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Student Study Session

Series Solutions (BC only)

We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator) in the time allotted.

Multiple Choice

1.

D

I is a convergent p series, p 2 1

II is the Harmonic series and is known to be divergent

(1973 BC19)

 III is convergent by the Alternating Series Test 2. (1985 BC14) C

I is a convergent p series with p 2 1

II is the Harmonic series which is divergent

 III is convergent by the Geometric Series Test with 3. (1985 BC31) D
1
r
3

1

The center is x 1, so only C,D, or E are possible. Check the endpoints:

At

At

x 0:

x 2:

n 1

(

1)

n

n

converges by the Alternating Series Test.

n 1

1

n

which is the harmonic series and known to diverge.

4. (1993 BC16)

A

I compare with p series, p 2 1so converges

II converges by the Geometric Series Test with

r

6

7

 III converges since it represents the alternating harmonic series 5. (1993 BC27) C

This is a geometric series with

Convergence for

1

x  

3

x
 1
3

1

r

1 .

x

3

Convergent for 2 x 4.

6.

C

Convergent by the Geometric Series Test since

(1997 BC14)

a

1

3

2

so the sum will be

S

3

2

1

3

8

2.4

r

3

8

1

Series Student Study Session

7. (1997 BC20)

E

n 1

(

x

2)

n

.
n

n 3

The endpoints of the interval of convergence are when ( x 2) 3; x 1, 5 .

Check endpoints: x 1 gives the alternating harmonic series which converges and x 5 gives the Harmonic series which diverges. Therefore the interval is 1x 5

8.

B

I is divergent since the limit of the n th term is not zero. II is convergent since it represents the alternating harmonic series.

(1998 BC18)

 III is divergent since it represents the harmonic series. 9. (1998 BC22) A

This is the integral test applied to the series in (A). Thus the series in (A) converges. None of the others must be true.

10. C

(2003 BC10)

a

1

4

3

2

3

n 1

This is a Geometric Series in which

and

r so

S

11. E

(2003 BC22)

1

n p 1

Simplify the terms with powers of n to compare to

4

3

1

2

3

4

p 11 for the comparison series to converge by the p series test therefore p 2.

12. D

(2003 BC24)

I converges by the Geometric Series Test II diverges by the p series test since p 1

III diverges by the n th term test since

lim

x



e

n

e

n

1

 

1

0

 13. D (2008 BC4) By the Ratio Test, lim n 
e
n  1
n
!
e
n
e
n
!
e
 
lim
lim
 
(
n
1)!
e
n
 
n

 
(
n
1)
n e
!
n
n

n 
1  

 

0

1

14. D

(2008 BC12)

 
e
n
1
x
n
1
n
!
e e x
n
n
x
n
!
e
lim
lim
lim
x
By the Ratio Test,
 
n
n
n

 
 (
n
1)!
e x
 
n

 
(
n
1)
n
!
e x
n
n
 
n

n
1  
15. D
(2008 BC16)
2
 1
By the Geometric Series Test, the series converges when
x
2
1
.
x
2
 1
 1
This implies
x 1  2  x 1 0
2
2
2
Therefore

( x 1)( x 1) 0 for x 1 and x 1 only.

16. D

(1998 BC76)

Series Student Study Session

0

 

1

k must be odd in order for the first series to converge by the Alternating Series Test, and k must be less than 4 in order for the second series to converge by the Geometric Series Test, therefore 3 is the correct solution.

17. B

(1998 BC84)

Omit answers D and E since they are centered at x 0 and the solution should be centered at x 2. Check endpoints: x 3 converges by the Alternating Series Test and x 1 diverges by the p series test therefore answer B is correct.

Free Response Solutions

18. 2001 BC6

Series Student Study Session

  n  2  n  1 x n  2 3  n n  1  x n  1 3  n  2 x  x   n  1  3 3 1: sets up ratio test (a) lim  lim  1 computes limit n  n  4 1: conclusion of ratio test 1: endpoint conclusion At x 3 , the series is  n  1    1  n , which diverges. n  0 3 At x  3 , the series is  n  1  , which diverges. 3 n  0 Therefore, the interval of convergence is 3 x  3 . f x    1 3  2 3 4 2 2 1: answer (b) lim  lim 2  3 3 x  4 x      x  0 x x  0   3 3 9 (c)  1 0 f x dx     1 0    1 3  2 3 2 x   3 3 2 x n    3 n  1 1 n x     dx 1: antidifferentiation of series 1: first three terms for 1 1 2 1 3 1 n  1    x  1 3 definite integral     3 x  1 3 2 x 1  3 3 x   1 3 n  1 x  x  0 series 1: general term  1 3  3 2  3 3   3 n  1  1 (d) The series representing  0 f x dx   is a geometric 1: answer series. 1 Therefore,  1 f   x dx  3  1 . 0 1 2 1  3

19. 2002 BC6

Series Student Study Session

n
 2
2
x
1: sets up ratio
n
 1
n
 2
(a)
lim
 lim
2 x
2 x
1
computes limit of ratio
n
 1
n

2
x
n

n
 2
1: identifies interior of
n
 1
2 x
 1
1 1
 x 
for
2 2
interval of convergence
2: analysis/conclusion at
endpoints
5
1
1
1: right endpoint
x
At
2
, the series is
n
 1
which diverges since
1: left endpoint
n  0
1 if endpoints not
1
this is the harmonic series.
x 
1
x

1
n  1
2
At
1 2 , the series is
n
 1
which
n  0
1 if multiple intervals
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
1
1  x 
Hence, the interval of convergence is
2 2
.
f  x   x  x 
2
4
8
2
16
x  
2
2
x 
3
n
(b)
2
1: first 4 terms
1: general term
(c)
The series in b  is a geometric series.
1
n
x 
1
1
1
2
1
1: substitutes
f     
 
2
4
8
 
2
2
3
into
3
 
 
3
 
 
3
 
  
3
  
infinite series from b  or
4
16
2
n
 
2
 8 9 
 
2
2
3
27
 
3
 
2
6
2
5
1 
express series from b 
in closed form
series
3
OR
2
1
f  x 
1
 x 
1
2 x
for
2
2
. Therefore,
1
2
6
f     
3
 
2
5
1 
3

20. 2006 BC6

Series Student Study Session

 n  1 n  1 n  1  n  1  2    x   1 nx  n n  n  2   n   1   1  n  x 5 1: 1: 1: 1: 1: (a) sets up ratio n  2 computes limit ration identifies radius of convergence considers both endpoints analysis/conclusion for both lim n  2  n  1   x  x    n  2 n The series converges when 1 x 1 . When x 1, the series is  1  2  3  endpoints 2 3 4 This series does not converge, because the limit of the individual terms is not zero. When x 1, the series is 1  2 3 234 This series does not converge, because the limit of the individual terms is not zero. Thus the interval of convergence is 1 x 1. (b) 1 4 9 f  x       x  x  2 1 2!  3 2 4! 4 x  3 6! 2 x 2 g  x  y0 f 0 g 0 0  and f   and g  0   0 1  . 1 2   . 2 4 1: 1: 1: y y 0 " 0 1: conclusion reasoning f   0   4 3 and  g  0   2 4!  1 12 . Thus,  y  0   4 3  1 12  0 . Since y 0 0 and y 0 0 , y has a relative minimum at x  0 .

21. 2008B BC6

Series Student Study Session

 (a) 1 1  1 u    u 1 1  x 2  1  2 x 2 u   4 x   x u n 6      2 x  n  3 1: two of the first four terms 1: remaining terms 1: general term 2 x 3  2 x 5 7     n 2  1  2 x  2 x  2 x  1 2 x n  1  x 2 (b) No, the series does not converge when x 1 because when x 1, the terms of the series do not converge to 0. 1: answer with reason (c) ln 1  x   2   x 0 x 2 1  t t 2 dt 2 1: two of the first four terms 1: remaining terms   0  2 2 3 t  t  2 5 t  2 7 t   dt 2 1 4 1 6 1 8  x  x  x  x  3 2 4 (d) ln 5  4      Let A   ln    1 1       2 2   1 4      1 2       1 2  1 2        4 2  1 2  7 32  1 2      . 4  1 3  1 2      6  1 4   1 2     8  Since the series is a converging alternating series and the absolute values of the individual terms decrease to 0, 3 x  1 2 1: uses 1: value of A 1: justification 5 1 6  1   1 1 1       . 4 3  2  3 64 100      A  ln

22. 2002B BC6

Series Student Study Session

 1: 1: series interval of convergence (a) 2 We must have so interval of convergence is (b) 1: answer (c) Some p such that because 1: 1: 1: correct p converges by AST, but the 3 reason why converges p-series diverges for reason why diverges 1: 1: 1: correct p (d) Some p such that because the 3 reason why diverges p-series diverges for and the reason why converges p-series converges for