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Chapter 1:New World Beginnings(33,000 B.C.E-1769 C.

E)
I.The Shaping of North America-Origins from single supercontinent
A. Geology formed by movement of Earths crust (created mountain ranges and divide
continents)
B.Canadian Shield- a zone creating the core of the N. American continent, anchoring it
C.Timeline- Recorded History (4000 B.C.E), Columbuss Discovery (1492 C.E)
D. The Great Ice Age(2 million- 10,000 years ago)-transformed surface (i.e. Great
Lakes)
II. Peopling the Americas
A.Bering Isthmus- land bridge connecting N. America and Eurasia (still a mystery)
B. Map 1.1 The First Discoverers of America-Dispersed South from Bering Land
Bridge
C.Global warming led to the disappearance of the Bering land bridge
1.isolation of the American continents for years until the Europeans reached the
Americas
2.Many tribes, languages, and sophisticated civilizations grew all over America
with talented people.
III. The Earliest Americans
A. Agriculture and dependence on corn(About 5000 B.C.E)wild grass known as corn
1. Pueblo: Village in spanish
2. Nation States: state in which its people are together by common language, or
national identity, or others; None in north america in comparison to the Aztecs.
B.Map 1.2North American Indian Peoples at the Time of First Contact with
Europeans- Depicts the location of indian people the time they first met with European
explorers; just an approximation since they moved to other regions of America shortly
after their first encounter with the Europeans.
C.Cahokia: Anasazis elaborate pueblo in modern day New Mexico.
1. 1000 C.E (three sister farming) maize, squash, and beans.
D.Iroquois Confederacy-(developed organizational and political skills to create a
military alliance)
1.Iroquois the closest North American approximation to the great empires of
Mexico and Peru.
2.Most North American people inhabited small and impermanent settlements.
3. Matrilineal cultures, non advanced technology, no aggressive treatment
towards earth, scarce number and spread.
IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World
A.About 1000 C.E Scandinavian voyagers reached America but their discovery was
forgotten and abandoned.
B. Europeans unaware of Americas existence/discovered America by
accident.(Christian crusaders).
V. Europeans Enter Africa
A.Caravel: a ship that could sail more closely to the wind; great to sail by and from
Africa. (New World of Africa and Asia: trade)
B.Map 1.3 The World Known to Europe and Major Trade Routes with Asia, 1492-
Goods were passed on to many hands the source was mysterious
C.15th centuries Portuguese trading posts and growth with slaves
1.Trade of slaves and gold led to: Slave trading big business; adopted from Arab
and African practices
2.Plantation economy-large-scale commercial agriculture and the wholesale
exploitation of slave labor
D. United and strong Spain; Christian/Islamic warfare
VI. Columbus Comes Upon a New World
A.Europe advanced technology and renaissance optimism
B.Christopher Columbus (14511506), by Ridolfo di Domenico Ghirlandaio- Portrait of
skilled Italian seafarer who outfit the Spanish monarchy for three ships
C.One of the most successful failures in history(six weeks of sail land on Oct.12 1492)
1. Accidental discovery of two more continents(two Americas)
2. Interdependent Global Economic system-New World:raw material, Africa:
labor, and Europe:capital,technology, and markets.
VII. When Worlds Collide
A.Figure 1.1 The Columbian Exchange- transfer of plants, animals, culture, human
populations, technology, and ideas between the New World and the Old world.
B.Unintentional and Indirect murder of the Indians
1.Old World diseases smallpox, malaria, yellow fever wiped out the Indian
population
2.Resentfulness towards the Europeans hatred and revenge(Demographic
catastrophe)
VIII. The Spanish Conquistadores
A.Treaty of Tordesillas: Spain secured it claim of Columbus discovery+gold and silver
B.Conquistadores: Spanish conquerors all over Caribbean and Mainland America
1.Pacific Ocean=Vasco Balboa
2. Heading into North America;Juan Ponce de Leon, Francisco
Coronado(Arizona,Grand canyon, Florida)
C. Capitalism: new economic system: Silver from civilizations created a price revolution
in Europe that increased consumer costs by as much as 500 percent, money fuel
D.Encomienda Institution on colonized civilizations
1. Spanish government permission to commend an Indian to certain colonists for
Christianization
2. SLAVERY; as thought by Bartolome de Las Casas
IX. The Conquest of Mexico
A.Hernan Cortes 1519 sailed and arrived at Mexico
B.GOLD and wealth at the Aztecs capital: Tenochtitlan
C.Cortes arrives and lies to the people
1.He says they are dying from a sickness affecting their hearts that can only be
cured with gold
2.Moctezuma welcomes them and gives them all their gold and goods without
fight(thinks Cortes is God Quetzalcoatl)
D.Noche Triste- Aztecs fight against Spaniards because they noticed the abuse
E. Spaniards strength and Epidemic diseases gave them glory
1.Brought his crops, his laws, his language, his people
2.Mestizos: people with mixed Indian and European heritage.
X. The Spread of Spanish America
A.Spanish possesions of land Flourished(wealth)
B.English and French became curious for the land
C.Battle of Acoma:3 day battle at Acoma pueblo against Spaniards
D.Popes Rebellion:missionaries efforts led to the Indian uprising when Pueblo rebels
destroyed every Catholic church in the province and killed priests and Spanish settlers
E.Black Legend:caused by the misdeeds of Spaniards; false concept that conquerors
tortured indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left only misery.
F.Colossal empire: besides damaging they created a huge empire of Spanish speaking
nations.