . 2- wend) > w enden (.

281
wente, . 2-e went); WEND (t, ( . : *-vjt-);
WEND O NES . ., ,
WAY ; . . *()>>: .
WENT . , (-.,
GO , . . jan): . . (.) -.)', . eonvertere ,
, , ( CONVERT
, , ; ( , ); (. .
.) , ; . TURN
, || . wenden, dcvc. TURN PALE ,
venda, , wandjan]; windan )]
wende . (> wende), . , wenan weorflian, |u|, . 2 , ,
Wendlas -. . (. ', . . , , :
Vandlli, ~i, ., - weord
. , , weorSnes', ||, \\,]-. wortlinesse:
) , , ,
(wente, went, ., . . wendan) : weora; (, wyrSis)
weod -. > weed; WEED: - . , weoruld, = woruid,
, ; . wepan . 7 > wepen . . I (.
. || . wiod] . wepte); WEEP: .
weorc, ||, -. > werk, ||; WORK: . , ; . . || .
. , ; . |( wuofan, . , ,
. Werk (. werch), . verk] || . wopjan . I ,
. ergon < wergon (> energeia ]
, . , . wer . : . . vdr
ENERGY )]; (. . . wer -. > wer8: , ; <
wyrean) || . wer, . verr, . wair] ||. vir]
(weoren . ., . . wesan) (were, |rk, . = . weorc)
weorod, ||, -. wered: , werre1, warre, :, WAR: :
: we -. . werre (> guerre) .
weorpan . 3 werpen . 3, ( . werra ,
. 2) warpcn . //; WARP: . (weren . ., . , wesan)
, , wer|an . I (1) > were/ . II :,
; . , , WEAR (. WORE, . II
, ; . WORN): . ,
), || . werfen ( -.), ; . ,
; . slcli ~ , ( -.), ,
, ; . verpa || . werian, . werien, .
. ( varpa . 2), verja, . wasjan ] || . .
. wairpan ] veslis ( VEST
weorfl, |u|, . (1.), 2. wyr&e (< |ie|), t , )]
||, |u|, . ( J o - o c h . ) > w o r t h ~; werian , I (2) > weren: ,
WORTH: . , , (J . wehren, , verja, ,
; (+ ./. 2.) warjan]
, ; . werij . ? wery; WEARY:
, ; . | , || . . wuorag
. wert ( |rd), . verer, . wairbs] ]: worian
weorflan, wu|, . 5 > worthed; ( ) , (worse , . . wyrsa .
. WORTH ( WOE wyrs .)
WORTH THE DAY . (werse , - . wyrsian)
!): , , , (wes ., . . wesan)
, , wesan , 5 . (. . ,
; . ! (. ) || , eart, is, , siiit, |ndon, ,
werden, . verOa, . wairbi.ii] \\. enron, g|; . , wass ..\
veriere ; , - . waeron; . , ) >

282
(. . bcon; . . am, art, is, (whereby = da. liwSr, . ., + bt)
. ; . . was .., . WC- (whereof = da. hwrar, . ., + of)
); (. . , ART t *i IS, . (wher-lmrj = da. hweer, . ., +
ARE; . ed. W AS .., . Jnirh)
WERE): . ; (. . , (wherwith = da. hwair, . ., + wiO)
..) || . wezen, . wesan (whete . = da. hwsete)
(. was, wnrum, . war, wa- (whether , = da. hwseder)
ren), . vesa f , vera, . wisan, (whit, why = da. hwy)
(. 3 . . is, . ist, .. 1st; 3 (which, |y|, s da, hwile)
. . sind, . Sind; . . , (wh!l, ~e, ., . , . . hwll)
. em, est ext, es , 3 . eru; . (whilom = . hwilum . . hwTl)
. I . im)] || . . vasati whlrren, ]|, |u|, . II; WHIRR:
, (. 3 . . , f , ,
. est, . 6st, . dsti < *esti; (.)
. 1 . . t , . sum; (whistlen . - . hwistlian)
. Asmi < 'esmi; . 3 . . (whyt , = . hwlt)
< +sonti, . sunt; . sdnti (whole . = . hal)
*senti/sonti)] (wholsome ., . . hal)
Wes-seaxe = West-seaxe (whom, whose, ., . da. hw3)
west . (? . <-) > west, ~, (whoso, , . hwa)
., . :, WEST: (whott = hot . - . hat)
; ; . West-, wikke (? = wicei1), wikked(2), .;
w|, . vest(r) . .] WICKED; ca. , ,
westan, -, . (. . ; . ; (? > . je-wicen
, t>ftnan .): west . 2- wtcan . 1 ,
weslau-wind -. , , || . wei-
chen])
(weste . ., . . west .) wTc-je-f5ra -., ? wie-je-refa -
weste . jo/ja , . ,
|| . wosti, . wiist (. wuo- , (. Weaih-je-fera;
Sti)] . . vastus , wle . wlcian)
( VAST wleian . 2 , ,
)! , ;
westen* jo-c. , wlc -. , ,
, || . wostin, , , , (> -W1CH,
. Wiiste (. wuostin)]: westc -WICK,
westlj . > westy, wysty: ) : . vlcus, . |um, ,
, : weste ,
West-s i-. > WEST-5EA: . will . i> wyd; WIDE: ,
, , || . weit (.
West-seaxc i-. . > Wes/sex .; WES wit), . vidr]
SEX: . ; . . (wid, wyd, , = . wi9)
(widdow = . wuduwe)
(wcten . . wsctan) wld-s% i-. ,
weOer -. > wether; WETHER; -
|| , Widder, . (wid-uten ==. wifi-)
vedr, , wijirus ] (wief . = . wjf)
(wcxen . = . weaxan) wTT-. > wyf; WIFE: . ca. ,
(whan, - ne, = . hw&nne) , ; . || , Weib .
(wha-se, . . hwa) (. wip), vlf *]
(what = , hwaet) wTfl . 2 > wyven; WIVE t ;
(whatsoever, . , () : wif
(whech, |i|, = da. hwile) wTfmau', whitman, .-, >wifman'1'3,
(wher, ~e, s da. hwffir) wimman", w u|'"3, (on, womman";

283
W OMAN: . wile, wy|, . 3 . , .
, ; . . . t>d. . wiltan
w j j -./. , ; , wild, wlldor, s-c. (. wildru ..)
|| . vig]: wlaan . , ; (.)
: ? wilde
wisa -. >wy^c, |gh|: , : wT- wildc . > wylde; WILD: || ,
jan wild (. ~i), . villr, . wil])eis]
wight ,i wight: , (wile ,, . , hwTl)
, : ? . vlgr wylisc (*: wie|), we|, wa;|, w*tsc, . >
., . vlgt, ( .), Welsh, Walsh; WELSH: .
, . vig . || . wjj] : , ; ca.
(w ight . = . wiht) na. , ]| .
w is-sm ifl -. * , wclscli (. walhisc)]: weaih
*, wll-sTfl -. ; w.
w ilit', |u|", i-./. > w ight; 1. WIGHT + willan
2. WHIT f : . . , ? ? - wimble . ,
, ; , ; . 1. ; . . wynibel . > WIMBLE
, ; 2. , , ; . . vimmelkantiB
|| . Wicht, . vlttr, . waiht ., . ,
-s ,w, j I . ] ( . a-wiht, na-w.)
(wil, ~ , ,, . , . hwil) (wimmen ., . . Wlf-niftn1)
willa jn-. > wille; WILL: . ca. , wyn i-. > wunne, wlnne; || .
, , ; wunnia, . wunna, wunni (.
. ; || Wille, . . Wonne)]: wiiniafl
vili, . wilja] | . . ]: willan win -. > wyn; WINE: || . Wcin
willHn, wy|, . , (. . wille, (. wrn), . vln, . wein]: .
wilt, wile, [II], . willad, wy|; , vTnum ( . )
. . wille, |1(, . wilicn, wy|; winnan . 3 > wynnen; WIN: .
. 1-e willende; . wolde) , , ,
w illen {. 1,3 ed. mile, wiil/e, wole, ; -~ , -
2 ed, wilt ..; . wille]), wil leu ; ; .
..; . . wil/e , .; . , , ,
1- wiilyuge; . wolde, . 2- ; ; .
wold); ( ) . WILL . , (),
WOULD: . , ]| . gcwinnen ,
, , ; . vinnu , ,
(. . , . winnan ]
); (. . . I. be- + winnan > bi-wynuen1;
., / , , . 2. winn-
..); . , - + -uns/ln3, -, > wynnynK .;
; (, . WINNING: . , ; .
); (. . .
. / wyncen, |ns|, wynehen, . li, WINCE
); . . (. .); , (. winch): (
; , , (,/. .); ), , . wincir
, || . wolleri (. 1 (.), guincir, |nch|, .
. will, 1. wollte; . wellen, wenkian (. . wincian . 2 s
. 1 . willu, . 1 . wclta, WINK , )
wo|), , vilja (. 1 , vilda), wind -. >wynd; WIND ]|i|] * l|aij]:
wiljau (. 1 . wiljau, . I . || . Wind, , vlndr,. winds] ||
wlldn)] || . . velle; .. ]: . venlus; . . < (
no willa .\ (. willian . 2 . ,) < nt.jiTu; , i <
> ( WILL .) WILL (, .) < 6, .
, , ) + )]

284
windan . J wyndcw; WIND: ( am BAD) || . wirsa, wirs, .
, (), || . verri, verr, . wairsiza, wairs]
winden, . vinda, . (us)-windanj wyrsian (< wie|) . 2 (.) > wursc ,
wine i-. * || . wini, . vinr (urn. wo|, werse//; (. .) werse: .
van)] || . . Venus = vc- ; . .
nus] ); wyrsa
wynge, weng, ~e, (l) .; WING: wyrde ., . weord
: . (= . vinge; . wyrdij . > worthy; WORTHY: .
. vasngr) , ; .
wynged .\ WINGED: : , , ;
. wynge . || . wtlrdig]: we
(wymiyng ,, . . winnan) ord. w.- + -nes . ja-. > wor-
winter -. > wynter; WINTER: || thynesse .; WORTHINESS: .
, Winter, . vinter, . wintrus] , ; . -
wlnter-tftl i-. > wyntertidc; WINTER- ; ; . . weord-
TIDE *: || . Winter- nes
zeit] 3e-w!s . > ywis', iwys1, .
wlpian . 2 s- wype/i; WIPE: : .; ywis' .: . ,
wTp- j| . wTf-, ~ . , ; .
, . weip-, -an . , , , ; ;
] . || . gcwiB, .
wyrcaii ( .) weo|, . (. viss]: witan
worhte, wrohte, . 2- jc-worht, wTs . > wys; WISE: . :
-wroht) - WLirchc, wo|, wlrchc, we|, ; . . || .
wirken, werkcM, wo|, (. wroghte, weise (. wls), . viss, . (un)-
. 2-e wrought); WORK: . ca. weis]: ~ witan
, , ; . wTs-dom -. > wysdom; WISDOM: .
|| . yrkja (. orta), , , , ; . .
wauriyan (. waurhta), . .
wirken]: >weorc , wise -. > wyse; WISE f: . ,
wyrd i-. > wyrde; WEIRD |wd] I. . ; , ,
()-, 2. .: . . , ; ; , ; .
, 1. ; 2. || . wurd, . , (, ~ .) || .
. wurt, . ]: weorOan Weise, (. wlsa, . gu
wyrjan, wi|, (< wie|), we|, |ijan, |ian, . 1 ise, GUISE ,
> weric/i, wa|, . : ; ; ), . visa
, || , -waragian, ]: wlsian, witan
. (fur)-wergen, . (gn)-wnrgjan): wisse ., . witan
wearg -. *, , wTslan . 2 , ,
|| . vargr] || , , , : wls,. wise
(.) ] wiste ., . witan
wtrljans wyn$an wit . / , (., dm. unc; .
wyrnan (< wie|) . I weamlan . 2(x uneer) > wit (. unc),
wearnian , 2 , , || . wil (., dm. unk), .
) > wcrncn ; WARN ']': . vit (., dm. okkr), . wit (., dm. ug-
, ( -.) (+ .); , kis)] . vddu]: <*>we (-t ? ~ iwa, tu,
|| . werna, . CM. tw 53en)
verna]: , wearn . wit, je- -,yo-c. > wit1, ; WIT: . ca.
, , , ;
wyrsa, wi|, (< wie|) ., wyrs (< wic|) ; . ; || .
., > wurse, worse, werse, ., Wit?:, . vit; . -witi, un-witi
wursc .. .; WORSE , ]; witan
.: . . , (. witan, *~ .-. (. . wat,
yfel > uvel .., . yfcl); . wast, wat, . witon; . wisse, |st|;

285
. 2- witcn) witen, y-~, (, wlaffian . 2 > wialTen: , -
ed. woot . .; . witen; . . . wiafferew
wiste; . 2- >'-wisi); WIT t (. , ,
1/3 . WOT, . WIST):
, , || . wisscn w lan c . > wionk: ,
(. 1/3 . weiS), . vita (. ,
veit), . wiian (, wait)] || . . w le n c u , |, -. => ( wi^nc) wlaunke:
< -; ; . videre , ,
(, , *wait || . 1 . : wlanc
OTda , , 3 . oide , w lispian . 2> lispen, lipsen; LISP:
)] , || .
je-wTtan . I , , laspa; . . lispeln]
; (+ .) (| 5. (w oo, ~, . = . wfljian)
gi-witan] wod . > wood; w ood: ,
witnes1, ~, ja -. > wytnesse; W I T || . wuot (. coop.
N E S S : . , , Wut . ), . 6dr, . wo|)s,
, ; . Id-]
. , : wi (w oodspell = , wod ., . . +
tan. . wytnossen .; W IT N E S S : s p e l1)
. , (woe . = . wa)
; . . w o j = w oh
, w o jla n . 2 >wowen; WOO:
wilod-lfc . , , ,
: w, , 2- willan w oh, |s, o-c, (< .) > wough:
, : witan ; ; ;
wid . (+ ././.) > with, ( mid) : woh . ,
wid; WITH: . (+ .) , , ,
; (+ .) , , , (w ol ., . . willan)
(), (), (+) ; . w oleen, welcn, |[, -. (. wolcnu) >
, , ( () . wolcne, w elkne, welkene; WEL
); , KIN ed. t +: . ; (.)
( ) j| . wid ; under wolcnum
, , ]: < wider . (.. ); . . |] .
. || . wider, . vidr, . Wolke (. wolku ., ~ .)]
wipra] w olde . (> ~ ), . w iila n
(wlthdrawen, . . dra^an) (w ole, - , ., . . willan)
(withers ,, . . widre) (w om m an . w if - m a n )
wid-innan . . (+ ./.) > (w om m en ., , w if - m a n )
wilhlnnen; WITHIN: . . (w onde/i . wandian)
, ; . , ; (w o n d er . = , wunder)
, , . ; . , (w o n d erly . ., . . wundor*
| )
(wlthhjildcn, . . hcaldan) (w ondurfulle . - . W tmdor-ful*)
(withoulens . wid-utan) won?, wane, .; WONE f: ,
widrc jo-c. >wyther; () . WITHERS: .
; ca. . : (w o n n f , 2-, . . winnan)
wider, . . ; (. wia) (w onene . = . hwdnan)
wiO-utan , . (+ dm.) > with= w ord, |ii|, -. >word; WORD: || .
iiutcn; WITHOUT: . . Wort, . , . waurd] || . verhnm
( ); . ( *- < *clh ; . rubrum
, , ; . . . . read, . .)]
, , ; . . , jc - w o r h t , 2-, . wyrcan
(w orld . wonild)
(wives ., . , wit) (w orldly . = . w o ru ld -ltc )

286
(worse . . =. wyrsa . , : -heed, -hedc .
wyrs .) . < . had . -rseden .
(worth . = , weorfl) , (> -RED) = rceden . ,
(worthy ., -nesse . . wyr-
Oij) wrecsin . 5 > wrcke/j (. 2-
(wortjnesse = . weorSnes1) wroken); WliEAK: . , -
woruld (< weo|), |old, world", i-, > , , ;
world8; WORLD: , ; , ; , /
ca. . || . Welt (. werali), ; . . . ,
. verpld]: < wer + *ealdi i-. , / ; ,. .
(. ylde) / || . racliefl
wonild-had -, , . wrikan]
woruld-lic . > worldly, |11; WORLD (wrccce, |cche, ~hed, . . wrecca)
LY: , || . weltlich] wresan , 1 >wreycn; wray: ||
(woot, wot, ~, ., , , witan) . wrohjan], be + wr. > bewreyen
(wouh = , won) . If; BEWRAY: .
(wouide, ,, . . willan) , , ; . .
(wound , , . wund . , ||
wundian .) , biwrogia]
(wox ., . . weaxan) (wretelie, ~ d , . . wrecca)
wrsc-sT6 -. (wreton . 2-, , . wrTtati)
, , , wrinjaii , 3 ;> wryngcn; WRING: .
wracu -. > wrake: , . , ,
, ; , |{ , ; .
. Rache , , wraka] || , rigen, . wringen].
wf4nj! . (<-. .)i>wrong, |aj, . un- (I) + (3e)-wrungen . 2 - >
WRONG; , , , 1JNWRUNG: , -
; . . ,
, , writ, ~, -. > w rit; WRIT: . .
, ; . , , , ,
, ; . . , ; . .
; . , , ; f ;
, : , (. : * Wfltan
rangr , , w rlta n . 1 > w rite n ; WRITE: .
, , < *wrangr, , , ,
., vrang; . . wringan) ; . . || . wrttan
wrafl . > wroolli; WROTH: . , , . reifien ;
, , (. ri'j'an), . rlta ,
, ; , , , ]
; . . wr6, w r'itere j o -. w rite rs ; WRITER: .
, reid , , , , , , ; . .
vred ]: . wrfdan . I
(> WRITHE , (w ro k en . 2-, . . wreknn)
) (wrung = . wiau;;)
wrjeflflu -. > wraththe; WRATH: , (w ro o th . = , wrad)
; wrad wruxled . 2- ( )
wrecca, wra|, jn -, > wrecche . ; ? , wrixSan , 2()
.: WRETCH: . , wudu (< wi|), Wio|, wea| (,), -.
, ; ; , wnde; WOOD: . ; ;
. ; . ; . ( ); *
; ; = wreean, ; . , ,
L . wrecched :, WRETCHED; || . witu, . viflr]
: . ed , 2 . wud iiwe ( wi|), wtduwe, |dwe, |dewe, -.
. 2. . wreccheheed . ;? wydewe, |dwe; WIDOW: ||

287
. Wittwe, . widuwd] || . . ; ; /
, . vidua (>viduus ), ; ; . ,
. vidhava) || . Wunder, . undr]
wuldor, |, -. , || . wundor-ful . (. ~-1) > won
. wuIJjus 11-. , , derful'; WONDERFUL:
wuljjrs i-. ) , , ||
wuldor-cyninj -. * , . wundervoll]
wundor-lfc . > wonderly:
wuldor-fasder -. * , ,
wundrian . 2 => wondren; WONDER:
wulf -. > wulf, wolf; WOLF: . . . , ,
; , ; . || ; . .
. wulf, . wolf, . 1, . wulfs] || , || . wundren
. lupus, . . lukos, . ., . undra(sk) .]:
] wundor
wuna () -~ -. > wone: . wuin . 2 woue/i:
, ; . , ; , ,
; , || . wohnen , (ge)-wo-
wund -. > wound; WOUND: || hnen , .
. Wunde (. wunta), . und; , ; . .
. . wunds . ] un-wunands ]: wuna;
wundcn-stefna -. * (. WONT, ,
: w. . 2- windan: , , . woned . 2-
St. stefn woned to)
(wurthcn . ., . . weordan)
wurOian = weorOian

(Y, . I)

Z
(/aide, ., . = saule = . sawol)
(zed, y-~, ., . 2- - ^-seid;
. . secjan)
(/.elve, ., . = selve; . . self)
(zen, ., . - . syn)
Zepldrus, ||, .', ( .) ZEPHYR
wuudiun . 2> wounden; WOUND: ['zefa]: , ,
: wund : . zephyrus
wundor o-c. > wuuder, wonder; WON ( . zephyr, |irc) .
DER: . ca. , , z^phuros
,


: . - ( ARISE .): - (2), - (< ALONG): and-. - ( AWARE): -.
ABACK: . ABASH: abasshe/). ABATE: abate//. ABBESS: abbudisse. ABBEY:
abbcye. ABBOT: abbod. ABIDE: g-btdan. ABLE: able. -ABLE: able. ABOMI
NABLE: abhomynablc. ABOUT: 5-bQtan. ABOVE: a-bufan. ABROAD: brad. ABSO
LUTION: absolucioun. ABSOLVE: absolucioun. ABUSE .: ~. ABUSE .:
abuse//. ACCEPT: acceptcn. ACCEPTABLE: acceptable. ACCIDENT: acci
dent. ACCORD /!.: acorde//. ACCORDANT: acordaunt. ACCURSED: cursian.
ACCUSATION: - accusacioun. ACHIEVE: - chevyssaunce. ACKNOWLEDGE:
cnawan. ACQUIT: aquyten. ACT .: acte, ACT .:------ . ACTION: accioun.
ADJUDGE: ajugge//. ADOWN: of-dQne, ADVANCE .: avaunce/i. ADVAN
TAGE: avauntage. ADVENTURE: aventure. ADVERSITY: adversitee. AD
VICE: - avys. ADVISE: - avyse/i. AFAR: feor1. AFFAIR: - afere. AFFRAY: - af-
frayen. AFFRIGHT: fyrhtan. AFORE: on-foran. AFRAID: affrayew. AFTER: tefter.
AFTERWARD: ftcr-weard. AFTERWARDS: a:fter-weard. AGAIN: on-jean.
AGAINST: on-jSan. AGE: age. AGO: a-jUn. AGREE: agree/). AGREEABLE:
agreable. ALDERMAN: ealdor-mfln1. ALE; ealu. ALL: eal'. ALLAY: a-lecjan. ALLE
VIATE: a-Iecjan. ALMIGHTY: asl-mlhtlj. ALMOST: cal-maist. ALMS: nelmesse.
ALONE: an. ALONG: and-, and-IAnj. ALSO: eal'-swa. ALTHOUGH: ah. ALTO
GETHER; lo-ssedere. ALWAY: eal. ALWAYS: e a l'. AMEND: amende/t.
AMENDS: amendes. AMIABLE: - amyable. AMICABLE: amyable. AMID: mid
de, AMIDST: midde. AMISS: mis. AMONG: on-mfinj, AMONGST; -. AN-
( ANSWER): And-. AN apm.: an. ANCHORET: ancra. ANCHORITE: ancra. AN
CIENT: aunt yen. AND: And. ANGEL: aungcl. ANGER: anger. ANGRY;
angry. ANNOTATION: annotacioun. ANOINT: enoynte/r, ANON: an. ANSWER
.: dnd-swarlan. ANSWER .: Snd-swaru. ANY: ffinis, APACE; a pas. APIECE:
peee. APOSTLE: apostol, APPAREL: apareil. APPEAR: apere/i. APPOINT:
npoynten. APPURTENANCE: appurtenaunce. APT: apt. ARBOUR: herbere.
ARC: arwe. ARCH: arwe. ARCHBISHOP: rce-biscop. ARGUMENT: argument.
ARIGHT: riht. ARISE: a-ilsan. ARK: earc. ARM (): earm, ARMS; armes. AR
RAY: array. ARROW: arwe, AS: eal-swa, ASCENDANT: asccndent. ASH: xsc.
ASK: flscinn. ASKANCE: - - ~ ASKEW: - - -. ASLEEP: slap. ASQUINT; - asquint.
ASSENT: assentcw. ASSIGN: assignee, ASSIGNEE: assignee. ASSIZE: as
sise. ASSIZER: = assisour. ASSUAGE; aswage/i. ASSURANCE: assuraunce. AS
SURE: assurew. ASTRONOMY: astronomye, ASUNDER: a-sundron. AT: a:t.
ATHELING: ncrteli>13. ATTACH: attache//. ATTAIN: meyntene/i. AUGHT: a-wiht,
AVAIL: availe/i. AWAKE: a-wacan. AWARE; wrcr, AWAY; 011-wej. AYE: ay.


BABBLE: blubie/i. BABE: baban. BACHELOR: bachelor. BACK 4.:.
BACK .: base. BAIL: bnilif. BAILIFF: bailif. BAIRN: beam. BALD:
balled. BALE: balu. BAN: je-bSn. BAND: band. BANE: bana. BANK ():
banke. BANK (); banks. BAR: = barre. BARE: braid. BARGAIN: bargayn.
BARLEY: ber-ern. BARN: ber-ern. BARON: baroun. BARREN; bareyn. BAR-

289
ROW: beon. BASF, .: bas. BATH: baOian. BATHE: badian. BAY: bayard. BA
YARD: bayard, BE: boon it wesan, BEAR .: bera. BEAR : beran, BEARD:
beard. BEARING: beran. BEAST: beste. BEAT: beatan. BEAUTY: beautee. BEA
VER: beofor. BECAUSE: cause. BECOME: be-cuman. BED: bed. BEE: .
BEER: je-beor-scipe. BEFALL: be-feallan. BEFORE: be-foran. BEG: beggen, BE
GET: be-tail. BEGGAR: beggar. BEGGARLY: beggarly, BEOIN: be-jinnan.
B E G I N N I N G : be-jinnan. BEGUILE: bi-gile, BEHIND: be-hlndan. BEHOLD:
be-healdan. BELAY: -1. BELIEVE: be-lyfan. BELL: belle. BELLOWS: bylj.
BELLY: bylj. BENCH: bene, BEND: bendan. BENEFICE: - benefice. BENEFI
CENCE: - - BENEFICIAL: - benefice. BENEFIT: - bienfet. BENIGN: -
benygne. BEQUEATH: cweSan 11 bc-cweaan, BERRY: berie, BESEECH: be-secan.
BESEEM: sSman. BESET: be-settan. BESIDE: Side. BESIDES: side. BEST: bet,
betera. BETTER: bet, betera. BETTER : betrian. BETWEEN: betweonan. BE
TWIXT: be-tweox. BEWARE: beon. BEWRAY: wrejan, BEYOND: be-seondan. BID:
biddan. BIDE: bldan. BIND: bindan, BIOLOCY: cwic. BIRD: brid*. BIRTH: -byrd.
BISHOP: biscop, BISHOPRIC: rice . BIT: bite, BITE : bite. BITE .: bitan.
BITTER: bitar. BLABBER: blubren, BLACK: blxc. BLAME: blamen, BLANK
: blank. BLANK .: b lan k . BLASPHEME: blamen. BLAST: bla;st.
BLEED: bledan. BLEND: blftnden-feax, BLESS: bletsian. BLESSING; bletsunj.
BLIND: blind, BLINDFOLD: -blind-fellian. BLISS: blis. BLISSFUL; blis.
BLITHE: blidc, BLOOD: bl5d, BLOODY: blodij. BLOOM: - blome. BLUBBER: -
blubren. BLUE; blew, BOARD: bord, BOAST: boost. BOAT: bat. BODY: bodij,
BOIL: boilen. BOLD: beald. BOLT: bolt, BOND: band. BONE: ban. BOOK: bOC,
BOOR: neah-je-bur, BOOT (): bot. BOOT (): bote. BOOT .: b6tan.
BOROUGH: . BORROW; bonian. BOSOM: bosm. BOTH: . BOUGH: bOj,
BOURGEOIS: - burgels. BOW (): . BOW : . BOWER: bor. BOWL:
bolla. BOY: boy. BRAG: brag. BRAID: embrouden brldel. BRAIN: .
BRANCH: brauneh'. BRANT: brant. BRASS: bras. BREAD: bread. BREAK:
brecan. BREAST: breost. BREATH: bra. BREED: brid*. BRENT: brant, BREW:
bread. BRIDEGROOM: juma. BRIDLE: brldel, BRIGHT: beorht. BRIM: brim.
BRING: brinjan. BROAD: brad. BROOCH: - broehe. BROOK : broc. BROOK
.: brucan, BROTHER: brodor. BROWN: brun, BUBBLE: ~ blubren. BUD: buddcn.
BURDEN: byrden, BURGEON: burgeon. BURGESS; burgeis. BURN .:
bxrnan byrnan. BURN : burna. BURTHEN: byrften, BUSH: -btlSG. BUSHEL:
busshel, BIJSINESS: bisijnes'. BUSTLE: bustle/r. BUSY: bisij. BUT: butan. BUT
TER; butere. BUTTON: budden. BUY: bycjan, BY: hi,


CADENCE: chaunce, CALL; ceallian, CAMERA: chambre. CAMP: cSmp.
CAN: cunnan, CANDLE: candel. CANDLEMAS; candel-masse. CANON: canonic.
CAPE: chapen. CAPITAL .; capital. CAPITAL : capital. CAPTIVE:
cacchen. CAR: carie/i. CARDINAL .: cardinal. CARDINAL :. cardi
nal. CARE ,; earn, CARE .; carian, CARPENTER: carpenter. CARRION:
carolgne. CARRY: carien. CART: crat. CARTER: carter, CARVE; ceorl'an.
CAST: casre/i, -CASTER (e ): castel. CAST IGATL: chasten. CASTLE;
castel, CATCH: cacche/t. CATTLE: calel. CAUSE; cause, CAVE: cave,
CEASE: cessefl, CELL; cells, CERTAIN; certeyn. CHAMBER; chambre.
CHAMPION: champioun. CHANCE .; chaunce. CHANCE .: ehaunce.
CHANCELLOR: = chauncelor, CHANGE : - chaungen. CHAPE: - chopen.
CHAPEL: chapele. CHAPLAIN; ehapeleyn. CHAPMAN: -'. CHAR
: cyr. CHAR .: cyrran. CHARE : cyr*. CIIARE .: cyrran. CHARGE:
carien. CHARITABLE: - charitable. CHARITY: - charitee. CHARM: - cliarme.
CHARWOMAN: eyr'. CHASE: - cacche. CHASTE: - chasten. CHASTEN; - chas-

290
ten. CHATTEL: - cutcl. CHATTER: - chiteren. CHEAP: ceap. CHECK: - click,
CHECKER: chek. CHEER: cheere. CHEESE: cyse. CHERISH: cherisshen.
CHESS: checker. -CHESTER ( )', castel. CHICK: cicen. CHICKEN: CiC-
en, CHIDE: cidan. CHIEF: - meschief, CHILD: cild. CHIN: ein\ CHIVALRY: -
ehivalerie. CHOICE: - chois. CHOOSE: ceosan. CHRIST: Crist. CHRISTENDOM:
cristendom, CHRISTIAN: cristen. CHURCH: cirice. CHURCHYARD: cirice.
CHURL: ceorl. CITY: citee. CLAIM : clayme. CLaSP: claspe/z. CLAT
TER: clatrian. CLAUSE: cloos. CLEAN: 1. CLEAR .: cleer. CLEAR
: clererf. CLEAVE: cleofan, CLEMENCY: CLERGY clergle. CLERK:
clerec, CLIFF: clif. CLIP: claspen. CLOISTER: cloistre, CLOSE :. cloos.
CLOTH: claS. CLOTHE: ciaSian. CLOTHES: claS. CLOUD: ciadi3. CLOUDY:
ciadij, CLOUT :, cltitian. CLOUT :. clfltian. COAL: colier. COAT: cote.
COFFER: - cofre. COFFIN: - cofre. COHORT: - court. COLD: ceald, COLLECT
:. collect. COLLIER: colier. COLOUR : colour. COLOUR :. col
oured. COME: Cuman. COMELING: euman. COMMAND; eomaunden. COM
MEND: comenden. COMMON: comun'. COMMONS: comune, COM
MUNE: - comune. COMMUNICATION: - comunycacioun. COMMUTIAL: - - -.
COMPANY: - companye. COMPARE:-------. COMPEL: - compelled. COMPEN
SATE: recompense/?. COMPLAIN: compleynen. COMPLAINT: playnte.
COMPLEXION: - complexioun. COMPOSE: - - PROPOSE. COMPOSITION: - -
PROPOSE. COMPOUND: - - PROPOSE. COMPUTE: - counten. CONCEAL: he
lan. CONCEIVE: coneeven. CONCLUDE: conclude/!. CONDITION: condi-
cioun. CONDOLE: - condolen. CONFEDERATE: - confederat. CONFESSION: -
confessioun. CONFOUND: confounds. CONFUSE: confounded CON
QUER: conquests. CONQUEST: conquests. CONSCIENCE: conscience.
CONSIDER: - consideracioun. CONSIDERATE:------- . CONSIDERATION: -
consideracioiih. CONSIABLE: constable. CONSTRUCT: construccioun, CON
STRUCTION: construceioun, CONSTRUE; construe/!. CONTAIN: c o n te n t-
. CONTENT: contenten. CONTINENCE; eountenaunce. CONTINUAL:
continuel. CONTINUE; - co n tin u es. CONTINUOUS: - c o n tin u e s CONTRARY:
contrarie. CONVERT: weor0an. COOK: coc. COOL: ceald. COPY .: - copie.
COPYHOLD; - CORDIAL; cordial. CORN: corn, CORRECT .: corrects.
COST .: - cost. COUNCIL: eounseil. COUNSEL .: - counceii. COUNSEL
:. counseillew , COUNT (): co u n tec. COUNT .: counten. COUNTE
NANCE: countenaunee. COUNTER: countour. COUNTERFEIT: coun-
trefete/!, COUNTESS; co u n t esse, COUNTRY: ~ cou ntree. COUNTY: = countee.
COURAGE: - cofage. COURSE: - cours. COURT: - court, COURTEOUS: -
curteis. COURTESY: - curteisie. COVER: - coven. COVERT; - covert. COVERT-
BARON: - covert. COVETOUS: - coveilise. COWER: - courex, COY; - coy, CRA
DLE: cradoi, CRAFT: craft. CRAG: crag, CRASS: grece. CREATOR; creatour.
CREATURE: - creature, CREVASSE: - creviss5. CREVICE: - creviss'. CRINGE:
cringan. CROP: crop. CROW: crawa. CROWD .: crucian. CROWD cy<,: crudan.
CROWN : = coroune/i. CROWN .: coroune. CRUEL: cruel*. CUCKING-
STOOL: euckyngstool. CUP: cuppe. CULMINATE: hyll, CURATE: curat,
CURE: cure, CURIOUS: curious, CURSE: cursian. CURSE: curs. CUT: cutleft.

D
DAGGER: - daggere. DAILY: ds*lle. DAINTY: - deyntee. DAIS: - dcis. DAI
SY: d3es-ia3e, DALE; dl. DALLIANCE: daliaunce, DAM: dame, DAME;
dame, DAMN: damnew. DANCE .: dauiice. DANCE .: daunee/i. DANES:
Dene. DANISH: Denise, DARE: durran. DARK: deorc. DARLING: cuman, DART:
derad. DATE :. - date. DAUGHTER: dohtor. DAUNT: - daunte/i. DAY: dej-
DEAD: dfad. DEADLY: dead-lic DEAF: deaf, DEAL : dl, DEAL : dsrian,

291
DEALING: dffilinj. DEAR: dyre. DEARTH: - derthe. DEATH: dead. DEBATE: -
debate. DEBT: dette. DECAY: dekaye. DECEASE .'. decees. DECEIVE:
deceyve. DECLARE: declare. DECLINE: declyrten, DECREASE .: de
screes, DECREASE .: descrcsen. DEED: d id , DEEM: demail. DEEP: deop.
DEEPLY: deop-iic. DEER: deor. DEFAULT: - defame. DEFENCE: - defence. DE
FEND: defende. DEFER: difference. DEGREE: degree. DEIGN: dis-
deignen, DELIBERATE .: deiibere. DELIBERATE .: delibcre. DE
LIGHT: - delit. DELIVER: - delyvere. DELL: del', DELVE: deifan. DEPART: -
departen. DEPRIVE: - - PRIVATE. DESCEND: - descends. DESCRIBE: - dc-
scryvc. DESERVE: desservc. DESIRE .: desire. DESK: deis. DESPAIR
.: desperacioun. DESPERATE: desperacioun. DESPERATION: despera-
cioun. DESTROY: destroye. DESTRUCTION: destrueeioim. DETERMINE:
determynen. DEVICE: - devys. DEVIL: deofol. DEVISE: - devyse. DEVOTE .: -
devout. DEVOTION: devocioun. DEVOUT .: devout. DEW: deaw. DIC
TATE: dihtan. DIE: dcyc. DIFFER: difference. DIFFERENCE: difference.
DIGHT: dihtan. DIGNITY: deyntee. DIKE: .: dtcian. DIKE .: dlcian. DILI
GENT: diligent. DIME: dyme. DIP: dyppan. DIRE .:------ , DIRECT .:
direct. DIRECT .: directe. DIS-: dis-. DISADVANTAGE: disavauntage. DIS
CERN: discreet. DISCHARGE .: discharge. DISCHARGE .: discharge.
DISCOMFORT .: disconfortc. DISCREET: discrect. DISCRETE: discreet,
DISDAIN: disdeigne, DISGUISE: disgise. DISGUISING: disgisyng. DISH:
deis. DISK: deis, DISPENSE: dispence. DISPORT cv<.: desport. DISPORT .:
- desporte. DISTRIBU TE: - - DISTRUST .: - - DITCH: dlcian. DIVERS,
DIVERSE: - dyvers, DIVERSITY: - dyversitee. DIVIDE: - dyvyden. DIVINE: -
dyvyn, DIZZY: dysij. DO: don. DOCTOR: doctour. DOLE: to-dal. -DOM: -dom.
DOMINATION: - domynaeioim. DOOM: dom. DOTE: - dote. DOUBLE .: ~
double. DOUBT .: doute, DOUBT .: doute. DOWF.R: dowaire. DOWN
.: of-diiiie. DOWN ,: of-dOne. DOWRY: dowaire. DOZEN: dosayn.
DRAGON: rankle. DRAUGHT: draught. DRAW: druisan. DREAD: on-drffidan.
DREARY; dreoris. DRINK .: drinean. DRIVE: drtfan, DROP .: diopa.
DROUGHT: dffisod. DROWSE: dreorij. DRUG: - drugge. DRY: dryje, DUCHESS: -
duchcssc. DUE .: due. DUKE: duk. DULL: dul. DUMB: dumb. DUNG:
dunj, DURING: dure. DUTCH: Dutche. DWELL: dwellun. DYE: deajian.

E
E- (0 ENOUGH): je-. EACH: $lc, EAR: eare, EARL: cori, EARLY: -. EAR
NEST .: eornost. EARNEST .-. comost. EARNESTLY: eornost-IIcc. FARTH:
eorde. EASE .: ese. EASE .: ese, EAST: east. EASTER: Eastni. EASY:
esy. EAT: etan, EBB .: be-ebbian. EBB .: be-ebbian. ECLOGUE: - EDGE:
ecj. EGG: egg. EIGHT: enhta, EIGHTEEN: eahta-teoda. EITHER: S^-liwte9er.
EKE .: caca. EKE .: . ELDER: eald. ELF: ylf, ELL: eln, ELSE: dies. ELSE
WHERE: elles. EM*: en-, EMBLEM: embleme. EMBRACE .: embrace.
EMBROIDER: embrouden. EMPRESS: efnperesse. EN*: en-. ENABLE: en
able. ENACT: enact ure, ENACTER: ennactor. ENCAUSTIC: ynke, EN
CHAIN: enchainen, END .: ende. END .: endian, ENDURE: endure.
ENEMY: enemy. ENERGY: weorc. ENGENDER: eiigendren. ENGLISH:
Enjisc. ENOUGH: 30-1163. ENOW: $-. ENSAMPLE .: ensample. ENSUE
.: ensue. ENTANGLE; ENTER: entren. ENTREAT: entrete.
EQUAL .: equal, egal. EQUITY: equytee. F.RE: r. ERRAND: srende.
ERST: Srest. ESCROW: scrowe, ESPECIAL: special. ESPY: espye. ES
QUIRE: - squyer. ESSEX: East-seaxan, ESTATE: - estat, ESTEEM: ar (2). ESTI
MATE: ar (2). EVE: fen, EVEN .: ffifen. EVEN .: efn. EVEN .: efne.
EVER: Sfre. EVERLASTING: ffe. EVERMORE: ffifre, EVERY: eefre. EVI-

292
DENCE: evydencc, EVIL: yfel. EWE: ew e. EXAMPLE: ensam p le. EXCEL
LENCE: - excellence. EXCELLENT: - excellent. EXCEPT .: - - EXCERPT
.'. scars. EXCEPT .: excepie/i. EXCHANGE .: eschaunge. EXCHE
QUER: - chek. EXECUTE; - cxecutour. EXECUTOR: - executour. EXERCISE
.: exercisc. EXERCISE .-. exercise. EXPEND: spendan, expencc. EX
PENSE: cxpence. EXPERIENCE: experience. EXPRESS .: exp resses EX
PRESS .: expressew. EXTANT: EXTREMITY: exiremytee. EYE: .

F
FABLE: - fable. FACE .: - face. FACT: - feet. FACTITIOUS: - fctis. FAIN:
. FAIR; fuejer. FAIRY: faerie. FAITH: feith. FALL .: feallan. FALLOW:
fealo. FALSE: fals. FAMILIAR: famulier. FAMOUS: famous. FANCY: fan-
tasye. FAR: feor1. FARCE: farsen. FARE .: faru. FARE .: faran. FARTHER:
feor'. FARTHEST: feor. FARTHING: IcorOinj, FAST: fast. FASTEN: fiestnian. FAT;
ft. FATE: - fate. FATHER: feder. FATNESS: fellies'. FAVOUR .: - favour,
FAVOURITE:-------. FAY; 1. FEAR .: . FEAR .: RBran. FEAST: - feste.
FEAT: - feet. FEATHER: feaer. FEE: feoh. FEED: fedan. FEEL: ftlan. FEIGN: -
feyne/i. FELICITY: - felicitee. FELL .: fel'. FELL .: fyllan. FELLOW: - felawe.
FELLOWSHIP: - felawe-shipe. FEN: fen. FERRY: ferlan. FESTER: - festrefl, FET
TER: fetor. FEW: (eaw. FIDDLE; fiflele. FIELD: feld. FIEND: leond. FIFTEEN: fif-
tyne. FIFTH: fifta. FIFTY: 3. FIGHT: fiht. FIGHT .: feohtan. FILL; fyllan.
FIND: findan. FINE: fyn. FINGER: finjer. FIRE: fyr. FIRK: fercian. FIRST: fyrst.
FISH: fisc. FISTULA: - festren. FIT: - fit, FIVE: fTf. FLAT .: flet. FLAT .:
flet. FLATTER: - flaiere/. FLATTERY: - flateren. FLEE: , FLEET .: (lota.
FLEMING: - Flemmyng. FLESH: flffisc. FLIGHT .: flyht, FLOAT .: flota.
FLOCK: Hoc'. FLOOD: flod. FLOURISH; - norischen. FLOUT .: - floyten.
FLOWER .: - flour. FLOWER .: - flourew. FLOWER-DE-LUCE: - flour-de-
lis. FLUTE ,: (loyten. FLUTE .. floyten. FLY .: fleosaii. FOAM: (iiml-
heals, FOAMY, fami-heals. FOE ,: fall. FOE .: lah. FOLD: feaidan. FOLK:
folc. FOLLOW: foljian. FOOD: foda. FOOT: fot. FOR: for. FOR-: for-. FORBEAR:
for-beran. FORUID: for-beodan. FORCE: - force. FORE: foran. FORECAST: - fore-
castew. FORELAND: forlond, FOREMOST: forma. FORERUN: rinnan. FORFEI
TURE: lorfeture. FORGET: fOf*jytan, FORGETFUL; for-3ytol. FORGIVE: for-jy-
fan. FORGO: for-. FORK: forca. FORKED: foren. FORLORN: for-leosan.
FORM: - forme. FORMER: forma, FORSAKE: for-saean. FORSOOTH: -socV
FORSWEAR: for-swerian. FORTH; fora. FORTHWITH: ford. FORTIETH: !eow-
ertijorta. FORTUNE .: fortune. FORTUNE .: fortune . FORTY: feower-tij.
POTHER: foaor, FOUL: ful. FOUR. (Bower. FOURTH: IcowerOa. FOWL .: fnjol.
FOWL .: fujlunj. FOWLING: fujlunj. FRAME- .: frame. FRAME :. frame.
FRANKLIN: frankeieyn. FRATERNITY; fraternitee. FRAUD: fraude. FREE:
freo. FREEDOM: freo-dom. FREEZE: forst, FRENCH: Frencisc. FRESH: Terse.
FRET: fra:twa. FRIAR; - frere. FRIEND: freond. FRIENDLY: freond-lfc. FRIGHT-
EN: fyrhtan. FRISIAN: Frtesa. FRIST: first. FRO: - fro. FROM: fram. FROST: forst.
FROSTY; forstis. FROT; - frote, FROWN: - liowne. FRUIT: - fruit. FULFIL:
fuT-fyllan. FULL: fur. FUNCTION:-------. FUNERAL.: - funeral. FURLONG: Tur-
lftnj. FURNACE: - forneis. FURNISH: - parlouren. FURNITURE: - - FUR
ROW: furh, FURTHER; furaor. FUSTIAN: - fustian,

G
GAGE: wage. GAL1NGALE; galyngale. GALL .: gallen, gealla. GALL
.: gallen. GALLANT: galaunt, GAME .: . GAME :, jamenian.
GANG: !. GARDEN; gardyn. GARLIC: . GATHER: jaderian. GATHER-

293
1NG: sadenm s. GAY: - gay, GEAR; jcarwe, GENTEEL: - g e n til GENTILE; - gen
til. G ENTLE: genii!, G EN TLEM A N : gentil-m an, G ENTLEW O M AN: gentil*
w om m an. GET: - gete. G H O ST: jast. G IFT: 31ft. G ILD : jyldan. G IR D : jyrdan.
G IRD LE: jyrdel. GIRL: - girle. GIVE: jyfan. GLAD: sited. GLADE: - giode. G L A D
LY: jlmd-licO: G LANC E .: glace. G LA N C E .: glacen. GLASS: slaes. GLEE:
3leow. G LEEM AN: -*. G LIDE: jlldan. GLINT: glenten. GLOSS: glose,
GO: san. G O D : 3 od. G O D D E S S : goddesse. G O D SO N : lo d -su n u . G OLD: jold .
G O L D E N : sySden. G O LD SM ITH : jold -sm iS . G O O D .: jod . G O O D .-, jod,
GOODLY: jo d -ltc. GOOSE: 30 s, GOSPEL: jod-spel. GOSSIP: sibling. GOVERN: ~
go v e rn a u n c e . G O W N : g o u n e . G R A C E : grace. G R A C IO U S : gra cio u s.
G R A D E: degree. G RAM M A R: grammere. G R A N T .: grauntefl. GRASS:
jrjes, GRAVE :. jrafan. GRAVE .-. grecf, GRAY: G REASE: grece.
G REAT: jreat. G R EED Y : srssdis. G R E E N : jren e. GREET: irStan. G R E E T IN G :
jrEtin;, GREY: 3 3 . G R E Y H O U N D : jr ie j-h u n d , G R IEF; greef, GRTEVE:
grevefl, G R IN D : jrmdan. G R IN D ST O N E : irindan. GRIPE: irapian. GRIST: jrist-bi-
tunj. G R ISTBITIN G : jrist-bituni. GRIT: jreot, GROOM : grom. GROPE: jrapian.
G R O U N D .: 3 rund. G R O U N D .: 3 rund, GROW: jrowan. G U A R D : regard.
G U E SS .'. gessen. G U ILD H A LL: je-jyld -h cal, G U IL E ,: bi-gilen. G U ISE
.: wise. GUILT: jylt, G UILTY: jyh ij. G YNAECOLOGY: cwen.

H
HABERDASHER: haberdasshere, HABERGEON: habergeoun. HAIL .:
hajolian. HAIL .: hajollan. HALF :, hcalf. HALF .: healf. HALL: je-jyld-
heal. HALLOW: halsa, HAMMER: hSmor. HAND: hfind. HANDLE: h4ndlian.
HANG: hanjian. HAP: hap'. HAPLY: hap'. HAPPEN: happenen. HAPPY:
happy. HARD: heard, HARDNESS: heardnes1. HARE: liara, hnso-pSd. HARK: heore-
nlan. HARKEN: heorcnian. HARLOT: harlot. HARLOTRY: - harlotrye. HARM
.: hearm. HARP .: hearpe, HARP .: hearpunj. HARPING: hearpuiis.
HARSH :. harsk. HART: heorot, HASTE :. hasten. HASTE : haste.
HASTY: - hasty. HAT: h t. HATE: hatian, HAUNT :, - haunt, HAUNT .: -
hauntew, HAUTBOY: - - HAVE: habban. I-IAVEN: heefene. HAWK: hafoc, HAW
THORN: hasa-bem. HE: he. HEAD;.hSafod. HEADLONG: heafod. HEALTH: h$lS.
HEAP: heap. HEAR: hyran. HEARING: hyrinj, HEARKEN: heorcnian. HEART: he
orte. HEAT: hffitu. HEATH: h6. HEATHEN: hffiSen. HEAVE: hebban. HEAVEN:
heofon. HEAVENLY: heof