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Sandhi-prakaraam

Sarvevara-sandhi

Invocation

yaid"dM" s$ainDainamaARNAM vaNAARnaAmaAr"Bae maud"A /


taena mae k{(SNA paAd"Abjae mana:s$ainDaivaRDaIyataAma, //

yad ida sandhi-nirma


varnm rabhe mud
tena me ka pdbje
mana-sandhir vidhyatm

yatwhich; idamthis; sandhiphonetic combination; nirmammaking; varnm


of the varas; rabheI begin; mudwith joy; tenaby this (making); memy; ka
O Ka; pda-abjewith Your lotus feet; manaof the mind; sandhiunion;
vidhyatmmay be caused.

With great joy I begin making the sandhi of the varas. May this cause the
sandhi of my mind with Your lotus feet, O Ka.

AmtaThe word ka here means O Ka, or else we can take ka-pdbja as


one word, in which case the phrase tena me ka-pdbje mana-sandhir vidhyatm
(May this cause the sandhi of my mind with the lotus feet of Ka) is a prayer
directed toward the spiritual master.

44 / s$ainDare"k(pade" inatyaM inatyaM DaAtaUpas$agARyaAe: /


@inatyaM s$aUainadeR"zAe 'nyaa caAinatyaimaSyatae //

44.
sandhir eka-pade nitya
nitya dhtpasargayo
anitya stra-nirdee
nyatra cnityam iyate

sandhiphonetic combination; eka-padewithin a single pada (inflected word);


nityamalways; nityamalways; dhtu-upasargayoof a dhtu (verbal root) and
an upasarga (verbal prefix); anityamsometimes; stra-nirdeein expressing a
stra; anyatraelsewhere; caand; anityamsometimes; iyateis prescribed.

Sandhi is compulsory within an inflected word (pada), and the sandhi of a


dhtu and an upasarga is also compulsory. However, sandhi is optional in the
composition of a stra and in some other circumstances.

paribheyam. s cniyame niyama-kri


VttiThis is a paribh; A paribh creates a regulation where there wasnt any.

AmtaWithin an inflected word (pada) means within a sub-anta (declined noun,


pronoun, or adjective) or ti-anta (conjugated verb). Examples of these two types of
inflected words are gopyau (prior to sandhi: gop + au) and bhavati (prior to sandhi: bho
+ ati) respectively. Sandhi is also compulsory within a kdanta or taddhita because they
are sub-antas due to their being nmas.1 The sandhi of a dhtu and an upasarga as well
as the sandhi of the upasargas themselves is compulsory. For instance, adhte (prior to
sandhi: adhi + ite) is an example of the sandhi of a dhtu and an upasarga, and
vyjahra (prior to sandhi: vi + [] + jahra) is an example of the sandhi of the
upasargas themselves. rpati, the author of Ktantra-pariia (supplement to the
Ktantra-vykaraa), writes: dhtpasargayor upasargair eva (The sandhi of a dhtu
and an upasarga is compulsory, and the sandhi of an upasarga with another upasarga is
also compulsory).

Examples of sandhi being optional in composing a stra are a-dvayam i-dvaye e (48) and
kt ina (159). In vtti 91 Jva Gosvm will describe the other circumstances
where sandhi is said to be optional. Some accept that the phrase eka-pade can also
mean in a samsa and thus they consider sandhi to be compulsory in a samsa also.
Others separately supply the following phrase and thus accept the same: nity samse
vkye tu s vivakm apekate (Sandhi is compulsory in a samsa, but in a spoken
sentence (vkya) the application of sandhi depends on the desire of the speaker).

45 / s$avaRak(r"NavyaApaI vaNARmaAainaimaak(: /
vaANAAeR ivak(Ar": s$ainDa: syaA," ivaSayaApaeak(: (icata, //

45.
sarva-prakaraa-vyp
vara-mtra-nimittaka
vro vikra sandhi syd
viaypekaka kvacit

sarvaall; prakaraasections (divisions of grammar like nmas, dhtus, and so on);


vyppervading; vara-mtraa mere vara; nimittakawhose cause; vra
relating to a vara; vikratransformation; sandhisandhi; sytis; viayadomain,
scope, sphere of influence or activity; apekakadepending on; kvacitsometimes.

Sandhi pervades all prakaraas. It is the transformation of a vara, and it is


only caused by a vara. Sometimes sandhi depends on a particular
viaya.Sandhi pervades all prakaraas. It is the transformation of a vara, and
it is caused merely by a vara. Sometimes sandhi depends on a particular
viaya.

ki ca
aco ye hali salagns / te sarve parato mat
hal ca tat syd a-rmnta / yatra nnyc na cghri-bhit

1
See stra 148 for the full definition of a nma (nominal base).
tata ca ka-agre iti sthite kryrtham akara vileayen melayec ca iti nyyena
a-rma-vileak a agre; tata ca

VttiFurthermore,

aco ye hali salagns


te sarve parato mat
hal ca tat syd a-rmnta
yatra nnyc na cghri-bhit

All the vowels (ac-s) that are attached to a consonant (hal) are considered as coming
after that consonant. And where there is no other vowel and no virma1 a consonant
should be considered as ending in a-rma. MoreoverAnd after that, when we have
ka + agre, we separate a-rma by the maxim one should separate the akara for
the sake of the grammatical operation and [later] join it back. Thus we get k + a +
agre. After that the following rule applies:

AmtaBefore beginning the sandhi operations, Jva Gosvm first gives a definition
(lakaa) of sandhi with the verse beginning sarva. This grammar is comprised of seven
chapters. The first, which has just begun, is called Sandhi-prakaraa.The first one, which
is being begun now, is called Sandhi-prakaraa.2 The second is called Nma-prakaraa3,
the third khyta-prakaraa4, the fourth Kraka-prakaraa, the fifth Kdanta-prakaraa,
the sixth Samsa-prakaraa, and the seventh, Taddhita-prakaraa.

The phrase vara-mtra-nimittaka in effect means whose previous cause (pr-nimitta)


or subsequent cause (para-nimitta) is a mere vara. The etymology of the word lakaa
(definition) is lakyate jyate neneti lakaam (A lakaa is that by which
something is characterized (lakyate), or known (jyate)). In all cases, when making a
definition, the three faults, avypti, ativypti, and asambhava, are to be avoided.
Avypti (non-comprehensiveness or inadequacy of a definition) is the presence of only
one aspect of the thing sought to be defined. Ativypti (overpervasion or unwarranted
extension of a definition) is the presence of something additional beside the thing
sought to be defined. Asambhava (total inapplicability) is the presence of only
something other than the thing sought to be defined.or in other words, known
(jyate)). In all cases, when making a definition, the three faults avypti, ativypti, and
asambhava are to be avoided. Avypti (non-comprehensiveness or inadequacy of a
definition) is the presence, in the definition, of only one aspect of the thing sought to be
defined. Ativypti (overpervasion or unwarranted extension of a definition) is the

1
The word aghri-bhid in this verse literally means foot cutter. This of course refers to the virma, the
small oblique stroke placed at the foot of a consonant which signals the deletion of the inherent vowel a.
2
Bla calls this first prakaraa the Saj-sandhi-prakaraa and this edition follows suit. It should be noted
that the term prakaraa is also used for any section in general. Though Although Amta mentions that this
book is comprised of seven prakaraas, there are also subsections in each prakaraa and these are also
sometimes called prakaraas. For example, the subsection dealing with kanmas is begun by Jva
Gosvm with the heading atha kanma-prakaraam. Thus the Sandhi-prakaraa as described by
Amta must also include the subsection called Saj-prakaraa, otherwise it would have to be said that
this book is comprised of eight chapters.
3
Amta calls it Sub-anta-prakaraa here, but in most other places calls it Nma-prakaraa. This prakaraa
is also variously called Viupada-prakaraa or Nma-viupada-prakaraa.
4
This prakaraa is also sometimes called Dhtu-prakaraa.
presence, in the definition, of something other than the thing sought to be defined while
at the same time there is the presence of the thing sought to be defined. Asambhava
(total inapplicability) is the presence, in the definition, of only something other than
the thing sought to be defined.

Let us analyze this verse. When it is said, vro vikra sandhi, there would be
ativypti in regard to govinda, vndra, sakaraa, and so on, but the second part of
the verse, vara-mtra-nimittaka, eliminates that. Although govinda, vndra,
sakaraa, and so on, involve the transformation of a vara, because they are caused
by the vara of a pratyaya, they are not caused merely by nothing but a vara. There
would also be ativypti in regard to a virici like sasya jo je (492) or in regard to a rule of
deletion like sasya haro dhe (429), but the first part). Therefore the first part of the
verse, sarva-prakaraa-vyp, eliminates that. Even though such a virici or hara
involves the transformation of a vara and is caused only by a vara, it does not
pervade all the prakaraas because it is isolated due to appearing under the heading
(adhikra) dhto (366). But even though ativypti has been eliminated in this way,
there would be still be avypti in regard to kakub, ka-bhud, and so on, because
there is no harighoa to cause the sandhi (see stra 96). Therefore, to eliminate this, the
fourth part of the verse, viaypekaka kvacit, is given. (In kakub, ka-bhud, and
so on, the sandhi is made by stra 96 because the viaya is viupadnta; no nimitta is
required.) Thus,required) . Thus, when the other three conditions are in place, the third
part of the verse, vro vikra sandhi syt (sandhi is the transformation of a vara),
is an unassailable definition of sandhi.

46 / d"zAAvataAr" Wk(Atmake( imailatvaA iaiva(ma: /

46. davatra ektmake militv trivikrama

davatradavatara; ektmakewhen an ektmaka follows; militvjoining;


trivikramatrivikrama.

When a davatra is followed by its ektmaka, it joins with the ektmaka and
becomes trivikrama.
davatra-nm vara ektmake vare pare sati tena militv trivikramo bhavati. tata
ca -rmasya punar melanakgre. eva rdh gat rdhgat, hari hari iti hari
harti, hari-h harh, viu-udaya vidaya, viu-h vih, nara-bhrt-
i nara-bhrti, gam--kra gam -kra.

VttiWhen an ektmaka vara follows, the davatra vara joins with it and becomes
trivikrama. After that the -rma [formed by the combination of a + agre] is joined back
again and we get kgre.

ka + agre k + a + agre (46) k + gre kgre (in front of


Ka)

rdh + gat rdh + + gat (46) rdh + gat rdhgat (Rdh


has come)
hari hari + iti hari har + i + iti (46) hari har + ti hari harti (Hari Hari)

hari + h har + i + h (46) har + h harh (Haris pastime)

viu + udaya vi + u + udaya (46) vi + daya vidaya


(Vius appearance)

viu + h vi + u + h (46) vi + h vih (Viu's


wife)

nara-bhrt + i nara-bhrt + + i (46) nara-bhrt + i nara-


bhrti (Naras brother, the sage Nryaa)

gam + -kra gam + + -kra (46) gam + -kra gam -kra


(the dhtu gam[] and the sound )

AmtaSomeone may argue, Although this stra is useful in cases like ka + agre,
it is useless in cases like rdh + gat, because the trivikrama was already achieved
previously. Thus wouldnt it be better to say vmana ektmake militv trivikrama? The
answer is no, because, if the stra were made in that way, rdh + gat would remain
always uncombined, because the sandhi of a trivikrama would be unordained. And by
arranging this stra in any other way there would still be various faults. Some dont
accept that can become drgha (trivikrama). In their opinion gam + -kra only
becomes gam-kra. The sandhi being described in this stra is a transformation
(vikra) of the davatra vara into a single trivikrama by joining the davatra vara
with the ektmaka vara.

Saodhin In these examples the akara that is to undergo sandhi is first


separated in accordance with the maxim described in the previous vtti. Then the
present stra is applied causing the akara to join with its following ektmaka and
become trivikrama. Finally, by the same maxim, the new akara is joined back into the
word from which it came. However, the procedure prescribed in this maxim is somewhat
unnecessary and after this stra Jva Gosvm no longer bothers to show these steps,
except in vtti 52. Thus, from now on, this edition also will not show these steps; rather
the student should understand them as being implicit.

47 / [%"yala{"yayaAere"k(Atmak(tvaM vaAcyama, /

47. -dvaya--dvayayor ektmakatva vcyam

-dvaya--dvayayoof -dvaya and -dvaya; ektmakatvambeing ektmakas;


vcyamshould be stated.
-dvaya and -dvaya are said to be ektmakas.

--dvayam -dvayam, --dvayam -dvayam ity-di. do vidhir virici.


kartavyatvenopadeo vidhir iti.

VttiExamples are as below.

+ -dvayam (47, 46) -dvayam

+ -dvayam (47, 46) -dvayam

This kind of vidhi (stra 46) is a virici. The definition of vidhi (rule) is an injunction
that has to be followed.

SaodhinBy this stra, the varas , , , and are all ektmakas of each other.
Thus we can apply davatra ektmake militv trivikrama (46) as shown in the
examples above. Davatra ektmake militv trivikrama is a virici-vidhi because it
ordains the substitution of a trivikrama in place of the davatra. Similarly, the next
stra is also a virici-vidhi because it ordains the substitution of e in the place of a or .

48 / @"yaima"yae W /

48. a-dvayam i-dvaye e

a-dvayama-dvaya; i-dvayewhen i-dvaya follows; ee-rma.

When a-dvaya is followed by i-dvaya, it joins with i-dvaya and becomes e.

a iti dvayam i iti dvaye pare tena militv e-rmo bhavati. ydava-indra
ydavendra, gokula-a gokulea, mathur-a mathurea.

VttiWhen i or follows, a or joins with it and becomes e-rma.

ydava + indra (48) ydavendra (Lord of the Yadus)

gokula + a (48) gokulea (Lord of Gokula)

mathur + a (48) mathurea (Lord of Mathur)

49 / aAde"SaESyayaAevaAR taTaA /

49. prd eaiyayor v tath

prtafter the upendra pra; ea-eyayowhen the words ea or eya follows; v


optionally; tathin the same way.
When ea or eya comes after pra, the same sandhi is optional.

prt uttarasmt ea-eyayo parayos tath sandhir v bhavati. pra-ea prea, pra-
eya preya. pake e-dvaye ai, praia praiya.

VttiWhen ea or eya comes after pra, the same sandhi is optional.

pra + ea (49) prea (impelling)

pra + eya (49) preya (to be impelled, a servant)

In the other case, we apply e-dvaye ai (55).

pra + ea (55) praia (impelling)

pra + eya (55) praiya (to be impelled, a servant)

AmtaThe resultant meaning is that when ea or eya follows, a-rma optionally joins
with e-rma and becomes e-rma. But when that option is not exercised, e-dvaye ai (55)
is applied.

50 / o"yae @Ae /

50. u-dvaye o

u-dvayewhen u-dvaya follows; oo-rma.

When a-dvaya is followed by u-dvaya, it joins with u-dvaya and becomes o.

a iti dvayam u iti dvaye pare militv o-rmo bhavati. a-dvayam atra prvato
nuvartate. yad uktam
kryi hanyate kry / krya kryea hanyate
nimitta ca nimittena / yac cheam anuvartate iti.
purua-uttama puruottama, supara-ha suparoha, dvrak-utsava
dvrakotsava.

VttiWhen u or follows, a or joins with it and becomes o-rma. The word a-


dvayam, in this stra, is carried forward (anuvartate) from the previous stra. This is in
accordance with the following verse:

kryi hanyate kry


krya kryea hanyate
nimitta ca nimittena
yac cheam anuvartate

A kry is eliminated by a kry. A krya is eliminated by a krya. A nimitta is


eliminated by a nimitta. And that which remains is carried forward (anuvartate).
purua + uttama (50) puruottama (the Supreme Person)

supara + ha (50) suparoha (He who is carried by Garua, namely


Ka)

dvrak + utsava (50) dvrakotsava (a festival in Dvrak)

AmtaSomeone may object, From where did he get a iti dvayam in the vtti? It
cannot be seen in the stra. In answer to that Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence
beginning a-dvayam. He justifies the carrying forward of a-dvayam from the previous
stra by quoting a krik (concise explanatory verse) of the earlier grammarians. A
kary is that which undergoes the krya. A krya is that which is done. A nimitta
(cause) is that without which the krya cannot take place. And that isNimittas are of
two kinds: previous (pr-nimitta) and subsequent (para-nimitta).kindsprevious or
subsequent (pr-nimitta or para-nimitta). Here [in stras 48 and 50] the para-nimitta i-
dvaya is eliminated by the para-nimitta u-dvaya, and the krya e-rma is eliminated by
the krya o-rma. But the kry a-dvaya is not eliminated by anything and is therefore
carried forwardanything, therefore it is carried forward (anuvartate). The terms anuvtti1
and adhikra are synonymous. And tThere are three kinds of adhikras: gag-srota,
sihvalokita, and maka-pluti. The adhikra known as gag-srota (the flow of the
Gag) is so named because it carries forward from a previous stra to the subsequent
stras those elements that are not eliminated, just as the flow of a river, when left
unchecked, naturally continues from an earlier location to later locations. The other two
types of adhikras will be seen in the Samsa and Taddhita-prakaraas.river naturally
continues from an earlier location to later locations when left unchecked. The other two
types of adhikras will be seen in the Samsa and Taddhita-prakaraas.

SaodhinA krya is the particular grammatical operation ordained by a stra, .


There are three kinds of kryas: dea (replacement, change), gama (insertion),
and lopa (deletion). That which undergoes the krya is called the kry, and that
which causes the krya is called the nimitta. The pr-nimitta is a nimitta that comes
before the kry and the para-nimitta is a nimitta that comes after (para) the kry.
Prk means previous, before and para means subsequent, after. Thus the nimittas
are of two kinds. An example of a pr-nimitta is e-obhym in e-obhym asya haro
viupadnte (67). In this stra the krya is deletion, the kry is a-rma, and the
nimitta is e-rma or o-rma. The deletion cannot take place unless the e-rma or o-rma
comes immediately before the kry, a-rma. An example of a para-nimitta is u-dvaye in
the current stra. In the current stra, the krya is the change to o-rma, the kry is a-
dvaya together with u-dvaya, and the nimitta is u-dvaya. The change to o-rma cannot
take place unless the u-dvaya comes immediately after the kry, a-dvaya. For further
details and examples regarding the krya, kry, and nimitta, see vtti 155.

51 / @Aeima ca taTaA /

51. omi ca tath

1
Anuvtti (carrying forward) is from the same dhtu as anuvartate, namely anu + vt[u].
omiwhen okra follows; caalso; tathin the same way.

The same sandhi takes place when om follows.

ka om kom.

Vtti ka + om (51) kom.

AmtaWhen om follows, a-dvaya also becomes o-rma as described in the last stra.
This means that a-dvaya joins with the o-rma of om and becomes o-rma. The
ordaining of o-rma here blocks the au-rma that would otherwise be obtained by o-
dvaye au (57).

52 / [%"yae @r," /

52. -dvaye ar

-dvayewhen -dvaya follows; arar.

When a-dvaya is followed by -dvaya, it joins with -dvaya and becomes ar.

a iti dvayam iti dvaye pare militv ar bhavati. ka-ddhi k arddhi iti sthite
jala-tumbik-nyyena prva-viujanasya parordhva-gamanam; jala-bluk-nyyena
para-sarvevarasya prva-viujane pravea. karddhi.

VttiWhen or follows, a or joins with it and becomes ar. When ka + ddhi


becomes k + arddhi [by applying this stra and the maxim described in vtti 45]
the previous viujana (r) goes on top of the subsequent one (d) by the jala-tumbik-
nyya (maxim of the bottle gourd on water) and the subsequent sarvevara (a) enters
into the previous viujana () by the jala-bluk-nyya (maxim of sand on water).
Thus we get karddhi.

ka + ddhi (52) karddhi (the prosperity of Ka)

AmtaJala-tumbik-nyya means that a previous viujana goes on top of a following


viujana, just as a dried out tumbik (bottle gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris) devoid of its
pulp will come to float on the water, even if it is submerged within the water. Jala-
bluk-nyya means that a subsequent sarvevara enters a previous viujana just as
sand settles at the bottom of the water, even if it is thrown on top of the water.

SaodhinThese nyyas prescribe the way in which the letters ought to be


combined in such scripts as Devangar. When we have k{(SNA +[%i":, we apply this
stra and the maxim described in vtti 45 and thus we get k{(SNA, +@r,"i":. The question
then arises what to do with the new syllable @r, . Are we to join the whole thing back into
k{(SNA, ? Thus Jva Gosvm introduces these two nyyas that tell us, in effect, to join the
@ of @r, back into k{(SNA, , and to place the r, of @r, on top of i":. At this point we have to
use a different character to write the letter r. When the letter r is the first letter in a
conjuct consonant it is written as = , and when it is the second or third member in a
conjuct consonant is written as ; . Thus r, +i": will be written as iR": (the letter = is
placed to the right of any other marks at the top of the same letter). Thus after applying
these two nyyas we get k{(SNAiR":.

An example of when the letter r is the second letter in a conjuct consonant is aja (here
the letter r is written as ; as it is the second letter in the conjuct consonant vra. The
letter ; is always written underneath the previous letter of the conjuct consonant,
usually by attaching it to the vertical stem of that letter, as was done in aja. An example
of when the letter r is the third letter in a conjuct consonant is wn" . Here r is the third
letter of the conjuct consonant ndra. The statement a previous viujana goes on top of
the subsequent one by the jala-tumbik-nyya is actually more or less a general
principle in the formation of conjuct consonants. For example, when we want to combine
x.~ +k( we put the x.~ on top of the k( to form , and to combine Ha, +ca we put the Ha, on
top of the ca to form a. However, this is not always the case. Some letters, by
convention, do not go on top of the subsequent letter, but rather lose their vertical stem
and are placed immediately to the left of the subsequent letter. For example, when we
want to combine ta, +ma the letter ta, will lose its vertical stem and be placed to the left
of ma to form tma. Similarly, na, +d" combine to form nd and so on. A full list of conjuct
consonants will be given in stra 82.

53 / la{"yae @la, /

53. -dvaye al

-dvayewhen -dvaya follows; alal.

When a-dvaya is followed by -dvaya, it joins with -dvaya and becomes al.

a iti dvayam iti dvaye pare militv al bhavati. yamun -kryate yamunal-
kryate.

VttiWhen or follows, a or joins with it and becomes al.

yamun + -kryate (53) yamunal-kryate (the Yamun imitates the


sound )

AmtaHere the suffix [k]ya[] has been applied, by stra 870, to the word -kra to
form -kryate.

54 / paunar""yas$anDaAE @Ax~Ade"zA: par"inaimaava"(vya: /

54. punar-a-dvaya-sandhau -dea para-nimitta-vad vaktavya


punaagain; a-dvayaof the pair a and ; sandhauwhen there is phonetic
combination; -deathe substitute of []; para-nimitta-vatlike the subsequent
cause; vaktavyashould be stated.

When there is sandhi of a-dvaya again, the dea of [] should be treated like
the para-nimitta.

atideo yam. anya-tulyatva-vidhnam atidea. atr-rmasya ittva kriy-yoge iti


vakyate. -ihi ehi, ka ehi kehi. -h oh, ka oh koh. -ddhi
arddhi, ka arddhi karddhi. --fkryate al-kryate, yamun al-kryate
yamunal-kryate.

VttiThis is an atidea. An atidea ordains similarity to another. It will be described


later [in vtti 70] that -rma has the indicatory letter when there is kriy-yoga
(connection with a verb).

+ ihi (48) ehi ka + ehi (54, 48) kehi (Come, O Ka)

+ h (50) oh ka + oh (54, 50) koh (one who is


carried home by Ka, in other words Kas wife)

+ ddhi (52) arddhi ka + arddhi (54, 52) karddhi


(a slight opulence of Ka)

+ -kryate (53) al-kryate yamun + al-kryate (54, 53)


yamunal-kryate (the Yamun slightly imitates the sound )

AmtaSomeone may ask, Why isnt the dea of [] treated like the para-nimitta in
the sentence tm upaihi? The answer is that in this stra only the upasarga is accepted
by the word [] in -dea, but in the word upaihi the [] is just the avyaya [] that
happens to look the same as the upasarga. Thus there is no fault.

SaodhinThis stra is an atidea because it ordains that the dea of [] should be


like the para-nimitta. Generally one can recognize an atidea-stra by the presence of
the word vat (like). In the examples above [] is shown without its indicatory letter.
The first two steps in each example show the previous sandhi of a-dvaya, while the
second two steps show cases when the sandhi of a-dvaya again takes place. In these
examples the para-nimitta is the i in ihi, the in h, and so on, while the dea of []
is the e in ehi, the o in oh, and so on. When it comes time to apply the second sandhi
of a-dvaya, as shown in the second two steps, we apply the current stra that, in effect,
tells us to treat the e as i, the o as , and so on. Thus we apply a-dvayam i-dvaye e, u-
dvaye o, and so on.

Usually this rule is overlooked by less experienced Sanskrit editors due to its technical
nature and rare application. For example, in the Bhgavatam editions put out by Ka-
akra str and the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ihaitya in 3.15.32, jtvaitya in 9.9.42,
tatraitya in 10.2.28, advaitya in 10.13.16, tyaktvaihi in 10.66.6, upaihi in 10.80.10,
and ihaitya 12.2.38 should be ihetya, jtvetya, tatretya, advetya, tyaktvehi, upehi,
and ihetya respectively. This rule is not optional, nor is its Pinian equivalent om o
ca (Adhyy 6.1.95). Thus there is no excuse for not applying it. Indeed, what is
listed as ihaitya in 3.15.32, tatraitya in 10.2.28, and ihaitya 12.2.38 in some editions, is
listed as ihetya, tatretya, and ihetya respectively in the edition of the Bhgavatam put
out by the Gauya Maha. This is probably because the editor of this edition was
familiar with Harinmmta-vykaraa, an edition of which was also put out by the
Gauya Maha. In these examples, we have the words ehi and etya. The formation of
ehi <vidht pa. 2.1 of [] + i[] gatau> was already shown here in the vtti, but the
formation of etya is as follows: The upendra [] is compounded with i[] gatau + ktv by
upendrory-di-vy-antj-anta-prva-padni kdantena samasyante, prva-pada tv am-
antenaivvyaya-kdantena (). At this time ktv changes to ya[p] by ktvo yab a-na-
prva-samse, and the gama t[uk] is inserted by vmant tuk pthau (). Thus we get
[] + itya. Then the first a-dvaya-sandhi is done by stra 46 and we get etya.

55 / W"yae We /

55. e-dvaye ai

e-dvayewhen e-dvaya follows; aiai-rma.

When a-dvaya is followed by e-dvaya, it joins with e-dvaya and becomes ai.

a iti dvayam e ai iti dvaye pare militv ai-rmo bhavati. ka-eka-ntha kaika-
ntha. ka-aivarya kaivaryam.

VttiWhen e or ai follows, a or joins with it and becomes ai-rma.

ka + eka-ntha (55) kaika-ntha (one whose only master is


Ka)

ka + aivaryam (55) kaivaryam (Kas opulence)

56 / svaAd"Ire"ir"NAAe taTaA /

56. svd rerio ca tath

svtafter the word sva; ra-riowhen the word ra or rin follows; caalso; tath
in the same way.

When ra or rin comes after sva, the same sandhi takes place.

sva-ra svairam, sva-r svair. svairi ca, nmno grahae liga-viiasypi


grahaam iti nyyt.

Vtti sva + ram (56) svairam (moving according to ones will)

sva + r (56) svair (one who moves according to his own will)
The word svairin is also made by the same sandhi, in accordance with the following
maxim: nmno grahae liga-viiasypi grahaam (when a noun (nma) is
mentioned, its form in a particular gender (liga) is also included).

AmtaThis means that when ra or rin follows, a-rma joins with it and becomes ai-
rma just like in the previous stra. The ordaining of ai-rma here blocks the e-rma that
would otherwise be obtained by applying a-dvayam i-dvaye e (48). Someone may argue,
How is the word svairi achieved? Because the feminine form ri is not mentioned
in the stra. In reply to that Jva Gosvm speaks the nyya beginning nmna. The
etymology of the word liga is ligyate jyate neneti ligam (A liga is that by which
something is indicated (ligyate), or in other words, known (jyate)). Liga means the
sign that informs us of masculinity, femininity, or neutrality.

SaodhinIn grammar, liga means gender. Nouns are classified into three genders:
masculine gender (pu-liga), feminine gender (str-liga), and neuter gender
(napusaka-liga). The word ra, formed from the dhtu r[a] gatau kampane ca (2A, to
go; to shake), is only used in the masculine gender because it is made with the kt
pratyaya [gh]a[] (see stra). The word rin, however, can be used in all three genders
because it is made with the kt pratyaya []in[i] (see stra).1 The word r in the
example above is the masculine first case singular form of rin, while ri is the
feminine first case singular form.

57 / @Ae"yae @AE /

57. o-dvaye au

o-dvayewhen o-dvaya follows; auau-rma.

When a-dvaya is followed by o-dvaya, it joins with o-dvaya and becomes au.

a iti dvayam o au iti dvaye pare militv au-rmo bhavati. ka-odana kaudanam,
ka-aunnatya kaunnatyam.

VttiWhen o or au follows, a or joins with it and becomes au-rma.

ka + odanam (57) kaudanam (Kas boiled rice)

ka + aunnatyam (57) kaunnatyam (Kas height)

1
The examples in the vtti are from Ktyyanas vrttik to Adhyy 6.1.89. Siddhnta-kaumud
confirms that ra is formed by adding the suffix [gh]a[] and that rin is formed by adding the kt
pratyaya []in[i]. We have translated the words svairam and svair in accordance with the following
definitions found there: svairamsvenbhipryea raam and svairsvenbhipryea rte gacchati.
The affix [gh]a[] is applied only in the masculine gender by gha-al-athu-kaya pusi (). Thus unless we
take the word ram in the example sva + ram to be masculine second case singular it would seem to be
a deviation from the masculinity assigned to the suffix [gh]a[].
58 / aAU"X#AeX#YaAe taTaA /

58. prd hohyo ca tath

prtafter the upendra pra; ha-hyowhen the words ha or hi follow; ca


also; tathin the same way.

When ha or hi comes after pra, the same sandhi takes place.

pra-ha prauha, pra-hi prauhi. ham iti kecit pahanti, prauha. neha
prohavn, arthavad-grahae narthakasya na grahaam iti nyyt.

Vtti pra + ha (58) prauha (elevated)

pra + hi (58) prauhi (elevation)

Some list ha1 and thus form prauha. This rule doesnt apply in prohavn because of
the following maxim: arthavad-grahae narthakasya na grahaam (When something
that has meaning is mentioned, one should not accept something that doesnt have
meaning).

AmtaThis means that when ha or hi follows, a-rma joins with it and becomes
au-rma just like in the previous stra. The ordaining of au-rma here blocks the o-rma
that would otherwise be obtained by u-dvaye o (50). Regarding the maxim beginning
arthavad, only the combination of the prakti and the pratyaya can convey the meaning]
Thus, since the ha portion of the word havat, a word ending in the suffix [k]tavat[u],
is itself devoid of meaning, this stra doesnt apply when havat follows.

Saodhinhavn is the first case singular form of the word havat. So, when we
have pra + havn, we cannot apply the current stra just because the word havat
includes the portion ha. Only the full word havat has meaning. Thus, when we
isolate the portion ha from it, that portion has no meaning, just like if we were to
isolate the portion acc from the English word accept it would also have no meaning.
Therefore, applying the maxim given in the vtti, pra + havn only becomes
prohavn by u-dvaye o (50).

59 / w"yamaeva ya: s$avaeRre" /

59. i-dvayam eva ya sarvevare

i-dvayami-dvaya; evaonly; yaya-rma; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.

I-dvaya becomes y when a sarvevara follows.

1
Ktyyanas vrttik to Adhyy 6.1.89, the original source of this injunction, lists all three words,
ha, ha, and hi. Again the word ha is made by adding the suffix [gh]a[], this time to the dhtu
h[a] (vitarke). Because the word ha is made with [gh]a[], it is used only in the masculine gender. Thus
Jva Gosvm has shown the example prauha, the masculine singular.
(I) i iti dvayam eva sarvevare pare ya-rmo bhavati, na tu militv. ya ity a-rma
uccrartha. evam anyatrpi. hari-arcana hary-arcanam, hari-sana hary-sanam,
dadhi upendrasya dadhy upendrasya, rukmi e rukmiy e. etvataiva siddhi.
dvitva-vikalpena tu matntari vakyante. tasmd asiddha-rpa na tyjyam iti
pratij ntra vyabhicarati. katha hari harti? ektmakatm avalambya trivikrama-
vidher vieatvena balavattvt. tath hisamasta-vypi smnyam, eka-dea-vyp
viea; smnya-vidhir utsargo, viea-vidhir apavda iti sthite prva-parayo para-
vidhir balavn, nitynityayor nitya, antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga,
utsargpavdayor apavda. teu cottarottara iti. davatre smnyatva cet tatr-
dvayam ity eva kriyeta, vidaya ity dv api para-para-stra-prpte. tad evam ete
cnye ca nyy yukty prasiddhy ca sv-ktatvt prvam uttara ca grantha
vypnuvanti.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, i or becomes ya-rma but the i or doesnt join


with the sarvevara. The a in ya is to facilitate pronunciation. Such is the case
elsewhere also. 1

hari + arcanam (59) hary-arcanam (Haris worship)

hari + sanam (59) hary-sanam (Haris seat)

dadhi + upendrasya (59) dadhy upendrasya (Upendras yoghurt)

rukmi + e (59) rukmiy e (This is Rukmi)

There is completeness by this much alone. But other opinions will be described later in
terms of reduplication and the optionality of sandhi. Therefore the promise asiddha-
rpa na tyjyam (43) does not fail here.

AmtaThe word eva in this stra causes the removal of the word militv. The words
etvataiva (etvat + eva) mean by just this specimen of these examples. There is no
deviation from the promise asiddha-rpa na tyjyam (43), because the cases where
sandhi doesnt take place as well as the cases where there is reduplication are not
described here as they will be explained later by creating separate stras.

SaodhinThe sentence etvataiva siddhi means that these four examples, hari +
arcanam and so on, can also yield alternate forms by the rules of reduplication and non-
sandhi described in stras 91 and 120-122 respectively, but the forms made by the
current stra, hary-arcanam and so on, are finished forms that do not require any further
steps for their completion. Therefore the promise asiddha-rpa na tyjyam (43) remains
unbroken.

(II) katha hari harti? ektmakatm avalambya trivikrama-vidher vieatvena


balavattvt. tath hisamasta-vypi smnyam, eka-dea-vyp viea; smnya-
vidhir utsargo, viea-vidhir apavda iti sthite prva-parayo para-vidhir balavn,

1
As in the next three stras, for example. Such here refers to not joining with the sarvevara and also
the use of a to facilitate pronunciation.
nitynityayor nitya, antaraga-bahiragayor antaraga, utsargpavdayor apavda.
teu cottarottara iti.

VttiHow is there hari harti? Because davatra ektmake militv trivikrama (46)
is stronger [than the current stra] due to its depending on the presence of an ektmaka
and thus being viea. In that regard, that which pervades the whole group is called
smnya (general), while that which pervades one section of the group is called
viea (specific). A smnya rule is called an utsarga (a general rule), and a viea
rule is called an apavda (an exception, a specific rule which sets aside the general
rule). When that is established:

1. Out of an earlier rule and a later rule, the later rule is stronger.
2. Out of a nitya (constant) rule and an anitya (inconstant) rule, the nitya rule is
stronger.1
3. Out of an antaraga rule and a bahiraga rule, the antaraga rule is stronger.2
4. Out of an utsarga and an apavda, the apavda is stronger.

And out of these four nyyas, each later one is stronger than the previous ones.

AmtaIn order to dispel the uncertainty as to whether the current stra should be
applied in the previously described examples like hari harti (vtti 46), Jva Gosvm
reconciles the doubt with the sentence beginning ektmakatm. He further strengthens
that conclusion with the nyyas beginning tath hi. In this stra the para-nimitta,
sarvevara, is smnya because it pervades the whole group [of fourteen varas called
sarvevaras], while in davatra ektmake militv trivikrama (46) the para-nimitta,
ektmaka, is viea because it pervades only one section [among the sarvevaras,
namely that pair of varas which are ektmakas of the davatra]. Here the word teu
means out of the four nyyas and uttarottara means the nyya that is later
according to the order given above. Thus the sentence means, And out of the four
nyyas, the nyya that is later according to the order given above is stronger. Thus the
resultant meaning is that a compulsory rule is stronger than a later rule, an antaraga
rule is stronger than a compulsory rule, and an apavda is stronger than an antaraga
rule.

SaodhinThese nyyas are standard paribhs that can be found in Ngea


Bhaas Paribhendu-ekhara. In grammar, the terms nyya and paribh refer to a
rule or maxim which teaches the proper interpretation or application of other rules.
When different stras prescribe conflicting operations (kryas), these paribhs
intervene and regulate the situation by telling us which of the stras should actually be
applied. The word balavn (literally strong) can be translated as overrules, sets
aside, indicating that one rule is applied instead of another. The reason why the phrase
teu cottarottara is so important can be seen even in the present situation. By the first
1
Nitya and anitya here do not mean compulsory and optional, but rather mean constant and not
constant. In this regard, the definition of nitya is ktkta-prasagi (a rule that is applied both when the
other rule is applied and when the other rule is not applied, in other words, a rule that is applied
regardless of whether or not the other rule is applied). In this regard, the other rule is looked upon as
being anitya, meaning that it is not nitya. In vtti 194 Jva Gosvm offers a similar definition of nitya with
the words kte py akte ya syt sa nitya. Another common definition of nitya is kvacit-ktkta-
prasaga-mtrepi nityat (Paribhendu-ekhara pariccheda 45).
2
The terms antaraga and bahiraga will be described in detail in vtti 211.
paribh, the current stra overrules stra 46 because it is a later rule. But by the
fourth paribh, stra 46 overrules the current stra because it is an apavda. Thus,
when there is conflict even among the paribhs, the phrase teu cottarottara
reconciles the situation by telling us to apply the later paribh over the earlier one.
Therefore, in this situation, we follow the fourth paribh and apply stra 46.

(III) davatre smnyatva cet tatr-dvayam ity eva kriyeta, vidaya ity dv api
para-para-stra-prpte. tad evam ete cnye ca nyy yukty prasiddhy ca sv-
ktatvt prvam uttara ca grantha vypnuvanti.

VttiIf the quality of smnya were present in davatra, then a-dvaya should have
been put in its place because later stras cover the examples like vidaya and so on.
Thus, in this way, these and other nyyas pervade both the earlier and later portions of
the book because they are accepted either on the basis of logic or because they are
well-known facts.

AmtaIn essence, this means If the quality of smnya was suspected to be present
in davatra, then in davatra ektmake militv trivikrama (46) I should have put a-
dvayam instead of davatra. The intention here is as follows: It is established that a-
dvaya is viea because the prescription for making it trivikrama is not overruled by
anything else. Because the prescription for making i-dvaya and so on trivikrama was
also made in the same place together with the prescription for making a-dvaya
trivikrama, it is established that davatra is also viea. However, if davatra were
smnya, then because a-dvaya is included within davatra, the prescription for
making a davatra into a trivikrama should not have been made and the stra should
have been ordained separately as a-dvayam ektmake militv trivikrama.

Someone may wonder, If only a-dvayam were made what would happen to i-dvaya, u-
dvaya, and so on? In answer to that, Jva Gosvm speaks the phrase beginning
vidaya, the meaning of which is as follows: The trivikrama of hari hari + iti and so on
would be overruled by i-dvayam eva ya sarvevare (59). The trivikrama of viu +
udaya and so on would be overruled by u-dvaya va (60). Similarly, the trivikrama of -
dvaya and -dvaya would be overruled by -dvaya ra (61) and -dvaya la (62)
respectively. Thus, due to the very fact that Jva Gosvm didnt say a-dvayam in stra
46, it should be understood that davatra is viea. Therefore i-dvaya becomes y only
when a sarvevara other than an ektmaka follows, Only in this explanation is there full
propriety. The same should be understood for the next three stras also.

60 / o"yaM va: /

60. u-dvaya va

u-dvayamu-dvaya; vava-rma.

U-dvaya becomes v when a sarvevara follows.

u iti dvaya sarvevare pare va-rmo bhavati. madhu-ari madhv-ari, viu-rita


viv-rita.
VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, u or becomes va-rma.

madhu + ari (60) madhv-ari (the enemy of Madhu)

viu + rita (60) viv-rita (one who has taken shelter of Viu)

AmtaThe word sarvevare is carried forward from the previous stra. Here also u-
dvaya becomes v only when a sarvevara other than an ektmaka follows. Such is the
case in the next two stras also.

61 / [%"yaM r": /

61. -dvaya ra

-dvayam-dvaya; rara-rma.

-dvaya becomes r when a sarvevara follows.

iti dvaya sarvevare pare ra-rmo bhavati. rma-bhrt-udaya rma-bhrtr-


udaya. rma-bhrt-aivarya rma-bhrtr-aivaryam.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, or becomes ra-rma.

rma-bhrt + udaya (61) rma-bhrtr-udaya (the appearance of Rmas


brother)

rma-bhrt + aivaryam (61) rma-bhrtr-aivaryam (the opulence of


Rmas brother)

62 / la{"yaM la: /

62. -dvaya la

-dvayam -dvaya; lala-rma.

When a sarvevara follows, -dvaya becomes l.

iti dvaya sarvevare pare la-rmo bhavati. ak-artha akl-artha. rpater eva.
vyi-glavayor matena madhye eva ya-va-ra-l bhavanti. hariy-arcanam, madhuv-ari
bhuv-di ity-di.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, or becomes la-rma.

ak + artha (62) akl-artha (the meaning of the dhtu ak[])


These rules (59-62) are the opinion of scholars like rpati. According to the opinion of
Vyi and Glava, however, y, v, r, and l should simply be inserted in the middle.
Following their methodology the examples are as below and so on:

hari + arcanam hariy-arcanam

madhu + ari madhuv-ari

bh + di bhuv-di

AmtaHere the word eva [in rpater eva] expresses comparison. This is in
accordance with the following definition from Viva-koa: evaupamye vadhrae (The
word eva is used in the sense of comparison or in the sense of restriction).

63 / W @ya, /

63. e ay

ee-rma; ayay.
When a sarvevara follows, e becomes ay.

e-rma ay bhavati sarvevare pare. ke utkara kay utkara.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, e-rma becomes ay.

ke + utkara (63) kay utkara (Kas eminence)

64 / We @Aya, /

64. ai y

aiai-rma; yy.

When a sarvevara follows, ai becomes y.

ai-rma y bhavati sarvevare pare. yamunyai argha yamunyy argha, gopyai


sana gopyy sanam.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, ai-rma becomes y.

yamunyai + argha (64) yamunyy argha (argha offering for the


Yamun)

gopyai + sanam (64) gopyy sanam (a seat for the gop)


65 / @Ae @va, /

65. o av

oo-rma; avav.

When a sarvevara follows, o becomes av.

o-rma av bhavati sarvevare pare. vio iha viav iha.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, o-rma becomes av.

vio + iha (65) viav iha (Here, O Viu)

66 / @AE @Ava, /

66. au v

auau-rma; vv.

When a sarvevara follows, au becomes v.

au-rma v bhavati sarvevare pare. kau atra kv atra.

VttiWhen a sarvevara follows, au-rma becomes v.

kau + atra (66) kv atra (The two Kas are here)

67 / W@AeByaAmasya h"r"Ae ivaSNAupad"Antae /

67. e-obhym asya haro viupadnte

e-obhymafter e-rma or o-rma; asyaof a-rma; haradeletion; viupada-ante


at the end of a viupada1 (inflected word).

A-rma is deleted when it comes after an e or o that is at the end of a


viupada.

e-obhy viupadnte sthitbhy parasya a-rmasya haro bhavati. hare atra hare
tra, vio atra vio tra.

VttiA-rma is deleted when it comes after an e or o situated at the end of a


viupada.

hare + atra (67) hare tra (Here, O Hari)

1
The definition of a viupada will be given in stra 154.
vio + atra (67) vio tra (Here, O Viu)

AmtaThis stra overrides the substitutions of ay for e and av for o that would have
been obtained by e ay (63) and o av (65) respectively. Thus e and o are replaced by ay
and av only when a sarvevara other than a-rma follows. But when a-rma follows, only
the deletion of a-rma is done. However, when e or o are not at the end of a viupada,
they are always replaced by ay and av, even if a-rma is the following sarvevara.

SaodhinIn the Devangar script aA sign called avagraha (') is used to mark the
deletion of an initial a in the Devangar script.a. In the roman transliteration, however,
the avagraha is represented by an apostrophe (). Thus, in the example above, h"re + @a
becomes h"re"'a, which is represented as hare tra in the roman transliteration. The
avagraha is also occasionally used to markThe avagraha is also used occasionally to
mark the combination of an initial a or with the final vowel of a preceding word. In this
case the avagraha may be written twice. For instance, the examples from vtti 46 would
be written as either as k{(SNAA'ae and r"ADaA'gAtaA or k{(SNAA''ae and r"ADaA''gAtaA. This
system, however, is generally out of fashion; the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust does not use
it. Thus these examples would usually be written as k{(SNAAae and r"ADaAgAtaA.

68 / @yaAd"InaAM yavayaAevaAR /

68. ay-dn ya-vayor v

ay-dnmof the replacements ay and so on [described in stras 63 to 66]; ya-vayo


of the y or v; voptionally.

The y and v of ay and so on are optionally deleted when they are at the end of
a viupada.

ay y av v ity e viricn ya-vayor v haro bhavati viupadnte viaye. kay


utkara ka utkara; yamunyy argha yamuny argha; gopyy sana gopy
sana; viav iha via iha; kv atra k atra. ya-vv imv at-sparinv at-
spari-tarau ca matau.

VttiThe y and v of the viricis ay, y, av, and v are optionally deleted when the
viaya (sphere of activity, scope) is viupadnta (the end of an inflected word).

kay utkara (vtti 63) (68) kay utkara or ka utkara

yamunyy argha (vtti 64) (68) yamunyy argha or yamuny argha

gopyy sanam (vtti 64) (68) gopyy sanam or gopy sanam

viav iha (vtti 65) (68) viav iha or via iha

kv atra (vtti 66) (68) kv atra or k atra


The y and v of ay and so on are considered either at-spar or at-spari-tara.

SaodhinAs the vtti indicates, the word viupadnte is carried forward here.
Thus this rule does not apply in jayati <acyuta 1.1 of ji jaye (1P, to conquer)> and so
on. In the word viupadnte the seventh case is used to denote the viaya (sphere of
activity) as the phrase viupadnte viaye (when the viaya is viupadnta) in the
vtti indicates. This usage of the seventh case is called viaya-saptam. Often, by
extension, a word where the seventh case is thus used is also called a viaya-saptam
(see vtti 155). The viaya refers to the circumstances under which the krya is allowed
to take place. It is the scope of a rule. And because the krya acts upon the kry, the
viaya often refers simply to the location of the kry (the phrase viupadnte
vartamno viudsa in vtti 97 is proof of this). Therefore above we have translated
viupadnte as when they (the krys y and v) are at the end of a viupada.
Similarly, in later translations we have also tried to match the viaya with the location of
the kry in later translations also so that the rule may be easily understood. (Ssee, for
example, stra 96).

It should be understood that some of the options that are allowed by the current rule are
obsoleteout of use these days. This is because all of the peculiar options found in the
stras of this book are based on the stras of Pini, a sage who lived more than two
and a half thousand years ago. Since then certain options became preferences and
gradually became the norm. For example, modern Sanskrit textbooks in the English
language present the information found in stras 63 to 66 and in stra 68 as follows:

e+ a + sarvevara
sarvevara
ai + + sarvevara
sarvevara
o+ a + sarvevara
sarvevara
au + v +
sarvevara sarvevara

Thus, out of the above examples they would only accept ka utkara, yamuny
argha, gopy sanam, via iha, and kv atra.

69 / taeSaAM na s$ainDainaRtyama, /

69. te na sandhir nityam

temof them; nanot; sandhisandhi; nityamalways.

Words that have lost their y or v do not undergo further sandhi.

te ya-va-lopin nitya sandhir na bhavati. pratiedho yam. ka utkara ity-di.


VttiWords that have lost their y or v never undergo sandhi. This is a pratiedha
(prohibition). Examples are ka utkara and so on:

ka utkara (vtti 68) (69) ka + utkara

AmtaThe word nityam has been placed here in order to remove the anuvtti of the
word v.

SaodhinWhen y or v are deleted by the previous stra, this stra prohibits the
further sandhi that would usually occur by davatra ektmake militv trivikrama
(46), a-dvayam i-dvaye e (48), u-dvaye o (50), and so on.

70 / @Aer"AmaAntaAnaAmanantaAnaAM caAvyayaAnaAM s$avaeRre" /

70. o-rmntnm anantn cvyayn sarvevare

o-rma-antnmthat end in o-rma; anantnmthat are anantas; caand;


avyaynmof indeclinable words (avyayas); sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.

Avyayas that end in o-rma or that are anantas do not undergo sandhi when a
sarvevara follows.

(I) o-rmntnm anantn ca kevalnm avyayn sarvevare pare sati prvasya


ca parasya ca sandhir na bhavati. no upendra no acyuta. katha taddhite vi-
pratyayntasya go-abdasyvyayatve go bhavat iti? lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam iti nyyena syt. a-rmdaya sambodhandau. atra
sambodhanea ananta; smarae evam acyuta-ll; bhartsane i acyuta na
bhajasi; vk-prae da sasra; mantraeu acyuta; pratiedhe
upasanna m tyajasi. as tu sandhir bhavaty eva. anantam nantam, ananta
maryd ktvety artha.
ad-arthe kriy-yoge / vypti-marydayo ca ya
etam ta ita vidyd / vkya-smaraayor aid iti.

VttiWhen avyayas that end in o-rma or avyayas that are kevala anantas are
followed by a sarvevara, neither they nor the following sarvevara undergo sandhi.

no + upendra (70) no upendra

no + acyuta (70) no acyuta

Given the fact that the word go ending in the taddhita suffix vi is an avyaya, how can
there be go bhavad? The answer is that sandhi should take place in go bhavad by the
following maxim: lkaika-pratipadoktayo pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (Out of what
is indirectly expressed (lkaika) and what is directly expressed (pratipadokta), only
that which is directly expressed is accepted).
AmtaThe adjective kevalnm, meaning not conjoined with a consonant, belongs
only to the word anantnm. This is corroborated by the earlier grammarians. But there
is no intention to prescribe that avyayas ending in o have to be kevala, because
examples like aho aham are seen in the poetical works of the early authorities, and
because the grammarian Padmanbha Datta, author of Supadma-vykaraa, has said
akevalrtham ida vacanam (this statement is made so they dont have to be kevala).
The avyaya go is formed in the following way: First the taddhita suffix vi is applied to the
word go (cow) in the sense of that which was not a cow became a cow. Then vi is
deleted by kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (876), and finally avyayt svder mahhara
(362) is applied. It will be described in the Taddhita-prakaraa that a word ending in the
suffix vi is counted as an avyaya. The word pratipadokta means svbhvika (original,
primary).

Why do we say when a sarvevara follows? Because when a sarvevara is preceding,


sandhi certainly takes place. For example, vidhehi + a (59) vidhehy a and raka + u
(50) rako. Why is the word kevalnm used in the vtti? Because sandhi is not
prohibited in cases like pra + rayati (48) prerayati and khalu gata (60) khalv
gata. (The words pra and khalu in these examples are certainly avyayas, but although
their final vara is an ananta, they are not kevala anantas because they are conjoined
with consonants.)khalv gata [the words pra and khalu in these examples are certainly
avyayas, but although their final vara is an ananta, because they are conjoined with
consonants, they are not kevala anantas].

SaodhinIn the example no acyuta above, e-obhym asya haro viupadnte (67)
would usually apply, but the words parasya ca sandhir na bhavati in this vtti block that.
The word pratipadokta can mean primary, as evidenced above by Amta, and the
word lkaika is commonly translated as secondary. Thus the maxim can mean out
of a primary thing and a secondary thing only the primary thing is accepted. In this
case, avyayas like aho and no are primary avyayas, but avyayas like go are avyayas by
secondary formation only and . Ttherefore this stra does not apply to them. There are
only nine primary avyayas which end in o-rma. They are atho, aho, ho, utho, o, no,
bho, haho, and ho.

(II) a-rmdaya sambodhandau. atra sambodhanea ananta; smarae evam


acyuta-ll; bhartsane i acyuta na bhajasi; vk-prae da sasra;
mantraeu acyuta; pratiedhe upasanna m tyajasi.

Vtti[The kevala anantas] headed by a-rma are used in the sense of addressing and
so on. The avyaya a is used in the sense of addressing (sambodhana), in the sense of
remembrance (smaraa), i in the sense of reproach (bhartsana), in the sense of filling
up a sentence (vk-praa), u in the sense of humble entreaty (mantraa), and in the
sense of prohibition (pratiedha). Examples of these are as follows:

a + ananta (70) a ananta (O Ananta)

+ evam acyuta-ll (70) evam acyuta-ll (Ah! Such is Acyutas


pastime.)
i + acyuta na bhajasi (70) i acyuta na bhajasi (Shame on you. You dont
worship Acyuta)

+ da sasra (70) da sasra (Well, the material world is like


this)

u + acyuta (70) u acyuta (O Acyuta)

+ upasanna m tyajasi (70) upasanna m tyajasi (You should not


abandon me who have come near)

BlaThe third example means, in effect, O non-vaiava, you dont worship Acyuta.
Shame on you. Vk-praa means vk-poana (nourishing a sentence). This is shown
in the fourth example, which means, O brother, the material world is like this. Here,
means, it ought to be like this. mantraa means kma-cra-karaam (A request
where the person requested to do something is free to act as he pleases) . Thus the
fifth example in effect means, O Acyuta, if it is Your intention, please save me. In the
sixth example, the word upasannam means tavnugatam (Your follower) and the word
tyajasi means tyaja. Thus the meaning is, Dont abandon me, Your follower.

(III) as tu sandhir bhavaty eva. anantam nantam, ananta maryd ktvety


artha.
ad-arthe kriy-yoge / vypti-marydayo ca ya
etam ta ita vidyd / vkya-smaraayor aid iti.

VttiBut [] ( that has the indicatory letter ) does undergo sandhi.

+ anantam (46) nantam (up to (but not including) Ananta)

This example means making Ananta the limit.

ad-arthe kriy-yoge
vypti-marydayo ca ya
etam ta ita vidyd
vkya-smaraayor aid

One should know that the which is used in the sense of at (slightly, a little), kriy-
yoga (combination with a verb), vypti (inclusion), and maryd (limit) has the
indicatory letter , and that the which is used in the sense of vkya (see explanation
below) and smaraa (remembrance) does not have the indicatory letter .

SaodhinAn example of in the sense of at is + uam (50) oam


(slightly warm). Here, because has the indicatory letter , there is sandhi as usual
ordained by u-dvaye o (50). An example of kriy-yoga is + ihi (48) ehi (Come!).
The word vypti here is equivalent to abhividhi or abhivypti, which mean inclusive
extension to a particular limit. Indeed, Patajalis Mah-bhya (1.4.88), the origin of
this verse, lists the second pda (quarter of a verse, line) as marydbhividhau ca
ya. Maryd means exclusive extension to a particular limit. These meanings of
abhividhi and maryd are based on Mah-bhya (1.4.88): vin tena maryd, saha
tena ity abhividhi (maryd excludes the limit (vin tena), while abhividhi includes the
limit (saha tena)). The example nantam, given by Jva Gosvm here, shows in the
sense of maryd. Later, in vtti, Jva Gosvm will give another example: -vaikuha
sasra (material existence extends up to (but not including) Vaikuha). An example
of abhividhi, from the same vtti, is -vaikuha vysa-krti (the fame of Vysa
extends as far as Vaikuha). All these examples are avyay-bhva-samsas formed by
the stra apa-pari-bahir-ac-ant pacamy, ca marydbhividhyo ().

Pada-majar (1.4.88), a commentary on Kik, written by Hara Datta, explains the use
of in the sense of vkya as follows: prva-prakrntasya vkyasynyathtva-dyotanya
-kra prayujyate ( is used to indicate that a statement is contrary to another that
was spoken previously). Thus the example eva nu manyase (Oh! Do you think
so?) means naiva prvam amasth, samprati tv eva manyase (You didnt think
like this before, but now you think like this)

Nysa (1.4.88), a commentary on Kik written by Jinendra-buddhi, says: vkya-


abdena vkyrtha ukta abhidheye abhidheyopacrt. prakrnta hi vkyrtha kicid
apekyeda prayujyate eva nu manyase iti. evam aya vkyrtho vijyata ity
artha. prva-prakrnta-vkyrtha-pradarana-paro yam -kra prayukta. atha v,
prva-prakrnta-vkyrthasynyath-karaam ida prayujyate; eva nu manyase
iti, naiva prvam amasth, samprati tv eva manyasa iti. atha v, vkya-abdena
vkyam evocyate, vkyvayavo nirarthaka ev-kra prayujyata iti. The word vkya
here means the meaning of the vkya (statement) because, by extension, an
expression is equivalent to what it expresses. This is used to refer to the meaning of a
statement that has already been made. Thus the example eva nu manyase means I
understand that this is what you meant by your statement. This is used to point out
the meaning of a previous statement. Or else is used as a way of contradicting
something that was said previously. Thus eva nu manyase means You didnt think
like this before, but now you think like this. Or else the word vkya simply means
vkya. Then is used only as a meaningless element of the sentence.

The example evam acyuta-ll, given above, shows the usage of in the sense of
smaraa.

71 / wRU"de"taAM i"vacanasya maNAIvaAid"vajaRma, /

71. d-d-et dvi-vacanasya mavdi-varjam

t-t-etmof , , or e; dvi-vacanasyabelonging to the dual number; ma-iva-di-


varjamwith the exception of the mavdis (the words ma and so on when followed
by the word iva).

An , , or e that belongs to dvi-vacana does not undergo sandhiAn , , or e


which belongs to dvi-vacana doesnt undergo sandhi when a sarvevara
follows. The mavdis are an exception to this rule.
dvi-vacana-sthnynm --e-rm sambandhe sarvevare pare sandhir na
bhavati. har atra, vi atra, am atra, gage atra, bhajete ajita, amuke atra sta.
cndrs tv atra sandhim icchantiamuke tra sta. mavdau tu sandhir bhavaty eva.
vikalpa ity eke. ma iva mava, eva dam-pat iva dam-patva, rodas iva rodasva,
jam-pat iva jam-patva.

VttiAn , , or e which belongs to dvi-vacana (the dual number) doesnt undergo


sandhi when a sarvevara follows.

har + atra (71) har atra (The two Haris are here)

vi + atra (71) vi atra (The two Vius are here)

am + atra (71) am atra (The two of them are here)

gage + atra (71) gage atra (The two Gags are here)

bhajete + ajitam (71) bhajete ajitam (The two of them worship Ajita)

amuke + atra sta (71) amuke atra sta (The two of them are here)

But in this regard, the Cndra grammarians prescribe sandhi and thus they make amuke
tra sta. Sandhi does take place among the mavdis, though some say this is
optional.

ma + iva (46) mava (Like two jewels)

dam-pat + iva (46) dam-patva (Like husband and wife)

rodas + iva (46) rodasva (Like heaven and earth)

jam-pat + iva (46) jam-patva (Like husband and wife)

AmtaThe grammar composed by the grammarian Candra is called Cndra, and the
grammarians that study or know Cndra are called cndr (the Cndra
grammarians). These grammarians prescribe that even an , , or e which belongs to
dvi-vacana should undergo sandhi. Jva Gosvms statement Sandhi does take place
among the mavdis can be proven by examining the opinions of earlier grammarians
like Vmana, Jayditya, Padmanbha Datta, and so on. But, according to Kaiyaa and
others, in the example mavorasya in Bhratas verse mavorasya lambete
priyau vatsatarau mama the word va or v has been used in the sense of iva [and thus
there is no need to prescribe sandhi for the mavdis because in cases like ma +
va / v there is no sarvevara following]. However, in Kik, this very phrase is given as
an example of the case where sandhi is applied (between ma + iva). Thus, observing
the difference of opinions, Puruottama-deva, the author of Bh-vtti, has said
mavdn pratiedho vaktavya ity eke ivrthe va-kro yam ity anye (According to
some, (the non-sandhi) of the mavdis is prohibited. According to others, this is the
word va used in the sense of iva). But in our opinion, where there would usually be a
prohibition of sandhi for the of words like ma and bhry-pat, due to their
belonging to dvi-vacana, the phrase mavdi-varjam eliminates that prohibition. Still,
the mavdis only undergo sandhi when the word iva follows, not when any other word
follows. For example, in ma + naya (70) ma naya, there is no sandhi. The full
group of mavdis is as follows:

ma bhry-pat caiva
dam-pat rodas tath
vsas jam-pat caivam
iva jy-pat tath

Ma (two jewels), bhry-pat (husband and wife), dam-pat (husband and


wife), rodas (heaven and earth), vsas (upper garment and lower garment), jam-
pat (husband and wife), and jy-pat (husband and wife).

SaodhinThe word d-d-etm here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t


to designate a single vara. This was described in vtti 37.

72 / @d"s$aAe'maItyasya /

72. adaso mty asya

adasabelonging to the word adas; amthe word am; itithus; asyaof this.

The word am which belongs to the word adas doesnt undergo sandhi when a
sarvevara follows.

ada-abda-sambandhina am ity asya padasya sarvevare pare sandhir na bhavati.


am acyuta-priy. amti kim, amuke tra syu. o-rmntdy asandhaya
pinyn praghya-saj.

VttiThe word am which belongs to the word adas doesnt undergo sandhi when a
sarvevara follows.

am + acyuta-priy (72) am acyuta-priy (they are dear to Acyuta)

Why do we say am?

amuke + atra syu (67) amuke tra syu (they are here)

The Pinian grammarians call the non-sandhis, beginning with o-rmnta (stra 70),
praghyas.

AmtaThe word amuke is a plural form of the word amuka that is achieved by
applying the taddhita suffix ak after the word adas. In this stra the word am
undergoes sandhi as it is merely an anukaraa (an imitation of the real am). Thus we
get amty asya. Why do we say belonging to the word adas? Consider amy atra
pratibhti me. In this example the word am undergoes sandhi as it is the masculine first
case singular form of the word amin, a word formed by applying the taddhita suffix in[i]
after the word ama (disease) or am (skill) in the sense of possessing that. Thus
the word amin can either mean sick or skillful.

SaodhinThe word am is the masculine first case plural form of the word adas.
The word amuke can also be the dual form of the word amuka, as is seen in the example
amuke atra sta (vtti 71).

73 / mah"Apau&Sasya ca /

73. mahpuruasya ca

mahpuruasyaof a mahpurua; caalso.

A mahpurua also doesnt undergo sandhi when a sarvevara follows.

mahpuruasya ca sambandhe sarvevare pare sandhir na bhavati. drhvndv


antya-sarvevarasya mahpuruatva matam. gaccha hare3 gaccha. tiha hare3
atra tiha. sarvevare pare niedhd atra tu sandhigaccha 3cyuta-datta
gacch3cyuta-datta. di-mahpuruam ida sambodhanam. tath hi tat-stri

VttiIn relation to a mahpurua also, there is no sandhi when a sarvevara follows.


When there is calling from afar and so on, the final sarvevara is considered a
mahpurua.

gaccha hare3 + gaccha (73) gaccha hare3 gaccha (Come, O Hari,


come!)

tiha hare3 + atra tiha (73) tiha hare3 atra tiha (Wait, O Hari, wait
here!)

But because sandhi is only prohibited when a sarvevara follows, there is sandhi in the
following case:

gaccha + 3cyuta-datta (46) gacch3cyuta-datta (Go, O Acyuta-datta)

When the mahpurua is at the beginning like this, the sense is sambodhana
(addressing). The stras dealing with the mahpuruas are as follows:

AmtaThe phrase drhvndv antya-sarvevarasya mahpuruatva matam will


be further explained in the next stra. The stras e ay (63) and e-obhym asya haro
viupadnte (67) would usually be applied respectively in the first two examples, but
this stra blocks them. Jva Gosvm intimates, with the sentence beginning di, that
the mahpurua occuring in the word 3cyuta-datta is by guror anto nantasypy
ekaikasya prcm (78). The a of acyuta-datta is pronounced and written as a trivikrama
in accordance with the rule mahpurue vmanam api trivikramam uccrayanti likhanti
ca (vtti 7). The stras dealing with the mahpuruas are going to be given now, while
we are on the topic.
74 / U"r"A"AnaAd"AE yaaivazAeSae vaAfyasyaAntae s$ambaAeDanapad"sya
s$aMs$aAr"Ae mah"Apau&Sa: /

74. drhvndau yatna-viee vkyasynte sambodhana-padasya sasro


mahpurua

drafrom afar; hvnacalling; dauand so on; yatna-vieewhen there is a


special effort (yatna); vkyasya anteat the end of a sentence (vkya); sambodhana-
padasyaof a vocative word; sasrasasra (see definition in next stra);
mahpuruamahpurua.

When there is a special effort in the matter of calling from afar and so on1, the
sasra of a vocative word that is at the end of a vkya becomes a
mahpurua.

kriynvayvacchinna-pada-samho vkyam.

VttiA vkya is a group of words characterized by their connection to a common verb


(kriy).

BlaThe word yatna-viee means when there is an effort that exceeds the normal
effort. The word
drhvndau means in the matter of calling from afar and so on.

AmtaThe word yatna-viee means when the mode of articulation is vivta. The
definition of vkya according to Shitya-darpaa is vkya syd yogyatkksatti-
yukta padoccaya (A vkya is a group of words endowed with yogyat, kk, and
satti). The followers of the Nyya system give the same definition. Yogyat
(congruity) is the absence of absurdity in the mutual relation of the things denoted by
the words. Thus phrases like vahnin sicati (he moistens with fire) are excluded from
being vkyas.2 kk (expectancy) is the absence of the completion of the
understanding, an absence which assumes the form of the hearers curiosity [to know
something which the other words in the sentence will inform him of]. Thus a mere string
of words like gaur ava purua (cow, horse, man) is not a vkya.3 satti
(proximity) is the continuity of comprehension. Thus there is no connection of the word
ka, uttered today, with the word kpay, uttered on another day.

75 / @ntyas$avaeRr"Aid"vaNAAR: s$aMs$aAr"s$aMaA: /
1
The next vtti will explain what the word di (and so on) indicates here.
2
A statement like payas sicati (he moistens with water) has yogyat because water has the fitness,
owing to its liquidity which is necessary for moistening. But a statement like vahnin sicati (he moistens
with fire) has no compatibility, since fire lacks liquidity which only can make a thing an instrument in the
act of moistening.
3
The words gaur sundara (the cow is beautiful) or gaur dhvati (the cow runs) have expectancy as
regards one another. However, the words gaur ava purua (cow, horse, man) have no expectancy as
regards one another i..e when the word gau is uttered, desire is produced in the mind to know something
about the cow. But this desire is not satisfied by the word ava.
75. antya-sarvevardi-var sasra-saj

antyafinal; sarvevarasarvevara; dibeginning with; varthe varas; sasra-


sajcalled sasra.

The varas beginning with the final sarvevara are called sasra.

(I) i-sajeti prca. gaccha hare3. tiha hare3. di-padena gne rodane vicre
ca iti srasvatdaya. sambodhana-mtre ca iti kik. ka bhajasva vaiav3.
vkyasynta eva, na tv ihahare gaccha. k3 ehi iti prakriy-kaumudy
bhrama.
srasvata-prakriyy / bhram ye santi bhraya
likhitu te na akyante / jeys tv asynusrata.

sarvem amata yat syt / sa bhrama paricyate


bahnm amata yat tat / kecin matam iyate.

VttiEarlier grammarians called this i.

gaccha hare (74) gaccha hare3 (Come, O Hari)

tiha hare (74) tiha hare3 (Wait, O Hari)

According to grammars like Srasvata-prakriy [a grammar written by Anubhti-


svarpcrya], gna (singing), rodana (crying), and vicra (deliberation) are also
indicated by the word di (in drhvndau). Kik says that mere sambodhana
(addressing) is also indicated by the word di.

ka bhajasva vaiava (74) ka bhajasva vaiav3 (O Vaiava,


worship Ka)

The rule only applies at the end of a vkya; thus it doesnt apply in hare gaccha. The
example k3 ehi in Prakriy-kaumud [a grammar written by Rmacandra crya] is
a mistake (bhrama).

SaodhinThe first two examples here show how the sasra of a vocative word
becomes a mahpurua when there is a special effort in calling from afar. The third
example shows the opinion of Kik how the sasra of the vocative word becomes a
mahpurua when there is mere sambodhana. Jva Gosvm gives the counterexample
hare gaccha to show how the sasra of a vocative word only becomes a mahpurua
if the vocative word is at the end of a sentence (vkya). Thus the sasra of the vocative
word hare cannot become a mahpurua here because hare is at the beginning of the
sentence.

AmtaIn the vtti, Kik is referred to in the honorific plural, thus kik. Someone
may say, The usage of a mahpurua in the first word of a sentence is also seen in the
example devadatt3 ehi in Srasvata-vykaraaprakriy. Therefore this is also a bhrama
on the part of Srasvata-vykaraaprakriy. Why then is only Prakriy-kaumuds name
written, leaving aside Srasvata-vykaraaprakriy? In answer to that doubt Jva
Gosvm speaks the following verse, beginning srasvata. Then, in response to the
expectation What is a bhrama, anyway?, he speaks the verse beginning sarvem.

(II) srasvata-prakriyy / bhram ye santi bhraya


likhitu te na akyante / jeys tv asynusrata.

sarvem amata yat syt / sa bhrama paricyate


bahnm amata yat tat / kecin matam iyate.

VttiThe mistakes (bhramas) in Srasvata-vykaraa and -Pprakriy-kaumud are too


numerous to be written, but they should be known in accordance with this example of
Prakriy-kaumud.

That which is unacceptable to everyone is called a bhrama (mistake). What is


unacceptable to many may still be acceptable to some.

BlaThe word asya in the first verse means prakriy-kaumudy-udharaasya (with


this example of Prakriy-kaumud).

76 / hE"he"ayaAegAe tau hE"h"yaAere"vaAnantyayaAer"ipa /

76. hai-he-prayoge tu hai-hayor evnantyayor api

hai-he-prayogewhen there is usage of the words hai or he; tubut; hai-hayoof the
words hai and he; evaonly; anantyayothat are not at the end; apieven.

But when the words hai or he are used, only their sasra becomes a
mahpurua, even if the they are not at the end of a vkya.

hai3 ka, he3 ka, ka hai3, ka he3.

Vtti hai + ka (76) hai3 ka (hey Ka)

he + ka (76) he3 ka (hey Ka)

ka + hai (76) ka hai3 (hey Ka)

ka + he (76) ka he3 (hey Ka)

AmtaThe word eva here means only the sasra of the words hai or he becomes a
mahpurua, not the sasra of the vocative word. The word anantyayo in effect
means situated at the beginning or in the middle. By the word api the sasra of these
words become a mahpurua when they are situated at the end of a vkya also.

77 / atyaiBavaAd"vaAfyae s$aMs$aAr": , na tau IzAU#"ivaSayae /


77. pratyabhivda-vkye sasra, na tu str-dra-viaye

pratyabhivda-vkyein a sentence where there is pratyabhivda (see explanation


below); sasrasasra; nanot; tubut; str-dra-viayewhen the
pratyabhivda is directed towards a woman or dra.

The sasra of a vocative word occuring in a sentence where there is


pratyabhivda becomes a mahpurua, ,but not when the pratyabhivda is
directed towards a woman or dra.

abhivdaye viumitro ham ity anantara gurur hayumn edhi viumitr3.


prvokta-vidhn sthna-vieam ha.

VttiI, Viumitra, offer obeisances. After that the guru says May you live long , O
Viumitra!

yumn edhi viumitra (77) yumn edhi viumitr3 (May you live
long, O Viumitra!)

Now he will speak a variation regarding the place of operation of the previously spoken
rules.

SaodhinThe word abhivda means respectful salutation offered to a superior or


elder by an inferior or junior for the sake of obtaining blessings. It consists of three acts:
1. rising from the seat, 2. touching the feet of the superior or elder, 3. uttering words of
salutation. The word pratyabhivda means the blessing given by the superior or elder in
response to such a salutation.

AmtaThe word is pratyabhivda because the guru, being saluted (abhivdyamna)


pronounces a benediction in return (prati). The sentence abhivdaye viumitro ham in
the vtti is supplied in order to show the guru being saluted. Examples of but not when
the pratyabhivda is directed towards a woman or dra are as follows: abhivdaye
grgy aham, bho yumat bhava grgi (I, Grg, offer obeisances. to which the guru
replies May you live long, O Grg!), abhivdaye devadatto ham, bho yumn bhava
devadatta (I, Devadatta, offer obeisances. to which the guru replies May you live
long, O Devadatta!). The mahpurua ordained in this stra occurs only when the
personal name or family name (like Grg here) used in the abhivda sentence is used
at the end of the pratyabhivda sentence. Therefore, in the example haridatta yumn
edhi (May you live long, O Haridatta!), the sasra of the vocative word haridatta does
not become a mahpurua because it is not at the end of the pratyabhivda sentence.
The word prvokta-vidhnm, in the vtti, means The rules related to mahpuruas,
namely stras 74 and 77.

BlaJva Gosvm, assuming the role of a commentator (vtti-kra), uses the third
person verb form ha (he speaks), although he himself is the author.

78 / gAur"Aer"na{taAe'nantasyaApyaekE(k(sya aAcaAma, /
78. guror anto nantasypy ekaikasya prcm

guroof a prosodially long vowel; an-tathat is not t (-rma); an-antasyathat is


not at the end; apieven; eka-ekasyaalternatively; prcmin the opinion of the
earlier grammarians.

In the opinion of the earlier grammarians, any prosodially long vowel, except
-rma, occuring in a vocative word can alternatively become a mahpurua,
even if it is not the final vowel.

-rma-varjitasya guror anantasypi varasya ya sasras tasyaikaikasya sambodhane


mahpurua syt, prcm cry mate na tv anyem.

VttiIn the opinion of previous grammarians but not in the opinion of other
grammarians the sasra of any prosodially long vara, except -rma, occuring in a
vocative word can alternatively become a mahpurua, even if the vara itself is not
final.

AmtaThe word ekaikasya means paryyea (alternatively, one at a time), and the
phrase beginning prcm means according to the opinion of earlier grammarians like
Pini and so on but not according to the opinion of recent grammarians.

SaodhinThis stra was originally composed by Pini himself (Adhyy


8.2.86). Examples of it will be given in vtti 82.

79 / vaAmanaAe laGau: /

79. vmano laghu

vmanaa vmana; laghua prosodically short vowel, light syllable.

A vmana is laghu.

AmtaWhile we are on the topic, Jva Gosvm is giving the definitions of laghu,
guru, and so on.

80 / iaiva(maAe gAu&: /

80. trivikramo guru

trivikramaa trivikrama; gurua prosodcically long vowel, heavy syllable.

A trivikrama is guru.

SaodhinA laghu syllable is pronounced for the duration of one mtr whereas a
guru syllable is pronounced for the duration of two mtrs. A mtr is defined as a
prosodical instant or, in other words, the length of time required to pronounce a short
vowel. It roughly corresponds to a quarter of a second. Thus it should take only one
second to pronounce the word bhagavati which is comprised of four laghu syllables.
Similarly, it should take only one second to pronounce the word rdh which is
comprised of two guru syllables. In this regard, one should remember that all the
caturvyhas are considered trivikramas.

81 / s$ats$aAta," paUvaAeR vaAmanaAe'ipa gAu&: /

81. sat-sagt prvo vmano pi guru

sat-sagta sat-saga (see definition in next stra); prvabefore; vmanaa


vmana; apialso; gurua prosodically long vowel, heavy syllable.

A vmana that comes immediately before a sat-saga is also guru.

SaodhinThis stra has a second meaning, Even one who is a dwarf at first
becomes a guru by associating with devotees. Similarly, the next stra also has a
devotional meaning: When two or more devotees (viu-janas) gather together to talk
about Ka and things related to Him, their association is called sat-saga.Him. this
association is called sat-saga.

AmtaAs is stated by Gagdsa Paita, the teacher of r Caitanya Mahprabhu


and author of Chando-majar:

snusvra ca drgha ca
visarg ca gurur bhavet
vara-sayoga-prva ca
tath pdntago pi v

A vowel with an anusvara (), a drgha (trivikrama) vowel, a vowel with a visarga (),
and a vowel coming immediately before a conjunct (sayoga) of varas are all gurus.
The final vowel in a pda (quarter of a verse, line) is optionally a guru also.

SaodhinEven though vmanas that come immediately before a sat-saga, , or


are considered guru syllables and are thus pronounced for the duration of two mtrs,
they are not pronounced in the same way as trivikramas. In the casesame way as
trivikramas, because in the case of trivikramas, the emphasis is on the vowel and in the
case of vmanas that are gurus, the emphasis is on the following viujana, , or and
the vowel is pronounced only briefly. Thus, in the following examples, one should fill up
the two mtrs by prolonging the letter in bold while keeping the vowel brief: nitya
eternal; bhakta devotee; tattva truth; baddha bound; saj-jana holy person,
gentleman; bhaa master; ala enough; iva auspicious. An example of when
the final vmana in a pda is considered guru is govinda di-purua tam aha
bhajmi. The meter in which this verse is composed, namely the vasanta-tilak
(ornament of spring) meter, requires that the last syllable should be a guru. Thus the
vmana i is considered a guru, in accordance with tath pdntago pi v.
82 / imaTa:s$aMlaaAe ivaSNAujana: s$ats$as$aMa: /

82. mitha-salagno viujana sat-saga-saja

mithawith each other; salagnaconjoined; viujanaviujanas; sat-saga-


sajacalled a sat-saga.

The combination of two or more viujanas is called a sat-saga.

sayoga ca. v3umitra, vium3tra, matntare viumitr3 ity eva. anta kim?
kam3tra, kamitr3. gaccheti sarvasydau yojya, vkydhikrt.

VttiEarlier grammarians called it a sayoga. Examples of stra 78 are: v3umitra


and vium3tra. According to another opinion there should only be viumitr3. Why
do we say anta in stra 78? Consider kam3tra and kamitr3. The word
gaccha should be added at the beginning of all these examples because the phrase
vkyasyasynte is being carried forward from stra 74.

gaccha viumitra (78) gaccha v3umitra or gaccha vium3tra or


gaccha viumitr3 (Come, O Viumitra)

AmtaThe word mitha-samlagna means paraspara-sayukta (conjoined with each


other). The word matntare refers to the opinion of recent grammarians mentioned in
vtti 78.
An example of stra 78 being applied in a sentence where there pratyabhivda is
abhivdaye viudharmham, cira jva bho v3udharman viudh3rman
viudharm3n (I, Viudharma, offer obeisances, to which the guru replies May you
live long, O Viudharma!)

SaodhinIn the above example, given by Amta, the vocative word is


viudharman, which becomes either v3udharman, viudh3rman, or
viudharm3n by stra 78. The effect of the word anta (78) is demonstrated here by
showing how -rma in the vocative word kamitra cannot become a mahpurua,
even though it is a guru due to coming immediately before a sat-saga. The reason why
a verbal form like gaccha has to be added to the examples in the vtti is that by very
definition there can be no question of a vkya without a verbal activity (kriy), and
practically all the stras dealing with mahpuruas can only be applied if the condition
vkyasynte (74) is met.

The following is a list of the most common sat-sagas:


+ Ya double r+ +r other
s

k KYa = kR k] +a =
= kya
= = = ka kta
=
= kka
= = =
ka rka kra kla
G GYa GG Ga Ga
a gya
a R ] gra
ga gga rga

ga gYa ga ga
gha ghya
R ]
rgha ghra

x
= ka kha ga gh
a
=
a

c ca CYa cca cR
cya rca

^ ^R ^\
cha rcha chra

Ja JYa jja Ja Ja] j ja


ja jya
R jra
rja

Ha H^ a
a ca cha ja

$ $y $R $\
= ya a
= =
a ra ra

@ @y a @ @\
a ya
R ra ra
< <Y << <a
a a ya a a R
a ra

Ta TYa ta Ta }a
ta tya tta
R tra
rta

Q QY Qa
a a R
tha thya rtha
d dR d]
da dya dda rda dra dga ddha dba dbha dma dva

D DYa Da Da
a dhya
R ]
dha rdha dhra

Na NYa a Na Na
na nya nna
R ] nra
rna

Pa PYa PPa Pa Pa]


pa pya ppa
R pra
rpa

b BYa Bb bR b]
ba bya bba rba bra

> >Y >a >a


a a R ]
bha bhya rbha bhra

M MY MM Ma Ma
a a a R ]
ma mya mma rma mra

Ya YYa YYa Ya
ya yya yya
R
rya

l la LYa lla lR
lya rla

v VYa Vv vR v]
va vya vva rva vra

Xa XYa Xa ] ca XYa la va
a ya
R ra ra ya

za ZYa zR a va ha
ya ra

Sa SYa SS Sa S}
sa sya
a ssa R sra
a
rsa stra
h hya hR hna hla
ha rha hra ha hma hva

Sat-sagas are formed by one of three ways:

(1) dropping the vertical line of the first letter


z a + <a a = Z<a a
(2) putting the first letter on top
k== ka + l la = == kla
(3) or merging both letters
k== ka + Ta ta = == kta
In some books the viucakra is used to represent any nasal sound. For example,
A&Ga is written for A aga, A&JaNa for AaNa ajana, A&@ for A<@
aa, A&Ta for ANTa anta, and A&b for AMb amba. But the viucakra is
pronounced in a different place than the nasal varas (see vtti 1), and therefore such
usage of the viucakra is technically incorrect.has a different phonetical value, and
therefore such usage is technically incorrect.

83 / pa{"aitavacanae he"vaAR /

83. pa-prativacane her v

pa-prativacanein the answer to a question; heof the word hi; voptionally.

The sasra of the word hi can optionally become a mahpurua provided that
hi is used in answering a question.

akrr ml viumitra? akra h3, akra hi.

VttiHave you made the garland, Viumitra?,

akra hi (83) akra h3 or akra hi (Yes, I have made it)

84 / @AaepagABaeR inagA{h"Itapar"matasyaAnauvaAde" vaAfyasya s$aMs$aAr"Ae vaA


/

84. kepa-garbhe nighta-para-matasynuvde vkyasya sasro v

kepa-garbhewhich is full of reproach (kepa); nightarefuted; para-matasyaof


the opponents opinion; anuvdewhen there is repetition; vkyasyaof a vkya;
sasrasasra; voptionally.
The sasra of a vkya can optionally become a mahpurua when the
opponents opinion, duly refuted, is repeated as a means of reproach.

anity hari-bhaktir ity tth3. pake tu na.

Vtti anity hari-bhaktir ity ttha (84) anity hari-bhaktir ity tth3 or anity
hari-bhaktir ity ttha (You say that devotional service to Hari is not eternal!)

AmtaIn the above example someone asserts that devotional service to Hari is not
eternal. Then, the crya, refuting his opinion by citing various evidences, reproaches
him by repeating his very own words.

85 / @Aaeix"tasya s$aMs$aAr"Ae Bats$aR"nae payaARyaeNA /

85. mreitasya sasro bhartsane paryyea

mreitasyaof a repeated word; sasrasasra; bhartsanewhen there is verbal


abuse; paryyeaalternatively, one at a time.

When there is verbal abuse, the sasra of a repeated word becomes a


mahpurua alternatively.

avaiav3 avaiava. avaiava avaiav3.

Vtti avaiava avaiava (85) avaiav3 avaiava or avaiava avaiav3


(Non-vaiava, non-vaiava!)

AmtaAccording to Amara-koa the word mreita means dvis-trir-ukta (that which


is spoken twice or thrice). Here the word paryyea removes the anuvtti of the word
v.

86 / @etyanaena yau(syaAKyaAtasya s$aMs$aAr"Ae Bats$aR"nae s$aAk(AtaA


caeta, /

86. agety anena yuktasykhytasya sasro bhartsane skkat cet

aga itithe word aga; anenawith this; yuktasyajoined; khytasyaof a finite verb;
sasrasasra; bhartsanein a threat; sa-kkatrequirement of additional
words to complete the sense; cetif.

If, in a threat, there is requirement of additional words to complete the sense,


then the sasra of a finite verb (khyta) that is joined with the word aga
becomes a mahpurua.

hari vinga prh3, idn dukham psyasi. idnm ity-der atrkk; et vin
tu na syt.
VttiWell, try loving someone other than Hari! Now you will attain misery. The
phrase beginning idnm is the kk (expectancy) here. Without an kk the
sasra of a finite verb cannot become a mahpurua.

hari vinga prhi (86) hari vinga prh3 (Well, try loving someone
other than Hari)

AmtaIf there is no kk, the sasra of a finite verb cannot become a


mahpurua because the intended sense is not fully expressed. For example, in aga
bhajasva kam (Hey, worship Ka) there is no kk (because the idea is
complete); thus the sasra of the finite verb bhajasva doesnt become a mahpurua.
Why agety anena yuktasya? In the example aga viudsa satya vadasi (Hey
Viudsa, speak the truth) the finite verb vadasi is two words apart from the word
aga; thus its sasra doesnt become a mahpurua.

BlaThe word skk means having an kk, and the state of having an
kk is called skkat. The vocative word aga means he bhrtar, O brother.

SaodhinIn the list of indeclinable words (avyayas), aga is listed with the meaning
of sambodhana (addressing). It is in this sense that Bla glosses it as he bhrtar.
Adhyy (8.1.33), however, indicates that the word aga is used in two senses:
pratiloma (injurious behavior: abuse, threats, and so on) and apratiloma (friendly
behavior: permission, assent). The word aga can thus be translated as well,
especially in the first sense, and sometimes as yes or OK in the second sense. MW
also suggests translating this word as well.

87 / ivacaAre" paUvaRvaAfyasya s$aMs$aAr": /

87. vicre prva-vkyasya sasra

vicrewhen there is deliberation; prva-vkyasyaof a previous vkya; sasra


sasra.

When there is deliberation, the sasra of a previous vkya becomes a


mahpurua.

tamlo n3, ko nu.

Vtti tamlo nu, ko nu (87) tamlo n3, ko nu (Is this a tamla tree, or is
it Ka?)

AmtaVicra means investigation into the true nature of a doubtful subject through
the use of a prama. In this rule the usage of a mahpurua in a later vkya is thrown
out by the the word prva.

BlaThe indeclinable word nu is used in the sense of vitarka (conjecture,


deliberation). The example means bhavaty aya tamla ka v (Is this a tamla
tree, or is it Ka?).
88 / aitaavaNAe ca s$aMs$aAr": /

88. pratiravae ca sasra

pratiravaewhen there is pratiravaa (see explanation below); caand; sasra


sasra.

When there is pratiravaa, the sasra of a vkya becomes a mahpurua.

pratiravaam abhyupagama pratijna ravabhimukhya ca. hari-mantra dehi,


hari-mantra dadm3. hari-bhaktir nity bhavitum arhat3. viumitra bho kim tth3.
evam anye pi jey. vicra-prana-pjsu caturvyhasya vakyate.

Pratiravaa can mean either abhyupagama (assent, agreement), pratijna


(assertion, declaration), or ravanbhimukhya (turning toward the speaker in order to
hear).

(abhyupagama:) hari-mantra dehi. hari-mantra dadmi (88) hari-mantra


dadm3 (Please give me Haris mantra to which the guru replies I will give you
Haris mantra)

(pratijna:) hari-bhaktir nity bhavitum arhati (88) hari-bhaktir nity


bhavitum arhat3 (Devotional service to Hari should be uninterrupted)

(ravabhimukhya:) viumitra bho kim ttha (88) viumitra bho kim


tth3 (What did you say, O Viumitra?)

In this way other examples should also be known. We will now describe how a
caturvyha becomes a mahpurua when there is vicra (deliberation), prana
(inquiry), or pj (honor, worship).

89 / paUvaARDaRsya tvar"Ama: syaAid"u"taAvauar"sya ih" /


ivaBa(AvayavaAasmaAcC$k(Ar"Ae i"BaRvatyauta //

89.
prvrdhasya tv a-rma syd
id-utv uttarasya hi
vibhaktvayavt tasmc
cha-kro dvir bhavaty uta

prva-ardhasyaof the first half; tubut; a-rmaa-rma; sytbecomes; it-utau1i-


rma and u-rma; uttarasyaof the second; hicertainly; vibhakta-avayavtwhose

1
The word it-utau here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara. This was
described in vtti 37.
portion is separated; tasmtafter that; cha-kracha-rma; dvidoubled; bhavati
becomes; utaand.

The first half of the caturvyha (sandhy-akara) is replaced by a-rma and


becomes a mahpurua. The second half is replaced by i-rma or u-rma. And
after that whose portion is separated [namely the i-rma or u-rma], cha-rma
becomes reduplicated.

har3i cchatram etat te; pa3u cchatram ity api.

Vtti (vicra:) hare chatram etat te (89) har3i chchatram etat te (98) har3i
cchatram etat te (O Hari, is this umbrella Yours or someone elses?)

(prana:) pao chatram etat te (89) pa3u chchatram etat te (98)


pa3u cchatram etat te (O expert one, is this umbrella yours?)

(pj:) pao chatram etat te (89) pa3u chchatram etat te (98) pa3u
cchatram etat te (O expert one, this umbrella is for you)

AmtaThe word mahpurua is carried forward. The word hi means that the second
half should certainly be replaced by i-rma or u-rma, but shouldnt become a
mahpurua. The words vibhaktvayavt tasmt are analyzed as vibhakta avayavo
ga yasya tasmd i-rmo-rma-svarpt (after that whose portion is separated, namely
the i-rma or u-rma). Someone may say, When there is separation of the caturvyhas
of hare and pao in these two examples, the natural division of the parts is a and i, and
a and u respectively. What then is the need of replacement (dea)? The answer is
when there is separation of the parts of e-rma, and i, or a and are also possible
results. Therefore, by the replacement prescribed in this stra, all those possibilities are
ruled out. When there is separation of the parts of ai-rma and au-rma, the second half
should be e and o respectively, and not i or u. In the example pao chatram etat te here
the word te means tava (yours) when the sense is prana and tubhyam (for you)
when the sense is pj.

90 / @Aer"Amasya bau"inaimaasyaetaAE s$ainDavaAR /

90. o-rmasya buddha-nimittasyetau sandhir v

o-rmasyaof o-rma; buddha-nimittasyawhose cause is buddha (the suffix s[u] used


to form the vocative singular); itauwhen the word iti follows; sandhisandhi; v
optionally.

O-rma which is caused by buddha only optionally undergoes sandhi when the
word iti follows.

buddhi-nimittako ya o-rmas tasya sandhir v syd iti-abde pare. buddha-saj


vakyate. vio iti viav iti v. buddha-nimittasyeti kim? gav ity ayam ha.
atrnukrynukaraayor bhedasyvivakitatvd asaty arthavattve viubhaktir
nopapadyate. viubhakti-saj ca vakyate.
VttiO-rma which is caused by buddha only optionally undergoes sandhi when the
word iti follows. The term buddha will be defined later [in stra 171].

(no sandhi:) vio + iti (90) vio iti or (65) viav iti

Why do we say buddha-nimittasya? Consider gav ity ayam ha (He said go (cow)). In
this example, it is not possible to apply a viubhakti since there is a lack of
meaningfulness (arthavattva) due to the intention to speak the difference between the
anukrya and the anukaraa. The term viubhakti will also be defined later [in vtti
148].

AmtaSomeone, due to their illiteracy, said go when he should have said gau. This
counterexample (gav ity ayam ha) refers to when someone else imitates them.
Anukrya means that which is imitated [the thing first spoken] and anukaraa means
that by which there is imitating [the thing spoken later]. The intended meaning is as
follows: Grammarians accept both the difference and non-difference of the anukrya and
anukaraa words according to the vivak (intention of the speaker). In that regard,
when there is a desire to express the difference between an anukrya and an
anukaraa, the anukaraa is a nma (see stra 148) because it has meaning due to
being a distinct word. Thus a viubhakti is applied. When, however, there is no desire
to express the difference between an anukrya and an anukaraa, the anukaraa has no
separate meaning because it is not distinct from the anukrya and therefore, according
to adhtu-viubhaktikam arthavan nma (148), it is not a nma and thus no
viubhakti should be applied to it. But, according to Kaua Bhaas Vaiykaraa-
bhaa-sra, anukaraas like go in gav ity ayam ha, bh in bh sattym, and so on
are considered valid even though they are not prtipadikas (nmas) or padas
(viupadas). If this were not the case they would have to be considered invalid and
could never be used as they violate the prohibition of Mah-bhya which says npada
stre prayujta (That which is not a pada (viupada) cannot be used in an
authoritative work). In this regard, when there is a desire to speak the difference
between the anukrya and anukaraa, a viubhakti should be applied to the
anukaraa, as in gaur ity ayam ha.

SaodhinThe word go in the example gav ity ayam ha here is not caused by
buddha. Therefore it undergoes sandhi by o av (65). First, someone said go. This is the
anukrya here. Later, someone else wanted to quote what he said. So if that person
wanted to quote exactly what the other said without changing it, the anukaraa word
used in quoting him would also be go. However, if he wanted to paraphrase him instead,
using the correct grammatical form, then the anukaraa word would be gau. It was
necessary to use such a technical counterexample because apart from vocative words
there are very few inflected words ending in o-rma.

91 / wRzAsyaAnaek(Atmake( , vaAmana vaA /

91. asynektmake, vmana ca v


asyaof an a; an-ektmakewhen something other than its ektmaka follows;
vmanavmana; caand; voptionally.

An a only optionally undergoes sandhi when something other than its


ektmaka follows. And, as a further option, it can also become vmana [but
only in the case that sandhi is not done].

a-sajasya ektmaknya-sarvevare pare sandhir v syt, trivikramasya vmana ca


v. hari sanam, rukmii e, rukmi e iti ca. anyatra cnityam iyate iti madhye
vilamboccrae sandhir na syd ity artha. streu tu sahit-sajeu ghroccrae
pi vikalpyate.

VttiAn a only optionally undergoes sandhi when something other than its
ektmaka follows, and an a which is a trivikrama optionally becomes a vmana.

hari + sanam (91) hari-sanam or (59) hary-sanam

rukmi + e (91) rukmi e or rukmii e, or (59) rukmiy e

The statement anyatra cnityam iyate (in stra 44) means When there is slow
utterance, sandhi need not take place [it is optional]. But in stras that have sahit
(the close proximity of varas that causes sandhi) sandhi is made optional even when
there is fast utterance.

AmtaSomeone may argue, It would be proper just to ordain vmana here because
sandhi is already optional by the paribh anyatra cnityam iyate. What need then is
there to ordain non-sandhi here? In response to that Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence
beginning anyatra. The current stra prescribes that sandhi is optional even when there
is fast utterance, something that is not covered by anyatra cnityam iyate, explained
here to be applicable only in regard to slow utterance. Someone may then argue, If it is
the case that, by anyatra cnityam iyate, sandhi is optional when there is slow
utterance, then by that alone sandhi should be optional in stras also. So what is the
point of the statement anitya stra-nirdee? In response to that, Jva Gosvm speaks
the sentence beginning streu. According to earlier grammarians, the word sahit
refers to the closest proximity of varas, there being the intervention of only half a
mtr between them. The statement anitya stra-nirdee is meaningful because
wherever sandhi operations would usually apply, in the stras of our book the sandhi is
accepted as optional even when there is fast utterance. For example, kasya e
vaiave bahutve (163) and many others [like a-dvayam i-dvaye e (48), a--i--u-
anant (10), and so on]. In these stras, sandhi was not done by anitya stra-nirdee.
Moreover, from the Pinian perspective, the word sahit-sajeu can mean those
stras (Adhyy 6.1.72-158) that come under the adhikra-stra sahitym
(Adhyy 6.1.72). Thus, in stras like iko savare kalyasya hrasva ca
(Adhyy 6.1.127, the Pinian equivalent of the current stra), sandhi is optional
even when there is fast utterance. One should know that the non-sandhi and vmana
prescribed in the current stra are not applicable in a nitya-samsa or when the a is
not at the end of a viupada. They are only applicable elsewhere. This will be shown in
stra 93.
SaodhinThe further options shown through the examples hari + sanam and
rukmi + e here are some of the cases Jva Gosvm was referring to in when he
said etvataiva siddhi. dvitva-vikalpena matntari vakyante (vtti 59). These same
examples were employed in vtti 59; now some of their alternate forms are listed here.
Further forms of hari + sanam and dadhi + upendrasya will be made in the Dvitva-
prakaraa, the section on reduplication (stras 116-124).

92 / [%"yaA"yayaAe[R%ita /

92. -dvay-dvayayor ti

-dvaya-a-dvayayoof -dvaya and a-dvaya; ti1when -rma follows.

-dvaya and a-dvaya only optionally undergo sandhi when -rma follows.
And, as a further option, they can also become vmana [but only in the case
thatif sandhi is not done].

anayor ti pare sandhir v syt trivikramasya vmana ca v. sra abha, ydava


abha. hima-tv api t sma bha-svida iti mgha. ml abhasya mla
abhasya iti ca. pake yath-prpta hary sanam ity-di.

Vtti-dvaya and a-dvaya only optionally undergo sandhi when -rma follows, and a
trivikrama optionally becomes a vmana.

sra + abha (92) sra abha or (46) sraabha (best of the


creators)

ydava + abha (92) ydava abha or (52) ydavarabha (best of the


Yadus)

The poet Mgha has written, Those girls, perspiring profusely even in the winter
season. [Here Mgha has used the word hima-tau, thus exercising the option for non-
sandhi presented in this stra].

ml + abhasya (92) ml abhasya, or mla abhasya, or (52)


mlarabhasya (the Supreme beings Lords garland)

In the other case we get hary-sanam and so on, in conformity with the previous stras
[this has already been shown in each example for stras 91 and 92].

AmtaThis example from the poetry of Mgha indicates that this prohibition of sandhi
also applies in a samsa (hima-tau is a samsa).

93 / na inatyas$amaAs$ae na caAivaSNAupad"Antae inaSaeDavaAmanaAE /

1
The word ti here is formed by the Pinian method of adding t to designate a single vara. This was
described in vtti 37.
93. na nitya-samse na cviupadnte niedha-vmanau

nanot; nitya-samsewhen the viaya (sphere of activity) is a nitya-samsa; na


not; caand; a-viupada-antewhen viaya (sphere of activity) is not the end of a
viupada; niedha-vmanauthe prohibition (niedha) and vmana.

The options for non-sandhi and for becoming vmana [mentioned in stras 91
and 92] are not applicable when the viaya is a nitya-samsa or when the
viaya is not viupadnta.

hary-artham, kumryau.

Vtti (nitya-samsa:) hari + artham (59) hary-artham (for the sake of Hari)

(aviupadnta:) kumr + au (59) kumryau (two girls)

AmtaNitya-samsas are described in the Samsa-prakaraa as follows: nitya-


samsn sva-pada-vigraho nsti (For nitya-samsas there is no sva-pada-vigraha1).
For example, the explanation of the meaning of the nitya-samsa hary-artham is haraye
idam (this is for the sake of Hari), but this is not the vigraha of hary-artham. The nitya-
samsa hary-artham is formed by ida-vcy-artha-abdena ca (). In this connection,
Ktyyanas Vrttika also prohibits the optionality of sandhi in a nitya-smasa alone. But
Patajali, the author of the Mah-bhya, prohibits it in all samsas. Jva Gosvm,
however, has disregarded the opinion of the Mah-bhya here, because the opinion of
the Vrttika is concurred by Vmana, Jayditya, Puruottama, Padmanbha Datta and so
on.

SaodhinThe word kumr is a nma (nominal base), not a viupada. Thus the
in kumr is not at the end of a viupada. Only the finished product kumryau,
achieved by applying the dual ending au after the nominal base kumr, is a viupada.
This is in accordance with the definition of a viupada: viubhakti-siddha
viupadam (154).

94 / oHa: s$anDyaBaAva: O* vaetaAE /

94. ua sandhy-abhva * va cetau

uaof the indeclinable word u[]; sandhi-abhvanon-sandhi; * * (-rma with


a viucpa); vava-rma; caand; itauwhen the word iti follows.

When the word iti follows, the avyaya u[] either does not undergo sandhi or
becomes * or v.

SaodhinAll the printed editions of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa mistakenly list in


place of * . That it should be * can be proven by referring to standard authorities
1
Sva-pada-vigraha is the separation or analysis (vigraha) of the constituent words of a samsa using only
the constituents words themselves.
like Pini (Adhyy 1.1.18). The correct reading * can be found in manuscript
6766 (Serial No: 6139, Accession No: 6766) in the Vrindavan Research Institute. In the
Kadsa edition, Bla also lists * . The avyaya u[] is used in the sense of vitarka
(conjecture) and is also used for pda-praa (completing a quarter of a verse), in
which case it is a mere expletive. According to Monier Williams Sanskrit English
dictionary, the indicatory letter serves to distinguish it from the avyaya u used in the
senses of sambodhana1 (addressing), prana (inquiry), and so on.

95 / ivaSNAugANAA"Ae vaA s$avaeRre" /

95. viugad vo v sarvevare

viugatafter a viugaa; vava-rma; voptionally; sarvevarewhen a


sarvevara follows.

When a sarvevara follows, the avyaya u[] that comes after a viugaa
either does not undergo sandhi or becomes v.

u iti, * * iti, v iti. kim u uktam, kim v uktam. kim u iti, kim v iti ity api boddhavyam.
viugat kim? na ktam. ady-eva hal prrcchati ra go-gra gavendra ity-
dayas tv khyta-samsayor vakyante durgamatvt. iti sarvevara-sandhi.

Vtti u[] + iti (94) u iti, * iti*iti, or v iti

kim + u[] + uktam (95) kim u uktam or kim v uktam

The following should also be known:

kim + u[] + iti (95) kim u iti or kim v iti

Why do we say after a viugaa?

na + u[] + uktam (46) na ktam

Sandhis like ady-eva, hal, prrcchati, ram, go-gram, gavendra and so on will
be explained later in the khyta and Samsa-prakaraas as they are more difficult to
understand. Thus ends sarvevara-sandhi.

AmtaBy citing the example kim + u[] + iti, Jva Gosvm makes it known that the
later stra here (95) is stronger than the earlier one (94). In this example, even though
the word iti follows, the u[] that comes after a viugaa, doesnt undergo sandhi, and
can optionally become v. But it doesnt become * . This is due to the specific nature of
the prva-nimitta (m is a viugaa).

1
In vtti 70, Jva Gosvm refers to this sense as mantrae. However Bla glosses this as sambodhane
and standard dictionaries like Vcaspatyam and abda-kalpadruma also list it as sambodhane. The words
are synonyms thus there should be no confusion.
Someone may argue, In the grammars of the previous grammarians it is seen that
forms like ady-eva, hal, and so on are made in the Sandhi-prakaraa. Why then are
they set aside here? In response to this, Jva Gosvm states that they will be
explained later in the khyta and Samsa-prakaraas, the reason being that in the
beginning students cannot grasp difficult topics because their intelligence is weak. In
regard to these examples, ady-eva is formed by a-dvayasya hara eve navadhaae (),
hal by akandhv-dayo -rma-harea sdhava (), prrcchati by upendrras
trivikrama (560), ram by a-pra-vasana-vatsara-vatsatara-daa-kambaln
militv vndra e, go-gram by gor a-rme v sandhi (), and gavendra by
gavendro gavee avena sdhu ().
Atha viujana-sandhi

96 / ivaSNAud"As$aAe ivaSNAupad"Antae h"ir"GaAeSae ca h"ir"gAd"A /

96. viudso viupadnte harighoe ca harigad

viudsaviudsa; viupada-antewhen the viaya is viupadnta; harighoe


when a harighoa follows; caand; harigadharigad.

A viudsa at the end of a viupada becomes a harigad. A viudsa that


is not at the end of a viupada can also become a harigad if a harighoa
follows.1

viupadnte viaye harighoe ca pare sati aviupadnte ca viudsa-nm vara


sa-varga-ttya syt, sthne sadatama iti nyyena. vk acyutasya vg
acyutasya. vk govindasya vg govindasya. a-gopik a-gopik. bhagavat-icch
bhagavad-icch. kakubh vio kakub vio. viupadntd anyatra na. caturthy,
kasajit e kasajite. udharantaram agre.

VttiWhen the viaya is viupadnta or when a harighoa follows and the viaya is
not viupadnta, the vara called viudsa becomes a ttya (harigad) of the same
varga. This is in accordance with the following maxim: sthne sadatama (the
replacement (dea) should be most similar in regard to place of pronunciation).

vk + acyutasya (96) vg acyutasya (the statement of Acyuta)

vk + govindasya (96) vg govindasya (the statement of Govinda)


.
a + gopik (96) a-gopik (six gops)

bhagavat + icch (96) bhagavad-icch (the desire of the Lord)

kakubh + vio (96) kakub vio (the region of Viu)

But not when the viaya is something other than viupadnta. For example, in the
fourth case (caturth):

kasa-jit + e kasa-jite (unto the conqueror of Kasa)

The other example will be given later.

AmtaIn the vtti Jva Gosvm explains that the mention of harighoa here is for the
sake of aviupadnta. Because of the word ca in the phrase aviupadnte ca, a
viudsa also becomes a harigad when a harighoa follows and the viaya is
viupadnta. Someone may say, In the stra it was said that a viudsa becomes a
harigad, but in the vtti it was said that it becomes a ttya of the same varga. From
where is that obtained? In answer to that Jva Gosvm speaks the nyya beginning
1
See Saodhin 68 for an explanation why the viaya-saptam is translated like this here.
sthne. The word sthna here means uccraa-sthna (place of pronunciation). The
meaning of the nyya is The replacement (dea) should be that which is most similar
to the original in terms of place of pronunciation. Thus, in vk + acyuta, for example,
ka-rma becomes the ttya of the same varga, namely ga-rma, and not ja-rma and
so on. The words udharantaram agre in the vtti mean that examples of
aviupadnta will be given later in the khyta-prakaraa. Examples are digdhe in
vtti 694 and so on.

97 / h"ir"vaeNAAE h"ir"vaeNAuvaAR /

97. hariveau hariveur v

hariveauwhen a hariveu follows; hariveuhariveu; voptionally.

A viudsa at the end of a viupada optionally becomes a hariveu when a


hariveu follows.

viupadnte vartamno viudso hariveau pare hariveur v syt, sa ca sthni-


varga-pacama. jagat-ntha jagan-ntha jagad-ntha. ka-gup uuve ka-gum
uuve ka-gub uuve.

VttiA viudsa that is at the end of a viupada optionally becomes a hariveu


when a hariveu follows, and the hariveu thus substituted should be a pacama
(hariveu) of the same varga as the sthn (original).

jagat + ntha (97) jagan-ntha or (96) jagad-ntha (Lord of the


universe)

ka-gup + uuve (97) ka-gum uuve or (96) ka-gub uuve


(Kas guard sounded)

AmtaThe substitute hariveu should be a pacama of the same varga by the nyya
described in the previous vtti. The word uuve is an adhokaja form of the dhtu u
abde (1A, to sound). Why do we say viupadnte? Consider vedmi <acyuta pa. 3.1
of vid[a] jne>.

SaodhinThese days the change to hariveu is always done.1

98 / yaAd"vamaAae h"ir"k(malama, /

98. ydava-mtre harikamalam

ydava-mtrewhen any ydava follows; harikamalamharikamala.

A viudsa becomes a harikamala when any ydava follows.

1
See discussion under Saodhin 68.
viudso ydave pare tad-varga-prathama syt. vk kasya vk kasya. atra
viupadnte harigad-bdhanrtham ida stram. mtra-grahad aviupadnte ca.
udharaa tv agre.

VttiA viudsa becomes a prathama (harikamala) of the same varga when any
ydava follows.

vk kasya (98) vk kasya (the statement of Ka)

This stra is to prevent the change to harigad that would usually take place by stra 96
when the viaya is viupadnta. Because the current stra contains the word mtra, it
also applies when the viaya is not viupadnta. The other example will be given later.

AmtaThis is an apavda1 of stra 96. Someone may argue, In the example vk +


kasya what is gained by ordaining ka-rma in place of ka-rma? Jva Gosvm
replies to that doubt, saying that this stra is for the sake of checking the harigad. The
implied meaning is If this stra were not made, then, on the strength of stra 96, a
harigad would be achieved. Thus the undesirable form vg kasya would occur. The
simple meaning of the phrase aviupadnte ca is When a ydava follows, a viudsa
becomes a harikamala both when the viaya is viupadnta and when the viaya is
aviupadnta. The words udharantaram agre mean that examples of
aviupadnta, like bhetsyati and so on, will be given later, in the khyta-prakaraa.

99 / tata: zAzC$Ae vaA /

99. tata a cho v

tataafter that (a viudsa); aa-rma; chacha-rma; voptionally.

a-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become cha-rma.

viudst para a-rma cha-rmo v syt. su-vk auri, su-vk chaurir v. ap-y,
ap-chy v.

Vttia-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become cha-rma.

su-vk + auri (98, 99) su-vk chauri or su-vk auri (auri, the eloquent
speaker)

ap + y (98, 99) ap-chy or ap-y (He who lies on the water,


Nryaa)

SaodhinThese days we see that a-rma only really changes to cha-rma when it
comes after ta-rma. The optional change to cha-rma is not done in the case of any
other viudsa.

1
An exception, or in other words a special rule which sets aside the general rule. See vtti 59.
100 / na zcyautaeir"ita vaAcyama, /

100. na cyuter iti vcyam

nanot; cyuterof the dhtu cyut[ir] karae (1P, to ooze, flow); itithus; vcyam
should be stated.

But not the a-rma of the dhtu cyut[ir].

vk cyotati.

Vtti vk + cyotati (98, 100) vk cyotati (the speech flows)

AmtaIn this regard, the statement of Ktyyanas Vrttika is chatvam amti


vaktavyam (It should be stated that a-rma which comes after a viudsa becomes
cha-rma when an am follows). The words viudst and a-rmasya are carried
forward here. The pratyhra am refers to the sarvevaras, hariveus, harimitras, and
ha-rma. The Vrttika also says amti kim? vk cyotati (Why do we say when an am
follows? Consider vk cyotati). Here a-rma doesnt become cha-rma because the
para-nimitta, ca-rma, is not an am. Rather than creating another name to correspond to
the pratyhra am, Jva Gosvm chose to compose this pratiedha-stra (prohibitive
stra) which, in essence, explains the same thing. Supadma, a grammar composed by
Padmanbha Datta, further explains: asi tu nityam iti vcyam (It should be stated that
when the taddhita suffix as follows, its a-rma always becomes cha-rma). For
example, yvat + as becomes yvacchas. The taddhita suffix as is applied by sakhy-
parimbhy ca vpsym ().

SaodhinIn the Pinian system, the words vcya (it should be stated) and
vaktavya (it should be stated) are often used in connection with the additions or
corrections to the stras set forth by Ktyyana and Patajali in their explanations of the
stras. When we see these words appearing in the stras of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa,
it is usually an indication that Jva Gosvm is echoing a statement from Ktyyanas
Vrttika or Patajalis Mah-bhya. Thus, since these words do not add any extra
meaning to the rule itself, we have left them out in the translation.

101 / h"Ae h"ir"GaAeSa: /

101. ho harighoa

haha-rma; harighoaharighoa.

Ha-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become a harighoa.

viudst paro ha-rmas tad-varga-caturtha-varo v syt. vk hare vg ghare vg


hare. ac-halau aj-jhalau aj-halau. a hare a hare a hare. tat halina tad
dhalina tad halina. kakubh harasya kakub bharasya kakub harasya.
VttiHa-rma that comes after a viudsa can optionally become a caturtha
(harighoa) of the same varga as the viudsa.

vk + hare (96) vg + hare (101) vg ghare or vg hare (the


statement of Hari)

ac + halau (96) aj + halau (101) aj-jhalau or aj-halau (ac and hal)

a + hare (96) a + hare (101) a-hare or a-hare (of the six


Haris)

tat + halina (96) tad + halina (101) tad dhalina or tad halina (that
belongs to the holder of the plough, Balarma)

kakubh + harasya (96) kakub + harasya (101) kakub bharasya or kakub


harasya (the region of Hara, Lord iva)

SaodhinThese days the change to harighoa is always done.1

102 / d"taAE par"vaNAAE= lacaq%vagAeRSau inatyama, /

102. da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu nityam

da-tauda-rma and ta-rma; parafollowing; varauvara; la-ca-a-vargeuwhen


la-rma, ca-varga, or a-varga follows; nityamalways.

Da-rma and ta-rma always change to the following vara when la-rma, ca-
varga, or a-varga follows.

da-rmas ta-rma ca le pare ca-varge a-varge ca pare paro yo vara sa eva nitya
syt. tad lakm-pate tal lakm-pate. tat catur-bhujasya tac catur-bhujasya. kasa-
jit chdayati, ydava-mtre ity-di kasa-jic chdayati. tat janrdanasya taj
janrdanasya. kasa-jit-jhakra kasa-jijh-jhakra. viudsa iti kasa-jij-jhakra.
tad-a-rma ta-a-rma. v iti nivttam. tad-a-rma ity api piny. tan-mate
prvatrsiddham iti nyyena tad-varga-ttyasyaiva sthitir iti. eva a-rme pi kasa-
jit kate kasa-ji kate kasa-jit haukate kasa-ji haukate.

VttiDa-rma and ta-rma always change into the vara that is following when la-
rma, ca-varga, or a-varga follows.

tad + lakm-pate (102) tal lakm-pate (that belongs to the Lord of


Lakm)

tat + catur-bhujasya (102, 98) tac catur-bhujasya (that belongs to the four-
armed Lord Viu)
1
See discussion under Saodhin 68.
kasa-jit + chdayati (102) kasa-jich chdayati (98) kasa-jic chdayati
(the conqueror of Kasa covers)

tat + janrdanasya (102) taj janrdanasya (that belongs to Janrdana)

kasa-jit + jhakra (102) kasa-jijh-jhakra (96) kasa-jij-jhakra


(the conqueror of Kasa hums)

tad + a-rma (102) ta-a-rma (the a-rma of that)

The anuvtti of the word v has ceased. The Pinian grammarians also make tad-a-
rma in accordance with the principle of prvatrsiddham (Adhyy 8.2.1). In their
opinion only a ttya of the same varga remains. The same thing happens when there is
a-rma too.

kasa-jit + kate (102, 98) kasa-ji kate (the conqueror of Kasa goes)

kasa-jit + haukate (102) kasa-jih haukate (96) kasa-ji haukate


(the conqueror of Kasa approaches)

AmtaThe word nityam is used here to remove the optionality that would otherwise
be carried forward from the previous stra. The implied meaning of the phrase v iti
nivttam is The anuvtti of the word v is blocked due to the usage of the word
nityam. Because of the word api in the phrase tad-a-rma ity api piny, ta-a-
rma and taj-a-rma can also be made. The explanation of the principle of
prvatrsiddham (Adhyy 8.2.1) given in Bh-vtti is as follows, At the time that
a rule coming in the first seven chapters or in the first pda of the eighth chapter is
applied, a rule coming in the other three pdas of the eighth chapter is suspended
(asiddha). And a rule that comes later in the other three pdas of the eighth chapter is
suspended (asiddha) when an earlier rule coming in those three pdas is being applied.
For example, in their opinion, because s-to -cun -cu (Adhyy 8.4.40), -un
-u (Adhyy 8.4.41), and yaro nunsike nunsiko v (Adhyy 8.4.45) come
after jhal jao nte (Adhyy 8.2.39), an earlier rule, they are all suspended
(asiddha). When a ttya is made by jhal jao nte (Adhyy 8.2.39), it alone
remains, blocking the other three rules. But when the ttya is not made, yaro nunsike
nunsiko v (Adhyy 8.4.45) is applied and pacama is optionally made. In the
other case (when pacama is not made), either s-to -cun -cu (Adhyy 8.4.40)
or -un -u (Adhyy 8.4.41) is applied (depending on what fits the situation),
and the result is ca-varga and a-varga respectively. In this way, in their opinion, three
forms are achieved: tad-a-rma, ta-a-rma, and taj-a-rma. The words eva a-
rme pi, in the vtti, mean that there are also three forms of tad + a-rma: tad-a-
rma, ta-a-rma, and ta-a-rma.

SaodhinJhal jao nte (Adhyy 8.2.39) is equivalent to viudso


viupadnte harighoe ca harigad (96), yaro nunsike nunsiko v (Adhyy
8.4.45) to harivenau hariveur v (97), s-to -cun -cu (Adhyy 8.4.40) to the
combined effect of the stras sasya a ca-varga-yoge (248) and ta-vargasya ca-varga
ca-varga-yoge (241), and -un -u (Adhyy 8.4.41) to t parasya a-varga-
yuktasya ca ta-vargasya a-varga (280). It seems that Amta has given a slightly
wrong order of application, because in the Adhyy, yaro nunsike nunsiko v is a
later stra than s-to -cun -cu or -un -u. Thus, according to the principle of
prvatrsiddham, it should be the last choice. Furthermore it doesnt ordain a change of
varga, which is necessary in changing tad + a-rma into ta-a-rma, for example.
Merely applying yaro nunsike nunsiko v in this case would just result in tan-a-
rma, an undesirable form. Thus, the actual order of application should be, When a
ttya is made by jhal jao nte, it alone remains, blocking the other three rules. But
when the ttya is not made, either s-to -cun -cu or -un -u is applied
(depending on what fits the situation), and the result is ca-varga and a-varga
respectively. As a further option, after having applied s-to -cun -cu or -un -
u, yaro nunsike nunsiko v is applied and pacama is optionally made.

It will be explained in vtti 280 that stras like da-tau para-varau la-ca-a-vargeu
nityam (102) were separately formulated so that students may easily understand the
subject matter of sandhi alone. But actually almost everything mentioned in this stra is
covered by other more prominent stras. For example, the change of d or t to ca-varga is
covered by ta-vargasya ca-varga ca-varga-yoge (214), after which harivenau hariveur
v (97) can be applied to get a-rma, and the change of d or t to a-varga is covered by
t parasya a-varga-yuktasya ca ta-vargasya a-varga (280), after which hariveau
hariveur v (97) can be applied to get a-rma. Thus the only thing not covered by
other stras is the change of d or t to la-rma. So it would have been sufficient to make
this stra do lo le (da-rma becomes la-rma when la-rma follows). When we make
the stra like this it is not even necessary to include ta-rma, because by viudso
viupadnte harighoe ca harigad (96), ta-rma will automatically become da-rma
when la-rma follows.

103 / ta zAe /

103. ta ca e

tata-rma; caca-rma; ewhen a-rma follows.

Ta-rma becomes ca-rma when a-rma follows.

ta-rma a-rme pare ca-rma syt. tat aure tac aure. pake chatva, tac
chaure.

VttiTa-rma becomes ca-rma when a-rma follows. As a further option, a-rma


can then become cha-rma [by stra 99].

tat + aure (103, 98) tac + aure (99) tac chaure or tac aure (That
belongs to auri)

104 / naAe'ntaC$yaAe: zAr"AmaAe , ivaSNAuca(paUvaAeR ivaSNAucaApapaUvaAeR


vaA /
104. no nta ca-chayo a-rmo, viucakra-prvo viucpa-prvo v

nana-rma; antasituated at the end of a viupada; ca-chayowhen ca-rma or


cha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma; viucakra-prvapreceded by a viucakra;
viucpa-prvapreceded by a viucpa; vor.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada either becomes a a-rma preceded by a


viucakra or a a-rma preceded by a viucpa when ca-rma or cha-rma
follows.

na-rmo viupadnta ca-chayo parayo a-rma syt. sa ca viucakra-prvo


viucpa-prvo v. bhagavn calati, bhagav calati, bhagav * calati. bhagavn
chdayati, bhagav chdayati, bhagav * chdayati.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when ca-rma or cha-rma


follows, and that a-rma is preceded either by a viucakra or a viucpa.

bhagavn + calati (104) bhagav calati or bhagav * calati (Bhagavn


moves)

bhagavn + chdayati (104) bhagav chdayati or bhagav * chdayati


(Bhagavn covers)

105 / q%Q&yaAe: Sar"Ama: /

105. a-hayo a-rma

a-hayowhen a-rma or ha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada either becomes a a-rma preceded by a


viucakra or a a-rma preceded by a viucpa when a-rma or ha-rma
follows.

na-rmo viupadnta a-hayo parayo a-rma syt. sa ca viucakra-prvo


viucpa-prvo v. bhagavn kate, bhagav kate, bhagav * kate.
bhagavn hakkura, bhagav hakkura, bhagav * hakkura.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when a-rma or ha-rma


follows, and that a-rma is preceded either by a viucakra or a viucpa.

bhagavn + kate (105) bhagav kate or bhagav * kate


(Bhagavn goes)

bhagavn + hakkura (105) bhagav hakkura or bhagav *


hakkura (Bhagavn is the Deity)
106 / taTayaAe: s$ar"Ama: /

106. ta-thayo sa-rma

ta-thayowhen ta-rma or tha-rma follows; sa-rmasa-rma.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada either becomes a sa-rma preceded by a


viucakra or a sa-rma preceded by a viucpa when ta-rma or tha-rma
follows.

na-rmo viupadntas ta-thayo parayo sa-rma syt. sa ca viucakra-prvo


viucpa-prvo v. bhagavn tarati, bhagavs tarati, bhagav * s tarati. bhagavn
tht-karoti, bhagavs tht-karoti, bhagav * s tht-karoti.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes sa-rma when ta-rma or tha-rma


follows, and that sa-rma is preceded either by a viucakra or a viucpa.

bhagavn + tarati (106) bhagavs tarati or bhagav * s tarati (Bhagavn


crosses)

bhagavn tht-karoti (106) bhagavs tht-karoti or bhagav * s tht-karoti


(Bhagavn spits)

SaodhinBecause the form with a viucpa is generally not seen in modern


printed texts, stras 104 106 can be interpreted as follows:

n + c / ch + c / ch
n + / h + / h
n + t / th s + t / th

107 / na ts$ae /

107. na tse

nanot; tsewhen ts follows.

But not when ts follows.

tse pare na-rmo viupadnto viucakra-prvo viucpa-prvo v sa-rmo na syt.


bhagavn tsaru. kn kn ity atra ks kn iti vcya v.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada doesnt become a sa-rma preceded by a


viucakra or a viucpa when ts follows.

bhagavn + tsaru (107) bhagavn tsaru (Bhagavn is a sword)

It should be stated that kn + kn optionally becomes ks kn.


AmtaDue to the anuvtti of the words am-pare in na chavy apran (Adhyy
8.3.7), na-rma in this case doesnt become sa-rma preceded by a viucakra or a
viucpa because sa-rma (which comes after t in ts) is not included in am. The word
tsaru is formed by applying the udi suffix u after the dhtu tsar[a] chadma-gatau (1P,
to approach stealthily, sneak). Kn + kn becomes ks kn by kn mreite
(Adhyy 8.3.12). The word kn is the masculine second case (dvity) plural form of
the interrogative word kim. In kn + kn, one kn is used in the sense of query and the
other in the sense of reproach.

SaodhinThe Pinian pratyhra am refers to the sarvevaras, hariveus,


harimitras, and ha-rma, and the Pinian pratyhra chav refers to the varas cha,
ha, tha, ca, a, and ta. It is specified in na chavy apran (Adhyy 8.3.7) that na-
rma undergoes these sandhis (the ones prescribed in stras 104-106 in our book) only
when a chav that is itself followed by an am follows. Because such a condition only
arises when t is followed by s, Jva Gosvm has simply said not when ts follows.
According to Amara-koa the definition of the word tsaru is tsaru khagdi-muau
(tsaru means the hilt of a sword or other weapon). Often, by extension, the word tsaru
is used to refer to the sword itself. In this regard, Bhaoji Dkitas Siddhnta-kaumud
gives the example bhavn tsaruka (your good self is dexterous with the sword).

108 / azAAnaAe nasya caAd"AE h"ir"vaeNAu: /

108. prano nasya cdau hariveu

pranaof the viupada pran <1.1> / <8.1> (one who is peaceful); nasyana-
rma; cdauwhen ca-rma and so on follow; hariveuhariveu.

The n of pran becomes a hariveu of the same varga as the following vara
when ca-rma and so on follow.

viupadntasya prano na-rmasya ca-cha-a-ha-ta-theu pareu para-varnurpo


hariveur bhavati. pran catur-bhuja pra catur-bhuja. pran chdayati pra
chdayati. pran kate pra kate. pran hakkura pra hakkura. pran
tarati pran tarati.

VttiNa-rma situated at the end of the viupada pran becomes the hariveu that
corresponds to the following vara when ca, cha, a, ha, ta, or tha follow.

pran + catur-bhuja (108) pra catur-bhuja

pran + chdayati (108) pra chdayati

pran + kate (108) pra kate

pran + hakkura (108) pra hakkura


pran + tarati (108) pran tarati

AmtaWhere the n of pran would have become a auri preceded by a viucakra or


viucpa when ca-rma and so on follow (see stras 104-106), this rule is applied
instead. The formation of pran <1.1> / <8.1> is as follows: The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p]
is applied after pra + am[u] ntau. Then harivev-antoddhavasya trivikrama kvau
kasri-vaiave ca (845) is applied and we get pram + [k]vi[p]. Then dhtor mo no
viupadnte ma-vayo ca (274) is applied and we get pran + [k]vi[p]. Then
kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara (876) is applied and we are left with pran. The
viubhakti s[u] is then applied to form the masculine first case singular and is
subsequently deleted by rdh-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202).
There is no hara of the na-rma in pran by nmntasya nasya haro viupadnte
buddha vin (260), because that stra is suspended (asiddha) when the current stra is
applied (Jva Gosvm confirms this in vtti 274).

SaodhinThe formation of pran <1.1> / <8.1> as given above by Amta is faulty


and needs to be amended as follows: First of all the dhtu is am[u] upaame (4P, to be
calm, peaceful). There is no such dhtu as am[u] ntau either in Jva Gosvms
Dhtu-pha or in the Pinian Dhtu-pha. Having established that, the proper order
of formation for pran <1.1> is as follows: The kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] is applied after the
pra + am[u] upaame. Then harivev-antoddhavasya trivikrama kvau kasri-
vaiave ca (846 is applied and we get pram + [k]vi[p]. Then kevalasya pratyaya-ver
hara (876) is applied and we get the word pram. The viubhakti s[u] is then applied
to form the masculine first case singular and is subsequently deleted by rdh-
viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202). Then dhtor mo no viupadnte
ma-vayo ca (274) is applied and we get pran <1.1> / <8.1>. The fault in the order of
application as given by Amta is that if dhtor mo no viupadnte ma-vayo ca (274)
were applied at the stage when [k]vi[p] follows, then the word to which the viubhaktis
are applied would be pran and not pram. This would contradict the phrase mnta
pram, tasya pusi (vtti 273) and would result in unwanted forms like pranau <1.2>
and prana <1.3>, when the real forms are pramau <1.2> and prama <1.3>.

109 / lae lar"Ama Wva /

109. le la-rma eva

lewhen la-rma follows; la-rmala-rma; evaonly.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes la-rma when la-rma follows.

na-rmo viupadnto le pare la-rma syt. bhagavn llyate bhagav l* llyate.


atra sthne sadatama iti nyyena snunsika eva la-rma syt. atra ya-va-l hi
dvi-vidh matsnunsik nir-anunsik ca.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes la-rma when la-rma follows.

bhagavn + llyate (109) bhagav l* llyate (Bhagavn performs a


pastime)
Here, by the maxim of sthne sadatama (see explanation under stra 96), na-rma
only becomes only a snunsika la-rma. In that regard, ya, va, and la are considered to
be of two kinds: with an anunsika (snunsika) or without an anunsika (nir-
anunsika).1

AmtaThe word llyate is formed by applying the suffix [k]ya[] to the word ll by
abddika karoti (882). The nasality (anunsikatva) of na-rma was explained in the
Saj-prakaraa. Thus, by the maxim of sthne sadatama, it is enjoined that the la-
rma ordained in the place of na-rma should also be pronounced in the nose (nsik-
bhava). And because la-rma is a dental vara, it is also being pronounced in the mouth
(mukha-bhava) is further achieved. Therefore, because it is pronounced both in the nose
and mouth (mukha-nsik-bhava), it is described as being snunsika (see vtti 15).

110 / x"X#NAeSau NAr"Ama: /

110. a-ha-eu a-rma

a-ha-euwhen a-rma, ha-rma, or a-rma follow; a-rmaa-rma.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when a-rma, ha-


rma, or a-rma follows.

na-rmo viupadnto a-ha-eu pareu a-rma syt. garutman yase garutma


yase. cakrin haukase cakri haukase. rgin a kuru rgi a kuru.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when a-rma, ha-rma,


or a-rma follows.

garutman + yase (110) garutma yase (O Garua, you fly)

cakrin + haukase (110) cakri haukase (O bearer of the cakra, You


come)

rgin + a kuru (110) rgi a kuru (Create auspiciousness, O bearer


of the rga bow)

BlaThe word a in this last example means auspiciousness. According to other books.
it means liberation.

111 / jaJaHazAr"AmaeSau Har"Ama: /

111. ja-jha-a-a-rmeu a-rma

1
In this regard, one should remember that the anunsika is an alternate name for the viucpa. See vtti
15. For examples of when ya, va, and la are snunsika see ya-va-leu sa-viucpa-para-rpa ca
manyante (115).
ja-jha-a-a-rmeuwhen ja-rma, jha-rma, a-rma, or a-rma follows; a-rmaa-
rma.

Na-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when ja-rma, jha-rma,


a-rma, or a-rma follows.

na-rmo viupadnto ja-jha-a-a-rmeu pareu a-rma syt. bhagavn jayati,


bhagav jayati. bhagavn jhaa-rp, bhagav jhaa-rp. bhagavn uuve, bhagav
uuve. bhagavn ra, bhagav ra.

VttiNa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes a-rma when ja-rma, jha-rma, a-


rma, or a-rma follows.

bhagavn + jayati (111) bhagav jayati (Bhagavn conquers)

bhagavn + jhaa-rp (111) bhagav jhaa-rp (Bhagavn who assumed


the form of a fish)

bhagavn + uuve (111) bhagav uuve (Bhagavn sounded)

bhagavn + ra (111) bhagav ra (Bhagavn is a hero)

112 / zAe caAntaAe vaA /

112. e cnto v

ewhen a-rma follows; ca-antaone at whose end is ca-rma; voptionally.

When a-rma follows, na-rma at the end of a viupada optionally becomes


a-rma followed by ca-rma (that is to say it optionally becomes c).When a-
rma follows, na-rma at the end of a viupada optionally becomes a a-rma
with ca-rma at its end [that is to say it optionally becomes c].

na-rmo viupadnta a-rme pare ca-rmnto a-rma syd v. bhagavn ra,


bhagavc ra, bhagav ra, chatve bhagavc chra.

VttiWhen a-rma follows, na-rma at the end of a viupada optionally becomes a


a-rma with ca-rma at its end

bhagavn + ra (112, 98) bhagavc ra or (111) bhagav ra

Then, in the case that where a-rma becomes cha-rma by tata a cho v (99):

bhagavc ra (99) bhagavc chra

113 / maAe ivaSNAucaM( ivaSNAujanae /


113. mo viucakra viujane

mama-rma; viucakramviucakra; viujanewhen a viujana follows.

Ma-rma at the end of a viupada becomes viucakra when a viujana


follows.

ma-rmo viupadnto viujane pare viucakra syt. kam smarati,


viucakrasya prvordhva-gmitva lokt, ka smarati. viujand anyatra tu na
kam iccha, kam iccha. katha kim v uktam, ka-gum uuve? asiddha-
rpa na tyjyam iti pratij-siddhy-artham ida tatraiva kartu yogyam api yan na
kta tasmt tatrkaran na viucakram iti.

VttiMa-rma at the end of a viupada becomes viucakra when a viujana


follows. Due to common practice, the viucakra goes on top of the previous vara.

kam + smarati (113) ka smarati (He remembers Ka)

But not when something other than a viujana follows:

kam + iccha kam iccha (Desire Ka!)

Somone may argue, How is there kim v uktam and ka-gum uuve? The answer is
that even though the current stra is applicable in these cases, due to the very fact that
it was not made back then (in vtti 95), ma-rma doesnt become viucakra. This is for
the sake of keeping the promise asiddha-rpa na tyjyam (43).

AmtaIt will be described in vtti 285 that a viucakra is both a sarvevara and a
viujana because in the vara-krama it is listed in between the sarvevaras and the
viujanas. But even though the viucakra should go on top of the following vara
when we accept it as a viujana, when we accept it as a sarvevara, its going on top of
the following vara becomes impossible (due to the jala-bluk-nyya mentioned in vtti
52). Therefore Jva Gosvm speaks the sentence beginning viucakrasya in order to
explain that the viucakra goes on top of the previous vara in accordance with the
following maxim: vipratiedhe loka-vyavahras tv anusand balyn (When there is
contradiction between common practice and grammar, the common practice is stronger
than the rules of grammar). The word lokt in the vtti means loka-vyavahrt (
common practice), idam means this stra, mo viucakra viujane, and tatraiva
means in cases like kim v uktam and so on. Why do we say ma-rma at the end of a
viupada? Consider gamyate.

SaodhinSince the viucakra goes on top of the previous vara, in the Devangar
script ka smarati would be written as k{(SNAM smar"ita.

114 / ivaSNAuca(sya h"ir"vaeNAuivaRSNAuvagAeR , ivaSNAupad"Antasya tau vaA /

114. viucakrasya hariveur viuvarge, viupadntasya tu v


viucakrasyaof viucakra; hariveurhariveu; viuvargewhen a viuvarga
follows; viupadntasyaa viucakra situated at the end of a viupada; tubut; v
optionally.

Viucakra becomes a hariveu of the same varga as the following vara when
a viuvarga follows. But this is optional for a viucakra situated at the end
of a viupada.

viucakrasya para-varnurpo hariveu syt viuvarge pare, viupadntasya


vikalpa. aviupadntodharaa vakyate. ka krtayati, ka krtayati v.
ka bhajati, kam bhajati v. sasra tarati, sasran tarati v. atra ta-thayo
sa-rma-niedho vaktavya. viuvarge iti kim? savatsara.

VttiWhen a viuvarga follows, viucakra becomes the hariveu that corresponds


to the following vara. This is optional for a viucakra situated at the end of a
viupada. Examples of aviupadnta will be given later.

kam + krtayati (113) ka krtayati (114) ka krtayati or


ka krtayati (He glorifies Ka)

kam + bhajati (113) ka bhajati (114) ka bhajati or kam


bhajati (He worships Ka)

sasram + tarati (113) sasra tarati (114) sasra tarati or sasran


tarati (He crosses over material existence)

Here (in sasran tarati) a prohibition of ta-thayo sa-rma (106) ought to be spoken.
Why do we say when a viuvarga follows? Consider savatsara.

AmtaBecause of the mention of viupadntasya in the second clause, it should be


construed that in the first clause viucakrasya is aviupadntasya (not situated at
the end of a viupada). Thus the resultant meaning is: when the viaya is not
viupadnta, a viucakra always becomes the appropriate hariveu. Examples of this
are gant, hant, and so on. The na-rma in sasran here does not become sa-rma by
ta-thayo sa-rma (106) due to the maxim lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (see explanation under stra 70).

SaodhinTraditional Indian scholars tend to always exercise this option whereas


modern Western scholars tend to never exercise it because it is easier to recognize
words when the sandhi is not done.Western scholars tend never to exercise it, the idea
being that it is easier to recognize words when the sandhi isnt done. The standard of the
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, however, is to exercise the option when the viucakra is
inside a samsa (compound word) but not to exercise the option when the visucakra
is the final vara. In this regard, it will be explained later that all the constituent words
that make up a samsa are considered separate viupadas and that upasargas (verbal
prefixes) are also considered separate viupadas since they are compounded with
dhtus. Thus the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust would write sakrtana instead of
sakrtana, kinnara instead of kinara but, ki ca instead of ki ca, ta na instead of tan
na, and so on.
115 / yavalaeSau s$aivaSNAucaApapar"&paM ca manyantae /

115. ya-va-leu sa-viucpa-para-rpa ca manyante

ya-va-leuwhen ya-rma, va-rma, or la-rma follow; sa-viucpawith a viucpa;


paraof the following vara; rpamform; caalso; manyantethey consider.

The previous authorities on grammar consider that the viucakra can also
become the snunsika form of the following vara when y, v, or l follow.

sa v* vatsara, ya y* yamyate, sa l* lunti.

Vtti samvatsara (113) savatsara (115) sa v* vatsara or savatsara (a


year)

yayamyate (115) ya y* yamyate or yayamyate (he repeatedly restrains)

samlunti (113) salunti (115) sa l* lunti or salunti (he cuts)

AmtaThe word ca in this stra is used in the sense of v (optionally). The word
prvcry (previous authorities) has to be supplied to complete the sense. Because
there is no specific indication here, this option can be applied both when the viaya is
viupadnta or when it is aviupadnta. Examples of when the viaya is
viupadnta are ya y* ya-rma or ya ya-rma, sa v* vatsara or savatsara, and
sa l* lunti or salunti. Examples of when the viaya is aviupadnta are ya y*
yamyate or yayamyate and va v* vamyate or vavamyate. The word yayamyate here
is made by applying the intensive suffix ya[] after the dhtu yam[u] uparame. Then
there is reduplication by dhtor dvir-vacanam adhokaja-sann-a-yau (431) and a
viucakra is inserted by harivev-antn japa-jabha-daha-daa-bhaja-pa ca
nard a-rmato viucakra yai (833).

116 / i": s$avaeRr"maAaAcC$: /

116. dvi sarvevara-mtrc cha

dvidoubled; sarvevara-mtrtafter any sarvevara; chacha-rma.

Cha-rma is reduplicated when it comes after any sarvevara.

aviupadntd api sarvevart para cha-rmo dvir bhavati. ka-chatra, ka-


cchatram.

VttiCha-rma that comes after a sarvevara is reduplicated, even if that sarvevara


is not at the end of a viupada.
ka + chatram (116) ka-chchatram (98) ka-cchatram (Kas
umbrella)

AmtaIt is clearly explained, by including the word mtra in the stra and by using
the word api in the vtti, that cha-rma is reduplicated both when it comes after a
sarvevara that is at the end of a viupada and when it comes after a sarvevara that
is not at the end of a viupada.

117 / ivaSNAupad"AntaAitaiva(maA"A /

117. viupadntt trivikramd v

viupadnttsituated at the end of a viupada; trivikramtafter a trivikrama; v


optionally.

Cha-rma is optionally reduplicated when it comes after a trivikrama situated


at the end of a viupada.

viupadntt trivikramt para cha-rmo dvir v bhavati. yamun-chy, yamun-


cchy v.

VttiCha-rma is optionally reduplicated when it comes after a trivikrama situated at


the end of a viupada.

yamun + chy (117) yamun-chy or yamun-chchy (98) yamun-


cchy (the beauty of the Yamun)

AmtaBut by the previous stra, cha-rma is always reduplicated when it comes after
a trivikrama that is not situated at the end of a viupada. The word yamun-chy here
means yamun-knti (the beauty of the Yamun). Amara-koa gives the following
definitions of the word chy: chy srya-priy knti pratibimbam antapa (The
word chy can mean: the wife of the Sun-god named Chy, beauty, reflection, or
shade).

118 / @Ax.~maAx.~ByaAM inatyama, /

118. -mbhy nityam

-mbhymafter the indeclinable words [] and m[]; nityamalways.

Cha-rma is always reduplicated when it comes after [] or m[].

-mbhy para cha-rmo nitya dvir bhavati. a-rmasyprayoga. cchdayati. m


cchidat.

VttiCha-rma is always reduplicated when it comes after [] or m[]. The a-rma of


these words is not employed in actual usage (as it is just an indicatory letter).
[] + chdayati (118) chchdayati (98) cchdayati (He covers)

m[] + chidat (118) m chchidat m cchidat (Dont cut!)

AmtaThe word nityam here is to remove the optionality that would be obtained by
the previous stra due to cha-rma coming after the trivikrama at the end of the
viupadas [] and m[].

119 / vaAmanaAtx~NAnaA i": s$avaeRre" /

119. vmant a-a-n dvi sarvevare

vmantafter a vmana; a-a-na-rma, a-rma, and na-rma; dvidoubled;


sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows.

a-rma, a-rma, and na-rma, situated at the end of a viupada, are


reduplicated when they come after a vmana and a sarvevara follows.

vmant par a-a-n viupadnt sarvevare pare dvi syu. parya ananta,
parya ananta. suga ananta, suga ananta. kurvan asti, kurvann asti. vmand
anyatra tu nabhagavn iha bhagavn iha. udi-tianta-sanantdayas tu stra-nirdea-
balt.

Vttia-rma, a-rma, and na-rma, situated at the end of a viupada, are


reduplicated when they come after a vmana and a sarvevara follows.

parya + ananta (119) parya ananta (Ananta who is everywhere)

suga + ananta (119) suga ananta (Ananta who counts well)

kurvan + asti (119) kurvann asti (He is doing)

But not when they come after something other than a vmana:

bhagavn + iha bhagavn iha (Bhagavn is here)

But on the strength of anitya stra-nirdee (44), we also get words like u-di, ti-anta,
and san-anta.

AmtaThe word parya here is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after pari
+ ac[u] gati-pjanayo (1P, to go; to worship). Then kevalasya pratyaya-ver hara
(876) is applied and we get paryac. The nominal suffix s[u] is then added to make the
masculine first case singular form and is subsequently deleted by rdha-
viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt sor hara (202). Then sat-sagntasya haro
viupadnte (242) is applied and we get parya. Finally ca-vargasya ka-vargo
viupadnte, vaiave tv asa-varge (243) is applied, and we get parya. The word
suga is also formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after su + ga[a] sakhyne
(10P, to count). The nominal suffix s[u] is then added to make the masculine first case
singular form and is subsequently deleted by rdha-viujanbhym pa ca trivikramt
sor hara (202). Someone may argue, Why isnt there reduplication of the a-rma and
so on that come after a vmana in cases like u-di, ti-anta, and san-anta? In answer
to that, Jva Gosvm speaks the phrase stra-nirdea-balt. These terms are
mentioned in stras like uder bahulam (), bh-sanantdy dhtava (365), and so on.

120 / ivaSNAujanae ivaSNAujanaAe vaA , h"r"AE ivanaA /

120. viujane viujano v, ha-rau vin

viujanewhen a viujana follows; viujanaviujana; voptionally; ha-rau


ha-rma and ra-rma; vinexcept;

Any viujana, except h or r, that comes after a vmana can optionally be


reduplicated when a viujana follows.

vmant paro viujano viujane pare dvir v syt. ha-rau tu dvir na bhavata. dadhy
upendrasya daddhy upendrasya v.

VttiA viujana that comes after a vmana can optionally be reduplicated when a
viujana follows. But h and r are not reduplicated.

dadhy upendrasya (example from vtti 59) (120) dadhy upendrasya or


dadhdhy upendrasya (96) daddhy upendrasya (Upendras yoghurt)

SaodhinJust like in stra 115, because there is no specific indication here, this
option can be applied both when the viaya is viupadnta or when it is
aviupadnta. This is also the case up to and including stra 125. The options for
reduplication found in stras 120-124 are never seen in written works, with the
exception of stra 122, which is quite common, but they are all natural features of
refined speech. People whose pronunciation is proper will naturally employ these
reduplications. The alternate forms of the previous examples like dadhi + upendrasya
and so on given here in stras 120-124 are further instances of etvataiva siddhi.
dvitva-vikalpena matntari vaksyante (vtti 59). Other alternate forms of these
examples, made by optional sandhis or non-sandhis, were already shown under stra 91.

121 / h"ir"imaaAi"SNAugANAAe , ivaSNAugANAA"ir"imaaM , zAAEir"ta: s$aAtvata: ,


s$aAtvataAcC$AEir"iR"vaAR s$avaeRre" wita vaAcyama, /

121. harimitrd viugao, viugad dharimitra, aurita stvata, stvatc chaurir


dvir v sarvevare iti vcyam

harimitrtafter a harimitra; viugaaviugaa; viugatafter a viugaa;


harimitramharimitra; auritaafter a auri; stvatastvata; stvattafter a
stvata; auriauri; dvitwo; voptionally; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara
follows; itithus; vcyamshould be stated.

A viugaa that comes after a harimitra can optionally be reduplicated when


a sarvevara follows. Likewise a harimitra that comes after a viugaa, a
stvata that comes after a auri, and a auri that comes after a stvata.

yamunal-kkryate, dadhyy upendrasya, bhagav cchdayati, su-vk auri. atra


cho pi na manyante. pake prva-vat.

Vtti yamunal-kryate (example from vtti 53) (121) yamunal-kkryate or


yamunal-kryate (the Yamun imitates the sound )

dadhy + upendrasya (example from vtti 59) (121) dadhyy upendrasya or


dadhy upendrasya (Upendras yoghurt)

bhagav chdayati (example from vtti 104) (121) bhagav cchdayati


or bhagav chdayati (Bhagavn covers)

su-vk auri (example from vtti 99) (121) su-vk auri or (99) su-vk
auri or su-vk chauri (auri, the eloquent speaker)

The previous authorities on grammar consider that in the case that reduplication is
made the a-rma doesnt further become cha-rma [as it usually would by tata a
cho v (99)]. If reduplication is not made, things remain as before [this is already shown
above in the examples].

122 / r"r"AmaAta, , s$avaeRre" tau h"ir"gAAeaM ivanaA /

122. ra-rmt, sarvevare tu harigotra vin

ra-rmtafter ra-rma; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; tubut; harigotram


harigotra; vinexcept.

A viujana that comes after ra-rma can optionally be reduplicated when a


viujana follows. And when a sarvevara follows, a viujana, except a
harigotra, that comes after ra-rma can also optionally be reduplicated.

ra-rmt paro viujano viujane pare dvir v syt, sarvevare pare tu harigotra vin.
krya, krya v. haryy-sana v.

VttiA viujana that comes after ra-rma can optionally be reduplicated when a
viujana follows. But when a sarvevara follows, only a viujana, except a harigotra,
that comes after ra-rma can optionally be reduplicated.

kryam (122) kryam or kryam (descendant of Ka)


hary-sanam (example from vtti 59) (122) haryy-sanam or hary-sanam
(Haris seat)

AmtaThe words viujano viujane are carried forward from the previous stra. The
word krya (descendant of Ka) is formed by applying the taddhita suffix called
nsiha-ya to the word ka by vard dhde ca nsiha-ya imani ca () and then
making vndra by di-sarvevarasya vndro nsihe ().

SaodhinIndian scholars tend to always exercise this option whereas western


scholars tend to reject it since it can make the original word difficult to recognize. The
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust does not use this option.

123 / h"Aa s$avaeRr"ta: par"Aid"ita va(vyama, /

123. hc ca sarvevarata pard iti vaktavyam

htafter ha-rma; caand; sarvevarataa sarvevara; partthat comes after; iti


thus; vaktavyamshould be stated.

When ha-rma comes after a sarvevara, a viujana coming after that ha-
rma can optionally be reduplicated.

sarvevarata part hd uttaro viujano dvir v syt. brahm, brahmm v. neha


hnute. sarvevare tu" ity-di kim? parmara, vrabhnavy, arhati.

VttiWhen ha-rma comes after a sarvevara, a viujana coming after that ha-rma
can optionally be reduplicated.

brahm (123) brahm or brahmm (Lord Brahm)

But this reduplication cannot take place in hnute (he hides). Why did we say
sarvevare tu harigotram vin (in stra 122)? Consider parmara (inference),
vrabhnavy (of r Rdh, the daughter of Vabhnu), and arhati (he
deserves).

AmtaThe kry (viujana) and the para-nimittas (viujane and sarvevare) are
carried forward here. Jva Gosvm gives the counterexamples of the previous stra
with the phrase beginning sarvevare tu.

124 / h"stau ivaSNAujanae ca na /

124. has tu viujane ca na

haha-rma; tubut; viujanewhen a viujana follows; caalso; nanot.

But ha-rma that comes after ra-rma is also not reduplicated when a
viujana follows.
arhyate. viujana ity-dau dvitva-prakarae sarvatra kalyasya iti advitva-
paknullekhas tasy pramda.

Vtti arhyate (124) arhyate (deserved)

It is sheer carelessness on the part of Prakriy-kaumud that it does not show the
advitva-paka (the case where reduplication is not applied) obtained by sarvatra
kalyasya (Adhyy 8.4.51), which is shown (in our book) in the section on
reduplication beginning with viujane viujano v (120).

AmtaBut ha-rma that comes after ra-rma is not reduplicated even when a
viujana follows. Its not being reduplicated when a sarvevara follows was already
described by the phrase harigotra vin in stra 122. The words dvitva na
(reduplication doesnt take place) are carried forward in the Pinian stra sarvatra
kalyasya which means In the opinion of the authority kalya, reduplication in
general should never take place. Even though a prohibition is spoken here, the actual
intention is to create an option. If this were not the case, the rules prescribing
reduplication could never be applied.

125 / ivaSNAujanaAi"SNAud"As$asyaAd"zARnaM s$avagAeR ivaSNAud"As$ae /

125. viujand viudsasydarana sa-varge viudse

viujantafter a viujana; viudsasyaof a viudsa; adaranam


disappearance1; sa-vargeof the same varga; viudsewhen a viudsa follows.

A viudsa that comes after a viujana optionally disappears when a


viudsa of the same varga follows.

viujant parasya viudsasydarana v syt sa-varge viudse pare. bhagavc


chra bhagav chro v. asya prvatrkaraa vikalpenvayakatvbhvt.

VttiA viudsa that comes after a viujana optionally disappears when a


viudsa of the same varga follows.

bhagavn + ra (example from vtti 112) bhagavc chra (125)


bhagavc chra or bhagav chra (Bhagavn is a hero)

This stra was not made earlier because, due to it being optional, it was not necessary.

AmtaThe word v is carried word here by maka-pluti (the leap of a frog: carrying
forward a word from a previous stra by jumping over the intervening stra or stras [in
this case stra 124]). Someone may argue, Why wasnt this stra made immediately
after e cnto v (112)? In order to dispel that doubt, Jva Gosvm speaks the
sentence beginning asya. The implied meaning is that there is no fault in introducing an
1
Adarana is the same thing as hara because in vtti 41 hara was defined as adarana-mtra-hetur hara.
optional rule after a grammatical operation (krya) has already been completed by the
compulsory rule alone. This was described previously in etvataiva siddhi, dvitva-
vikalpena tu matntari vakyante (vtti 59).

126 / @vya(Anauk(r"NAzAbd"AnaAma"AgAsya h"r" wtaAE , h"ir"gAd"AinaSaeDa /

126. avyaktnukaraa-abdnm ad-bhgasya hara itau, harigad-niedha ca

avyaktainarticulate sounds; anukaraaimitating; abdnmof words; at-bhgasya


of the portion at; haradeletion; itauwhen the word iti follows; harigadof
harigad; niedhaprohibition; caand.

The at portion of words imitating inarticulate sounds is deleted when the word
iti follows, and the change to harigad [by stra 96] is prohibited.

paat iti, pa iti. ghaat iti, gha iti.

Vtti paat + iti (126) pa iti

ghaat + iti (126) gha iti

AmtaThe word harigad-niedha means the harigad that would usually be


obtained by applying viudso viupadnte harighoe ca harigad (96) is prohibited.
Imitative words are actually of two kinds: vyakta and avyakta. The vyakta ones are those
which can be manifested through a known language, and the avyakta ones are those
which cannot. The avyakta imitative words reproduce noises like that of an object
breaking or falling. Why do we say when the word iti follows? Consider paat atra
(96) paad atra. Well, how is there ghaad iti gambhrair ambudair naditam iti? Here the
imitative word actually ends in da-rma; it was not originally ghaat.

127 / naEk(s$avaeRr"tvae /

127. naika-sarvevaratve

nanot; eka-sarvevaratvewhen it has only one sarvevara.

But not when the imitative word has only one sarvevara in it.

rat iti rad iti.

Vtti rat + iti (127, 96) rad iti

SaodhinAll the printed editions of Hari-nmmta list srat iti srad iti instead of
rat iti rad iti. However, this is a mistake because the prohibition mentioned in this
stra is originally coming from Ktyyanas Vrttika on Adhyy 6.1.98, which gives
the example rat iti rad iti. Indeed, Jva Gosvm himself will mention in vtti that rad
ity-dayo nukaraa-abd (the imitative words headed by rat). This proves that the
imitative word referred to here is rat and not srat. The correct reading rat iti rad iti
can be found in manuscript 6766 (Serial No: 6139, Accession No: 6766) in the Vrindavan
Research Institute.

128 / na i"i&(Avantyasya tar"Amasya tau vaA /

128. na dvis-trir-uktv, antyasya ta-rmasya tu v

nanot; dvi-tri-uktauwhen there is speaking twice or thrice; antyasyafinal; ta-


rmasyaof ta-rma; tubut; voptionally.

And not when the imitative word is repeated two or three times. But a final ta-
rma is optionally deleted when the word iti follows.

paat paad iti paat paeti. katha vaabh valabh, paryaka palyaka, raghu
laghu, kapirik kapilik ity-di? a-layo ra-layo ca prya-ekatva-ravat.

Vtti paat paat + iti (128, 96) paat paad iti or (128) paat paa iti (48)
paat paeti

Why is there vaabh and valabh (a turret), paryaka and palyaka (a couch),
raghu and laghu (light), kapirik and kapilik (reddish), and so on? Because it is
heard [from previous authorities] that a-rma and la-rma and ra-rma and la-rma are
practically one with each other [and thus interchangeable].

SaodhinThis explanation accounts for the alternate spellings of various Sanskrit


words. Thus, in the Bhgavatam, we sometimes see prahlda and sometimes see
prahrda. Ba-rma and va-rma can also be interchangeable, as in the words bindu and
vindu (drop, dot), bhat and vhat (big), and so on. A good Sanskrit dictionary like
MW will usually list both forms oft these words.

129 / s$ar"Amae q%naAByaAM taugvaeita va(vyama, /

129. sa-rme a-nbhy tug veti vaktavyam

sa-rmewhen sa-rma follows; a-nbhymafter a-rma or na-rma; tukthe


gama t[uk]; voptionally; itithus; vaktavyamshould be stated.

T[uk] can optionally be inserted after or n when s follows.

a sdhava at sdhava, bhagavn sdhu bhagavnt sdhu.

Vtti a + sdhava (129) a sdhava or at sdhava (six sdhus)

bhagavn sdhu (129) bhagavn sdhu or bhagavnt sdhu (Bhagavn


is a sdhu)
AmtaSomeone may say, In at sdhava, why doesnt ta-rma become a-rma
by t-parasya a-varga-yuktasya ta-vargasya a-varga (280)? In this regard it should
be understood that t[uk] can optionally be inserted only after a-rma or na-rma that
are situated at the end of a viupada. Thus, on account of the prohibition na tu
viupadntd a-vargd anm-navati-nagarm (280), the change to a-rma doesnt
take place here. In bhagavnt sdhu also, ta-thayo sa-rma (106) doesnt apply both
because it is suspended (asiddha) when the gama t[uk] is inserted and because of the
prohibition na tse (107). In this regard, it is said that t[uk] cannot be inserted when a sa-
rma followed by a stvata follows. For example, in bhagavn stht one cannot insert
t[uk].

130 / zAAEr"AE NAx~AByaAM q%k(AE vaeita va(vyama, /

130. aurau a-bhy a-kau veti vaktavyam

aurauwhen a auri follows; a-bhymafter a-rma and a-rma; a-kaua-


rma and ka-rma; voptionally; itithus; vaktavyamshould be stated.

and k can optionally be inserted after and respectively when a auri


follows.

suga akara suga akara. pr sva-bh prk sva-bh. pr aha prk


aha. iti viujana-sandhi.

Vtti suga + akara (130) suga akara or suga akara (akara who
counts well)

pr + sva-bh (130) pr sva-bh or prk sva-bh (the self-born Viu


who existed before)

pr + aha (130) pr aha or prk aha (the first sixth)

Thus ends viujana-sandhi.

AmtaMoreover, in this connection, harikamalas can also optionally become


harikhagas in accordance with the following stra from Ktyyanas Vrttika (8.3.28):
cayo dvity ari paukara-sde (in the opinion of the grammarian Paukara-sdi,
cays (harikamalas) become dvityas (harikhagas) when a ar (auri) follows). Thus, for
example, sugah akara, prkh sva-bh, and prkh aha. If we do not exercise
this option, the harikamalas and k remain as they were.
Atha viusarga-sandhi

131 / ivaSNAus$agAAeR ija"AmaUlaIya: k(KayaAevaAR /

131. viusargo jihvmlya ka-khayor v

viusargaviusarga; jihvmlyathe vara called jihvmlya ( ); ka-khayo


when ka-rma or kha-rma follows; voptionally.

Viusarga can optionally become jihvmlya when ka-rma or kha-rma


follows.

viusarga ka-khayo parayor jihvmlyo v syt. sa ca vajrkti-lekho hi jihvmla-


bhavo vara-viea. asya viujana-vat parordhva-gamana lokt. evam
upadhmnyasya ca. ka ka ka ka. ka khelati ka khelati.

VttiViusarga can optionally become jihvmlya when ka-rma or kha-rma


follows. The jihvmlya is a special vara pronounced at the root of the tongue. The
letter used to represent it is shaped like a thunderbolt. Due to common practice, the
jihvmlya goes on top of the following vara.1 This is the case with the upadhmnya
also.

ka + ka (131) ka ka or ka ka (Brahm, Ka)

ka + khelati (131) ka khelati or ka khelati (Ka plays)

AmtaSome consider that the jihvmlya is shaped like a amaru [the X-shaped
drum used by Lord iva]. But in both cases the result is the same [since the amaru and
the thunderbolt basically have the same shape, ]. Because the jihvmlya is
essentially a viusarga, it is also both a sarvevara and a viujana, just like the
viusarga (see vtti 285). With the sentence beginning asya, Jva Gosvm explains
that, by accepting the jihvmlya as a viujana, it should go on top of the following
vara. In the same way, due to common practice, the upadhmnya (which is essentially
a viusarga and thus it is also both a sarvevara of viujana) should also go on top of
the following vara.

SaodhinIn modern times the symbol for the thunderbolt is . But from this text it
seems that the symbol was formerly . Occasionally, in printed texts, the jihvmlya is
represented by an English , probably because the symbol was not available in old
printing presses. The jihvmlya and the upadhmnya were used in Vedic times, but
in common Sanskrit they have become obsolete. Thus in common Sanskrit the
viusarga remains unchanged when k, kh, p, or ph follows.

1
Usually, in printed texts, however, the jihvmlya and upadhmnya are placed in the same spot as the
viusarga. We have followed suit in this edition.
132 / paP(yaAe&paDmaAnaIya: /

132. pa-phayor upadhmnya

pa-phayowhen pa-rma or pha-rma follows; upadhmnyathe vara called


upadhmnya ( ).

Viusarga can optionally become upadhmnya when pa-rma or pha-rma


follows.

viusarga pa-phayo parayor upadhmnyo v syt. sa ca gaja-kumbhkti-lekho hi


oha-bhavo vara-viea. ka pa-rama, ka pa-rama. ka phalam,
ka phalam.
VttiViusarga can optionally become upadhmnya when pa-rma or pha-rma
follows. The upadhmnya is a special vara pronounced with the lips. The letter used to
represent it is shaped like the frontal lobes of an elephant.

ka + pa-rama (132) ka pa-rama or ka pa-rama

ka + phalam (132) ka phalam or ka phalam

SaodhinThe upadhmnya is so named because it is pronounced with the lips


(upadhmna). The lips (upadhmna) are so named because one blows (upadhmyate)
through them. Similarly, the jihvmlya is so named because it is pronounced at the
root (mla) of the tongue (jihv). The Hindi commentary on Ktantra-vykaraa called
Viea, written by Dr Jnak-prasda Dvived, explains that, in different printed books,
different symbols like are used to represent the

upadhmnya. The Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar recognizes the first and fourth of
these as and , and mentions that sometimes even is used, just as it is for the
jihvmlya.

133 / na zAAEir"pare"Sau taeSau /

133. na auri-pareu teu

nanot; auri-pareufollowed by a auri; teuwhen they are.

Not when they are followed by a auri.

auri-pareu teu ka-kha-pa-pheu pareu viusargasya sthne jihvmlydir na


syt. ka krasyati, ka psti. atra samsa-krye a-sau ca vakyate. yath
ni-ka rakas-pa ity-di.
VttiThe jihvmlya and upadhmnya do not replace the viusarga when it is
followed by a k, kh, p, or ph that is itself followed by a auri.

ka + krasyati (133) ka krasyati (Ka longs for milk)

ka psti (133) ka psti (Ka eats)

It will be described later how, when k, kh, p, or ph follows, the viusarga also becomes
and s during samsa-krya (a grammatical operation that takes place within a
compound word). For example, ni-ka (gone out from Ka), rakas-pa (a
contemptible demon), and so on.

AmtaThe word di in jihvmlydi refers to the upadhmnya. The word


krasyati is a nominal verb formed by applying the suffix [k]ya[n]. It means he longs
for milk. The word ni-ka is a ka-purua compound in which the middle word is
not employed. It is formed by nir-daya pacamy () and its vigraha is ni-krnta
kd (gone out from Ka). The viusarga in ni-ka becomes by nir-dur-
bahi-prdur-vi-caturm (), and the viusarga in the word rakas-pa, a word
formed by applying the taddhita suffix pa by garhye pa (), becomes s by var-
rmbhy pa-kalpa-keu ().

134 / caC$yaAe: zAr"Ama: /

134. ca-chayo a-rma

ca-chayowhen ca-rma or cha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma.

Viusarga becomes a-rma when ca-rma or cha-rma follows.

viusarga ca-chayo parayo a-rma syt. ka carati, ka carati. ka


chdayati, ka chdayati.

VttiViusarga becomes a-rma when ca-rma or cha-rma follows.

ka + carati (134) ka carati (Ka roams about)

ka + chdayati (134) ka chdayati (Ka covers)

135 / q%Q&yaAe: Sar"Ama: /

135. a-hayo a-rma

a-hayowhen a-rma or ha-rma follows; a-rmaa-rma.

Viusarga becomes a-rma when a-rma or ha-rma follows.


viusarga a-hayo parayo a-rma syt. ka kate, ka kate. ka
ha-rma, ka ha-rma.

VttiViusarga becomes a-rma when a-rma or ha-rma follows.

ka + kate (135) ka kate (Ka goes)

ka + ha-rma (135) ka ha-rma (ka-rma, ha-rma)

136 / taTayaAe: s$ar"Ama: /

136. ta-thayo sa-rma

ta-thayowhen ta-rma or tha-rma follows; sa-rmasa-rma.

Viusarga becomes sa-rma when ta-rma or tha-rma follows.

viusarga ta-thayo parayo sa-rma syt. ka tarati, kas tarati. ka


tht-karoti, kas tht-karoti.

VttiViusarga becomes sa-rma when ta-rma or tha-rma follows.

ka + tarati (136) kas tarati (Ka crosses)

ka + tht-karoti (136) kas tht-karoti (Ka spits)

AmtaThe word tht is an indeclinable avyakta imitative word. (It imitates the sound
of spitting).

137 / na ts$ae /

137. na tse

nanot; tsewhen ts follows.

Not when ts follows.

ka tsaru.

Vtti ka + tsaru (137) ka tsaru (which sword?)

AmtaViusarga doesnt become sa-rma when ts follows. Here also the implied
meaning is that the viusarga doesnt become sa-rma because the chav is not
followed by an am (see Amta 107). Amara-koa says that the word tsaru means the hilt
of a sword or other weapon.
138 / zAAEir"Sau zAAEir"vaAR /

138. auriu aurir v

auriuwhen auris follow; auriauri; voptionally.

Viusarga can optionally become a auri when a auri follows.

viusarga auriu pareu paro yo vara sa eva v syt. ka araa ka


araa v. hare aa hare ao v. hare surabhi hares surabhir v.

VttiViusarga can optionally become the following vara when a auri follows.

ka + araam (138) ka araam or ka araam (Ka is the


shelter)

hare + aa (138) hare aa or hare aa (Haris bull)

hare + surabhi (138) hare surabhi or hares surabhi (Haris cow)

AmtaAmara-koa offers the following definition of the word aa: ao go-patir i-


cara (A aa is a bull that is allowed to roam freely). It also gives this explanation of
the word surabhi: surabhir gavi ca striym (The surabhi is a female cow1).

SaodhinGenerally in common Sanskrit the viusarga remains unchanged when


, , or s follow. However, the option under discussion is still in fashion in South India,
especially in the works published by the r-sampradya.

139 / s$aAtvatapar"tvae laAepya /

139. stvata-paratve lopya ca

stvata-paratvewhen the auri is followed by a stvata; lopyacan be deleted; ca


also.

The viusarga can also be deleted when a auri which is followed by a


stvata follows.

stvata paro yebhyas teu auriu pareu viusarga pake lopya ca syt. hare
sthala hare sthala hares sthala v.

VttiThe viusarga can also be deleted in the case that a auri which is followed by a
stvata follows.

1
The word go can refer either to a cow or bull; thus the word surabhi is specified as meaning str-go, a
cow.
hare + sthalam (138) hare sthalam or hares sthalam or (139) hare
sthalam (the abode of Hari)

AmtaThe word lopya here means lopa-yogya (can be deleted). Due to the word
ca in this stra, the viusarga can also become a auri or remain a viusarga as
described in the previous stra.

140 / @Ad"r"AmagAAepaAlayaAe&inaRtyama, /

140. d a-rma-goplayor ur nityam

tafter a-rma; a-rma-goplayowhen a-rma or a gopla follows; uu-rma;


nityamalways.

A viusarga that comes after a-rma always becomes u-rma when a-rma or
a gopla follows.

a-rmt paro viusarga u-rma syt a-rma-goplayo parayo. ka atra, ko


tra. ka gacchati, ko gacchati. a-rma-nirden mahpurue tu nagaccha
trtharav3 atra. viusarga-lopo vakyate.

VttiA viusarga that comes after a-rma becomes u-rma when a-rma or a gopla
follows.

ka + atra (140) ka + u + atra (50) ko + atra (67) ko


tra (Ka is here)

ka + gacchati (140) ka + u + gacchati (50) ko gacchati


(Ka goes)

Due to the mention of a-rma, the viusarga doesnt become u-rma when it comes
after a mahpurua. For example, gaccha trtharav3 atra (Come here, O
Trtharavas). The deletion of the viusarga (as seen in this example) will be
described in the next stra.

AmtaThe word trtharava is the vocative singular of the word trtharavas. This
has become trtharav3 by guror anto nantasypy ekaikasya prcm (78). And
because a vmana acts like a trivikrama when there is a mahpurua (see vtti 7), the
prva-nimitta here is actually not a-rma. Thus the viusarga doesnt become u.
Rather, the viusarga that comes after -rma is deleted by the following stra.

141 / @"yaBaAeBagAAe@GaAeByaAe laAepya: , s$avaeRre" tau ya , na ca laAepae


s$ainDa: /

141. a-dvaya-bho-bhago-aghobhyo lopya, sarvevare tu ya ca, na ca lope sandhi


a-dvaya-bho-bhago-aghobhyaafter a-dvaya, or after bho, bhago, or agho; lopya
deleted; sarvevarewhen a sarvevara follows; tubut; yaya-rma; caalso; na
not; caand; lopewhen there is deletion; sandhisandhi.

A viusarga that comes after a-dvaya or after bho, bhago, or agho is deleted
when a sarvevara or gopla follows. But when a sarvevara follows, it can
also become ya-rma. And when the viusarga is deleted, there is no further
sandhi.

a iti vara-dvayt bho-bhago-agho-abdebhya ca paro viusargo lopya syt


sarvevara-goplayo parayo. sarvevare tu pare pake ya-rma ca syt. tasmin lope
sati puna sandhir na syt. ka iha, ka iha, kay iha. k atra, k atra,
ky atra. bho ananta, bho ananta, bhoy ananta. bhago ananta, bhago ananta,
bhagoy ananta. agho avaiava, agho avaiava, aghoy avaiava. atr-dvayt para
at-spar at-sparitara ca ya-rmo jeya. o-rmt paras tv at-sparitara eva.
gople na ya-rma. k gacchanti. bho govinda. bhago govinda. agho hari-vimukha.
d a-rma-goplayo iti viea-vidhnn nehako tra, ko gacchati. sa ea
sa ea. saia iti pda-prae.
saia darath rma / saia rj yudhihira
saia karo mah-tyg / saia bhmo mah-bala

VttiA viusarga that comes after the varas a or or after the sounds bho, bhago,
or agho is deleted when a sarvevara or gopla follows. But when a sarvevara follows,
it can also become ya-rma. When the viusarga is deleted, there is no further sandhi.

ka + iha (141) ka iha or kay iha (Ka is here)

k + atra (141) k atra or ky atra (the Kas are here)

bho + ananta (141) bho ananta or bhoy ananta (O Ananta)

bhago + ananta (141) bhago ananta or bhagoy ananta (O Bhagavn


Ananta)

agho + avaiava (141) agho avaiava or aghoy avaiava (O sinful non-


devotee)

The ya-rma coming after a-dvaya here should be known as either at-spar or at-
sparitara, but the ya-rma coming after o-rma is just at-spari-tara. The viusarga
does not become ya-rma when a gopla follows:

k + gacchanti (141) k gacchanti (the Kas go)

bho + govinda (141) bho govinda (O Govinda)

bhago + govinda (141) bhago govinda (O Bhagavn Govinda)


agho + hari-vimukha (141) agho hari-vimukha (O sinful person averse to
Hari)

Because d a-rma-goplayo (140) is a more specific rule, the current stra does not
apply in
ka + atra and ka + gacchati.

sa + ea (141) sa ea

(The words sa and ea combine to form) saia when the sense is filling out a pda
(quarter of a verse, line). For example:

saia darath rma


saia rj yudhihira
saia karo mah-tyg
saia bhmo mah-bala.

This is the famous Rma, son of Daaratha. This is the famous king, Yudhihira. This is
Kara, famous for his generosity. And this is Bhma, famous for his great strength.

AmtaThe stra is clarified in the vtti. The words bhos, bhagos, and aghos, ordained
by bhagavatu-aghavatu-bhavatn bhagos-aghos-bhos iti nipt v buddhe (257), are
mentioned without their sa-rmas in the phrase bho-bhago-aghobhya. This implies that
the viusarga of the indeclinable word bhos1 should also be deleted. The word abda
(a word, specifically a nominal base) mentioned in the vtti in abdebhya ca is not
used in its literal sense. Rather it is employed merely in the extended sense that that
which is perceived through hearing is abda. Thus all the praktis (bases), pratyayas
(suffixes), vius, viricis, niptas, and so on are called abda. But one should know
that in grammar, the word abda is generally used in its literal sense by sakoca-vtti
(the mode of limitation).

The plural form k (the Kas) found in the examples above suggests the rsa-
ll or the marrying of many girls simultaneously. In regard to d a-rma-gopalayor ur
nityam (140), it should be known that a viusarga that comes after a-rma is deleted
only when a sarvevara other than a-rma follows. This is because the rule of
viusarga becoming u-rma when a-rma follows is more specific than what is
prescribed in the current stra. Jva Gosvm shows the same thing in the sentence
beginning d a-rma-goplayo. That the viusarga is ordained to become ya-rma
only when a sarvevara follows implies that it does not become ya-rma when a gopla
follows. Although, when there is deletion of the viusarga, further sandhi is prohibited
by the phrase na ca lope sandhi, sandhi takes place to form saia when the sense is
the filling out of a pda (quarter of a verse, line). Jva Gosvm backs this up by
quoting a verse of the previous authorities. In saia the word sa means prasiddha
(well-known, famous) and the word ea means this person right in front of you. This
kind of usage is considered ra-prayoga (usage of the sages).

1
The indeclinable word bhos is considered as a separate word, technically different than the vocative word
bhos ordained by bhagavatu-aghavatu-bhavatn bhagos-aghos-bhos iti nipt v buddhe (257).
SaodhinIn grammar, the word abda is used only to denote words that possess
sense (arthavat). It is equivalent to the term nma described in stra 148. According to
gra-praka, the definition of the word abda is: yenoccritena artha pratyate sa
abda (abda is that which conveys meaning when uttered). Thus, in the phrase bho-
bhago-agho-abdebhya ca, the word abda is not used in its literal sense as bho,
bhago, and agho are mere portions of the words bhos, bhagos, and aghos, and thus they
have no independent meaning (see discussion under stra 58). Rather, as Amta points
out, the word abda is employed here merely in the extended sense that which is
perceived through hearing is abda. Thus abda has been translated here as sound.

142 / WSas$apar"Ae ivaSNAujanae /

142. ea-sa-paro viujane

ea-sa-paraafter ea or sa; viujanewhen a viujana follows.

A viusarga coming after ea or sa is deleted when a viujana follows.

etac-chabdasya ea ity asmt tac-chabdasya sa ity asmc ca paro viusargo lopya


syd viujane pare. ea ka, ea ka. sa rma, sa rma.

VttiA viusarga coming after the ea of the word etad (this) or the sa of the word
tad (that) is deleted when a viujana follows.

ea ka (142) ea ka (this is Ka)

sa rma (142) sa rma (that is Rma)

AmtaThe word para in the stra is connected to both ea and sa by the following
injuction: dvandvt para prvo v ryama abda praty-ekam abhisambadhyate
(A word that is heard after or before a dvandva compound is joined with each element
of the dvandva compound). Some say that sometimes the application of this stra is
optional. For example, according to Padmanbha Datta, the author of Supadma: so v
bhavet, eo hanmn (This is optional. Thus ea + hanmn can also become eo
hanmn).

SaodhinThis stra is an apavda of stra 140. But if it is not exercised due to the
optionality described above, then stra 140 is applied as in the example eo hanmn.

143 / na tau naHs$amaAs$aAfatyayayaAe: /

143. na tu na-samsk-pratyayayo

nanot; tubut; na-samsa-ak-pratyayayowhen the viaya is a na-samsa (a


compound word with the negative particle na[] as its first member) or the taddhita
suffix ak.
But not when the viaya is a na-samsa or the taddhita suffix ak.

anea ka. aso rma. eaka ka. sako rma. sa ity asya shacaryt
eaam ea ity asmn na syt. eo bhavati.

Vtti anea + ka (143) anea ka (Ka is not he)

asa + rma (143, 140) asa + u + rma (50) aso rma (Rma is not
he)

eaka + ka (143) eaka ka (this is Ka)

saka + rma (143, 140) saka + u + rma (50) sako rma (that is
Rma)

A viusarga coming after the ea that means eaam (desire) is not deleted because
ea in the previous stra is mentioned in connection with sa (which is a kanma, a
pronoun).

AmtaThe meaning of this stra is that a viusarga coming after ea or sa should


not be deleted when the viaya is a na-samsa or the taddhita suffix ak. Rather the
regular grammatical operation should be applied instead. By the maxim eka-dea-
viktam ananya-vat (vtti 146), the deletion of the viusarga would be obtained, but
this pratiedha-stra blocks it. The maxim lkaika-pratipadoktayo
pratipadoktasyaiva grahaam (vtti 70) is the hidden reason behind this prohibition.
Even though in the previous vtti the ea that means eaam was naturally excluded by
the phrase etac-chabdasya ea, still to encourage the students to think in various ways
Jva Gosvm has presented the same conclusion in yet another way with the phrase sa
ity asya shacaryt.

The word ea (desire) is formed by applying the kt pratyaya [gh]a[] after the dhtu
i[u] icchym (6P, to desire, want) in bhve prayoga. The word eaam here is
employed merely to signify that ea is in bhve prayoga. Why did we say tac-
chabdasya in the previous vtti? Consider so vara. Sandhi is applied in this case
because the sa here means sa-rma. Furthermore, due to the mention of tac-
chabdasya, the kdanta word sa formed by applying the kt pratyaya [k]a after the
dhtus o tan-karae or o anta-karmai is also excluded. Someone may argue,
Because the na-samsa and the taddhita suffix ak will be described later in the
Samsa-prakaraa and Taddhita-prakaraa respectively, the promise asiddha-rpa na
tyjyam (43) fails here. It is not so. The sandhi operations related to the viusarga
dont depend on the various grammatical operations related to samsas and taddhitas.
Sandhis like gav-a, however, are applied only in reference to a samsa. Thus if they
were taught in the Sandhi-prakaraa, Jva Gosvms promise would be broken, as they
would be only half complete. Therefore these sandhis are made only in the Samsa-
prakaraa.

SaodhinEven though all the editions of Hari-nmmta-vykaraa list this stra


as na tu na-samska-pratyayayo, in this edition we will consistently list this taddhita
suffix as ak. Indeed it is listed as such in stras and . It is common in the Devangar
and Bengali scripts that the virma is accidentally left off, and this is no doubt what has
happened here. There is no fear that the final k of ak might be an indicatory letter as
that is forbidden by the phrase a-ka-vargau ataddhite in vtti 152. Because the
taddhita suffix ak can be applied in so many different senses, in accordance with stras
-, we have translated the words that contain ak here in their original meanings, without
any additional meaning added by ak. This was also done in the examples containing
amuke in vttis 71 and 72. The onus is on the students to choose an appropriate sense.

144 / r" wRr"Ats$avaeRr"gAAepaAlayaAe: /

144. ra vart sarvevara-goplayo

rara-rma; vartafter an vara; sarvevara-goplayowhen a sarvevara or


gopla follows.

After an vara, viusarga becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or gopla


follows.

ivart paro viusargo ra-rma syt sarvevara-goplayo parayo. hare ida, harer
ida. hari gacchati, harir gacchati.

VttiA viusarga that comes after an vara becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or
gopla follows.

hare + idam (144) harer idam (this is Haris)

hari + gacchati (144) harir gacchati (Hari goes)

145 / @naIr"Ad"ipa r"r"Amaja: /

145. anvard api ra-rma-ja

an-vartnot after an vara; apialso; ra-rma-jaborn of ra-rma.

Regardless of whether it comes after an vara or not, a viusarga born of


ra-rma becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or gopla follows.

sa eva viusargo yadi ra-rma-jtas tad vard anvard api ca paro ra-rma syt
sarvevara-goplayo parayo. prta atra, prtar atra. g mukundasya, gr
mukundasya. bhrta vraje, bhrtar vraje. bhrta govinda paya, bhrtar govinda
paya.

VttiIf that viusarga is born of ra-rma, then both when it comes after an vara
and when it doesnt, it becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or gopla follows.

prta + atra (145) prtar atra (in the morning here)


g + mukundasya (145) gr mukundasya (the statement of Mukunda)

bhrta + vraje (145) bhrtar vraje (O brother in Vraja)(O brother, in


Vraja)

bhrta + govinda paya (145) bhrtar govinda paya (O brother, look


at Govinda)

AmtaThis is an apvada of the previous stras. Thus, in bhrta + vraje (145)


bhrtar vraje, the viusarga does not become u-rma by stra 140 nor is it deleted by
stra 141. Why do we say when a sarvevara or gopla follows?? Consider g
kasya.

SaodhinWords like prtar, svar, antar, punar, and so on, originally end in ra-rma,
but this ra-rma becomes viusarga by sa-ra-rmayor viusargo viupadnte (155).
Then, by this stra, that viusarga again becomes ra-rma when a sarvevara or
gopla follows. The word prtar (in the early morning, at dawn) is an avyaya ending in
ra-rma. The word gir (speech) is a kdanta (verbal noun) formed by applying the
kt pratyaya [k]vi[p] after the dhtu g abde (9P, to speak, praise, call out to). The i-
rma of gir becomes trivikrama by ir-ur-anta-dhtor uddhavasya trivikramo
viupadnte (282). The word bhrtar is the vocative singular of the word bhrt
(brother).

146 / @"Ae ivaSNAus$agARsya r"Ae r"Aia&par"Tantar"Ad"nyaeSau /

146. ahno viusargasya ro rtri-rpa-rathantard anyeu

ahnaof the word ahan (a day); viusargasyaof the viusarga; rara-rma;


rtri-rpa-rathantartthan the words rtri (night), rpa (form), or rathantara (the
name of various smas (Vedic songs of praise)); anyeuwhen something other
follows.

The viusarga of the word ahan becomes ra-rma when something other than
the words rtri, rpa, and rathantara follows.

rtri-rpa-rathantard anyeu pareu ahno viusargasya sthne ro bhavati. aha


aha, ahar aha. aha-gaa, ahar-gaa. sarvevara-goplayor eva. nehaaha-pati.
rtry-dau tu naaho-rtri. eka-dea-viktam ananya-vataho-rtra. aho-rpa,
aho-rathantara sma.

VttiRa-rma replaces the viusarga of the word ahan when something other than
the words rtri, rpa, and rathantara follows.

aha aha (146) ahar aha (daily, every day)

aha-gaa (146) ahar-gaa (a month, a series of days)


This stra is applicable only when a sarvevara or gopla follows. Thus it does not apply
in aha-pati, for example. But the viusarga does not become ra-rma when the
words rtri and so on follow:

aha + rtri (140) aha + u + rtri (50) aho-rtri (day and night)

Eka-dea-viktam ananya-vat (That which is deficient in one place is not considered a


different thing):

aha + rtra (140) aha + u + rtra (50) aho-rtra (day and night)

aha + rpam (140) aha + u + rpam (50) aho-rpam (the form of day)

aha + rathantara sma (140) aha + u + rathantara sma (50) aho-


rathantara sma (the Vedic hymn (sma) named Aho-rathantara)

AmtaThe word viusargasya in this stra means the viusarga caused by ahno
viusargo viupadnte (300). It should be known that the viusarga of ahan
becomes ra-rma only when the sv-di [s]u that comes after the word ahan has
undergone mahhara by brahmata sv-amor mahhara (231). Indeed the current stra
is not applicable when the sv-di (nominal suffix) remains. 1. Jva Gosvm informs
us,, with the phrase, sarvevara-goplayor eva, that the para-nimitta is carried forward
here. Someone may argue, In the stra only the word rtri is excluded. Therefore
sandhi should certainly occur when the word rtra follows. Jva Gosvm refutes this
with the paribh beginning eka-dea. Just as a person who loses his eye or other
bodily parts is not considered a different person, similarly the word rtra is considered
non-different than the word rtri even though it lacks i-rma. The word aho-rtra is
formed by applying the taddhita suffix called keava a-rma at the end of the syma-
rma compound-smasa aho-rtri.of aha ca rtri ca.

147 / r"Ae re" laAepya: , paUvaR iaiva(ma: /

147. ro re lopya, prva ca trivikrama

rara-rma; rewhen ra-rma follows; lopyais deleted; prvaa previous


vmana; caand; trivikramatrivikrama;

Ra-rma is deleted when ra-rma follows, and the vmana before it becomes
trivikrama.and the vmana previous to it becomes trivikrama.

ro ra-rme pare lopya syt, ra-rmt prvo vmana ca trivikrama syt. bhrta
rmnuja paya, bhrt rmnuja paya. hari rdh-priya har rdh-priya. iti
viusarga-sandhi. iti r-r-harinmmtkhye vaiava-vykarae saj-sandhi-
prakaraam prathama samptam.

1
Jva Gosvm makes the same restriction in asya svdy-abhva eva ra-vidhir vcya (301).
VttiRa-rma is deleted when ra-rma follows. And the previous vmana becomes
trivikrama.

bhrta + rmnuja paya (145) bhrtar + rmnuja paya (147)


bhrt rmnuja paya (O brother, see the younger brother of Rma)

hari + rdh-priya (144) harir + rdh-priya (147) har rdh-priya


(Hari is the beloved of Rdh)

Thus ends viusarga-sandhi . Thus ends the Saj-sandhi-prakaraa, the first


prakaraa in the vaiava-vykaraa called Hari-nmmta,

To do (for introduction):
comment that throughout this book siddhnta-kaumudi means srisa chandra
vasus edition unless otherwise quoting direct sanskrit from SK .. Thus there is
no need to mention srisa chandra vasu, later in akhyata prakaranam??

How to use this book:


and/or why I have sometimes used or in translating ca
the english plural s on the sanskrit base e.g als svaras etc..paragraph below is good

Amta comments that each of these sounds can be individually called a vara, akara,
or al. Indeed, everytime Jva Gosvm gives a new name in the upcoming stras and
vttis, Amta carefully distinguishes between the plural and singular usages of that
name. However, in this translation, we will not repeat this comment of Amta again and
again. Rather taking this instance as a sample, students should understand that when
Jva Gosvm gives names in a stra or vtti, he uses the plural Sanskrit form to refer to
the whole group of varas under discussion, while each member of that group can be
denominated by the same name in singular. For example, the plural form ala (written
in the vtti as ala due to the rules of sandhi) was given as a name to describe the
above set of varas, but any one of these varas can individually be addressed by that
same name in its singular form as al. Thus the vara ha, for example, is individually an
al because it is a member of the al-s.

For translating Sanskrit names the English pluralising agent, s, is added to the stem
form of the Sanskrit word to form an English plural. While the stem form of the Sanskrit
word is used alone for the English singular. For example, the word akari, a plural
Sanskrit word, is translated into the English plural akaras. This is done by taking the
stem form akara from the word akari and adding the English pluralising agent, s.
However, the English singular akara is formed simply by taking the stem form of the
Sanskrit word akari. But for Sanskrit words whose stem form ends in s, an, in, or ,
the English pluralising agent, s, is added to the singular Sanskrit form to make the
English plural. While the English singular is made simply by taking the singular Sanskrit
form. While the stem form of the Sanskrit word is used alone for the English singular. For
example, in vtti 8, the word nmina, a plural Sanskrit word, is translated into the
English plural nms. This was done by taking the singular Sanskrit form, nm, and
adding the English pluralising agent, s.
the bengali b/v and the reduplication after r, as well as the change/lack of
change of anusvara to corresponding nasal.
when using iti I have put the quote in brackets and broken the sandhi
explanation of vtti and stra and the layout of this book
using word that end in in and in nom sing e.g kart, adhikr etc,,
means example, the number in brackets is for the change about to be
shown.
technical terms are hyphenated the first time, but later not (exception ka-
sthna, ka-dhtuka?)
(4P, to make thin, sharpen) semicolon indicates different meaning, but comma
indicates the same idea.

Abbreviations:
Bla Bla-tosa-k (Now I mentioned the two comms in full the first time)
Amta Amtsvdin-k
Haridsa
Purdsa
Kadsa
GM
MW - Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary