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17-03-26

Energy Efficient System


Architecture for Wireless
Wearable Biomedical Sensors

Dr. Yong LIAN, Professor


Fellow of IEEE and Fellow of Academy of Engineering Singapore
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Lassonde School of Engineering, York University
President-Elect, IEEE Circuits and Systems Society
Member, IEEE Fellow Committee

Outline
Q Introduction and motivation for wireless
wearable biomedical sensors
Q The requirements and challenges for
wireless biomedical sensors
Q Energy efficient system architecture
Q A design example of wireless ECG-on-
chip
Q Conclusions

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Introduction and Motivation


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CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

IoT for Preventive Healthcare


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Body Sensor Network

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Wearable Sensor: A Melting Pot

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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The Requirements and


Challenges

The Basic Requirements


Q Clinical requirements
accurate measurement, minimum motion artifact
Q User requirements
minimum invasive, comfortable, easy to use, no
need to change/charge battery
Q Device requirements
Function: amplification, signal processing,
wireless, data security
Form factor: thin, small, and flexible
Power consumption: zero if possible

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Ideal Wearable ECG Sensor


Q High diagnostic yield
Multiple leads
Long recording time
Good rejection to noises
Real-time
Source: D. Kim, et al. Epidermal

Q Better user experience Electronics, Science, 333, 838, 2011

Light weight, non-intrusive


Minimum skin irritation
Batteryless
Low cost
Data security
Easy to use
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

The Challenges
Q Regulatory requirements
Internaonal Standard: IEC 60601 (Internaonal
Electro-technical Commission)
Local Standard: ANSI (American Naonal
Standards), AAMI(Associaon for the
Advancement of Medical Instrumentaon)
Q Skin-electrode interface
Q Moon artefacts
Q System integraon

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

An Example for ECG Sensor

Q Regulatory requirements
Q Performance requirements
Q Lead placement
Q Signal characteriscs

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

ECG Sensor Regulatory Requirements


Q IEC 60601 Medical electrical equipment
Part 1 General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance
Part 2-25 Particular requirements for the safety of
electrocardiographs
Part 2-47 Particular requirements for the safety,
including essential performance, of ambulatory
electrocardiographic systems
Q ANSI AAMI
EC11 Diagnostic electrocardiographic devices
EC13 Cardiac monitors, heart rate meters, and alarms
EC38 based on IEC 60601 Part 2-47 with major
technical variations
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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ECG Performance Requirements


Q IEC 60601 2-47, 51.5.1~51.5.15
Specification Requirement

Input dynamic range 10 mV p-v (peak-to-valley)

Input impedance > 10 M

Electrode offset 300 mV

Common mode rejection 60dB at 50/60 Hz, 45 dB at 100/120 Hz

Gain accuracy 10%

Gain stability over 24h < 3 % over 24 hours

Noise < 50 V with electrodes connected through 51k||47nF

Crosstalk < 0.2 mV p-v

Frequency response 0.67 Hz to 40 Hz, 0.05Hz for ST measurement

These are minimum requirements.


CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

ECG Device Testing under IEC60601

Test for common mode rejection

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
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Standard Lead Placement


Q 3-Lead and 12-Lead

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Wearable ECG Electrode Placement


Q Single lead
Q Short distance
between two
electrodes
Q Non-standard
placement
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ECG Signal Characteristics


Amplitude: 0.5 ~ 4mV

Typical Lead II ECG values in sinus rhythm at heart


Rate of 60bpm for a healthy male adult
Feature Normal Value Normal Limit

P amplitude 0.15 mV 0.05 mV

QRS height 1.5 mV 0.5 mV

ST level 0 mV 0.1 mV

T amplitude 0.3 mV 0.2 mV


Source: G.D. Clifford et. al., Advanced Methods and Tools for ECG Data Analysis, Artech House, 2006..

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Non-Standard ECG Signal Amplitude

Source: M. Puurtinen, et. al., Best Electrode Locations for a Small Bipolar ECG Device, ABE, 37, 2, Feb. 2009

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Non-Standard ECG Signal


Amplitude:
Q Diagonal
electrodes
Q Avg. QRS:
0.4~2.3mV
Q Avg. p-wave:
20~110V

*Measurements
from 236 healthy
subjects.

Source: M. Puurtinen, et. al., Best Electrode


Locations for a Small Bipolar ECG Device,
ABE, 37, 2, Feb. 2009

Energy Efficient System


Architecture
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System Architecture Conventional


Power Source

Power Management

Micro Wireless
ADC
Controller Transceiver

Sensor Memory
Amplifier
Inputs

Data Digital Data


Wireless
Acquisition Processing/
Data Link
Storage

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Drawbacks in Sensor Applications


Q Synchronous architecture
Requires a central clock for handshaking, dicult
for integraon with exible electronics
Q Nyquist sampling
Fixed sampling rate for a given frequency
bandwidth
Requires the an-aliasing lter for most cases
Not considering the characteriscs of input signal
Q Isolated analog and digital domains
Less opportunity for cross-domain opmizaon

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Low Power Design Strategy


Q Wireless transceiver consumes most of power
in the biomedical sensor
Q Methods for improving energy eciency
Lowering supply voltage sub-threshold implementaon
Lowering data rate adapve sampling, feature
extracon, data compression
Sensor Power Prole
Duty cycling wireless transceiver <1%
Employing impulse radio UWB ~19%

Y Lian, Challenges in the design of self-powered


wearable wireless sensors for healthcare Internet-of- ~80%
Things, ASICON 2015.
ECG Frontend Wireless MCU & Others

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Wireless ECG System-on-Chip


l Three voltage
domains and duty
cycling
l Lowest power
@17.4W
l 3-lead ECG for
better recording
2.4mm

*M. Khayatzadeh, WS Liew, X Zhang, J Tan, and Y Lian, A 0.7-V 17.4-W 3-Lead
2.5mm Wireless ECG SoC, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol.
7, No.5, pp.583-592, Oct. 2013.
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

ECG Recording
1
Measured
Lead I (mV)

-1 - Lead I +
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 - -
1
Derived

Lead II
Lead II (mV)

0
Lead III
-1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
1
Measured

+
Lead III (mV)

0 DRL

-1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
time (s)

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Transmission vs. Processing


Q Lowering data rate by feature extraction and
data compression
Lossless compression is necessary for medical
information
Sharing hardware for QRS detection and
compression is possible

*CJ Deepu, XY Zhang, CH Heng, and Y Lian, A 3-lead ECG-on-chip with joint QRS detection and lossless compression for
wearable sensors, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, Vol.63, No.12, pp.1151-1155, Dec. 2016.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Hybrid Data Compression for LP


Q Capable of
lossless and
lossy data
compression
Q Compression
rate: 2.1
(lossless),
7.8(lossy)
Q 260 nW per
channel
CJ Deepu, CH Heng, and Y Lian, A hybrid data compression scheme for power reduction in wireless
sensors for IoT, IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol.11, No.2, Apr. 2017.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

System Architecture Ultra Low Power


Q Four categories of signal processing systems
Continuous in Amplitude

DTCA CTCA
(e.g. switched-capacitor
Continuous in Time

(e.g. analog filters)


Discrete in Time

filters)

DTDA CTDA
(e.g. microprocessors (e.g. continuous-time
and digital filters) digital filters)

Discrete in Amplitude
Y. W. Li, K. L. Shepard, and Y. P. Tsividis, "Continuous-time digital signal processors," in Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Symp. Async.
Circuits Syst. (ASYNC'05), 2005, pp. 138-143.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

CTDA Signal Processing System

Q Continuous-in-Time and Discrete-in-


Amplitude (CTDA) signal
Continuous-in-Time analog in nature
Discrete-in-Amplitude digital in nature
Having features of both analog and digital
signals
Q CTDA signal processing system differs
from any analog, digital, and mixed signal
processing systems

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

CTDA Signal Processing System


Q Advantages:
No aliasing error
Clockless implementation possible
Event-driven sampling
Good fit to impulse-radio ultra-wideband for wireless
transmission
Good fit to analog and time domain signal processing
Q Disadvantages:
Non-uniform sampling, difficult to directly apply
traditional DSP algorithms
Difficult to store the signal (possible with memristor
device*)
*YB Hong, Y Lian, A Memristor-Based Continuous-Time Digital FIR Filter for Biomedical Signal
Processing, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Vol.62, No.5, pp.1392-1401, May 2015.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

CTDA ULP System Architecture


Q Continuous-in-Time and Discrete-in-Amplitude (CTDA)
signal flow
Q Asynchronous implementation, no system clock
Q System activities based on events

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Implementation of CTDA
ULP System
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Event-Driven Sampling
Q Level-crossing (LC) sampling
(a) Signal waveforms of a level-crossing ADC

An event in LC
sampling is defined as
the change of
magnitude exceeds a
predefined value.
ti tii tiii tiv
t
(b) Power consumption
Power consumption
is a function of
event, i.e. no power
is consumed if there
is no event.
ti tii tiii tiv
t

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

An Example of LC Sampling
2
ECG Signal
1.5 LC-ADC Output Samples
Peak Flag
1

0.5
ECG (mV)

-0.5

-1
peak1
peak2
peak3

peak4

-1.5 dur1 dur3 dur4


dur2
-2
1076.8 1077 1077.2 1077.4 1077.6
Time (Sec)

N Ravanshad, HR Dehsorkh, R Lotfi, and Y Lian,A Level-Crossing Based QRS-Detection Algorithm for
Wearable ECG Sensor, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol.18, No.1, Jan. 2014

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Nyquist versus LC Sampling


Q Nyquist sampling
Uniform sampling interval, dense sampling points
based on sampling frequency
Q Level-crossing sampling
non-uniform sampling interval, sparse sampling points
based on the number of events in the input signal

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Rate Reduction in LC Sampling

N Ravanshad, HR Dehsorkh, R Lotfi, and Y Lian,A Level-Crossing Based QRS-Detection Algorithm for
Wearable ECG Sensor, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol.18, No.1, Jan. 2014

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

LC-ADC Implementation

Flash level-crossing ADC Two-comparator level-crossing ADC

*C Weltin and Y Tsividis,An event-driven clockless level-crossing ADC with signal-dependent adaptive
resolution, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.48, No.9,pp.2180-90, Sept. 2013

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Example of LC-ADC Output

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

LC-ADC Signal Reconstruction

Q Level-crossing ADC produces samples


with non-uniform interval
Q To process LC-ADC output using existing
DSP algorithms, the non-uniform samples
need to be reconstructed to uniform
samples by:
Re-sampling
Time-varying filter
Interpolation

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Example: a Reconstructed ECG Signal

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

LC Sampling & Signal Processing


Level-crossing sampling

Nyquist sampling method

Adaptive level-cross

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

A2I for ECG Signal


QRS (heart rate) detection from ECG signal using analog-
to-information convertor, i.e. signal processing embedded
in LC-ADC

XY Zhang, and Y Lian, A 300-mV 220-nW Event-Driven ADC With Real-Time QRS Detection for Wearable
ECG Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits, Vol. 8, No, 6, pp.834-843, Dec. 2014.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

ECG Signal Processing in A2I


R LC-ADC output
consists of two
signals: REQ & DIR.
Reconstructed from T
REQ indicates
REQ/DIR P signal crossing a
ECG INPUT predefined threshold;
DIR indicates
Q S
signal direction
(going up or down).
REQ

DIR

XY Zhang, and Y Lian, A 300-mV 220-nW Event-Driven ADC With Real-Time QRS Detection for Wearable
ECG Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits, Vol. 8, No, 6, pp.834-843, Dec. 2014.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Time-Domain QRS Detection


Raw Input R
2. A peak is detected (R Guess)
Event-Driven Stream start counting events
A{FALL} AND T{FALL}
LC-ADCs outputs
A{RISE} > A_THRES contain information on
wait for peak point
AND T{RISE} < T_THRES
signal directions,
A{FALL} > A_THRES which can be used to
wait for trough point
AND T{FALL} < T_THRES detect peaks and
conrm Q/R Guess
valleys in ECG
signal, i.e. QRS
Q
1. A trough is detected (Q Guess) S detection can be
start counting events
A{RISE} AND T{RISE}
3. Finish PUT-QRS detection;
wait for the next trough point
easily embedded into
LC-ADC.
t-PUT only T{RISE} T{FALL}
Q R S
Additional time-assisted criteria
T{RISE} < T_THRES T{FALL} < T_THRES

XY Zhang, and Y Lian, A 300-mV 220-nW Event-Driven ADC With Real-Time QRS Detection for Wearable
ECG Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits, Vol. 8, No, 6, pp.834-843, Dec. 2014.
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

QRS Detection Results

XY Zhang, and Y Lian, A 300-mV 220-nW Event-Driven ADC With Real-Time QRS Detection for Wearable
ECG Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits, Vol. 8, No, 6, pp.834-843, Dec. 2014.
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Performance of A2I QRS Detector

TP
Se (Sensitivity %) = , TP is total number of QRS
TP + FN
FN is number of false negative errors
TP
+P (Positive Prediction %)= , FP is number of false positive errors.
TP + FP
XY Zhang, and Y Lian, A 300-mV 220-nW Event-Driven ADC With Real-Time QRS Detection for Wearable
ECG Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits, Vol. 8, No, 6, pp.834-843, Dec. 2014.
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

An Example of a 2.89W
Wireless ECG-on-Chip
based on CTDA System
Architecture

2.89W Wireless ECG SoC

XY Zhang, Z Zhang, YF Li, CR Liu, YX Guo, and Y Lian, A 2.89W dry-electrode enabled clockless wireless
ECG SoC for wearable applications, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.51, No. 10, Oct.2016.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

DC-Coupled IA
Mitigate DC Offset

High-pass with
unity DC gain
Input DC
shielding through
pseudo resistor
R0
PGA stage with
AC-coupling to
remove residual
offsets

XY Zhang, Z Zhang, YF Li, CR Liu, YX Guo, and Y Lian, A 2.89W dry-electrode enabled clockless wireless
ECG SoC for wearable applications, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.51, No. 10, Oct.2016.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Level-Crossing for ECG


Q Generates output only when input changes
Q Built-in data compression for sporadic signals
like ECG
Q Delta-modulated outputs with reduce output data
rate

XY Zhang, Z Zhang, YF Li, CR Liu, YX Guo, and Y Lian, A 2.89W dry-electrode enabled clockless wireless
ECG SoC for wearable applications, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.51, No. 10, Oct.2016.
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

1B2B Pulse Encoder


Q Combine 2-bit
delta-modulated
LC ADC outputs
into single pulse
stream

RISE: two
pulses with
~400ns interval
FALL: a single
pulse

XY Zhang, Z Zhang, YF Li, CR Liu, YX Guo, and Y Lian, A 2.89W dry-electrode enabled clockless wireless
ECG SoC for wearable applications, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.51, No. 10, Oct.2016.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Impulse-Radio UWB Digital TX


Q Digital edge combination to generate mono-cycle
pulse
Activated only when 1B2B encoder generates event
pulses

XY Zhang, Z Zhang, YF Li, CR Liu, YX Guo, and Y Lian, A 2.89W dry-electrode enabled clockless wireless
ECG SoC for wearable applications, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.51, No. 10, Oct.2016.

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Dry Electrode ECG Acquisition

Metal electrodes with shielding


(a) on chest
(b) on upper left arm

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com

Wearable System for Health/Wellness


Zero-powered wireless
sensor plaster for ECG, Health Cloud
RR, position

Applications for doctor


and nurse

Zero-powered wireless
wristband for blood User applications
press, temperature,
SpO2 Hospital
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Conclusions
Q Wearable biomedical sensors are
necessary for future healthcare
Q Novel ultra low power system architecture
is a must for zero-powered devices
Q Innovations in energy harvesting is the key
to success
Q Flexible circuit and low cost are important
for user acceptance
Q Motion artifacts are challenge in wearable
devices
CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com
17-03-26

Thank You!


Contact: Yong Lian
email:eleliany@gmail.com

CICC2017, April 30, 2017, Austin, Texas, USA Prof. Yong LIAN, eleliany@gmail.com