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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the review of literature and studies that are related

to the present study. The reviewed literature were mostly taken from the

research studies, books, and journals found on the internet. The citations are

arranged according to subsections namely: Pictionary, Instructional Materials

Development, and Related Studies.


Pictionary is a refined software used by teachers to impart English

lessons, distinctly and vibrantly instead of conventional textbooks. It is

produce to liberate the first-generation learners. The software has an additional

feature of an explanation of the word in the learners mother tongue. The text is

projected onto a screen and read out loud in a mother tongue accent to

guarantee that the learners do not become apprehensive (Katyal, 2017).

Bharti and Kumar (2010) created a picture dictionary called Learner's

Pictionary used for the first time by the students of the government schools in

Punjab, India to learn English in a simpler way. It works as a reference guide

for pronunciation with a teacher's manual on how to use it. It has a 200-page

dictionary that includes over 900 words and contains pictorial illustrations of
vocabulary that give importance to the needs and interest of the learners. In

addition, it deals with the word meanings in three ways: explanation,

exemplification and illustration that concentrates on words that define a child's

environment and day-to-day experiences. Moreover, it contains some

innovative appendices and stress on pronunciation and spellings. The meaning

of words are describe in simple terms with illustrations.

On Instructional Material Development

This study will utilize the ASSURE model, an ISD (Instructional Systems

Design) process that was modified to be used by teachers in the regular

classroom. The teachers and trainers can use this model to design and develop

the most appropriate learning environment for their students (Smaldino,

Lowther, & Russell, 2012).

Lessons must begin with clear objectives, which follow the SMART

(specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bounded) criteria in

formulating the learning outcome (Adaptation Fund, 2010). There are time

allocations that a school prescribed for a certain subject. Within that allocated

time, there is time engaged, when the students do the task or pay attention to

the activities with a learning goal. The time on task is the time engaged for a

particular learning task (Berliner, 2016).

In instructional development, careful and systematic planning is

necessary in using whatever media of instruction (Smith & Ragan, 2006). The
systematic planning is a prerequisite to implementation and for effective

instruction to take place, careful planning is required. This allows the

instructional material designer to provide activities that would cater to the

different prior experiences of the learners, especially when the teacher has a

major role as a coordinator of instruction or when the primary medium of

instruction is a teacher. The quality material that the teacher uses is highly

advantageous (Gomez, 2017).

There is a need to engage the students in the activities and this needs

proper motivation. Accordingly, students have different levels of motivation and

different intellectual development level. The more the teacher understands their

differences the better the chance they would have in catering to these diverse

needs (Felder & Brent, 2005). It is then advisable to have varied activities for

the diverse learners in the class.

Quality materials should meet certain criteria. One of these criteria is on

content and content accuracy. Another is on clarity. It is manifested through

the explicit instructional communication of skills learned, clear directions for

activities and explanations of steps to follow (Bonwell & Eison, 1991). It

enhances retention and transfer of learning when the material developed is well


Related Studies
The effectiveness of using e-Pictionary as a teaching and enrichment tool

in vocabulary instruction has been investigated by Rafiah, Yee and Kee (2016)

using the software of iSpring Pro 6.2 comprised with words from different

classifications under the theme of World Knowledge. After the participants

exposed to the use of e-pictionary, they were motivated and results indicated in

the quantitative data that their vocabulary performance enhanced.

An e-pictionary used in teaching vocabulary in which this present study

deems to develop in enhancing learning performance is an innovative focus of

interest in a 21st century classroom. The use of the software in the above study

gives the present researcher insight on how to produce e-pictionary for

vocabulary activities.

Oktafiya (2014) examined the improvement of students vocabulary

mastery through Pictionary game in English Language Teaching of the second

grade students of SMP N.3 Salatiga in the academic year 2013-2014 and

deemed to study the extent of the use of Pictionary game improving students

vocabulary mastery. The research method used in this research is classroom

action research, which involved 22 students in grade VIII. The researcher used

two cycles; each cycle consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection.

The result of her research showed that there was an improvement of the

students vocabulary mastery using Pictionary game.

The vivid result of the above study implied positive outcomes with the

use of e-pictionary in vocabulary mastery gives the present researcher insights

of different application of e-pictionary such in game to enhance interactivity

and interest of learners.