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Acknowledgement

We are grateful to project guide Asso.Prof. P.K Jain who laid the time
bound program for the successful completion of the project. He initiated
our thoughts and extended timely suggestions and for his technical
support and valuable suggestions for which we are deeply indebted to
him. We are grateful to him for his comments and insights in the
preparation of this report without which this report would not have been
completed.

We thank sincerely and profusely to all the staff members of our


department of our institute for their valuable help and guidance.

We also express our gratitude to the institute management to all those who
have indirectly helped us in successful completion of the project. Last but
not the least, we are deeply indebted to our parents for what we are today,
because this project report would not have a reality without their love and
support.

Yours
Sincerely

Chaitanya
Kaskar

Jitendra Kumar
Jat
INDEX

* Introduction

* Review

* Hardware description

:- List of components

:- Component description

1. Ultrasonic Sensor module


2. Arduino Uno Board
3. 6V Battery

* Project Working

* Software Description

* Problem Definition

* Result

* Conclusion and Future work


Introduction

This project IOT Garbage Monitoring system is a very innovative system


which will help to keep the cities clean. This system monitors the garbage
bins and informs about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins
via an app. For this the system uses ultrasonic sensors placed over the
bins to detect the garbage level and compare it with the garbage bins
depth. The system makes use of AVR family microcontroller.The system
is powered by a 6V Battery. The Application is used to display the status
of the level of garbage collected in the bins. Whereas it show the status to
the user monitoring it.It gives a graphical view of the garbage bins and
highlights the garbage collected in color in order to show the level of
garbage collected. The system uses messaging,when the level of garbage
collected crosses the set limit.Thus this system helps to keep the city clean
by informing about the garbage levels of the bins by providing graphical
image of the bins via IOT platform.
Review

India faces major environmental challenges associated with waste


generation and inadequate waste collection, transport, treatment and
disposal. Current systems in India cannot cope with the volumes of waste
generated by an increasing urban population, and this impacts on the
environment and public health. The challenges and barriers are
significant, but so are the opportunities. This paper reports on an
international seminar on Sustainable solid waste management for cities:
opportunities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) countries organized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and the
Royal Society. A priority is to move from reliance on waste dumps that
offer no environmental protection, to waste management systems that
retain useful resources within the economy. Waste segregation at source
and use of specialized waste processing facilities to separate recyclable
materials has a key role. Disposal of residual waste after extraction of
material resources needs engineered landfill sites and/or investment in
waste-to-energy facilities. The potential for energy generation from
landfill via methane extraction or thermal treatment is a major
opportunity, but a key barrier is the shortage of qualified engineers and
environmental professionals with the experience to deliver improved
waste management systems in India.

Solid waste management (SWM) is a major problem for many urban local
bodies (ULBs) in India, where urbanization, industrialization and
economic growth have resulted in increased municipal solid waste
(MSW) generation per person. Effective SWM is a major challenge in
cities with high population density. Achieving sustainable development
within a country experiencing rapid population growth and improvements
in living standards is made more difficult in India because it is a diverse
country with many different religious groups, cultures and traditions.
Despite significant development in social, economic and environmental
areas, SWM systems in India have remained relatively unchanged. The
informal sector has a key role in extracting value from waste, with
approximately 90% of residual waste currently dumped rather than
properly landfilled. There is an urgent need to move to more sustainable
SWM, and this requires new management systems and waste management
facilities. Current SWM systems are inefficient, with waste having a
negative impact on public health, the environment and the economy. The
waste Management and Handling Rules in India were introduced by the
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), although compliance is
variable and limited.

population (2011)
total waste generated in waste generation (kg
City 106 tonnes per day per capita per day)
Ahmedaba
6.3 2300 0.36
d
Hyderabad 7.7 4200 0.54
Bangalore 8.4 3700 0.44
Chennai 8.6 4500 0.52
Kolkata 14.1 3670 0.26
Delhi 16.3 5800 0.41
Mumbai 18.4 6500 0.35
Hardware

Arduino UNO

Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the


ATmega328P (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6
can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a
USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It
contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect
it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or
battery to get started.. You can tinker with your UNO without worring too
much about doing something wrong, worst case scenario you can replace
the chip for a few dollars and start over again.
"Uno" means one in Italian and was
chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0. The Uno board
and version 1.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of
Arduino, now evolved to newer releases. The Uno board is the first in a
series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino
platform; for an extensive list of current, past or outdated boards see the
Arduino index of boards.
The Board

The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an
external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.
External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter
(wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm
center-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can
be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The
board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with
less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the
board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may
overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows:

Vin. The input voltage to the Arduino/Genuino board when it's


using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB
connection or other regulated power source). You can supply
voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack,
access it through this pin.
5V.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board.
The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power
jack (7 - 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the
board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses
the regulator, and can damage your board. We don't advise it.
3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator.
Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
GND. Ground pins.
IOREF. This pin on the Arduino/Genuino board provides the
voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A
properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and
select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on
the outputs to work with the 5V or 3.3V.

Memory

The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB occupied by the bootloader). It


also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and
written with the EEPROM library).
Communication

The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a


computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328
provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on
digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An ATmega8U2 on the board channels
this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to
software on the computer. The '8U2 firmware uses the standard USB
COM drivers, and no external driver is needed. However, on Windows, an
*.inf file is required..
The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple
textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX
LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-
to- serial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial
communication on pins 0 and 1). A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial
communication on any of the Uno's digital pins.

The ATmega328 also support I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The
Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus;
see the documentation for details.

Programming

The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software


(download). Select "Arduino Uno w/ ATmega328" from the Tools >
Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board). For details,
see the reference and tutorials.
The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preburned with a bootloader
that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external
hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500
protocol (reference, C header files).
You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller
through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these
instructions for details.
The ATmega8U2 firmware source code is available . The ATmega8U2 is
loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by connecting the
solder jumper on the back of the board (near the map of Italy) and then
resetting the 8U2. You can then use Atmel's FLIP software (Windows) or
the DFU programmer (Mac OS X and Linux) to load a new firmware. Or
you can use the ISP header with an external programmer (overwriting the
DFU bootloader).

Automatic (Software) Reset

Rather than requiring a physical press of the reset button before an


upload, the Arduino Uno is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by
software running on a connected computer. One of the hardware flow
control lines (DTR) of the ATmega8U2 is connected to the reset line of
the ATmega328 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted
(taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The
Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by
simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. This
means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the lowering of
DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the upload.
This setup has other implications. When the Uno is connected to either a
computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is
made to it from software (via USB). For the following half-second or so,
the bootloader is running on the Uno. While it is programmed to ignore
malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will
intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is
opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration
or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it
communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before
sending this data.

The Uno contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. The
pads on either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It's
labeled "RESET-EN". You may also be able to disable the auto-reset by
connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line.

USB Overcurrent Protection :-

The Arduino Uno has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's
USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Although most computers provide
their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of
protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will
automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed.

Physical Characteristics :-

The maximum length and width of the Uno PCB are 2.7 and 2.1 inches
respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond
the former dimension. Three screw holes allow the board to be attached to
a surface or case. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is
160 mil (0.16"), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other
pins.

How to use Arduino :-

Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of


sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and
other actuators. The microcontroller on the board is programmed using
the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino
development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be
stand-alone or they can communicate with software on running on a
computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). Arduino is a cross-platoform
program. Youll have to follow different instructions for your personal
OS.
Check on the Arduino site for the latest instructions.
http://arduino.cc/en/Guide/HomePage.

Once you have downloaded/unzipped the arduino IDE, you can Plug the
Arduino to your PC via USB cable.

Blink LED :-

Now youre actually ready to burn your first program on the arduino
board. To
select blink led, the physical translation of the well known
programming hello
world, select
File>Sketchbook>
Arduino-0017>Examples>
Digital>Blink
Once you have your skecth youll see something very close to the
screenshot on the right.
In Tools>Board select
Now you have to go to
Tools>SerialPort
and select the right serial port, the one arduino is attached to.
Dimensional Drawing :-
Ultrasonic Sensor :-

An Ultrasonic sensor is a device that can measure the distance to an object


by using sound waves. It measures distance by sending out a sound wave
at a specific frequency and listening for that sound wave to bounce back.
By recording the elapsed time between the sound wave being generated
and the sound wave bouncing back, it is possible to calculate the distance
between the sonar sensor and the object.

Since it is known that sound travels through air at about 344 m/s (1129
ft/s), you can take the time for the sound wave to return and multiply it by
344 meters (or 1129 feet) to find the total round-trip distance of the sound
wave. Round-trip means that the sound wave traveled 2 times the distance
to the object before it was detected by the sensor; it includes the 'trip' from
the sonar sensor to the object AND the 'trip' from the object to the
Ultrasonic sensor (after the sound wave bounced off the object). To find
the distance to the object, simply divide the round-trip distance in half.

It is important to understand that some objects might not be detected by


ultrasonic sensors. This is because some objects are shaped or positioned
in such a way that the sound wave bounces off the object, but are
deflected away from the Ultrasonic sensor. It is also possible for the
object to be too small to reflect enough of the sound wave back to the
sensor to be detected. Other objects can absorb the sound wave all
together (cloth, carpeting, etc), which means that there is no way for the
sensor to detect them accurately. These are important factors to consider
when designing and programming a robot using an ultrasonic sensor.

Battery :- We are using a 6V battery to supply input dc voltage to the


arduino
board.
Working

In this dumpster/garbage Monitoring System which will tell us that


whether the trash can is empty or full through the application,you can
know the status of your Trash Can or 'Dumpsters' from anywhere in the
world over the Internet. It will be very useful and can be installed in the
Trash Cans at public places as well as at home.
In this project,an Ultrasonic Sensor is used for
detecting whether the trash can is filled with garbage or not. Here
Ultrasonic Sensor is installed at the top of Trash Can and will measure the
distance of garbage from the top of Trash can and we can set a threshold
value according to the size of trash can. If the distance will be less than
this threshold value, means that the Trash can is full of garbage and we
will print the message Basket is Full on the webpage and if the distance
will be more than this threshold value, then we will print the message
Basket is Empty
Here we have used LAN cable to connect Arduino to Internet.
Software

ethernet_on_off.ino

/*
Web client

This sketch connects to a website (http://www.google.com)


using an Arduino Wiznet Ethernet shield.

Circuit:
* Ethernet shield attached to pins 10, 11, 12, 13
created 18 Dec 2009
by David A. Mellis
modified 9 Apr 2012
by Tom Igoe, based on work by Adrian McEwen

*/

#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>

#include <NewPing.h>

#define TRIGGER_PIN 8 // Arduino pin tied to trigger pin on the


ultrasonic sensor.
#define ECHO_PIN 9 // Arduino pin tied to echo pin on the ultrasonic
sensor.
#define MAX_DISTANCE 50
NewPing sonar(TRIGGER_PIN, ECHO_PIN, MAX_DISTANCE);
// Enter a MAC address for your controller below.
// Newer Ethernet shields have a MAC address printed on a sticker on the
shield
byte mac[] = { 0xDE, 0xAD, 0xBE, 0xEF, 0xFE, 0xED };
// if you don't want to use DNS (and reduce your sketch size)
// use the numeric IP instead of the name for the server:
//IPAddress server(74,125,232,128); // numeric IP for Google (no DNS)
char server[] = "www.pitstall.in"; // name address for Google (using
DNS)

// Set the static IP address to use if the DHCP fails to assign


IPAddress ip(192, 168, 0, 177);

// Initialize the Ethernet client library


// with the IP address and port of the server
// that you want to connect to (port 80 is default for HTTP):
EthernetClient client;
int a = 1;
String s= "";
int b=0;
char junk;
String inputString="";
void setup() {
// Open serial communications and wait for port to open:
Serial.begin(9600);

while (!Serial) {
; // wait for serial port to connect. Needed for native USB port only

// start the Ethernet connection:


if (Ethernet.begin(mac) == 0) {
Serial.println("Failed to configure Ethernet using DHCP");
// try to congifure using IP address instead of DHCP:
Ethernet.begin(mac, ip);
}
// give the Ethernet shield a second to initialize:
delay(1000);
Serial.println("connecting...");

// if you get a connection, report back via serial:

void loop() {
// if there are incoming bytes available
// from the server, read them and print them:

delay(50); // Wait 50ms between pings (about 20 pings/sec).


29ms should be the shortest delay between pings.
unsigned int uS = sonar.ping();

if (client.available()) {

char c = client.read();
s = s + c;
Serial.print(c);

// if the server's disconnected, stop the client:


if (!client.connected()) {
Serial.println();
Serial.println("disconnecting.");
client.stop();

Serial.println(uS / US_ROUNDTRIP_CM);
if(uS / US_ROUNDTRIP_CM !=0)
{
connectclient(uS / US_ROUNDTRIP_CM);
}
// do nothing forevermore:

}
}

void connectclient(int analogvalue){

if (client.connect(server, 80)) {
Serial.println("connected");
// Make a HTTP request:

client.print("GET /arduino.php?value=");
client.print(analogvalue);

client.println(" HTTP/1.1");

client.println("Host: www.pitstall.in");
client.println("Connection: close");
client.println();
} else {
// if you didn't get a connection to the server:
Serial.println("connection failed");
}
}
App code

<?php

require_once 'header.php';

$myfil = fopen("value.txt", "r") or die("Unable to open file!");

$status = fgets($myfil);

if (isset($_POST['name']))
{
queryMysql("UPDATE majorproject SET Isfull ='empty' WHERE Type
= 'bin' ");
$status='Bin is Set To Empty';
}

fclose($myfil);
echo "<center>";

if($status == 'This Dustinbin is full')


{
echo "<img class='percentage' src='100.jpg' height='250' > <br><a
href='majorappmain2.php'><img class='bin' src='dustbin
icon.jpg'></a>"; //shows image of 100% full
}

if($status == 'This Dustbin is 70% full')


{
echo "<img class='percentage' src='70.jpg' height='250' > <br><a
href='majorappmain2.php'><img class='bin' src='dustbin
icon.jpg'></a>";//shows image of 70% full
}

if($status == 'This Dustbin is about 40% full')


{
echo "<img class='percentage' src='40.jpg' height='250' > <br><a
href='majorappmain2.php'><img class='bin' src='dustbin
icon.jpg'></a>";//shows image of 40% full
}

if($status == 'Bin is Set To Empty' || $status == 'This Dustbin is empty')


{
echo "<img class='percentage' src='0.jpg' height='250' > <br><a
href='majorappmain2.php'><img class='bin' src='dustbin
icon.jpg'></a>";//shows image of 0% full
}

echo <<<_END
<link href='http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto'
rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=500, initial-scale=1">
<meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1">
<style>
body
{

width:95%;
overflow:hidden;
font-family: 'Roboto' ,sans-serif;

}
.bin{

position:relative;
left:10px;
}

#submitbutton
{
color:white;
font-family: 'Roboto' ,sans-serif;
background:#a2b7d9;
border:0px;
padding:10px;
border-radius:5px;
}
</style>

<br>$status<br><br>
<form action= 'majorappmain2.php' method='post' >
<input name='name' value='123456' type='hidden'>
<input class='bin' id='submitbutton' type='submit' value='Empty
Bin'><br>
</form>
</center>

_END;

Arduino

<?php

require_once 'header.php';

$q = $_GET["value"];
$myfil = fopen("value.txt", "w") or die("Unable to open file!");

$q = (int)$q;

if($q < 7)
{

$q='This Dustinbin is full';


}
else{
if($q < 15)
{
$q='This Dustbin is 70% full';
}
else
{
if($q < 22)
{
$q='This Dustbin is about 40% full';
}
else
{

$q='This Dustbin is empty';

Problem Definition
As we have seen number of times the dustbins are getting overflown and
concern person dont get the informationwithin a time and due to
whichunsanitary condition formed in the surroundings, at the same time
bad smell spread out due to waste, bad look of the city which paves the
way for air pollution and to some harmful diseases around the locality
which is easily spreadable.

i. Disadvantages of the existing system

* Time consuming and less effective: trucks go and empty containers


whether
they are full or not.
* High costs.
* Unhygienic Environment and look of the city.
* Bad smell spreads and may cause illness to human beings.
* More traffic and Noise.

ii. Advantages of the proposed system

* Real time information on the fill level of the dustbin.


* Deployment of dustbin based on the actual needs.
* Cost Reduction and resource optimization.
* Improves Environment quality
* Fewer smells
* Cleaner cities
* Intelligent management of the services in the city.
* Effective usage of dustbins.
Result

The following are the results which obtained from this work,

* Waste Level detection inside the dustbin


* Transmit the information wirelessly to concerned
* The data can be accessed anytime and from anywhere
* The real-time data transmission and access
* Avoids the overflows of Dustbins

This IoT based waste management is very useful for smart cities in
different aspects. We have seen that, in cities there are different dustbins
located in the different areas and dustbins get over flown many times and
the concerned people do not get information about this. Our system is
designed to solve this issue and will provide complete details of the
dustbin located in the different areas throughout the city. The concerned
authority can access the information from anywhere and anytime to get
the details. Accordingly they can take the decision on this immediately.
Conclusion and Future Work

We have implemented real time waste management system by using smart


dustbins to check the fill level of smart dustbins whether the dustbin are
full or not.In this system the information of all smart dustbins can be
accessed from anywhere and anytime by the concern person and he/she
can take a decision accordingly. By implementing this
proposed system the cost reduction, resource optimization, effective usage
of smart dustbins can be done.This system indirectly reducing traffic in
the city. In major cities the garbage collection vehicle visit the areas
everyday twice or thrice depends on the population of the particular area
and sometimes these dustbins may not be full. Our System will inform the
status of each and every dust bin in real time so that the concerned
authority can send the garbage collection vehicle only when the dustbin is
full.

The scope for the future work is this system can be implemented with
time stamp in which real-time clock shown to the concern person at what
time dust bin is full and at what time the waste is collected from the smart
dustbins.