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Prediction of the Temperature Distribution

in Asphalt Pavement Samples


by
Marco Burger

Thesis presented at the University of Stellenbosch in partial fulfilment of

the requirements for degree of

Master of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Stellenbosch

Private Bag Xl

Matieland

South Africa

7602

Study Leader: Prof D.G. Kroger

April 2005
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Declaration
I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the work contained in this thesis is my own original
work and that I have not previously in its entirety or part submitted it at any university for a
degree.

Signature:
M. Burger

Date:
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Abstract
Prediction of the Temperature Distribution in Asphalt Pavement Samples

M. Burger

Department of Mechanical Engineering


University of Stellenbosch
Private Bag Xl, Matieland, South Africa, 7602

Thesis: MScEng (Mechanical)

April 2005

The convection heat transfer coefficient between an infinite, horizontal surface and the natural
environment is determined experimentally. It is shown that, during daytime, heat is
transferred due to natural and forced convection, while during nighttime heat is transferred
due to conduction and forced convection. Equations that correlate the daytime and nighttime
convective heat transfer coefficients respectively, are presented. The results are compared
with values obtained by other investigators.

The equations for the convection heat transfer coefficient are then used to predict the surface
temperature and the temperature at depth of asphalt pavement samples using a simulation
model. It is found that there is good agreement between the measured and the predicted
asphalt pavement sample temperatures.
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Opsomming
Voorspelling van die Temperatuurverdeling in Asfalt-padoppervlakmonsters

M. Burger

Departement van Meganiese Ingenieurswese


Universiteit van Stellenbosch
Privaatsak Xl, Matieland, Suid-Afrika, 7602

Tesis: MScIng (Meganies)

April 2005

Die konveksie warmteoordrags-koeffisient tuseen 'n oneindige, horisontale oppervlak en die


natuurlike omgewing is eksperimenteel bepaal. Daar word getoon dat warmte, tydens die
dag, oorgedra word deur natuurlike en geforseerde konveksie, terwyl warmte tydens die nag
oorgedra word deur geleiding en geforseerde konveksie. Die resultate word vergelyk met die
resultate van ander navorsers. Vergelykings wat die konveksie warmteoordrags-koeffisient
gedurende die dag en nag onderskeidelik korreleer word voorgestel.

Die vergelykings VIr die konveksie wamteoordrags-koeffisient word dan gebruik in 'n
simulasiemodel om die oppervlaktemperatuur en die temperatuur onder die oppervlakte van
asfalt-padoppervlakmonsters te voorspel.
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Acknowledgements
I want to thank my parents and friends for everything they have done for me during this study.

I would also like to thank Prof. Kroger for the opportunity he gave me to do this thesis.

Most of all I want thank my Father in Heaven for His guidance.


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Contents
Declaration ii

Ab stract iii

Opsomming iv

Acknowledgements v

Con ten ts vi

List of Figures ix

List of Tab les xii

Nomenclatu re xiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Determination of the Clear Sky Emissivity 3


2.1 Introduction and Literature Review 3
2.2 Analysis. ..................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Experimental Set-up and Procedures 7
2.4 Results and Discussion 8
2.5 Conclusion 11

Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 12


3.1 Introduction and Literature Review 12
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Contents vii

3.2 Experimental Set-up and Procedures 17


3.3 Results and Discussion 21
3.4 Conclusion 22

Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 23


4.1 Introduction and Literature Review 23
4.2 Experimental Set-up and Procedures 24
4.3 Results and Discussion 26
4.4 Conclusion 28

Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 29


5.1 Introduction and Literature Review 29
5.2 Analysis. ............................................................................................................... 31
5.2.1 Pavement Surface 31
5.2.2 Core of Pavement 32
5.2.3 Bottom of Pavement 33
5.3 Experimental Set-up and Procedures 34
5.4 Simulation ModeL 40
5.5 Results and Discussion 41
5.6 Conclusion 52

Conclusion 53

References 54

Appendix A Determination of the Clear Sky Emissivity 57

Appendix B Sample Calculation for the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient


During Daytime60

Appendix C Sample Calculatiop for the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient


During Nigh ttime 70

Appendix D Sample Calculation for the Prediction of Pavement Surface


Temperature and Temperature at Depth 76
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Contents viii

Appendix E Determining of the Density, Specific Heat and Diffusivity of Asphalt


Pave men t 83
E.t Density 83
E.2 Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Density of a Mix A Sample 83
E.3 Specific Heat 84
EA Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Specific Heat of the Mix A
Asphalt Samples 85
E.5 Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Diffusivity of the Mix A Asphalt
Samp Ies ................................................................................................................................ 87
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List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Heat fluxes at ground surface exposed to the environment during nighttime 6
Figure 2.2: Schematic of the experimental set-up 7
Figure 2.3: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature 9
Figure 2.4: Measured and calculated nighttime clear sky emissivity during a particular night.
............................................................................................................................................ 9
Figure 2.5: Nighttime clear sky emissivity at different dew point temperatures 10

Figure 3.1: Heat fluxes at ground surface exposed to the environment during daytime 13
Figure 3.2: Heat transfer coefficient at different wind speeds 15
Figure 3.3: Schematic of the experimental set-up 18
Figure 3.4: Measured solar radiation and zenith angle 19
Figure 3.5: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature and relative humidity.
.......................................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 3.6: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 0.15 m above ground level. .. 20
Figure 3.7: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 1 m above ground level. 20
Figure 3.8: Experimental results of the dimensional heat transfer coefficient. 21
Figure 3.9: Left-hand side of equation (3.9) and the long wave sky radiation as a function of
solar time 22

Figure 4.1: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature and relative humidity .
.......................................................................................................................................... 25
Figure 4.2: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 0.15 m above ground level. .. 25
Figure 4.3: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 1 m above ground level. 26
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List of Figures x

Figure 4.4: Experimental results of the convection heat transfer coefficient. 27


Figure 4.5: Convection heat transfer coefficient and the long wave sky radiation 27

Figure 5.1: Control volume ofa unit area of pavement surface exposed to the natural
environment. 31
Figure 5.2: Control volume for a unit area layer of pavement underneath the surface 32
Figure 5.3: Control volume for a unit area bottom layer of an insulated pavement. 33
Figure 5.4: Schematic of the experimental set-up 34
Figure 5.5: Thermocouple measuring depths 35
Figure 5.6: Measured solar radiation 36
Figure 5.7: Measured ambient air temperature and dew point temperature 37
Figure 5.8: Measured wind speed and wind direction 37
Figure 5.9: Measured surface temperatures of the two mix A samples 38
Figure 5.10: Measured surface temperatures of the two mix B samples 38
Figure 5.11: Temperature distribution at certain times on 14-03-2004 in the two mix A
samples 39
Figure 5.12: Temperature distribution at certain times on 14-03-2004 in the two mix B
samp 1es. ......................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 5.13: Heat fluxes on the surface of the painted mix A sample 40
Figure 5.14: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix A sample 42
Figure 5.15: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 60 mm of the painted mix A
sample 42
Figure 5.16: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the unpainted mix A sample. 43
Figure 5.17: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of60 mm of the unpainted mix
A sample 43
Figure 5.18: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix B sample 44
Figure 5.19: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 50 mm of the painted mix B
sample 44
Figure 5.20: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the unpainted mix B sample. 45
Figure 5.21: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 50 mm of the unpainted mix
B sample 45
Figure 5.22: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix A sample (ag =

6.084 x 10.7 m/s2) ......................................................................................................... 47


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List of Figures xi

Figure 5.23: Difference in surface temperature for different diffusivity values (ag = 6.084 x

10-7 m/s2 and ag = 6.94 x 10-7 m/s2) 47


Figure 5.24: Predicted maximum pavement surface temperature of the two mix A samples at
different pavement thicknesses 50
Figure 5.25: Predicted maximum pavement surface temperature of the two mix B samples at
different pavement thicknesses 50
Figure 5.26: The convection heat transfer coefficient calculated with equation (3.10) and the
equation by Vehrencamp (1953) 51

Figure A.1: Sensitivity of equation (2.15) to small temperature measurement errors 58

Figure B.1: The wind speed profile and temperature distribution at different heights above
ground level. 62
Figure B.2: Sensitivity of equation (3.6) to small temperature measurement errors 68

Figure C.1: The wind velocity profile and temperature distribution at different heights above
ground level. 72
Figure C.2: Sensitivity of equation (4.2) to small temperature measurement errors 74
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xii

List of Tables
Table 5.1: Average maximum surface temperature 46
Table 5.2: Average temperature at depth 48
Table 5.3: Average maximum surface temperature 49

Table E.1: Experimental density of the four asphalt samples 84


Table E.2: Experimental specific heat of the two asphalt pavement mixes 87
Table E.3: Experimental diffusivity of the two asphalt pavement mixes 88
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xiii

Nomenclature
A Area, m2
a Constant
B Constant
b Constant
Cf Friction coefficient
C Constant
cp Specific heat, J/kgK
D Diameter, m
d Depth, m
dt Time step size, s
EDT Equation of time, minutes
g Gravitational acceleration, m/s2
H Height, m
h Convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K
I Solar radiation, W/m2
Time step, s
k Thermal conductivity, W/mK
I Thickness, m
Lloe Location longitude, 0

Lst Standard meridian, 0

m Mass, kg
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Nomenclature xiv

hL
Nu Nusselt number, -
k
n Day of the year or coordinate
p Pressure, N/m2
Q Electrical power, W
q Energy per unit area, W/m2
R Electrical resistance, n or Gas constant
Ra
g(T, -
Rayleigh number, -------
r: )cpe p2
JlTm

sat Saturation
T Temperature, C or K
t Time, s
v Voltage, V or Volume, m3
v Speed, m/s
z Coordinate or distance, m

Greek symbols
a Solar absorptivity or diffusivity, m2/s

e Emissivity
tie Emissivity correction
e Angle, or direction, from north
(J Stefan-Boltzmann constant
p Density, kg/m3
J1 Dynamic viscosity, kg/ms
<P Latitude,
</J Relative humidity, %
6 Declination angle,
OJ Hour angle,
r Transmission coefficient

Subscripts
a Ambient Air
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Nomenclature xv

b Beam
eond Conduction
eonv Convection
d Diffuse or depth
dp Dew point
e Effective

Ie Forced convection
g Ground
h Hemispherical
L Length
lw Long wave
m Mean
n Normal
p Pressure
rad Radiation
s Surface or solar
sky Sky
t Time
v Vapour
w Wind
z Zenith
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1

Chapter 1 Introduction
Asphalt pavements are exposed to great strains and stresses. During winter cracks can arise
due to frost or shrinkage during periods of low temperatures. In summer when solar radiation
and air temperatures are high, the pavement becomes softer and there is a risk that heavy
vehicles may cause rutting due to plastic deformation.

Various methods have been proposed to predict temperatures in pavements exposed to the
natural environment. Solaimanian and Kennedy (1993) developed a method to predict the
maximum temperature profile on the basis of maximum air temperature and hourly solar
radiation. In most cases studied they claimed that they were able to predict pavement
temperatures to within 3 0c.

In the U.S.A a binder and mixture specification for pavement design, Superpave (1994) was
developed under the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) to determine among
others the highest and lowest pavement surface temperatures with the use of simplified
empirical equations. This approach has also found applications, with various degrees of
success, in countries outside the U.S.A. like South Africa and Sweden.

Hermansson (2004) developed a relatively extensive simulation model to calculate pavement


temperatures for both summer and winter conditions. Although his approach gives good
results in many cases, measurable discrepancies do occur in certain locations and at different
times during the year. These discrepancies could in part be due to inaccurate heat transfer
coefficients.
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Chapter 1 Introduction 2

In the abovementioned and other studies to date certain simplifying assumptions are made and
the reliability of some of the heat transfer equations are questionable.

It is the objective of this study to obtain reliable heat transfer equations and to refine existing
evaluation methods to predict pavement temperatures more accurately under relatively well-
defined environmental conditions. Further future refinement taking into consideration more
complex environmental conditions are envisaged. Although a more detailed method of
analysis implies more complexity, improved heat transfer equations and a better
understanding of the fundamentals involved which are essential before meaningful
simplifications can be made. In this study the convection heat transfer of a surface exposed to
the natural environment will be studied.

A systematic approach will be followed in this study, ultimately leading to the prediction of
the temperature distribution in asphalt pavement samples. Firstly a correlation for the clear
sky emissivity will be presented for the use in determining the long wave radiation heat
transfer between a surface and the environment, as there are numerous discrepancies between
existing correlations. In chapter 3 a correlation for the convection heat transfer coefficient for
a surface that is warmer than the ambient air will be presented and in chapter 4 a correlation
for a surface that is colder than the ambient air will be presented. In the final chapter the
equation for the long wave radiation from the sky and the two correlations for the convection
heat transfer coefficients will be used in a simulation model to predict the surface temperature
and temperature at depth of a pavement and compared with experimental results.
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3

Chapter 2 Determination of the Clear


Sky Emissivity
In this chapter the clear sky emissivity is determined experimentally and a correlation for the
calculation of the clear sky emissivity is recommended. In the following chapters the clear
sky emissivity will be used to ~alculate the long wave radiation exchange between a
horizontal surface and the environment.

2.1 Introduction and Literature Review


Particles in the atmosphere like dust and smoke and molecules like carbon dioxide, water and
ozone not only absorb solar radiation but also radiation from the earth's surface. Predicting
the radiative energy exchange between the earth's surface and the atmosphere is very
important in determining the performance of solar collectors and greenhouses and the
radiative cooling of surfaces like buildings and pavements.

The radiation from the sky can be approximated as a fraction of blackbody radiation
corresponding to the temperature of the air near the ground, as given by Mills (1995), i.e.

(2.1)

where (J is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.67x10.s W/m2K4), Tsky is the effective clear sky
temperature, &sky is the clear sky emissivity and Ta is the ambient air temperature near the
ground. The sky emissivity &sky is dependent on the amount of moisture in the air and for this
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 4

reason is generally expressed as a linear function of the dew point temperature Tdp (in C)
near the surface and the most commonly used correlations are the following:

sky = 0.8004 + 0.00396Tdp (Bliss (1961)) (2.2)

sky= 0.787 + 0.0028Tdp (Clark and Allen (1978)) (2.3)

sky = 0.770 + 0.0038Tdp (Berger, Buriot and Gamier (1984)) (2.4)

sky = 0.754 + 0.0044Tdp (Tang, Etzion and Meir (2004)) (2.5)

Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) recommend the following equation for the clear sky emissivity
during nighttime

sky = 0.741 + 0.0062Tdp (2.6)

and

sky = 0.727 + 0.0060Tdp (2.7)

for the clear sky emissivity during daytime.

Martin and Berdahl (1984) expressed sky as a quadratic function of dew point temperature,
l.e.

sky = 0.711 + 0.0056Tdp + O.000073Td/ (2.8)

A diurnal correction f:..t was added to correct equation (2.8) for use at a particular time of day,
l.e.
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 5

(2.9)

where t is the time in hours.


A pressure correction !1cp was also added to correct for the observer's elevation, i.e.

!1cp = 0.00012(pa - 1000) (2.1 0)

where pa is the atmospheric pressure in millibar.

Another way of correlating Tsky is given by Swinbank (1963):

Tsky = 0.0552T/5 (2.11)

This correlation for Tsky, based only on ambient air temperature Ta (in K), is however not
accurate as the sky temperature changes with the humidity of the air.

2.2 Analysis
Consider the energy balance that is applicable to a unit area of horizontal surface that is
exposed to the natural environment on a clear, dry, night, as shown in figure 2.1, i.e.

(2.12)

where h(Ta - Ts) is the convective heat transfer between the ambient air and the surface.

The first term on the right-hand side of equation (2.12) represents the net long wave radiation
between the surface and the atmosphere. The second term on the right-hand side of equation
(2.12) represents the heat that is conducted through the ground. If the surface is insulated,
this term is negligible.
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 6

4 s(JTs4
h(Ta - Ts) a'w(JTsky

! Air
I
I

z
-kidT/dz)
Figure 2.1: Heat fluxes at ground surface exposed to the environment during nighttime.

If an insulated surface is heated by an external source of energy q such that the surface
temperature is equal to the ambient air temperature, there will be no convection heat transfer
and equation (2.12) becomes

(2.13)

From equation (2.13) it follows that the Kelvin sky temperature is given by

(2.14)

By rearranging equation (2.1) one can then calculate the nighttime clear sky emissivity E:sky

from equation (2.14), i.e.

(2.15)
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 7

2.3 Experimental Set-up and Procedures


Experiments were conducted at the Solar Energy Laboratory of the University of

Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa (Altitude 100 m, Latitude -33.93 0, Longitude

341.15 west). The experimental apparatus, as seen in figure 2.2, consisted of a I m x I m

aluminium plate having a thickness of 5 mm that was painted matt black.


Anemometer Thermocouple
support

o o .-----/ Shieldcd type T


o o
o o /
/
thCllllocouplcs

o
o
"T ~ g. ....JlJ1,.
, -rrz' ~~~778
Heating cable
Side elevation
Polystyrene
insulation

Plan view
Figure 2.2: Schematic of the experimental set-up.

The solar absorptivity as of the black painted surface is taken as 0.93 (Modest (1993)), while
the long wave emissivity and absorptivity a/II' is taken as 0.90 (Mills (1995)). The plate was

heated from below with the aid of an underfloor heating cable having a known electrical
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 8

resistance R of 88.6 n. The lower surface of the aluminium plate was insulated with a 50 mm
polystyrene layer. The heating cable was connected to a variable voltage source, which was
used to vary the plate temperature.

The surface temperature measurements were obtained from seven type T thermocouples that
were embedded on the surface of the plate. Another four type T thermocouples were placed
at different heights above the plate to measure the temperature distribution above the plate.
All the thermocouples were placed in a bucket of water to see that they measure the same
temperature as to assure their measuring accuracy.

A weather station was used to measure ambient air temperature, dew point temperature,
barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and wind direction 1 m above the surface. The
anemometers had an accuracy of::!: 0.2 mis, while the temperature sensors had an accuracy of
::!: 0.1 e.

The power Q, that was needed to heat the aluminium plate to the ambient air temperature, was
calculated by using the equation for electrical power, i.e.

Q= V2/R=qA=q x 1 =q (2.16)

where V is the voltage drop over the heating cable and A is the 1 m2 surface area of the
aluminium plate. The resistance R of the heating cable stayed constant over the measured
temperature range.

2.4 Results and Discussion


Figure 2.3 shows an example of the measured surface Ts, ambient air Ta and dew point
temperature Tdp as a function of solar time during a particular clear night. The power Q was
controlled such that Ts is as close as possible to Ta .

.
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 9

25
I
I
I
I
I

I I I I I r I
20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1- - - - - - - - - - - -

I
I

u I r I I I I
I
I I
o 15 - - - - - -I- - - - - - -I - - - - - -1- - - - - - I- - - - - - 4- - - - - - -I - - - - - -1- - - - - - I- - - - - -

i...
I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
lIt I I I
CI) I I I I I r
0.. I I 1 1 I
a
CI)
10 -----T------, r----- --I------r-----

E--< I
I I

T dp' oc/ L .!.. J


:
, , _
5 I
I
I
I
I
I

o
22 23 24 2 3 4 5 6 7
13-05-2004 14-05-2004

Solar time

Figure 2.3: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature.

I
I I I I I I I I I f I I I I I
___ I ~ L __ ~ ~ L __ ~ ~ L __ ~ L L __ ~ L 1 _

0.95 I I I I I t I I I I I I t I I
I I I I I I I , I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
0.9 ---I---T---r--~---T---r---I---T---r--~---T---r--~---T---,---
I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I

~ ___ : ~__Berdahl and Fromberg, Eq. (2.6)


I I I
_
I
...J
I
J..
t
1 _

~ 0.85 Bliss, Eq. (2.2) : : :


.~ 0.8 - - - - - - - - - - Clark and Allen, Eq. (2.3) -:- --
>
'r;; I I
I

I I I Berger et al., Eq. (2.4) I


I

Cfl

's
CI)
0.75
I

::
~ I -I- ~

Martin and Berdahl, Eq. (2.8)


_

g 0.7 ___ : + I :-Swinbank,Eq.(2.11) : _


Cfl I I Tang, Etzion and Meir, Eq. (2.5) I I

a
CI)
0.65
___ I
I I
~
I
~ __ ~
I
~
I I
~ __ ~
I I
~
I
~ __ ~
I I
~
lIt
~ __ ~ ~
I
1 _

D I
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
r
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
1
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I

I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I
0.6 ---I---1---r--~---T---r--~---T---r--~---T---I---~---T---1---
I I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I
I , 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I

0.55 ---1---~---~---1---~---~--~---~---~--~---~---~--~---~-
1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I
--1---
I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
0.5
22 23 24 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
13-05-2004 14-05-2004
Solar time

Figure 2.4: Measured and calculated nighttime clear sky emissivity during a particular night.
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 10

In figure 2.4 the nighttime clear sky emissivity calculated according to equation (2.15) is
shown together with the clear sky emissivity calculated according to equations (2.2) to (2.6),
equation (2.8) with diurnal /'.;.&t and pressure correction /1&p and equation (2.11).

The correlations for the clear sky emissivity given in equations (2.2) to (2.6) and (2.8) is
shown in figure 2.5 together with the measured experimental data as a function of dew point
temperature.

I
I
I
I
I
I I I I I

0.9 ---------~---------~---------~---------~---------~---------
I I I I I
I I I I I
I 1 I I
I I I I I ..... .....:

:~.#-EtS-0;-;:~=:;~:I~):
I I I I Am ~~-
-~~~~~~D
:E.6
: I __

0.8
en
en
's
a)
c . --' - - - - - - --

~ 0.7
a
a)
I I - - Clark & Allen, Eq. (2.3)
-

o : : - . - . Berger, Buriot and Gamier, Eq. (2.4)


_________ ~ ~_ _ _ _ _ - - Tang, Etzion and Meir, Eq. (2.5)
0.6
: : ' Berdahl and Fromberg, Eq. (2.6)
: : Martin and Berdahl, Eq. (2.8)
: : 0 Measured experimental results
0.5
-10 -5 o 5 10 15 20
Dew point temperature, T dp , C

Figure 2.5: Nighttime clear sky emissivity at different dew point temperatures.

As can be seen in figures 2.4 and 2.5, the experimental results for the nighttime clear sky
emissivity &sky are very well correlated by equation (2.6) given by Berdahl and Fromberg
(1982) and equation (2.5) given by Tang, Etzion and Meir (2004).

As the equation by Tang, Etzion and Meir (2004) is only for nighttime clear sky emissivity
the assumption was made that the equation by Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) for daytime clear
sky emissivity is as accurate as the equation for the nighttime clear sky emissivity. It was
thus decided to use the equations by Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) for the clear sky emissivity
during day- or nighttime.
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Chapter 2 Determining the Clear Sky Emissivity 11

A sample calculation for calculating the clear sky emissivity is shown in Appendix A.

2.5 Conclusion
The nighttime clear sky emissivity has been studied experimentally. Equation (2.6) by
Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) best correlates the experimental data. For the clear sky
emissivity during daytime equation (2.7) by Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) will be used.
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12

Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer


Coefficient During Daytime
In this chapter the convection heat transfer coefficient between a large horizontal surface and
the natural environment during daytime is determined experimentally. It is shown that for a
surface that is warmer than the ambient air the heat is transferred due to natural and forced
convection. The results are compared to values by other investigators. A good correlation is
obtained between a new semi-empirical equation and the experimental results.

3.1 Introduction and Literature Review


Consider the energy balance that is applicable to a unit area of horizontal surface that is
exposed to the natural environment on a clear, dry, sunny day, as shown in figure 3.1, i.e.

(3.1)

where lhas is the incident solar radiation absorbed per unit horizontal area.

Solar radiation is made up of two components, namely diffuse radiation ld and beam radiation
lb, both of which are short wave radiation, i.e.

(3.2)

According to Duffie and Beckman (1991) the absorptivity az of most ordinary blackened
surfaces is a function of incident angle, i.e.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 13

where a is the absorptivity of a surface at normal incidence and ez is the incidence angle in

degrees.

Ih (1 - as)Ih h(Ts - TJ alw(JTsk/ c(JT 4


.

4 I ! Air


I I



I

z -kidT/dz)
Figure 3.1: Heat fluxes at ground surface exposed to the environment during daytime.

For diffuse solar radiation Id on a horizontal surface, the effective incidence angle ee is 60 0,

while for beam radiation h on a horizontal surface, the incidence angle is equal to the zenith
angle ez. The solar incident radiation absorbed by the horizontal surface is thus

Ihas = haz + Idad


= Iba[l + 2.0345xlO-3ez -1.99x10-4e/ + 5.324xlO-6ez3 - 4.799x10-Sez4] (3.4)

+ 0.9337Ida

The first term on the right-hand side of equation (3.1) represents the convective heat transfer
between the surface and the ambient air. The objective of this chapter is to determine the heat
transfer coefficient h.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 14

The second term on the right-hand side of equation (3.1) represents the net long wave
radiation between the surface and the environment. In this term, the Kelvin sky temperature
is given by rearranging equation (2.1), i.e.

(3.5)

It was decided in chapter 2 to use the equation of Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) for clear sky
emissivity. Berdahl and Fromberg (1982) recommend the following equation for clear sky
emissivity during daytime:

Csky = 0.727 + 0.0060Tdp (2.7)

The third term on the right-hand side of equation (3.1) represents the heat conducted by the
ground. If the surface is insulated, this term is negligible and the convection heat transfer
coefficient is obtained by rearranging equation (3.1), i.e.

4
Ibaz + Idad -(caTs -atWO"Tsky
h = ----------
4) (3.6)
Ts-Ta

where az = a[1 + 2.0345xl0-3ez -1.99xl0-4e/ + 5.324xl0-6ez3 - 4.799xl0-Sez4]

ad = 0.9337 a

The results of tests that were conducted on surfaces exposed to the natural environment
during windy conditions are reported by Duffie and Beckmann (1991), Watmuff, Charters and
Proctor (1977) and Test, Lessman and Johary (1981). The experiments done by Test,
Lessman and Johary (1981) are for surfaces with a 400 inclination. In general the convection
heat transfer coefficients for the tests mentioned above are expressed as

h = a + bvw (3.7)

where a and b are supposed to be constants and Vw is the wind speed. Examples of these
correlations are shown in figure 3.2.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 15

30
I I
5 2
~ Pa = 10 Nlm I
I
I
I

'" Ta = 300 K : (Ts - T a) = 60


I

-E __________ J. __ ________ -1
I
_

~ 25 (T s - T a ) = 40C
I

.J::"
(Ts-Ta)=20C
r:or
(l)

'<3
20 I

~
4-<
I
I
(l) I
0 I
u I
.... 15 -----------r----
<2 I

'"~
t'l
b
...
t'l
(l)
10
...c -- Lombaard and Kroger (2001)
~
.S
... - - - Vehrencamp (1953)
u
(l)
;> 5 - . - .Duffie and Beckman (1991)
~
0 - - - - - Watmuffet al. (1977)
u
- - - -Test et al. (1981)
0
0 2 3 4 5
Wind speed, v w' rnls

Figure 3.2: Heat transfer coefficient at different wind speeds.

A correlation by Vehrencamp (1953) that differs from equation (3.7) as well as a


dimensionless equation according to Lombaard and Kroger (2001) is also shown. The
equation given by Vehrencamp (1953) is used by Solaimanian and Kennedy (1993) and
Hermansson (2004) for calculating the surface temperature of pavements. Note the
significant discrepancies between the equations.

It is obvious that equation (3.7) cannot adequately express the convection heat transfer
coefficient. Equation (3.7) is not dimensionless and does thus not make provision for changes
in thermophysical properties. Furthermore, when the wind speed Vw = 0, heat that is
transferred due to natural convection is not constant, but is a function of the temperature
difference between the surface and the ambient air as given by Bejan (1984), i.e.

Nu = cRan n = 1/4 for 104 S.Ra S. 107


n = 1/3 for 107 S.Ra s.1011

For turbulent natural convection the equation can also be given by


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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 16

(3.8)

where c is a constant and Tm = (Ts + Ta)/2 is the mean temperature.

Many laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficient
due to turbulent natural convection from a heated, horizontal, upward-facing surface (Fujii
and Imura (1972), Rohsenow et al. (1998), Lloyd and Moran (1974), AI-Arabi and EI-Riedy
(1976), Clausing and Berton (1989)). Values of c range between 0.13 and 0.16. In part, this
range of values for c is due to the fact that the test surfaces were made up of different
materials and had different sizes. In some tests uniform surface temperatures were maintained
while in other cases it was assumed that the heat flux was uniform.

Lombaard and Kroger (2001) conducted experiments on an insulated 1 m x 1 m horizontal


plate exposed to the natural environment. This truly uniform "heat flux" (solar radiation) test
gave a value of c = 0.227.

AI-Arabi and El-Riedy (1976) refer to the work of Kraus who tested 160 mm x 160 mm to
260 mm x 260 mm heated horizontal surfaces and obtained a coefficient of c = 0.137 and
Kamal and Salah who studied a horizontal rectangular plate 504 mm x 200 mm maintained at
constant temperature and concluded that for a plate of infinite size (for which case the edge
effects could be neglected) the value of the coefficient was c = 0.135. AI-Arabi and EI-Riedy
(1976) carried out experiments on upward facing heated plates at constant temperature. They
tested square plates having dimensions varying from 50 mm to 450 mm, circular plates
ranging from 100 mm to 500 mm in diameter and rectangular plates with a width of 150 mm
and lengths of 250 mm to 600 mm. All their mean results are well correlated by a coefficient
of c = 0.155. They also conducted an experiment on a square plate to find the heat transfer
coefficient in the central part of the plate, which was not influenced by edge effects. The
resultant coefficient had a value of c = 0.145.

According to the studies by AI-Arabi and El-Riedy (1976), it would thus appear that for an
infinite horizontal surface at constant temperature, c = 0.14 (average of 0.135 and 0.145).
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 17

According to Kroger (2002) the value of the constant for uniform surface heat flux is n/2
times this value, i.e. 0.22. This value is close to the 0.227 found by Lombaard and Kroger
(2001).

Kroger (2002) theoretically analysed the problem of convection heat transfer on a horizontal
surface exposed to the natural environment. He shows that the dimensionless convective heat
transfer coefficient is given by

/IT 113 C [ pT ]1/3


h =c+v ---.L (3.9)
r'm
[ g(T, - T" )c,k' p' ] w( 2 J m
,ug(T, - T,,)

In this approximate, semi-empirical equation the constant c has a theoretical value of 0.243.
The effective friction coefficient, C/, has to be determined experimentally under windy
conditions.

3.2 Experimental Set-up and Procedures


Experiments were conducted at the Solar Energy Laboratory of the University of
Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa (Altitude 100 m, Latitude -33.93 0, Longitude
341.15 west). The experimental apparatus consisted of aIm x I m polystyrene plate
having a thickness of 50 mm, which was surrounded by an open area covered with a large
black plastic sheet as shown schematically in figure 3.3.

The plate was painted matt black and was put on the black sheet to simulate an infinite black
surface and to minimise edge effects. The solar absorptivity as of the black painted surface is
0.93, while the long wave emissivity e and absorptivity alw is 0.90.

The surface temperature measurements were obtained from six type T thermocouples that
were embedded on the surface of the plate. Another four type T thermocouples were placed
at different heights above the solar collector, as shown in figure 3.3, to measure the
temperature gradient above the collector.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 18

A weather station was used to measure ambient air temperature, dew point temperature,

barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and wind direction 1 m above the surface of the

polystyrene plate. The wind speed was also measured at 0.15 m above ground level. Solar

radiation was measured with a Kipp & Zonen pyranometer. All data was collected in one

minute intervals and averaged over ten minutes.

Thennoeouple
support

o
o
o
o
1 Shielded type T
thermocouple
o o

Side elevation

Plan view

Figure 3.3: Schematic of the experimental set-up.

The zenith angle was detem1ined by measunng the horizontal length of the shadow of a

vertical pole with a known length and then calculating the angle between the vertical pole and

the angle of incidence of the beam radiation. Examples of experimental measurements as a

function of solar time on a particular day are shown graphically in figures 3.4 to 3.7.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 19

1200 100
I
I
I
I 90
I I I I
___ L ~ I L_
1000 I
80

70
800 0

~ 60 Q:)N
r:::;" (I)'
o b1J
'.g 600 50 .::
til
] 40 :.::
a N
(I)

"0
r:/)
400 I
I 30
I
I
I
I I t I 20
200 -4----I----r---T---'--
I I I I I
I I 1 I
29-01-2004 I I I I
10
I I I I
I

o 0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Solar time

Figure 3.4: Measured solar radiation and zenith angle.

80 80
I
I
I
1 I 1 I
70 1---,---1---1------------ 70
I I I
I I I
I I I
__ J ~ _
60 I I 60
I I
I
'<f(
50 ~
I I I
u 50
0
_ ....J
I
1
I
1
I
_

(I)'
...
I
I
I
I
I
.~
-0

~ 40
(I)
I
40 's
;:l
0. .J::
(I)
S ;>
(I)

E-< 30 30 '.g
I Q)

I t I
I
I I I I I I I I
~
20 - - - r - - - ...,
- - - -.- - - -[- - - - ,-- - - r - - - T - - - 1 - - - -I - - - -1- - - -, 20
: T dp' C : : : : : : : :
I
.! _ _ _
I
_ _1 _
1
: :!
I I I I I I I
_ 10
10
:29-01-2004
I

o o
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Solar time

Figure 3.5: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature and relative humidity.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 20

8 360
() w' 0 from North
7 270

..c
6 180 t
0
Z
a'" 5 90
S
0
<.i::
0

0 ei
I::::"
.9
....
u
Q)

;.a...
"0
s::::
2
I

I
~
I
I I
--T---...,----
I I
I I
I I

o I I

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Solar time

Figure 3.6: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 0.15 m above ground level.

8 360
I
I
I
() w' 0 from North I I I
7 - - -j- - - -1- - - - , - - - 270
I I I
I I I
I I I

6 -II I I
-1- - - - I" - -- 180 "0
I I I
I Z
a'"
5 90
S
0
<.i::
;>
~ 0

"0"
Q) 4 0 ei
Q)
0- s::::"
'" .9
"0
c U
3 Q)

~ ;.a...
"0
c
2
~

29-01-2004
0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Solar time

Figure 3.7: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 1 m above ground level.
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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 21

3.3 Results and Discussion


As shown in figure 3.8 the experimental results for the dimensional heat transfer coefficient
are well correlated by an expression having the same form as equation (3.9), i.e.

(3.10)

The value of the coefficient c of 0.2106 is close to the expected value of 0.14(n /2) = 0.22.
The value of the effective friction coefficient based on a height of 1.0 m above ground level is
Cf= 0.0052.

Figure 3.9 shows the left-hand side of equation (3.9) and the long wave sky radiation as a
function of solar time.

0.9
-----ih[ j.1Tm 2 2]1/3 = 0.2106+ 0.0026v w
[ pTm ]1/3 ---i-----
0.8 -----: g(T,-1',,)Cpk p j.1g(T,-1',,) ---:-<>----
I , I , I
"., _____
I
I
I
~
I
L ~
I I
~
I
L ~
I I
L __ ~--
I

r-----, 0.7 I I I I I I I I 0

"'<::l, I I I I I '0 I 0 I I 0
I I I 1 I 1 0 I 0 I

~ .. 0.6 - - - - -1- - - - - T - - - - - r - - - - -1- - - - - T - - - - - 1- - - -o~ 0 0- - T - - - - -1- - - - .-


I I I I I 0 1 0 0 I I
0
<.J
h~ ....... f t I I 0

-:_-tI+:
I 060.
0 0 0 1 I I

::t. h" 0.5 - - - - -: - - - - - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - - -: -0 - ~_o_CS" - - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - - -:- - - - -

I
: : :6 ;I ~6;~ - : - : : :
E 0.4 -----'-----T------ ----T-----r----'-----r-----I-----
~ I a 0 I I I I

29-01-2004
'-----'
"'i:: 0.3 o--~-
- 1
000
- 0
BI - -
6
I
---~-----:-----~-----~----~---
1 I I o

10 I t I I I
" 30-01-2004
_ I I I I I I I
0.2 -----l-----T-----r----~-----T-----r----'--- o 01-02-2004
I I I 1 I 1 I
I I I I I I I o 02-02-2004
0.1 -----l-----~-----~----~-----~-----~----~---
I I 1 I I I 1 - 05-02-2004
I I 1 I I I I

o I I I I I I I

o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200


pTm ]1/3
V
w [ j.1g(T, -1',,)

Figure 3.8: Experimental results of the dimensional heat transfer coefficient.


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Chapter 3 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 22

400

0.9 390

0.8 380
N

~ 0.7 370
r-----, ~
'" ~ 0.6 360 "
'"~ ~
<.>
.. ~
f-.,~ ------. 0.5 350 c"
~ f-.," .9
....
I
0.4 340 :eo:lo:l
E ...
~
"-------' 0.3 330 Q
~ ifJ

0.2 320

0.1 310

0 300
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Solar time

Figure 3.9: Left-hand side of equation (3.9) and the long wave sky radiation as a function of
solar time.

A sample of the calculation of the convection heat transfer coefficient is given in Appendix B.

3.4 Conclusion
The convection heat transfer coefficient between an infinite horizontal surface and the natural
environment during daytime has been determined experimentally. The experimental data is
well correlated by equation (3.10) in the range of 0 mls :s Vw :s 4 mis, measured 1 m above
ground level. The value of the effective skin friction coefficient, based on a height of 1 ill

above ground level, is found to be Cf = 0.0052.


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23

Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer


Coefficient During Nighttime
In the following chapter the convection heat transfer coefficient between an infinite horizontal
surface and the natural environment during nighttime is determined experimentally. It is
shown that during periods of no wind heat is transferred due to a mixture of convection and
conduction, while during windy periods heat is transferred due to forced convection. A good
correlation is obtained between a semi-empirical equation and the experimental data.

4.1 Introduction and Literature Review


Considering figure 2.1 for a horizontal surface exposed to the natural environment during the
night. The second term on the right-hand side of equation (2.12) can be neglected for an
insulated surface to give

(4.1)

or

(0'1'.4 - a/w 0' 1'.ky4)


h=------ (4.2)
(1;,-1'.)

where Tsky is given by equation (3.5) with the use of equation (2.6) for the calculation of the
clear sky emissivity during nighttime.
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Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 24

During windy periods the Reynolds-Colburn analogy, as reported by Kroger (2002), and used
in chapter 3 for the determination of the forced convection heat transfer coefficient is used,
l.e.

Cfpcp Vw

h
fe
= 2(pcp / k t3 (4.3)

where the skin friction coefficient Cf has to be determined experimentally.

Published correlations (Mills (1995)) for the heat transfer coefficient in the absence of wind
on finite, cooled, surfaces facing upwards are of the form

-
-- hL 1/5
Nu = - =cRa (4.4)
L k L

where NUL is the averaged Nusselt number, c is a constant, RaL is the Rayleigh number and L

is the side length of a square plate or the length of the shorter side of a rectangular plate.
There is however no correlation for an infinite surface.

In the case of an infinite, horizontal, cooled surface the transfer of heat is essentially due to
conduction.

4.2 Experimental Set-up and Procedures


The same experimental set-up and procedures were used III determining the effective
convection heat transfer coefficient during nighttime as during daytime experiments (chapter
3). Examples of experimental measurements as a function of solar time on a particular day
are shown graphically in figures 4.1 to 4.3.
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Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 25

25 100

90
rjJ,%
20 80
70
u I

o 15 ----------+---------- 60

f
I
I

I
I
50
0..
E 10 40
~
30

5 ---- ----- 20

10

o o
19 20 21 22 23 24 2 3 4 5
29-01-2004 30-01-2004

Solar time

Figure 4.1: Measured surface, ambient air and dew point temperature and relative humidity.

8 360
: Bw, 0 from North
I

7 --1----
I
270
I ..c
I t::
0
6 - _1-
180
I
I
Z
---E
<Il
E
0
"
5 90 t.=:
;! 0

"0"
Cl) 4 0 cr?
Cl)
0.. 1::"
<Il
"0
.s
I:: 3 UCl)

~ :.a....
"0
2 I::

o
19 20 21 22 23 24 2 3 4 5
29-01-2004 30-01-2004
Solar time

Figure 4.2: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 0.15 m above ground level.
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Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 26

8 360
1
1
I , I I I I I I I

7 - - - - ~ - () w, 0 from North - ~ - - - - -I - - - - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - - 1- - - - -:- - - - - 270


..c:
t::
0
6 180
Z
en
--- E
E 5 0
"
90 <I::
~
;:. 0
"
"0" <:I5
<l) 4 0
<l)
P- 1:::"
en .S
"0 ....
I::: 3 u
<l)

~ :a...
"0
2 .5
~

o
19 20 21 22 23 24 2 3 4 5
29-01-2004 30-01-2004
Solar time

Figure 4.3: Measured wind speed and direction at a height of 1 m above ground level.

4.3 Results and Discussion


As shown in figure 4.4 the experimental results for the heat transfer coefficient are well
correlated by an expression having the same form as equation (4.3), but with an additional
effective heat transfer coefficient at a wind speed Vw of 0 mis, i.e.

(4.5)

From figure 4.1 can be seen that during times of low or no wind speed the surface temperature
Ts is equal or lower than the dew point temperature Tdp' Even with the weather station
measuring no wind there is still movement in the air so the constant heat transfer coefficient
of 3.87 at no wind is a mixed conduction, convection and condensation heat transfer term.
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Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 27

Figure 4.5 shows the convection heat transfer coefficient and the long wave sky radiation as a
function of solar time for a particular night.

30
I
I
I
I
~ ,
25 vwpc p - - - -,- - - - - - -
h = 3.8713 + 0.0022 2/3 '
(pcp / k) :,
,,
,
_+ I _ I
____ ~- I -

029-01-2004 pm
o 30-01-2004 am
" 01-02-2004 pm
)( 02-02-2004 am
'" 05-02-2004 am
o 05-02-2004 pm
+ 08-02-2004 am
- 08-02-2004 pm
o I

o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000


vwpcp
213
( pcp / k )

Figure 4.4: Experimental results of the convection heat transfer coefficient.

20 , 400
1 I 1 I I I I I I
____ .1 .J 1 1 L .1 J 1 L _
18 I I I t I I , I I
390
-s:: I I I r , I I I I
...
r I I I I I I 1 I I
I::
0)
16 - - - - T - - - - , - - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - - r - - - - T - - - - ., - - - - -1- - - - - ,- - - - - 380
'u I
I
I
I
I I I
I
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
"'s
s.:::
4-< 14 ~----~ h, W/m2K ----~----~----~-----:-----:----- 370
0)
0
u
I I I I I I I ~
til I I I
... 12 T - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - - r---- T - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - -,- - - -- 360 ~
~en ~ I I r I I I I I I
ci'-
I:: "'s
I I 1 I I I I I

~ 10 - - - +: - - - - .4 - - - -1- - -1- - - - - ~ - - - - .j. - - - - -I - - - - -1- - - - - 1- - - - - 350 d


I t I I I I I I 0
-b
~ 1 I I I I I I ,
'.g
~
0) 8
I
- - - - T - - - - I -
t I
-----
I I
- - - I" - - - - I" - - - - I - - - - -1-
I I
- - -
I
- - - 340 ::a
..e I I' I I 1 I ~
...
I:: I I I 1

.9 6 ---I-----I-----~---- - -~ 330 >-.


...><:
+-'
u
Cl)
,
, ,
, I
, [/)

>
I:: 4 ___ 1
,
'---
I
I
320
, I
0
U I I I 1 I I 1 1 1
2 - - - - . - - - - -t - - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - - ~ - - - - '"t - - - - -t - - - - -1- - - - -1- - - - - 310
I 1 I 1 lIt 1 1
I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 r

0 300
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Solar time

Figure 4.5: Convection heat transfer coefficient and the long wave sky radiation.
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Chapter 4 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 28

The value of the effective friction coefficient based on a height of 1 m above ground level is
Cf= 0.0044.

A sample of the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient is given in Appendix C.

4.4 Conclusion
The effective convection heat transfer coefficient between an infinite horizontal surface and
the natural environment during nighttime has been determined experimentally. The
experimental data is well correlated by equation (4.5) in the range of 0 mls :s Vw :s 5 mis,
measured 1 m above ground level. The value of the effective skin friction coefficient, based
on a height of 1 m above ground level, is found to be Cf = 0.0044.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement


Temperature Distribution
In this chapter the measured surface temperature and the temperature at depth of asphalt
pavement samples is compared with the calculated temperatures using a simulation model.
The input data for the model is ambient air temperature, solar radiation, dew point
temperature, wind speed and barometric pressure at one-minute intervals.

5.1 Introduction and Literature Review


Predicting the temperature at any depth in an asphalt pavement is important for designing and
choosing the right binder and mixture specification. During summer the high solar radiation
and air temperatures can cause the pavement to become soft and heavy vehicles can cause
rutting due to plastic deformation.

In the literature there are a few empirical equations with which the pavement surface
temperature and temperatures at depth can be calculated. As reported by Everitt et. al. (1999)
the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) has developed a model (Superpave) that
makes use of environmental data to characterise the required binder properties of expected
pavement temperatures. They use a rigorous equation, which has to be solved with numerical
analysis, to calculate the maximum pavement surface temperature, i.e.

(5.1)
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 30

where a is the pavement surface solar absorptivity, La is the air transmission coefficient, C1Jis

the location latitude, Gsky is the air emissivity, Ta is the ambient air temperature in K, h is the
convection heat transfer coefficient, Ts is the pavement surface temperature in K and k is the
thermal conductivity of the pavement.

To simplify calculations the Superpave procedures recommend that pavement surface


temperature be calculated using the following empirical, regression equation proposed by
Huber (1994).

Ts = Ta - O.00618C1J2 + O.2289C1J + 24.4 (5.2)

Superpave also recommends the following equation to convert surface temperature to


pavement temperature at depth.

where Td is the pavement temperature at depth d from the surface in DC.

Equations (5.2) and (5.3) cannot be accurate as they do not take into account any wind, solar
radiation or pavement thermal properties.

Solaimanian and Kennedy (1993) use a method that is based on an energy balance at the
pavement surface and has the same form as equation (5.1), i.e.

(5.4)

The first term of equation (5.4) represents the absorbed solar radiation, the second term
represents the absorbed long wave radiation from the sky, the third term is the convection heat
transfer between the surface and the ambient air, the fourth term is the heat conduction in the
pavement and the fifth term represents the long wave radiation radiated by the surface.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 31

5.2 Analysis
5.2.1 Pavement Surface
Consider the control volume that is applicable to a unit area of pavement surface that is
exposed to the natural environment as shown in figure 5.1, i.e.

(5.5)

..
..
.. Air
..
.. ..
. .
.....
.

-kidT/c1z) Pavement

Tg,2
i

Tg,3
i

z
Figure 5.1: Control volume of a unit area of pavement surface exposed to the natural
environment.

If one assumes one-dimensional unsteady conduction in the pavement over a time interval dt,
equation (5.5) changes to

(5.6)

The fourth term on the right-hand side of equation (5.6) is the increase in internal energy of
the control volume over a time step dt, from time step i to step (i + 1). Discretizing equation
(5.6) gives
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 32

(5.7)

where Tg,~+l is the surface temperature of the pavement at time step (i + 1).

During nighttime with no solar radiation, the term on the left-hand side of equation (5.7) is
negligible and equation (5.7) changes to

(5.8)
Ti+1_Ti
III goO g,O
+ Pg g,OC pg
llt

For the convection heat transfer coefficient h during periods when the surface temperature is
warmer than the ambient air temperature equation (3.10) is used and for periods when the
surface temperature is colder than the ambient air temperature equation (4.5) is used.

5.2.2 Core of Pavement


Consider the control volume for a unit area layer of pavement underneath the surface as
shown in figure 5.2.

~n

z
Figure 5.2: Control volume for a unit area layer of pavement underneath the surface.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 33

Assuming one-dimensional unsteady conduction over a time interval dt, gives

-kg{dT / dz)in = -kg{dT / dz)out + pg!1.igCpg{dT / dt) (5.9)

Discretizing equation (5.9) gives

T i+1 _ Ti+1 Ti _ Ti+1 Ti+1 _ Ti


_k
g
_g_,n __ g,_n-_I = -k g
_g,_n+_I __ g_,_n +P Ai C
gil g,n pg
g,n g,n
(5.10)
I1z n I1z n+ 1 !1.t

where Tg,~+l is the temperature of the pavement at node n at time step (i + 1).

5.2.3 Bottom of Pavement


From figure 5.3 the energy balance for the bottom layer of an insulated pavement, with
unsteady one-dimensional conduction over a time interval dt, is given as

-kg{dT / dz) = pgMgCpg{dT / dt) (5.11)

z
Figure 5.3: Control volume for a unit area bottom layer of an insulated pavement.

Discretizing equation (5.11) gives

(5.12)

where Tg, ~l is the temperature of the bottom of the pavement sample at time step (i + 1).
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 34

5.3 Experimental Set-up and Procedures


Figure 5.4 shows a schematic of the experimental set-up. It consisted of four asphalt

pavement samples with two different aggregate gradations. Two of the samples were made

from continuously graded wearing course mix (mix A) and the other two were an asphalt base

mix with 26.5 mm maximum stone size (mix B). The samples had a diameter of 150 mm

with the mix A samples having a thickness of 60 mm and the mix B samples a thickness of 50

mm. The samples were fitted in holes cut in a I m x 1 m piece of polystyrene.

Anemometer Thermocouple
support

o / Shielded type T
o
o
"~ thermocouples

o /
o o
"'1' o
("l

Side elevation Polystyrene


insulation

Plan view

Figure 5.4: Schematic of the experimental set-up.


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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 35

The upper surface temperatures of the pavement samples were measured with type T

thermocouples imbedded in the asphalt at the surface. The temperature distribution in the

samples were also measured, at different depths, with type T themlOcouples, which were

inserted through holes drilled from the side of the samples as shown in figure 5.5. The

surface of one of the mix A samples and one of the mix B samples were painted black while

the colour of other two samples' surfaces were kept natural. As mentioned in chaper 2 the

solar absorptivity as of most black painted surfaces is 0.93, while the longwave emissivity [;

and absorptivity all\' is 0.90. The solar absorptivity of asphalt, according to Solaimanian and

Kennedy (1993), has an average of about 0.9 and according to Mills (1995) the emissivity is

0.88. The surface of the polystyrene was also painted black with the same paint.

.--
,;)1--
-I--
a
-I--
a
-I--
a
-~--

Figure 5.5: Them10couple measuring depths.

The specific heat cpg and diffusivity ag of the pavement samples were detem1ined

experimentally and the results are shown in Appendix E. A them1al conductivity kg of 1.4
W/mK for the mix A samples and 1.7 W/mK for the mix B samples was used to calculate the

diffusivity. The experimental results gave a diffusivity ag of 6.084 x 10-7 m/s2 for the mix A

samples and 8.072 x 10-7 m/s2 for the mix B samples. These diffusivity values are close to the

values determined by Highter and Wall (1984). For the best simulation results a thermal

conductivity kg of 1.4 W/mK and a di ffusivity ag of 6.94 xl 0-7 m/s2 was used for mix A,

while for mix B a conductivity of 1.7 W/mK and a diffusivity of 8.94 x 10-7 m/s2 was used.

The polystyrene surface temperature measurements were measured with five type T

thermocouples that were embedded on the surface of the plate. Another four type T

thermocouples were placed at different heights above the plate, as shown in figure 5.4, to
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 36

measure the temperature distribution above the plate.

A weather station was used to measure ambient aIr temperature, dew point temperature,
barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and wind direction at a height of 1 m above the
surface. Solar radiation was measured with a Kipp & Zonen pyranometer.

All the data was measured in one-minute intervals. Examples of experimental measurements
as a function of solar time of three consecutive days are shown graphically in figures 5.6 to
5.12.

1000
I I
I I I 1 I I I I I
__ I L __ ~ L __ ~__ I __ ~ I I L __
900 I 1 I I I / 2 I I I I
I I I I I Ih,Wm I I I I
I I I I 1 I I I I I
800 -l---T--~---r--,- -T--~---r--'---I---T --r---r--
I 1 I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I
I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I
_l L __ ~ L __ ~ L I L __ ~ L _L __ I L __
N
700 1 I I I I I I I I I t I I
I t I I I I I I I I I I I

~ 600
1
1- - -
t
T - -
I
-1 - - -
I I
r - - ..,
I
T - -
I
-I - - -
I
r - - ..,- - -
I I
I - -
tIl
T - - -I - - - r - -
I::" I I J 1 I I I I I I I I I
0 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I
".g 500
1 .1 I L __ ..J 1 J. I L __ ...I I __ J. _ _ 1 L __

:.ao:l I t
1
I
I
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

.... I I I I I 1
--~---r--'------T-- I I I I I

.... 400 --,------T--~---r-- 1---'--- ---r--


o:l 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I

'0 __ ~
1 I
I __
I
J. __ ~
I I
L __
1
..J
I
r
I
1
t
1- __
I
...1 __
I
~--~---I
I
--~--
I

r.FJ 300 1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I
I 1 I I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 1
I 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I
200 --'---1 --T---I---r- '---I---T --I---r--'-- I---T--~ --r--
I I I I 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I
I I I 2 I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I

100 --~---: --~


I d, W 1m ~ - - -:- - - ~ - -:- - - ~ - - ~ - -:- - - ~ - - -: - - ~ - -
1 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I
1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I
0
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.6: Measured solar radiation.


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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 37

40
I
I
I I
___ L __
35 I I

I
I
I
30 --I--
I
I

u 25 -1---
I

<If
I
I
I

~... 20
<l) I
0- I
S
<l)
I

f-
15 --t-
I
I
I
_____ 1 1 J __
lO I
I I

I I
I I I 1 , I lit I I I I
5 - - ~- - T dp' C - r - - -,- - - i - - -1- - - i - - -1- - - ""t - - -1- - - ; - - - r- - - "1 - - - I - -
I r I til 1 t I I 1 I
I , I I I I 1 1 I I I J I
I I I I I I I I I I til

o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.7: Measured ambient air temperature and dew point temperature.

12 360

270
10
'0
180
Z
---S
Vl
8 S
0
90 r.l::
oJ () w' from North
'0"
<l) 6 0 <:I5
<l)
0- 1::"
Vl
.9
....
'0 u
.S <l)
...
4
~ :0
'0
.S
2 ~

o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 2 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.8: Measured wind speed and wind direction.


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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 38

80
I
I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
70 -- -1- - - ~ - - -l- - - -1- - - -1- - - +- - - -I- - - -1- - _..J. - - -I- - - -1- - - -1- - - +- 1 -1 _
I I
I I
I I

u
o 60 1-
I
,
I
_

I
I

50 ---,---
I
I
I

40 _..J
I
_

I
I
I
30 -1- --

I
I

20

10 --Painted
-- Unpainted
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 2 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004

Solar time

Figure 5.9: Measured surface temperatures of the two mix A samples.

80
I I
I I
I I til I I
_~ I- __ ~ ~ I-__ __+- 1 _
70 I I I I I I I
I I I 1 1 I I
I I I 1 I 1 I

u
0
60
I I
1---~--~---T---~-
I 1 I I I
---,---
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
h" I I I I I

af 50 ---~--~---~---~
I 1 I I
--1---
I
I I I I I

~... __
t
L __ ~
I I
~
I
L __ ~
I I
~
I
I
Q)
0..
40 I 1 I I I I I
I I I I I I I
S I I I I I I I

2 I I I I I I I 1 I
Q) 30 ---I---T---r---I---T--- --~---T- I
u I I I I I 1 1 1

oS
...
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
1
I
I I I I
1
I
;j ___ I ~ ---I---~ __ 1- __ --l ~ 1 1 -1 +- _
if) 20 I I I 'I 1 I I I I I I
I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1
I I I I I I I I I
___ I l L_______ _L __ J ! I J ! '__ --Painted
10 I r 1 I I
I I 1 I I
I I I I I _._.._-Unpainted
I I I I I

0
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.10: Measured surface temperatures of the two mix B samples.


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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 39

Temperature, C
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
I I
I I
I I
J !... _ I I I
10 I
---------1------------
I I
I I
I I I I I
-1 1- _ _ __ 1- -1 1- _
20 I I I I I
I I I I I
E I
I
I
I
I I I

E 30 ""1------1'"""--
I
----1-----1------,-----
I I

I I I I I
"l::$
I I I I I

.s"
0.. 40
I
I
-[------1-
I
I
I
I
-----1-----1------1-----
I
I
I
I

v I I I I I
Q I I I I I
I I I I I
..J L_ _____ L ~ L _
50 I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
I I
60 -i------t- --Painted
00:00 09:00 17:00 12:00
-- Unpainted
70

Figure 5.11: Temperature distribution at certain times on 14-03-2004 III the two mIX A
samples.

Temperature, C
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
o I
I
I I I /: :

__ .J
I I
L _
I I II I I
---L-----..J-----f I L _
10

: : J : :
I I
I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
I I I I I I
20 ---,------r---- ---r-----~---- - ------I------r-----
I I t I I I I

~ I
I
I
I
J
I
I
I
J
I
I
I
I
I

t-~---
I I
"l::$ 30 L _
_____ ..J
~--~- -~-----~----t ~-----~------~-----
t I I

U ~;
I I
I I
v I I

Q 40 ------,------r---
I

I
I

I
-!- - - - - - ~- - - --
I I
: \ I I I I I
I I

50
_..J
I I
L _ _J ~ J___ _~ : :
00:00 : : 09:00 17:00 : 12:00 -- Painted
I I I
I I I ._-- Unpainted
I I I
60

Figure 5.12: Temperature distribution at certain times on 14-03-2004 III the two mIX B
samples.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 40

Figure 5.13 shows the net long waVe radiation qrad, convection qconv and conduction qcond heat
fluxes on the surface of the painted mix A sample.

300
I
I
200 ---1---
I
I
N
100 ---'-I
---S I

~ 0 - --,I
Cl) I
u
$ -100 -,- --
... I
;:3 I
en
s:: -200 - - -1- - -
I
0 I
en ___ 1 _
Cl) -300
><
;:3
I

I
~ -400 I
T - -
I
-1- --

~ Cl)
I I
I I
::r: -500 - r - - -1- - -
I I

-600

-700
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24

13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004

Solar time

Figure 5.13: Heat fluxes on the surface of the painted mix A sample.

5.4 Simulation Model


The simulation model uses the ambient air temperature, wind speed, diffuse solar radiation,
beam solar radiation, barometric pressure and dew point temperature data taken every minute
as input data. The thermophysical properties of dry air are calculated with the correlations
given by Kroger (2004), while the clear sky emissivity &sky, used in the calculation of the long
wave radiation, is calculated with equations (2.6) and (2.7) and the convection heat transfer
coefficient, used in the calculation of the convective heat transfer, is calculated with equations
(3.10) and (4.5).

For the calculation of the pavement temperature at different depths, equations (5.7), (5.8),
(5.10) and (5.11) are used. A control volume thickness /)"tg of 5 mm is used with a time step
size /)"t of 10 seconds.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 41

The measured temperatures at 9:20 on the 13-03-2004 were used as initial temperatures for
each control volume at the start of the simulation. The temperature for each control volume is
then calculated iteratively until the energy balance for each control volume is satisfied.

5.5 Results and Discussion


Figures 5.14 to 5.17 shows the measured surface temperature and the temperature at a depth
of 60 mm for each of the mix A samples compared with the calculated temperature over a
period of time using the simulation model. From figures 5.11 and 5.12 it can be seen that
there's not a big temperature gradient within the sample so it was decided to show the
temperature only at these ~o nodes. In figure 5.9 it can be seen that the surface temperature
of the painted sample, with its higher solar absorptivity, gets warmer than the unpainted
sample during daytime. This can also be seen in the results of the simulation program.

The comparison of the results at depth seems to be more accurate than the results at the
surface. This could be the effect of small temperature measurements errors at the surface due
to the difficulty in connecting the thermocouple on the surface of the sample.

Figure 5.18 to 5.21 shows the measured surface temperature and the temperature at a depth of
50 mm for each of the mix B samples compared with the calculated temperature over the
same time period using the simulation model.

The temperatures in the mix A samples is lower than the temperatures in the mix B samples
due to the difference in diffusivity and the difference in the thickness ofthe samples.
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Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 42

80
I
I
, I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

70 - - -1- - - 4 - - - ~ - - -1- - - 4 - - - +- - - -1- - - -l - - - .j.. - - - I- - - -l - - - + - - - I- - - -1- - - ... _


I I I I 1 I I I I I I I
I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I
I I 1 I I I I I I I I
u 60
0
I
I
J
I
L
I
1
I
J
I
1__
I
-'
I
1
1 I
1 I
I
! __
I
--_.1_--
I
I I lit I I 1 I I I I

h'" I 1 I t I I I I 1 I
I I I I I I I I I I
aJ" 50 I - - - r - - -1- - -.- - -1- - - T - - -1- - -1- - - T- --T---
... I I I I I I I I 1 I
I I I I I I I I I I
~... I I I r " I I t I I
aJ 40 - - -1- - - .... - -I- - - -1- - - ..-- -.... - +- - -1- - - -1- - - + -+---
0.. I I I I I I I I I I I

S I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
....
aJ
___ , J _ _ L , -I _ _ _ _ __ 1 .J 1. '- , _ .1 _
aJ 30 I I I I I I I I I I
U 1 I I I I I I I I
$
... I I I I I I I I
1 I I I 1 1 I I I I
;::l 20 ---J---,---r ----~-- r---I---~---T ---~--
VJ I I I I I I I I 1 I
I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I 1 I I 1 I
10 - - -1- - - -t - - - t- - - -1- - - -t - - - +- - - -1- - - -; - - - +- - - - I- - - -I - - - + - -- Calculated
I til I I I I I I I 1
I
I
1
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.14: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix A sample.

80

70

u
o 60

50

40

30

20

10
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.15: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 60 mm of the painted mix A
sample.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 43

80
I
I
I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 I I I
+ - - - -+ - - -
70 - - -1- - - 4 - - - ~ - - -1- __ ~
I I I I I
~ __ -1- __ -l
I I
~ __ -I-
I 1
__ -l -

I
- -

,
I- - - -1- - -
I
I I 1 I f I I I I I I I
I 1 I I t I I I I I I

u 60
0
J
I
L
1
1

r
J
I
1__
I
J
I
1
I
1

I
,

I
1 __
I
___ 1
I
_

I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I
h'" I I I 1 I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I
Q)" 50 -- -r-- -1- - - -, - - - T" - - - T - - - ,- - - ., - - - T - --T---
.... I I I' I 1 1 , I
.ao:l I I I I I I 1 I I

....
Q) 40
I I I
- -l- - - -1- - - -4- - -
I
+-
I
- +- - -
1 I
-I- - - -l- - -
I
+
I

--+---
0.. 1 I I I I I I I I

S I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
....
Q)
_ L 1 J _ _ _ _ J 1 1 I _ 1 _
Q) 30 I I I I I I
u I I I I I
c.S I I I I

3 20
C/1
----,--
I I I
---,-- I

I I I
I I
I I I I I I I I I I I
10 - - -1- - - 4 - - - +-
- - -1- - - ..- - - ... - - -1- - - 4 - - - +- - - -I- - - -1- - - +- -- Calculated
, , I 1 I I I r 1 I 1 I
I
I
I
1
I
I
1
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
I
I
1
1
1
I
I
I
,
1
--Measured
0
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.16: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the unpainted mix A sample.

80
I
I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
70 -- -1- - - -4 - - - l- - - -1- - - -4 - - - +- - - -1- - - -l - - - +- - - -1- - _ -l_ - - + - - - ~ - - -1- - - -+ - --
I
I
I
u
o 60 ___ 1 __ -
I
I
I
I
50 --T---
~ I
I
I

40 --+---
I
I
I

30 I

20

10
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.17: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 60 mm of the unpainted mix
A sample.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 44

80 ,
,
I I I I I I
70 - 4
I
- - - ~
I
- - -1- - - 4 - - - ~ - - -
t I I

I I t I I
I I I I I
u 60
0
..1
1
L
I
1
I
j
1
L _
1
I 1 , I I
h'" I 1 I I I
I I J I
<Ii 50 - - - r - - -,- - - , - - - r -
... I 1 I I
.8 t I I I
l
... 40 [ I I r
(1)
- - I- - - -1- - - -I - - - t-
0.. I I I I

8 I I I I

...(1)

30
I
_ L
,,
I

,,
1
,
I
...l _
I

(1)
u ,
~... , , ,
I 1 1 f
;:I 20 -----I---r------I---l
r.rJ I I I 1
I I I I
I 1 I 1 I I
10 -~---1---4---~---~--~---~- -- Calculated _
I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I --Measured
I I I I I I I

o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.18: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix B sample.

80 ,, ,
,
I I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I 1
70 -~---~---1---4---~---1
I I I I I
-4---~---1---4---~---1---4---~--

I I I I 1
I I I I r I I
U , .! L , .1 L I _
0 60 1 I I I I I I
1 I I Itt
~ I t I I I I
I I I I I I I
50 r - - -,-- -,. - - - r -
...
.l:f
0..
-,-
I
- - I - - -
I I 1 I I
-1-
I
- -"T
I
(1) , I I I J I I I

"0 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1

"Ej 40 --I---~
I I
--~---I---~---I_
I I I I
--I---~---I_---I---~---I_
I I I 1 I I

...
(1) I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
1
I
I
___ I ~ __ L I ~ I ~ __ L I ~ _
~... 30 I I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1
(1) I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1
0.. 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I
8 20
(1)
I
---1---1---
1 I
-----1---
I I
---I---1---r
I 1 I
-1---1--
I

E-< I 1 I r I t r
I I I I 1 I I
I I I I I I I I I I
10 ---I---~---r---I---~- -r---I---~---r---l---~---r-
r I I I I I I f I I I I
I I I 1 I I I I I I I I --Measured
I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1

o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.19: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 50 mm of the painted mix B
sample.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 45

80
I I I
I I I
I I I 1 1 I I 1 I J I 1 I 1

70 - - ...- - - l- - -
I I
-1-
I
- - -4
I
- - - ~
I
- - - --4---~---~--~---+---~
I I I I I
--I---~---
I I
I I , I 1 I I I I 1 I t
I I , I I I I 1 I 1 I I

u 60
0
I
I
...!
I
L
1
1

I I
J 1_
I
--'
I
.1..
I
1

I
'

I
1 __
I
1

I
1
I
_

I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I
I 1 I I I t
t-..'" I
I I I I
I I I I

I I I I I I

<If 50 I - - - r - - -1- - - ..,- - - r ---r---r--'---T --T---


... I f I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I r I

~... I I I I I I I 1 I I I I , I I

(1) 40 - - -1- - --+ - - l- - -


I
-1-
,
- - ...-
I
- - f-
1 --r--~ --r---r--~---r --~--~-~-~---
p. I I

S I I I I I I

--+--~- t--+--~--- ---:---+-',:---


I I I 1 I I
....
(1)
_ _ _ 1 ...1_ _ L 1 .J _
(1) 30 I I I I I
u I I I I I I
oS
... I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I t I J I I I I ! 1
;:l
(/)
20 - - -,- - -"1 - -- ------,-- r---I---~---T- -r--~-- T---r---I--- --
I I I l' I I t I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I
10 - - -1- - - -t - - - t- - - -1- - --I - ~ - - -:- - - ~ - - - ~ - - - ~ - - -1 - - - ~ - -- Calculated
I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.20: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the unpainted mix B sample.

80

70

u
o 60

50

40

30

20

10
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.21: Measured and calculated temperature at a depth of 50 mm of the unpainted mix
B sample.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 46

The measured average maximum surface temperature Ts(max) of each sample for the three days
is shown in table 5.1 and compared with the values of the simulation model

Table 5.1: Average maximum surface temperature.

Painted Unpainted Painted Unpainted


mix A mix A mixB mixB
sample sample sample sample
Measured 67.475C 65.944C 70.913 C 69.342C
Simulation model 67.128C 66.320C 68.807C 68.007C

As can be seen from table 5.1, the simulation model gives good results for the maximum
surface temperature for all the samples.

The temperature distribution in the asphalt pavement is sensitive to the thermal properties of
the pavement aggregate and asphalt. Figure 5.22 shows the measured and calculated surface
temperature of the painted mix A asphalt sample using a diffusivity ag of6.084 x 10-7 m1s2, as
determined experimentally in Appendix E, in the simulation model. If compared with figure
5.14, which was calculated with a diffusivity of 6.94 x 10-7 m1s2, it can be seen that the
simulation results differ slightly with different diffusivity values. Figure 5.23 shows the
difference in surface temperature, according to the simulation model, with a difference in
diffusivity values. It is thus necessary to have the correct thermal properties for each layer of
a pavement to predict the temperature distribution accurately.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 47

80
I
I
I I I I I I I I I [ I I , I I
70 - - -1- - - -4 -
I
- - I- - - -1- - - -I - - -
I t I
.J.. -
I
- -1- - - -l - - - 4-- - -I- - - -l - - - + - -
1 I I I I
- I- - - -1- - - -+
I
_

I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I r 1 I J I I
J L 1 L __ ~ l L __ ~ ~ __ ___ 1 _
U
0 60 I I I
.J
1 1
I
I I 1 I 1 I I
I I I I 1 I I I I I I I
f..,'" I 1 1 1 I I I I I I
, 1 I I
of
...
50 - - - r - -
I
-1-
1 I
- - .., - - - T" -
I
I
I
I
I
- - T - - -,-
I
I

I
I I
- - -1- - - T-
I I
1---;--- I

I I I I I I I I , I
~... I I I I I I I I I 1 I
0 40 - - r- - - -1- - - -i - - - f- - -1- - --f -+---\-----j---+ -+---
0.. I I I I I I I I I I I

a
-
1 I I I I I I I I I I
0 t I I I I I I I I I
_ L , J _ _ _ _ 1 J _
- - _1- __ -' _
0 30 I I I I I I I
u I I I I I I I
$ I I I I I I
;:; 20 I
---,-- I I
r--
I 1
-1- - -1-
I I I
- - T ----,--
C/J
I I I 1 I I
I I I I
I I t I I I I I , 1 I
10 - - -1- - - -t - - - t- - - -1- - - -t - - - t- - - -1- - -,- - - 1"'- - -I- - - -1- - - +- -- Calculated
I I I I I 1 I I I I I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
,
1
I
I
I
1
--Measured
o
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 I 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.22: Measured and calculated surface temperature of the painted mix A sample (ag =
6.084 x 10-7 m/s2).

2.5
I I I
I I I
I r J I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
2 ---I---T---I---,---r---I-- T - - - 1- - - - - - r-- -1- - - l' - - - J- - - -1- - - T - - -
1 r I I I 1 1 r I I 1 I
u
o 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 J 1 1
1 I 1 lit 1 1 1 1 1 1
0'
...
1.5 --~---T---I---l---f---l---T --1--- ---1---' ---1---1---
::l I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I

eQ)
0..
_!
1

1
1
I
1
J
1

1
1
L
1
1
1
1
__ 1
r

r
__
til
1_ _
1
_ _ __ 1
1
J
I
'- __ 1
I

1
!
I

1
_

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
E I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
__ ~ l I ~ L ~_ _L __ -' _ _ _ _ __ 1_ _ _ _I 1 _
~ 0.5 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 I
u I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
$ I
1.
1
1 .J
1 1
L __
1
1
I
.i __
1
L __ .J
1 1
L
I
L _
1
1
1
1. _
5
Vl
0 1 r 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1
1 I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I
.5 1
___
1
1___
1 1
L __
1
r ~
1
_ __
I
...J
I
L
1
1_
I
_ _ .L _
8 -0.5 I 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1
c I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
...
Q)
1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I

~ -1 --~---~---I---~---~
1 1 1 1 I
- -l - - -
1
+- -
I
-1- - -
I
-+ - - -
I
I- - - -I - - -
1 I
+- - - -
1

CS I I 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
I
I
I
1
I 1
I
1
I
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
-1.5 --~---+---~--~---~---I---+---~--
lIt 1 1 1 1 1 1
- - - +- - -
1
-1- - -
1
-+ - - -
1
I- - - -I - -
1 1
+
1 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1
1 r I 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I
-2
8 12 16 20 24 4 8 12 1 20 24 4 8 12 16 20 24
13-03-2004 14-03-2004 15-03-2004
Solar time

Figure 5.23: Difference in surface temperature for different diffusivity values (ag = 6.084 x

10-7 m/s2 and ag = 6.94 x 10-7 m/s2).


Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 48

The temperatures at a depth of 60 mm for the mix A samples and 50 mm for the mix B
samples were calculated with equation (5.3). Table 5.2 shows the comparison of the
measured temperatures at depth, at the time of maximum surface temperature, for the four
samples compared with the simulation model and equation (5.3). For the calculations using
equation (5.3), the experimentally measured surface temperatures were used.

Table 5.2: Average temperature at depth.


Painted Unpainted Painted Unpainted
mix A mix A mixB mixB
sample sample sample sample
Measured 63.618 DC 61.746 DC 68.163 DC 67.080 DC

Simulation model 66.907 DC 66.068 DC 69.303 DC 68.476 DC

Equation (5.3) 67.462 DC 65.931 DC 70.901 DC 69.331 DC

The simulation model and equation (5.3) both give good results, but for equation (5.3) one has
to have the value of the surface temperature at that time.

The simulation model was also used to predict the surface temperatures in a 100 mm, 200 mm
and 300 mm thick asphalt pavements with the same aggregate gradations as the mix A and
mix B asphalt samples. This was done in order to compare the results from the simulation
model with equations (5.1), (5.2) and (5.4) used for estimating real pavement temperatures.
These results are shown in table 5.3.

Superpave uses a convection heat transfer coefficient of h = 19.88 W/m2K with the use of
equation (5.1), while equation (5.4) uses the equation of Vehrencamp (1953) for the
calculation of the convection heat transfer coefficient.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 49

Table 5.3: Average maximum surface temperature.


Painted Unpainted Painted Unpainted
mix A mix A mixB mixB
sample sample sample sample

Simulation model 67.128C 66.320C 68.807C 68.007C


Simulation model (100 mm) 61.570C 61.255C 63.001 C 62.059C
Simulation model (200 mm) 58.928C 57.864C 58.888C 58.480C
Simulation model (300 mm) 58.752C 58.730C 58.508C 58.193C
Equation (5.1) 55.338C 54.874C 53.519C 53.042C
Equation (5.2) 45.740C 45.740C 45.740C 45.740C
Equation (5.4) 76.621 C 75.175C 76.947C 75.972C

Figures 5.24 and 5.25 show the predicted pavement surface temperature according to the
simulation model at different pavement thicknesses for the four pavement samples. At a
pavement thickness of 200 mm to 300 mm, the results of the simulation model is more
comparable with real pavements and equation (5.1) is in reasonable agreement with the
simulation model. As shown in figure 5.26 a heat transfer coefficient of h = 19.88 W/m2K as
assumed in the Superpave model, corresponds to a wind speed of approximately 3 mls as
predicted by equation (3.10).
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 50

80
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1

u 70
0
1
- - - - - - - -'1 - - - - - - - _1-
1
-
1 1
- - - - - - L1 - - - - - - - .J1 - - - - - - -
1
_L
-------
1
L ---- ---
1 1
A 1 1 1 1 1
~ 1 1 1 1 1

~ 60 - - - - - - - -, -~
1
1
~ 1
==-:::::..: it!
1
- -
1
! -
1
----- --
h'" 1 1 1 1 iii
1 1 1 1 1 1
(I)"
...
~...
. ---- 50 ---
1

-' - - - - - - - _,-
1
1

1
------
1 1

- 1L - - - - - - - .J1 - - - - - - - _,-1
1
-
1

- - - - - - 1-1 - - - - - - -
1 1 1 1 1 1
(I) 1 1 1 1

a 40 . -
1 1

~- - - - - - - -,- - - - - - - - r - - - - - - - -, - - - - - - - -,- - - - - - - - r - - - - - - -
1 1 1 1 1 1
------
(I) 1 1 1 1 1 1
.... 1 1 1 1 1 1
(I)
1 1 1 1 1 1
u
~... 30 - - - - - - - -'1 - - - - - - - _,-1 - - - - - - - L1 - - - - - - - .J1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1-1 - - - - - - -
1
1
;:l 1 1 1 1 1 1
CIl 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1

~ 20 - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - -1- -------r ----- - - -, - - - - - - - -1- - - - - - - - r - - - - - - -


a
'>(
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

<'d
- - - - - - - J1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - L1 - - - - - - - .J1 - - - - - - -
-1 1 ~ Painted
::E 10
-- ---
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 -e- Unpainted
. . . .
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
0
o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Pavemant thickness, mm

Figure 5.24: Predicted maximum pavement surface temperature of the two mix A samples at
different pavement thicknesses.

80
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
u 70
0 - - - - - - - -' _,- - - L1 - - - - - - - .J1 - - - - - - - _,-1 - - - - - - - L1 - - - - - - -

,
A 1 1 1 1

~ ~~
1 1 1 1

~ 60
h'"
- - - - - - - -, - - - - - - - -,- - -
1 1
r
1
- -
1
- -- -
1
1
1
1
$- - - - - - -
1 1 1 1 1 1
(I)" 1 1 1 1 1 1
...
50 - - - - - - - -'1 - - - - - - - _,-1 ------- L
1
---- - -- J -- -
1
- - - - _,-1 - - - - - - - 1-1 - - - - - - -
~... 1 1 1 1 1 1
(I) 1 1 1 1 1 1
0-
- - - - - - ~- - - - - - - -,- - - - - - - - r - - - - - - - -, - - - - - - - -,- - - - - - - - r
1 1 1 1 1 1
a
(I)
....
40 -
1 1 1 1 1 1
----- --
1 1 1 1 1 1
(I) 1 1 1 1 1
1
u
~... 30 ---- - - - -'1 - - - - - - - -1 -
1
- - - - - - - L1 - - - - - - - J1 - - - - - - - - 1-
1
- - - - - - - 1- - - - - - -
1
-
;:l 1 1 1 1 1 1
CIl 1 1 1 1 1 1

a;:l 20
1
- - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - -1-
1 1 1
- - - - - - - r - - - - - - - -, - - - - - - - -1-
1
-------r ------
1
-
a'>( 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

<'d
1 1 1 1

- - - - - - - J1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - L1 - - - - - - - J1 - - - - - - -
1 - 1-
~ Painted
::E 10
---
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 -e- Unpainted
. . .
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
0
o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Pavemant thickness, mm

Figure 5.25: Predicted maximum pavement surface temperature of the two mix B samples at
different pavement thicknesses.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 51

As mentioned earlier, equation (5.4) uses the equation by Vehrencamp (1953) to calculate the
convection heat transfer coefficient. It can be seen from figure 5.26 that the equation by
Vehrencamp gives lower convection heat transfer coefficients than equation (3.10) used in the
simulation model. This in part is the reason for higher predicted surface temperatures given
by equation (5.4).

30
I I
5 2 I
~ Pa = 10 N/m I
I
I
N

Ta = 300 K : (Ts .. T a) = 60 I

@ 25 __________ J.. __

(Ts .. T a) = 40C
---------1----
I

~"
..
r (Ts-Ta)=20C
I
s:: I
<I) 20 I - - - - I - - - - - - - :..
-,...:
:::
'<:) I I ,........- .:::: __
!..:::
<i-; I I ....::: ::
<I) I ......
::::c:::: .
0 I ,,-::::- r-
u I I
:::::::::............ I
... 15 -----------r------ --------~~~~------I-----------
~ I .........
::::C....... I

'"s::~ I
I
I
I

::::
",- -::;
",...
:::
I
I
I
I
~~~............. I r
.b
....
~ 10 ~- - - - - ~--:; ~-~ ~- - - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - -
<I)
..<::
s::
~~:::~; : :
.9
....
u
<I)
>
s::
5
6~~~~T ..
--~~~\~----~(-i- \(Ts" Ta);"'60
-T )=40C
C
------
,------:-----,
--Equation (3.10)
0 s::::..... I s a
U .... (Ts - Ta) = 20C - - - Vehrencamp (1953)
0
0 2 3 4 5
Wind speed, v w' rn/s

Figure 5.26: The convection heat transfer coefficient calculated with equation (3.10) and the
equation by Vehrencamp (1953).

Equation (5.2) does not take into account the effect of wind speed, solar radiation or
pavement thermal properties on pavement surface temperatures and therefore is too simplistic
and does not give good results compared with the simulation model and equations (5.1) and
(5.4).

A sample calculation for the calculation of the surface temperature and temperature at depth
using equations (5.1) to (5.4) and the equations used in the simulation model is shown in
Appendix D. For equations (5.1), (5.4) and the equations used in the simulation model only
the last iteration is shown.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Chapter 5 Predicting the Pavement Temperature Distribution 52

5.6 Conclusion
The convection heat transfer coefficients for the case where a surface is warmer than the
ambient air (equation (3.10)) and for the case where a surface is cooler than the ambient air
(equation (4.5)) were successfully used to predict the pavement surface temperature and the
pavement temperature at depth with the use of a simulation model.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
53

Conclusion
A simulation model was developed to predict the surface temperature and the temperature at
depth of asphalt samples and pavements. Two new equations for calculating the convection
heat transfer coefficient for periods when a horizontal surface is warmer than the ambient air
and for periods when a surface is colder than the ambient air are used in the simulation model.
The simulation model was successfully used to predict the surface temperature and
temperature at depth of four asphalt pavement samples that were exposed to the natural
environment.

The results of the simulation model were also compared with other correlations in the
literature used to predict maximum pavement temperatures and temperatures at depth. Some
of the correlations are in reasonable agreement with results predicted by the simulation model,
but there are discrepancies, primarily due to limitations of and inherent simplifications in
these equations.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
54

References
1. AI-Arabi, M. and El-Riedy, M.K., Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Isothermal
Horizontal Plates of Different Shapes, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1976,
vol. 19, pp. 1399 - 1404.

2. Bejan, A., Convection Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.

3. Berdahl, P. and Fromberg, R., The Thermal Radiance of Clear Skies, Solar Energy,
1982, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 299 - 314.

4. Berger, x., Buriot, D. and Gamier, F., About the Equivalent Radiative Temperature
For Clear Skies, Solar Energy, 1984, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 725 -733.

5. Bliss, R.A., Atmospheric Radiation Near the Surface of the Ground: A Summary for
Engineers, Solar Energy, 1961, vol. 5, pp. 103 - 120.

6. Clark, G. and Allen C.P., The Estimation of Atmospheric Radiation for Clear Skies,
Proceedings of the Second National Passive Solar Conference, Philadelphia, 1978, Part
2, p. 676.

7. Clausing, A.M. and Berton, J.1., AnExperimental Investigation of Natural Convection


from an Isothermal Horizontal Plate, Trans. of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer,
1989, III, pp. 904 - 908.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
References 55

8. Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Second
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.

9. Everitt, P.R., Dunbar, R., Swart, G. and Rossman, D., Current Pavement Temperature
Monitoring in South Africa and its Applicability to Sup erp ave and FWD
Requirements, 7th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for South Africa, 1999.

10. Fujii, T. and Imura, H., Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Plate with Arbitrary
Inclination, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1972, vol. 15, pp. 755 -767.

11. Hermansson, A., Mathematical Model for Paved Surface Summer and Winter
Temperature: Comparison of Calculated and Measured Temperatures, Cold Regions
Science and Technology, 2004, vol. 40, no. 1 - 2, pp. 1 - 17.

12. Highter W.M. and Wall, D.J., Thermal Properties of Some Asphaltic Concrete Mixes,
Transportation Research Record, 1984, no. 968, pp. 38 - 45.

13. Huber, G.A., Weather Database for the Superpave Mix Design System, Strategic
Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington DC, 1994.

14. Kroger, D.G., Convection Heat Transfer Between a Horizontal Surface and the Natural
Environment, R and D Journal of the South African Institute of Mechanical
Engineering, November 2002, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 49 - 53.

15. Kroger, D.G., Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers, Thermal-Flow
Performance and Evaluation and Design, Penn Well Corp., Tulsa, 2004.

16. Lloyd, J.R. and Moran, W.R., Natural Convection Adjacent to Horizontal Surfaces of
Various Planforms, Trans. of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, 1974, vol. 96, pp.
443 - 447.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
References 56

17. Lombaard, LF. and Kroger b.G., Heat Transfer Between a Horizontal Surface and the
Natural Environment, Proc. ISES Conference, 2001, Adelaide.

18. Martin, M. and Berdahl, P., Characteristics of Infrared Sky Radiation in the United
States, Solar Energy, 1984, vol. 33, pp. 321 - 336.

19. Mills, AF., Heat and Mass Transfer, Richard D Irwin, inc., 1995.

20. Modest, M.F., Radiative Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, inc., 1993.

21. Rohsenow, W.M., Hartnett, J.P. and Cho, T.L, Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw
Hill, New York, 1998.

22. Solaimanian, M. and Kennedy, T.W., Predicting Maximum Pavement Surface


Temperatures Using Maximum Air Temperature and Hourly Solar Radiation,
Transportation Research Record, 1993, no. 1417, pp. 1 - 11.

23. Swinbank, W.e., Long-wave Radiation from Clear Skies, Quarterly Journal Royal
Meteorological Society, 1963, vol. 89, pp. 339 - 384.

24. Tang, R., Etzion, Y. and Meir, LA, Estimates of Clear Sky Emissivity in the Negev
Highlands, Israel, Energy Conversion & Management, 2004, vol. 45, pp.1831-1843.

25. Test, F.L., Lessmann, R.e. and Johary, A, Heat Transfer During Wind Flow over
Rectangular Bodies in the Natural Environment, Trans. of the ASME, Journal of Heat
Transfer, May 1981, vol. 103, pp. 262 - 267.

26. Vehrencamp, J.E., Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer at an Air-Earth


Interface, Trans, American Geophysical Union, 1953, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 22 - 29.

27. Watmuff, J.H., Charter, W.W.S. and Proctor, D., Solar and Wind Induced External
Coefficients Solar Collectors, Int. Revue d'Hellio-technique, 1977, vol. 2, no. 56.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
57

Measured data at a standard time of23:47 on 13 May 2004:

Surface temperatures:

Ts1 = 8.953 C Ts2=9.140C Ts3=9.065C Ts4=8.516C Ts5 = 8.691 C


Ts6 = 8.840 C Ts7 = 8.951 C

Ambient air temperatures at different elevations (mm) above surface:

TIOO= 8.340C
T200 = 8.315C
T400 = 8.378C
Ta = TIOOO = 8.44 C

Dew point temperature:

Tdp = 6.6 C

Voltage:

v= 79.3 V
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Appendix A Sample Calculation for the Clear Sky Emissivity 58

Mean surface temperature, Ts:

1'.1 + 1'.2 + 1'.3 + 1'.4 + 1'.5 + 1'.6 + 1'.7


7
8.953 + 9.140 + 9.065 + 8.516 + 8.691 + 8.840 + 8.951
=
7
= 8.879 C or 282.029 K

The power Q needed to heat the aluminium plate using equation (2.16):

Q = qA = V21R = 79.32/88.6 = 70.976 W

5 18
I
I I lIt I I 1

4.5 -----~-----~-----~-----~-----~-----~-----~-----~-----
I I I I I I I I 16
I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I , I
4 -----1-----,-----1-----,-----,-----,-----,-----,-----
14
I I I I I I 1 I
I I 1 I I I I I
3.5 -----I-----r-----r-----r-----l-----,-----,-----r-----
1 I 1 I I I 12
'l(
0
~ 3 _____ ~ Ts,OC -----~-----~-----~-----~-----~-----
I I I I I I
~ I I I I I I lOu
tS
.s 2.5 -----
I
- --1------1-
I
-I
I
---
I I
~
I I I h~
... I t I I I I I I 8
0
t::: 2 -----~-----~-----~-----r-----r-----r-----r-----r-----
Ul 6
1.5 ~ ~o__ ~_\ T- _ +-1~~C- ~ ~ ~ __ ~ _0_ ~ _0_ ~ ~_ ~o_~~_~
I I S I I I I I
I I
-----r-----r-----r-----r-----r-----r-----r-----r-----
I I I I 1 4

0.5 ~ ~- _ ~ _~ T 1:0C __ ~ ~ ~ __ ~ _0_ ~ _0_ ~ _0_ ~o_o_~_~ 2


I I S - I I I I I
I I I 1 I I I

o 0
22 23 24 2 3 4 5 6 7
13-05-2004 14-05-2004

Solar time

Figure A.l: Sensitivity of equation (2.15) to small temperature measurement errors.

Clear sky temperature Tsky using equation (2.15):

0"1'. 4 - q JII 4 = ( 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-8 x 282.02: 4 - 70.976 JII 4 = 265.057 K


( aO" 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Appendix A Sample Calculation for the Clear Sky Emissivity 59

Clear sky emissivity Gsky using equation (2.15):

Gsky = (Tsky/Ta)4 = (265.057/281.59)4 = 0.785

Clear sky emissivity Gsky using equation (2.6) by Berdahl and Fromberg (1982):

Gsky = 0.741 + 0.0062Tdp


= 0.741 + 0.0062(6.6)
= 0.782

Figure A.l shows that equation (2.15) gives a small error for a surface measurement error of
:l: 1 DC.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
60

Appendix B Sample Calculation for the


Convection Heat Transfer
Coefficient During Daytime
Location data (Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa):

Altitude = 100 m
Latitude (0 north ofthe equator): <!> = -33.93
Longitude (0 west): Lzoc = 341.150
Standard meridian: Lst = 330

Measured data at a local time of 13:19 on 29 January 2004:

Total hemispherical solar radiation:

Ih = 1066.728 W/m2

Diffuse solar radiation:


Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Appendix B Sample Calculation for the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 61

Surface temperatures:

Ts1 = 72.384 DC Ts2 = 68.684 DC Ts3 = 64.530 DC

Ts4 = 71.102 DC Ts5 = 69.480 DC Ts6 = 66.873 DC

Measured zenith angle at a local time of 13:15 on 29 January 2004:

Ambient air temperatures at different elevations (mm) above surface:

TlOO = 29.277 DC

T200 = 28.772 DC

T400 = 28.654 DC

Ta = TlOOO = 27.573 DC

Dew point temperature:

Tdp = 9.96 DC

Barometric pressure:

pa = 100576 N/m2

Relative humidity:

9= 36 %

Wind speed at different elevations (mm) above surface:

Vw@150 = 1.46 rn/s


Vw@IOOO = 1.97 rn/s
Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 62

Mean surface temperature, Ts:

1',1 + 1',2 + 1',3 + 1',4 + 1',5 + 1',6


6
72.384 + 68.684 + 64.530 + 71.102 + 69.480 + 66.873
6
= 68.842 DC or 341.992 K

In general the wind speed distribution is close to the l/7th power law as shown in figure B.1.

Temperature, T, DC

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
1.6
I I
I I I I

1.4 -------:--------:--v -v (z)1/7 =v ZI17 --:--------:-------

1.2
_______ ~ :_ _ w - wI 1 wI _ _ _ _ _ __ : ~ _
I I I I I
I I I I I
1 I I I I I

S~ 1 -------~--------1------8-~-------~---
I I I I
----I--------~-------
I I
I I I I 1 I
'" 0.8 t I
-------~--------I--------r-------T--
r I 1
-----I--------r-------
I

~ I I t I I I
.cu I I t I I I

::r: 0.6 - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - -:-- - - - - - -~- - - - - - - ~- - -r-----""------'------,-


I I I I Measured data
I I I

0.4 -------~-------~-------8L-------
I I I
--
<> Wind speed, v w' mls -
I I I
I I I o Temperature, T, DC
0.2 -------~-------~--------8----
I I I
I I I
I I
0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Wind speed, vw' mls

Figure B.1: The wind speed profile and temperature distribution at different heights above
ground level.

Mean temperature between the surface and the ambient air, Tm:

341.992 + 300.723 = 321.358 K


2
Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 63

Saturation pressure at Ta (Kroger (2004)):

z = 10.79586(1 - 273.16/Ta) + 5.02808 loglO(273.16/Ta)


+ 1.50474 X 1O-4[1_1O-8.29692[(Ta1273.16)-I]] + 4.2873 X 1O-4[104.76955(l-273.16/Ta) -1]

+ 2.786118312
= 10.79586(1 - 273.16/300.723) + 5.0280810glO(273.16/300.723)
+ 1.50474 x 10-4[1 _ 10-8.29692[(300.7231273.16)-1]]

+ 4.2873 x 10-4[104.76955(1-273.16/300.723)
-1] + 2.786118312

= 3.5666

Psat@Ta= lOz = 103.5666= 3686.378 N/m2

Vapour pressure at Ta:

pv = rjJpsat@Ta= 0.36 x 3686.378 = 1327.096 N/m2

Calculated dew point temperature:

Tdp = 164.630366 + 1.832295 x 1O-3pv + 4.27215 x lO-IOp} + 3.738954 x 103pv-1

-7.01204 X 105pv-2 + 16.1614881npv - 1.437169 x 1O-4pv lnpv


= 164.630366 + 1.832295 x 10-\1327.096) + 4.27215 x 10-10(1327.096)2
+ 3.738954 x 103(1327.096rl -7.01204 x 105(1327.096r2
+ 16.161488 In(1327.096) - 1.437169 x 10-\1327.096) In(1327.096)
= 284.324 K or 11.174 C

This value is close to the value of9.96 C measured by the weather station.

Clear sky emissivity using equation (2.7):

Csky = 0.727 + 0.0060Tdp = 0.727 + 0.0060(9.96) = 0.787


Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 64

Sky temperature using equation (3.5):

Tsky = [ GskyT4]1/4
a = [ 0.787 ( 300.723 )4]1/4 = 283.244 K

Thermophysical properties of dry air at Tm (Kroger (2004):

Density:

Pa = RPTa = 100576 = 1.090 kg/m3


m
287.08x 321.358

Specific heat:

Cpa = 1.045356 X 103 -3.161783x10-1Tm +7.083814x10-4Tm2 -2.705209x10-7Tm3

= 1.045356 x 103 - 3.161783 X 10-1 (321.358) + 7.083814x 10-4 (321.358)2

-2.705209x 10-7 (321.358)3


= 1007.927 J/kgK

Dynamic viscosity:

fla = 2.287973 X 10-6 + 6.259793 X 10-8 Tm - 3.131956 X 10-11 Tm2 + 8.15038 X 10-15 Tm3
= 2.287973 X 10-6 + 6.259793 X 10-8 (321.358) - 3.131956 x 10-11 (321.358)2

+ 8.15038 X 10-15 (321.358)3


= 19.44 X 10-6 kg/ms

Thermal conductivity:

ka = -4.937787x10-4 +1.0180878x10-4Tm -4.627937x10-8Tm2 +1.250603x10-11Tm3

= - 4.937787 X 10-4 + 1.0180878x 10-4 (321.358) - 4.627937 x 10-8 (321.358)2

+ 1.250603 X 10-11 (321.358)3


= 0.02786 W/rnK
Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 65

Angular dependence of solar absorptance:

To calculate the zenith angle one first needs to convert standard time to solar time and to do
this, one needs to apply two corrections. Firstly a correction is required for the difference in
longitude of the location Lzoc in question and the standard meridian LSI for the local time zone.
The second correction involves the equation of time EDT, which takes into account the
perturbations in the earth's rate of rotation, which affects the time when the sun crosses the
local longitude. The solar time can be calculated by using the following formula (Duffie and
Beckman (1991)):

4(Lt -L[ )+EDT


Solar time = Standard time + s oc (Rl)
60

Equation oftime EDT in minutes (Duffie and Beckman (1991)):

B = (n-l)-360 = (29-1)-
360
= 27.616
0

365 365

where n is the day of the year, which in this case is 29.

EDT= 229.2[0.000075 + 0.001868 cosB - 0.032077 sinE - 0.014615 cos2B


- 0.04089 sin2B]
= 229.2[0.000075 + 0.001868 cos(27.616 0) - 0.032077 sin(27.616 0)
- 0.014615 cos(2 x 27.616 0) - 0.04089 sin(2 x 27.616 0)]
= -12.620 minutes

Solar time from equation (B.l):

Solar time = Standard time + 4(Lst - L[oc)+ EDT


60
= 13.317 + 4(330 - 341.15)+ (-12.620)
60
= 12.363 hours
Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 66

The zenith angle Bz, needed to calculate the solar absorptance az of beam radiation, is the
angle of incidence of beam radiation on a horizontal surface and can be calculated using the
following equation by Duffie and Beckman (1991):

Bz = cos-1(cosq> cos5cosw + sinq> sin5) (B.2)

where q> is the latitude of the location, 5is the declination angle and w is the hour angle.

The declination angle 5is the angular position of the sun at solar noon with respect to the
plane of the equator, with north positive.

Declination angle, 5(Duffie and Beckman (1991)):

284 n
S =23.45 sin(360 + ) =23.45 sin(360284+29) = -18.298 0

365 365

The hour angle w is the angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local longitude
due to the rotation of the earth on its axis at 15 per hour, with morning negative and
afternoon positive.

Hour angle, w (Duffie and Beckman (1991)):

w = 15(Solar time - Solar noon) = 15(12.363 - 12) = 5.445

Zenith angle Bz from equation (8.2):

Bz = cos-\cosq> cos5cosw + sinq> sin5)


= cos-1(cos(-33.93 0) cos(-18.298 0) cos(5.445 0) + sin(-33.93 0) sin(-18.298 0))
= 16.37

This value is close to the measured value of 15.255 0.


Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 67

Beam solar absorptance using equation (3.3) at a zenith angle of 16.37:

az = a [1 + 2.0345 X10-3 Bz -1.99 X10-4 B; + 5.324 X10-6 B; - 4.799 X10-8 B:]

= 0.93[1+ 2.0345 x 10-3 (16.37 O)-1.99xl0-4(16.37 of +5.324xl0-6(16.37 or


-4.799 x 10-8 (16.37 or]
~ 0.93

Diffuse solar absorptance using equation (3.3) at an angle of60 0:

ad = a[I+2.0345xl0-3Bz -1.99 x 10-4B; +5.324xl0-6B; -4.799xl0-8B:]

= 0.93[1+2.0345XI0-3(60 O)-1.99xl0-4(60 of +5.324xl0- (60 or


6

-4.799 x 10-8 (60 r]


= 0.8683

Beam solar radiation Ib from equation (3.2):

Ib =h -Id
= 1066.728 - 59.440
= 1007.288 W/m2

Mixed convection heat transfer coefficient using equation (3.6):

h = Ibaz + Idad - (&0"J:4- aIWO"J:~)


J:-J;,
1007.288 x 0.93 + 59.440 x 0.8683 - 5.67 x 10-8 ( 0.9 X341.9924 - 0.9 x 283.2444 )

341.992 - 300.723
2
= 14.994 W/m K

Left-hand side of equation (3.10):


Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 68

113

h JiTm
[ g(r. -1;,)cpk2p2 ]

= 14.994 19.44xlO- x321.358


6 ]1/3
[ 9.81 x (341.992 - 300.723) x 1007.927 x 0.027862 x 1.0902
= 0.3825

Right-hand side of equation (3.10):

0.2106 + 0.0026vw [
Jig
r Tm
)
r. - 1;, ]
1/3

113

= 0.2106 + 0.0026 x 1.97 1.090 x 321.358


[ 19.44x 10-6 x 9.81 x (341.992 - 300.723) ]

= 0.3921

25 50
I I
I I
I I
I I 45
I I
I I I

20 I
- - - -1- - --
I
I
___ -'- - - -~
I 40 u 0
I I
I
I
I
I
I
--'
35 h"
I I I
I I
I I I I I
h'"
30 '-'
~ I ~ I ~ I__ -
~ , 15 I I I I I t fJ)'

...s::: I I I I I I u
s::
.S I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I 25 ..
fJ)

S
I I I I , I
~
4-<
~ 10
I
I
I
-t- - - - ~ - - -
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
+ - - -
I
I I
+- - -- 20
:.a
..::l
-1- - - - T - - - -1- - - - -1- - - -
fJ)
1 I I I I I I I
I I 1 I I I I I

15 ~..
I I I I I J I I
I I T _ 1 0C I 1 1 I
fJ)

V
S I I I I
0..

5
I
t
---r---T----I----T----I---
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I

10
a
fJ)

I
E--<

o 0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Solar time

Figure B.2: Sensitivity of equation (3.6) to small temperature measurement errors.

Only experimental data taken during the period 7:00 to 17:00 was considered since the nature
of equation (3.6), used to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient, is such that it becomes very
Appendix B Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Daytime 69

sensitive to small errors in temperature measurement before and after these times, as is shown
in figure B.2 for an error of:t1 DC in surface temperature.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za 70

Appendix C Sample Calculation for the


Convection Heat Transfer
Coefficient During Nighttime
Location data (Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa):

Altitude = 100 m
Latitude (0 north of the equator): ifJ = -33.93
Longitude (0 west): L10c = 341.15
Standard meridian: Lst = 330

Measured data at a local time of 20:01 on 29 January 2004:

Surface temperatures:

Ts1 = 18.459 C Ts2 = 18.848 C Ts3 = 19.167 C

Ts4 = 18.597 C Ts5 = 18.548 C Ts6 = 19.124 C

Ambient air temperatures at different elevations (mm) above surface:

TlOo = 22.321 C
T200 = 22.345 C
T400 = 22.404 C
Ta = TlOoo = 22.491 C
Appendix C Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 71

Dew point temperature:

Barometric pressure:

pa = 100345 N/m2

Wind speed at different elevations (mm) above surface:

Vw@150 = 2.14 m/s


Vw@lOOO = 2.92 m/s

Mean surface temperature, Ts:

T = 1;1 + 1;2 + J:3 + 1;4 + 1;5 + J:6


s 6
18.459 + 18.848 + 19.167 + 18.597 + 18.548 + 19.124
6
= 18.791 C or 291.941 K
Appendix C Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 72

In general the velocity distribution is close to the l/7th power law as shown in figure C.1.

Temperature, T, C
0 5 10 15 20 . 25 30
1.6
I I
I I

1.4 Measured data -i-----------1 ---Vw=Vwl(f}17 =Vw1ZI17


1.2 Q Windspeed,vw,m/s -'----------- ----
o Temperature, T, C: I
I I I

a0
----------~-----------~---------
I I
~-------13--~----------
I I
I I r I
N
I I I I
.Eo 0.8 ----------,-----------r-------- -~-----------r----------
0/) I I I I

'v I I I I

::c: 0.6 I
----------~-----------r------- I I
--,-----------r----------
I

I I I t
I I I I

0.4 ----------~-----------~----- ----~-------~--~----------


I I I I
I I I I
__________ J '_ J ~--'-----------
0.2 I 10 I I
t I I 0 I
I I I
0
0 2 3 4 5
Wind speed, v w' m/s

Figure C.1: The wind velocity profile and temperature distribution at different heights above
ground level.

Mean temperature between the surface and the ambient air, Tm:

T =1',+1;, 291.941 + 295.641 = 293.791 K


m 2 2

Clear sky emissivity using equation (2.6):

&sky = 0.741 + 0.0062Tdp = 0.741 + 0.0062(11.5) = 0.812

Sky temperature using equation (3.5):


Appendix C Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 73

Thermophysical properties of dry air at Tm (Kroger (2004)):

Density:

Pa = RPTa = 100345 = 1.190 kg/m3


m
287.08 x 293.791

Specific heat:

Cpa = 1.045356 X 103 -3.161783x10-ITm +7.083814x10-4Tm2 -2.705209x10-7Tm3

= 1.045356 x 103 -3.161783x10-1 (293.791)+ 7.083814x 10-4 (293.791)2

-2.705209 X 10-7 (293.791)3


= 1006.748 J/kgK

Dynamic viscosity:

f.l
a = 2.287973 X 10.6 + 6.259793 x 10-8Tm -3.131956x10-IITm2 +8.15038x10-15Tm3
= 2.287973 x 10-6 + 6.259793 X10-8 (293.791) - 3.131956 x 10-11 (293.791)2

+8.15038 x 10-15 (293.791)3


= 18.182 X 10-6 kg/ms

Thermal conductivity:

ka = - 4.937787 10-4 + 1.0180878 x 10-4Tm - 4.627937 x 10-8 Tm2 + 1.250603 X 10-11 Tm3
X

= - 4.937787 X 10-4 + 1.0180878 X 10-4 (293.791) - 4.627937 x 10-8 (293.791)2


+1.250603 x 10-11 (293.791)3
= 0.02574 W/mK
Appendix C Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 74

Convection heat transfer coefficient using equation (4.2):

(&aI:4 - a1waI:ky 4 )
h=
(I;,-I:)
( 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-8 x 291.9454 - 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-8 x 280.6434 )

(295.641- 291.945)
= 14.653 W/m2K

Convection heat transfer coefficient using equation (4.5):

_ vwpcp
h - 3.87 + 0.0022 2/3

(,ucp/k)
=3.87+0.0022 2.92x1.190x1006.748 2/3
6
(18.182 X 10- x 1006.748/0.02574)

= 13.531 W/m2K

100 10
I
I I I I I I I I

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0 0
19 20 21 22 23 24 2 3 4 5
29-01-2004 30-01-2004
Solar time

Figure C.2: Sensitivity of equation (4.2) to small temperature measurement errors.


Appendix C Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Convection Heathttp://scholar.sun.ac.za
Transfer Coefficient During Nighttime 75

During nighttime the temperature difference between the ambient air Ta and the surface Ts is
relatively small and therefore equation (4.2) is very sensitive to small temperature measuring
errors. This can be seen in figure C.2 for a measuring error of:l:1 DC in surface temperature.
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za 76

Appendix D Sample Calculation for the


Prediction of Pavement
Surface Temperature and
Temperature at Depth
Measured data at a solar time of 12:44 on 13 March 2004:

Total hemispherical solar radiation:

Ih = 893.827 W/m2

Diffuse solar radiation:

Maximum surface temperature of the painted mix A sample:

Ts(max) = 66.685 C

Temperature at a depth of 60 mm below the surface:

Td = 63.369 C
Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 77
at Depth

Ambient air temperature:

Dew point temperature:

Tdp = 9.1 C

Barometric pressure:

Pa = 100860 N/m2

Wind speed at a height of 1 m above the surface:

Vw = 0 m/s

Daytime clear sky emissivity using equation (2.7):

&sky = 0.727 + 0.0060Tdp = 0.727 + 0.0060(9.1) = 0.782

Sky temperature using equation (3.5):

Calculation ofthe pavement surface temperature using equation (5.1):

Calculated surface temperature for the previous iteration:

Ts = 52.38 C

Radiation heat transfer coefficient used for linearising equation (5.1):


Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 78
at Depth

Surface temperature by rearranging equation (5.1) with h = 19.88 W/m2K:

1331ar a I1cos<P
cos ([>+ &skyaTa 4 + hTa -164k
T =-------------
s h + hr
= [1331 X 0.93 X 0.81I/cos(-33.93)
cos(- 33.93)+ 0.782 X 5.67 X 10-8 (33.076 + 273.15t
+ 19.88(33.076 + 273.15)-164 X 1.4]/(19.88 + 1.76)
= 325.535 K
= 52.385 C

Calculation of the pavement surface temperature using equation (5.2):

Ts = Ta - 0.00618([>2 + 0.2289([> + 24.4

= 33.076 - 0.00618(-33.93)2 + 0.2289(-33.93) + 24.4

= 42.595 C

Calculation of the pavement temperature at a depth of 60 mm using equation (5.3) and


the measured surface temperature of 66.685 C:

Td = (Ts + 17.8)(1 - 2.48 X 1O-3d + 1.085 X 1O-5d2 - 2.441 X 1O-8d3) - 17.8

= (66.685 + 17.8)(1 - 2.48 X 10-3(0.06) + 1.085 x 10-5(0.06)2 - 2.441 x 10-8(0.06)3)

-17.8
= 66.672 C

Calculation of the pavement surface temperature using equation (5.4):

Calculated surface temperature for the previous iteration:

Ts = 78.332 C

Mean Temperature:
Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 79
at Depth

T = 1'. + ~ = 78.322 + 33.076 = 55.714 C or 328.854 K


m
2 2

Radiation heat transfer coefficient used for linearising equation (5.4):

hr = &(JT/ = 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-8(78.332 + 273.15Y = 2.216

Convection heat transfer coefficient by Vehrencamp (1953):

h = 698.24[0.00144Tm 0.3vwO.7 + 0.00097(Ts - Ta)0.3]

= 698.24[0.00144(328.854).3(0).7 + 0.00097(351.482 - 306.226).3]

= 2.126

Surface temperature by rearranging equation (5.4):

1394araJlCOS$cos([J+&Sky(J~4 +h~ +kTd /d


T =-------------
S h + hr + k / d
= [1394 x 0.93 x 0.81 J1COS
(-33.93) cos( -33.93) + 0.782 x 5.67 x 10-8 (33.076 + 273.15r
+2.126(33.076 + 273.15) + 1.4 x (63.369 + 273.15)/0.06]/ (2.126 + 2.216 + 1.4/0.06)
= 351.485 K
= 78.335 C

Calculating the pavement surface temperature using equation (5.7) used in the
simulation model:

Calculated surface temperature for the previous iteration:

Tg,~ =68.192 C

Calculated temperature for the control volume 5 mm underneath the surface for the previous
iteration:
Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 80
at Depth

Tg,: = 67.481 C

Calculated solar absorptance:

as ~ 0.93

Mean temperature between the surface and the ambient air:

T =_T._+_T_a
= Tg,~+I: = 68.192+33.076 =50.634 0Cor323.784K
m 2 2 2

Thermophysical properties of dry air at Tm (Kroger (2004)):

Density:

p = ~ = 100860 = 1.085 kg/m3


a RT m 287.08 X 323.784

Specific heat:

Cpa = 1.045356 X 103 -3.161783x10-ITm +7.083814x10-4Tm2 -2.705209x10-7Tm3

= 1.045356 x 103 - 3.161783 X 10-1 (323.784) + 7.083814 x 10-4 (323.784)2

-2.705209 X 10-7 (323.784)3


= 1008.064 J/kgK
Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 81
at Depth

Dynamic viscosity:

f-la = 2.287973 x 10-6 + 6.259793 x 10-8Tm -3.131956x10-IITm2 +8.15038x10-15Tm3


= 2.287973 x 10-6 + 6.259793 X 10-8 (323.784) - 3.131956 x 10-11(323.784)2

+8.15038 x 10-15(323.784)3
= 19.549 X 10-6 kg/ms

Thermal conductivity:

ka = -4.937787 X 10-4 +1.0180878x10-4Tm -4.627937x10-8Tm2 + 1.250603 x 10-IITm3


= - 4.937787 X 10-4 + 1.0180878 X 10-4 (323.784) - 4.627937 x 10-8 (323.784)2

+1.250603x10-11 (323.784)3
= 0.02804 W/mK

Convection heat transfer coefficient using equation (3.10):

h = [0.2106 + 0.0026v
w
[ pTm ][g(T.
]1/3 -1;JCpk2 p2 ]1/3
Jlg(T.-I:) JlTm

1/3 ]
= 0.2106+0.0026xO 1.085 x 323.784
[ [ 19.549 x 10-6 x 9.81(341.342 - 306.226) ]

1/3
x 9.81(341.342 - 306.226)1008.064 x 0.028042 x 1.0852
[ 19.549 X 10-6 x 323.784 ]

= 7.799 W/m2K

Radiation heat transfer coefficient used for linearising equation (5.7):

hr = (J(Ts + Tsky)(T/ + Tsky2)


i i 2 2
= (J((Tg,o) + Tsky)((Tg,o) + Tsky )

= 0.9 x 5.67 x 10-8(341.342 + 287.968)(341.3422 + 287.9682)

= 6.405 W/m2K
Surface temperature by rearranging equation (5.7):
Appendix D Stellenbosch
Sample Calculation University
for the Prediction http://scholar.sun.ac.za
of Pavement Surface Temperature and Temperature 82
at Depth

Ti+] = aJb + adld + hTa + hrT.ky + kgT;,] 1&] + k/'),.ig,oT;,o I(ag~t)


g,O h + hr + kg 1 &] + kgMg,o I(ag~t)
0.93 x 832.048 + 0.8683 x 61.779 + 7.799 x 306.226 + 6.405 x 287.968]
[ + 1.4 x 340.631/ 0.0075 + 1.4 x 0.005 x 341.342/(6.94 x 10-7 x 10)
= ---7 .-79-9-+-6-.4-0-5-+-1-.4-1-0.-00-7-5-+-1-.4-x-0-.0-05-/~(6-.9-4-x-I-0--
O~)-- 7-x-l

= 341.407 K or 68.257 C

Calculation of the pavement temperature at a depth of 60 mm using equation (5.12) used


by the simulation model:

Calculated temperature at a depth of 60 mm for the last iteration:

Tg,~ = 64.474 DC

Calculated temperature for the control volume 5 mm above the bottom of the pavement for
the current iteration:

Temperature at a depth of 60 mm by rearranging equation (5.12):

Ti+] = kgT;~~_] 1&N + kgMg,NT;,N l(agM)


g,N kg 1&N +kg~lg,N l(agM)
1.4 x 337.626/0.0075 + 1.4 x 0.005 x 337.624/6.94 x 10-7 x 10
= 1.4/0.0075 + 1.4 x 0.0051 6.94 xI 0-7 xI 0
= 337.624 K or 64.474 C
Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za 83

Appendix E Determining of the Density,


Specific Heat and Diffusivity
of Asphalt Pavement

E.I Density
The density of the asphalt samples is determined by weighing each sample and calculating the
volume from the given dimensions of each sample. The two mix A samples have a diameter
of 150 mm and a height of 60 mm, while the two mix B samples have a diameter of 150 mm
and a height of 50 mm. The density of the samples are then found by dividing the mass of
each sample with its volume.

E.2 Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Density of


a Mix A Sample
Measured mass of one of the mix A samples:

mmix Al = 2.405 kg

Volume of the mix A samples:

2 2
v. Al = JrD H = Jr X 0.15 x 0.06 = 1.060 x 10-3 m3
mu 4 4
Appendix E Stellenbosch
Determining the Density, SpecificUniversity
Heat and http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Diffusivity of Asphalt Pavement 84

Density of the mix A sample:

mmix Al = 2.405 = 2268.868 k 1m3


Pmix Al = V
mix Al
1.060 xl 0-3 g

The density of all four samples is shown in Table E.l.

Table E.l: Experimental density ofthe four asphalt samples:


Mass Volume Density
[kg] [m3] [kg/m3]

Mix A Sample 1 2.405 1.060 x 10-3 2268.868

Mix A Sample 2 2.480 1.060 x 10-3 2339.623

Average 2.443 1.060 x 10-3 2304.245

Mix B Sample 1 1.980 0.884 x 10-3 2239.819

Mix B Sample 2 1.960 0.884 x 10-3 2217.195

Average 1.970 0.884 x 10-3 2228.507

E.3 Specific Heat


The asphalt pavement sample is ground into small pieces and a known mass masphalt of
pavement at a known temperature Tasphalt is mixed with a known amount of hot water mwater at
a known temperature Twater in a vacuum flask. The mixture's equilibrium temperature If is
measured and the specific heat of the pavement sample is calculated by rearranging the
applicable energy equation, i.e.

(E.1)

or
Appendix E Stellenbosch
Determining the Density, SpecificUniversity
Heat and http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Diffusivity of Asphalt Pavement 85

mwaterCp water (Twater, i - TJ )


Cp asphalt = (_ T )
(E.2)
m asphalt TJ asphalt, i

E.4 Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Specific


Heat of the Mix A Asphalt Samples
Measured amount of asphalt pavement:

masphalt = 0.13 7 kg

Measured initial temperature of the asphalt pavement:

Tasphalt . = 24.260 + 25.569 = 24.9146 C or 298065


.
K
,I
2

Measured amount of water:

mwater = 0.245 kg

Measured initial temperature of the water:

Twater, i = 59.073 C or 332.223 K

Measured final mixture temperature:

T = 55.985 + 54.698 + 54.369 = 55.017 C or 328.167 K


J
3
Appendix E Stellenbosch
Determining the Density, SpecificUniversity http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Heat and Diffusivity of Asphalt Pavement 86

Specific heat of water at Twater, i (Kroger (2004)):

Cp water, i = 8.15599 X 103 - 2.80627 X 1OTwater + 5.11283 X 10-2 Twate/


- 2.17582 X 1O-13Twater6

= 8.15599 X 103 -2.80627 X 10(332.223) + 5.11283 X 10-2 (332.223)2


- 2.17582 X 10-13(332.223)6
= 4183.504 JlkgK

Specific heat of water at Tf(Kroger (2004)):

Cp water,f= 8.15599 X 103 - 2.80627 X 1OTwater + 5.11283 X 10-2 Twater2


- 2.17582 X 1O-13Twater6

= 8.15599 X 103 - 2.80627 X 10(328.167) + 5.11283 X 10-2 (328.167i


- 2.17582 x 10-13(328.167)6
= 4181.163 J/kgK

Specific heat of the mix A asphalt sample using equation (E.2):

0.245 (4183.504 x 332.223 - 4181.163 x 328.167)


C =---------------= 1053.705 JlkgK
pasphalt 0.137(328.167-298.065)
r
f.

Appendix E Stellenbosch
Determining the Density, SpecificUniversity
Heat and http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Diffusivity of Asphalt Pavement 87 I .
r~~ ,

Table E.2: Experimental specific heat ofthe two asphalt pavement mixes.
Reading masphalt Tasphalt, i mwater Twater, i Tf Cp water, i Cp water,f Cpasphalt

number [kg] laC] [kg] laC] laC] [J/kgK] [J/kgK] [J/kgK]


Mix A 1 0.137 24.915 0.245 59.073 55.017 4183.5 4183.5 1053.7
Mix A 2 0.203 28.183 0.325 59.439 55.730 4183.7 4181.5 943.60
Average 0.170 26.549 0.285 59.256 55.374 4183.6 4181.4 998.65
MixB 1 0.269 24.717 0.467 57.620 54.029 4182.6 4179.5 927.60
MixB 2 0.166 22.579 0.255 60.856 55.956 4184.7 4181.7 988.95
MixB 3 0.224 29.283 0.343 62.884 59.859 4186.0 4180.7 918.29
Average 0.220 25.526 0.355 60.453 56.615 4184.4 4180.6 944.95

E.5 Sample Calculation for the Determination of the Diffusivity


of the Mix A Asphalt Samples
Estimated conductivity for the two mix A samples:

kmixA = 1.4 W/mK

Average density ofthe two mix A samples:

Pmix A = 2304.245 kg/m3

Average specific heat for the two mix A samples:

CpmixA = 998.65 J/kgK

Diffusivity of the two mix A samples:

a .A =~ = 1.4 = 6.084xl0-7 m2/s


mIX PCp 2304.246 X 998.65
Appendix E Stellenbosch
Determining the Density, SpecificUniversity
Heat and http://scholar.sun.ac.za
Diffusivity of Asphalt Pavement 88

Table E.3: Experimental diffusivity of the two asphalt pavement mixes.

kasphalt Pasphalt Cpasphalt aasphalt

[W/mK] [kg/m3] [J/kgK] [m2/s]

Mix A 1.4 2304.245 998.65 6.084 x 10-7

MixB 1.7 2228.507 944.95 8.072 x 10-7