Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 60

TECHNICAL REVISION

March 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESFG001
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel
Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
March 1999 Issued
November 2000 Technical Correction
March 2007 Technical Revision

Not printed with State funds


TECHNICAL REVISION
March 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESFG001
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel
Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X
Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................. 3 6. Materials.................................... 16
1.1 Purpose............................................ 3 6.1 Resins ............................................ 16
1.2 Scope ............................................... 3 6.2 Resin Fillers and Additives ............ 17
6.3 Catalysts and Promoters................ 17
2. References .................................. 4 6.4 Reinforcements.............................. 17
2.1 Process Industry Practices .............. 4
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards ........ 4 7. Design ....................................... 19
2.3 Other References............................. 5 7.1 Design Pressure and
Temperature .................................. 19
3. Definitions ................................... 5 7.2 MAWP and Coincident Maximum
Temperature .................................. 19
4. Requirements.............................. 6 7.3 Minimum Design Temperature
4.1 General ............................................ 6 and Coincident Pressure................ 19
4.2 Documentation to be Provided 7.4 Design Loads and Load
by the Fabricator .............................. 8 Combinations ................................. 20
7.5 Component Design ........................ 21
5. Selection Guidelines .................. 9
5.1 ASME RTP-1 vs. Section X ............. 9 8. Fabrication................................ 27
5.2 Resins ............................................ 10 8.1 Laminates ...................................... 27
5.3 Corrosion Veils............................... 11 8.2 Laminate Tolerances ..................... 29
5.4 Construction Methods .................... 12 8.3 Laminate Acceptance Criteria........ 29
5.5 Cure Systems ................................ 14 8.4 Repairs........................................... 30
5.6 Design Methods ............................. 14 8.5 Post Curing .................................... 30
8.6 Field Joints..................................... 30
8.7 Field Fabrication ............................ 31
8.8 Fabrication Tolerances .................. 31

Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 41


TECHNICAL REVISION
March 2007

9. Inspections and Tests ..............31 11. Receipt and Installation ........... 40


9.1 Inspector Classifications.................31 11.1 Receiving Inspection ......................40
9.2 Resin Cure Tests............................32 11.2 Installation ......................................40
9.3 Laminate Thickness Checks ..........32
9.4 Laminate Visual Acceptance Appendix A
Checks............................................32 Fabricators Design Report
9.5 Laminate Physical Property and
Proof Tests .....................................33 Appendix B
9.6 Laminate Reinforcement Content Documentation Schedule
Tests ...............................................34
9.7 Hydrostatic Test..............................34 Appendix C
9.8 Pneumatic Test...............................36 Fabrication Figures
9.9 Vacuum Test ..................................36
9.10 Acoustic Emission Test ..................36
Appendix D
9.11 Sample Cutouts ..............................37
Quality Overview Plan for RTP-1 and
Section X Vessels
10. Shipping ....................................37
10.1 Cleaning and Painting or
Pigmentation...................................37
10.2 Preparation for Shipment ...............37
10.3 Handling and Lifting........................38
10.4 Temporary Storage.........................39
10.5 Shipping Protection ........................39

Page 2 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for the construction of fiberglass vessels and
tanks in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section X Fiber-
Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels or ASME/ANSI RTP-1 Reinforced Thermoset
Plastic (RTP) Corrosion Resistant Equipment. Fabrication shall be by ASME-
accredited manufacturers. When the type of fiberglass fabrication is not within the
scope of Code Section X or ASME/ANSI RTP-1, the Purchaser may use this Practice
for guidance. In addition, Sections 5 and 11 provide guidance for the User or
Designer in developing procurement specifications and installation practices for this
equipment. Sections 5 and 11 are not the responsibility of the Fabricator.

1.2 Scope
1.2.1 This Practice describes the general requirements for the design, materials,
fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification (ASME stamp and
Suppliers Data Report), and pressure relief of aboveground fiberglass
reinforced polyester, vinyl ester, and epoxy tanks and vessels having internal
or external pressure from full vacuum up to the limits of the Code Section X.
This practice covers shop and field-fabricated equipment, thermoplastic-lined
equipment, and dual laminate equipment.
1.2.2 This Practice does not cover the following equipment items that are excluded
from both ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X:
a. Portable or movable containers
b. Hoods, ducts, and stacks
c. Fans and blowers
d. Vessel internals such as entrainment separators, chevron blades, packing
support plates, and liquid distributor plates
e. Pipe or piping
f. Fully buried underground closed vessels
1.2.3 This Practice does not cover the following equipment items that are excluded
from Code Section X:
a. Vessels having an inside diameter (ID), width, height, or cross-section
diagonal of 6 inches (150 mm) or less, with no limitation on length or
pressure. The 6 inch (150 mm) dimensions exclude the thickness of any
corrosion liner.
b. Vessels containing lethal substances as designated by the owner in
accordance with Code Section X Paragraph RG-113.
1.2.4 This Practice does not cover the following equipment items that are excluded
from ASME/ANSI RTP-1:
a. Vessels constructed of furan, epoxy, or phenolic resins

Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

b. Vessels with non-glass structural reinforcements


c. Vessels having metallic liners
1.2.5 Total compliance (including stamping) with ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code
Section X shall be a basic requirement of all vessels and tanks ordered to this
Practice. Refer to the Users Basic Requirements Specification (UBRS) or
purchase order to determine which code or standard is required. References
in this Practice to ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X apply based on the
specified standard and are not interchangeable except as specifically
indicated.
1.2.6 Deviations from this Practice require written approval of the Purchaser.
1.2.7 Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction
practices are included herein. However, in light of the many diverse service
applications of fiberglass tanks and vessels, these practices shall be employed
with engineering judgment and supplemented, as appropriate, with
requirements related to specific materials of construction, service fluids,
operating environments, and tank geometries. Accordingly, provisions of this
Practice may be overridden or supplemented by an Overlay Specification.

2. References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references shall
be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP STF05501 - Fixed Metal Ladders and Cages Details
PIP STF05520 - Pipe Railing for Walking and Working Surfaces Details
PIP STF05521 - Angle Railing for Walking and Working Surfaces Details
PIP STF05535 - Vessel Platform Details
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section II Materials, Parts A, B, C, D
SA-307 Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs,
60,000 psi Tensile Strength
SA-563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
Section V - Nondestructive Examination
Section X - Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 - Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant
Equipment
ASME B16.5 - Flanges and Flange Fittings Sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24

Page 4 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

ASME B18.22.1 - Plain Washers


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM D638 - Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
ASTM D695 - Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics
ASTM D790 - Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and
Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
ASTM D2583 - Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by
Means of a Barcol Impressor
ASTM D2584 - Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins
ASTM D3299 - Standard Specification for Filament-Wound Glass-Fiber-
Reinforced Polyester Chemical-Resistant Tanks
ASTM D4097 - Standard Specification for Contact-Molded Glass-Fiber-
Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant Tanks
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 7 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO)
Uniform Building Code (UBC)
National Bureau of Standards-Voluntary Product Standard
-- NBS PS15-69 - Custom Contact Molded Reinforced-Polyester Chemical-
Resistant Process Equipment (Withdrawn)
2.3 Other References

Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. (MTI)


MTI Publication 50 - Users Guide to ASME Standards for Fiberglass Tanks
and Vessels

3. Definitions
With reference to the Foreword and Article RG-3 of Code Section X and Paragraph 1-200 of
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, and for the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:

approved equal: A substitution to a specified product that has been approved in writing by
the Purchaser

construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination,


inspection, testing, certification (ASME stamp and Fabricators Data Report), and pressure
relief

designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design
requirements (e.g., UBRS) consistent with User criteria for use by the ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or
Code Section X Fabricator. The Designer is frequently an engineering contractor, but could be
the User, third party consultant, or ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X Fabricator.

Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

fabricator (supplier): As defined in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, this term refers to the producer of
RTP equipment. The Fabricator combines resin and reinforcing fibers to produce the final
product. In this Practice, the Fabricator is the party entering into a contract with the Purchaser
or Designer to construct a vessel in accordance with the purchase order.

National Board (NB): The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. This is
an organization comprised of chief inspectors from various governmental jurisdictions in the
United States and Canada. Vessels meeting requirements of Code Section X can be registered
with the NB.

overlay specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of


this Practice, such as a User specification or project specification

owner: The party who owns the facility wherein the tank or vessel will be used.

purchaser: The party who awards the contract to the supplier and places the order for the
vessel or vessel components. The purchaser may be the owner or the owners authorized
agent.

purchase order: Contract documents, drawings, specifications, or service-specific data


provided by the purchaser for a particular fiberglass tank or vessel or group of tanks or
vessels.

user: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with RTP-1 or
Section X philosophy and service hazards as described in Section 1. This term refers to the
owner and/or operator of the equipment.

Users Basic Requirements Specification (UBRS): The comprehensive requirements data


sheet provided by the Purchaser to the Fabricator in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1
Table 1-1

4. Requirements

4.1 General
4.1.1 All vessels and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with
the purchase order, UBRS, this Practice and all applicable requirements of
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X, including symbol stamping.
4.1.2 References in this Practice to ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X apply
based on the specified standard and are not interchangeable except as
specifically indicated.
Comment: ASME/ANSI RTP-1 provides requirements for stationary
vessels and tanks for the storage, accumulation, or
processing of corrosive or other substances at pressures
not exceeding 15 psig (0.103 MPa) (external or internal)
above any hydrostatic head.
Comment: Code Section X provides requirements for stationary
vessels for the storage, accumulation, or processing of
substances at pressures exceeding 15 psig (0.103 MPa)

Page 6 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

above any hydrostatic head. Code Section X provides


upper pressure limitations depending on the type and class
of construction, but the maximum internal pressure limit is
3000 psig (20.68 MPa)
4.1.3 The purchaser shall specify in the UBRS or purchase order which ASME
code or standard is required.
4.1.4 Users Basic Requirements Specification (UBRS)
4.1.4.1 The Purchaser shall furnish a UBRS.
4.1.4.2 The Purchasers UBRS shall provide the following:
a. Intended operating conditions of the vessel (i.e., basis for design)
b. Identification of the external environment to which the vessel
shall be exposed
c. Intended function of the vessel
d. Mechanical loads that shall be imposed on the vessel
e. Specific installation requirements
f. Specific codes and laws applicable to the location where the
vessel will be installed
4.1.4.3 The Purchaser shall specify in the UBRS either the type of resin and
corrosion liner required, or define the intended contents to which the
vessel shall be exposed.
4.1.4.4 While the UBRS is a requirement for ASME/ANSI RTP-1 stamped
equipment, it shall be utilized for Code Section X stamped
equipment.
Comment: Examples of a completed UBRS can be found in MTI
Publication 50.
4.1.4.5 The fabricator shall be responsible for design, material, fabrication,
examination, inspection testing, certification (ASME stamp and
Suppliers Data Report), and pressure relief of the tank(s) or
vessel(s) in accordance with the Practice. Review of suppliers
documentation (e.g., fabrication drawings) by the purchaser shall not
relieve the fabricator of this responsibility.
4.1.4.6 The Fabricator shall be responsible for conveying all Purchaser
requirements to any subcontractor of the Fabricator.
4.1.4.7 If a vessel or vessel component design is specified on the Purchasers
vessel drawings, the Fabricator shall not be relieved of the obligation
and/or responsibility to be in accordance with the purchase order
requirements.
4.1.4.8 Release for shipment by the Purchasers inspector shall not relieve
the Fabricator of any responsibility for being in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X.

Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

4.1.4.9 The fabricator shall be ASME accredited.


4.1.4.10 Code Section X RP stamped vessels and beginning in the 2006
edition of ASME/ANSI RTP-1 RTP stamped vessel shall be
registered with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Inspectors (NB)
4.1.4.11 All aspects of the work and completed vessels shall be in
accordance with applicable local, county, state, and federal rules
and regulations. This shall include, but is not limited to, the rules
and standards established by EPA and OSHA or other similar
national standards.
4.1.4.12 Any differences between this Practice, the UBRS, and laws or
regulations of regulatory authorities shall be brought to the attention
of Purchaser for resolution. Written clarifications shall be provided
by the Purchaser before proceeding with any work.
4.1.5 Alternative Design Proposals
4.1.5.1 A base proposal for construction of the vessel shall be provided in
full compliance with the purchasers request for quotation.
4.1.5.2 An alternative design proposal may be submitted if considered less
costly and/or an improvement in the delivery schedule. However, the
improvements in cost and schedule shall be realized without losing
or shortening the anticipated life of the tank or vessel.
4.1.5.3 If submitted, an alternative design proposal:

a. Shall be accompanied by the base proposal and be clearly noted


as an alternative design proposal.

b. Shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by


sketches or drawings.

c. Shall include a list of any specific exceptions to the Purchasers


request for quotation or this Practice.

d. Shall not be used unless approved in writing by the Purchaser.

4.2 Documentation to be Provided by the Fabricator


4.2.1 Fabricators Data Package
Fabricators Data Package shall include the documents listed in Appendix B.
The Fabricator shall provide the Fabricators Data Package to the User in
accordance with quantities and dates indicated on the Documentation
Schedule in Appendix B. The final Fabricators Data Package shall be
printed on 8-1/2- x 11-inch paper (or folded to 8-1/2- x 11-inch size) and
bound in data books.
4.2.2 Design Calculations
Design calculations shall include relevant ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code
Section X formulas, source paragraphs, formula values, calculated results,

Page 8 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

and comparisons with acceptable values. Where calculations are based on


formulas other than those in ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X, the
source of the formulas shall be referenced. When a computer program
performs calculations, a program description shall be given which includes
the program name and version. If the program is not commercially available
to industry, the Fabricator shall maintain program documentation and
provide it upon request. (See Cautionary Note in Foreword of ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 and Code Section X regarding responsibility for the use of computer
programs.)
Calculations shall include:
a. ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X calculations
b. Wind and earthquake calculations, as applicable
c. Support calculations (see Section 7.5.7)
d. Calculations associated with lifting and erecting the tank or vessel
e. Nozzle load analysis for local and gross effect, when required
f. Design of internal and external attachments
g. Design loads and load combinations (see Section 7.4)

5. Selection Guidelines
Section 5 provides guidelines and other tutorial information intended to assist the Designer in
selecting and specifying fiberglass tanks and vessels.

Note: These guidelines are not the responsibility of the Fabricator unless the Fabricator
is also the Designer.

5.1 ASME RTP-1 vs. Section X


The choice between ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X shall be based primarily
on the design pressure required for the vessel. Above 15 psig (0.103 MPa), Code
Section X is required and is a legal requirement in many states. Below 15 psig
(0.103 MPa) to full vacuum, this Practice requires ASME/ANSI RTP-1. The only
exception is epoxy resin vessels, which shall be built to Code Section X. Each
standard uses a different approach to equipment design and covers different types of
equipment. The following paragraphs explain these differences:
5.1.1 RTP-1 Philosophy and Coverage
The philosophy of ASME/ANSI RTP-1 is much like Section VIII of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in that many design rules are given
and there is an opportunity to design using stress analysis. The approach is
like a cookbook with all phases of materials, design, fabrication,
examination, and testing being covered.
Very detailed procedures are given for laminating methods and quality
assurance of the finished product. A hydrostatic test is required. Design
safety factors depend upon the method of design with larger design factors

Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

required for design by rules and for vessels in critical corrosive services. All
vessels are required to have a minimum 2-ply chopped strand mat and 1-ply
veil corrosion liner and be constructed of corrosion-resistant resins such as
polyester, vinyl ester, and epoxy novalac types which use contact molding or
filament winding construction techniques. Furan, epoxy, or phenolic resins,
and non-E glass structural reinforcement, are not within the scope of
ASME/ANSI RTP-1. ASME/ANSI RTP-1 also covers thermoplastic-lined
equipment and both shop- and field-fabricated vessels and tanks plus
structural cored materials for flat heads and bottoms.
Since most of the fiberglass equipment built today falls within the scope of
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, this standard shall be widely utilized. Earlier standards
such as ASTM D4097, ASTM D3299, and the now withdrawn NBS PS15-69
shall no longer be used. ASME/ANSI RTP-1 represents the best state of the
art technology for tanks and vessels 15 psig (0.103 MPa) and below.
5.1.2 Section X Philosophy and Coverage
Code Section X is more of a performance standard with few rules and
fabrication procedures. All designs are proven by either a destructive test
(as in Class I vessels) or an acoustic emission test (as in Class II vessels).
Because of the destructive proof test requirements for Class I vessels and a
100,000-cycle pressure test requirement, Class I vessels typically have been
less than 1,000 gallons (3.785 m3) in size and of standard designs with very
few nozzles. Consequently, Class I vessels have not been widely used in the
chemical processing industry.
Class II vessels do not require a destructive test, but shall have their design
proven via an acoustic emission test at 1.1 times the Maximum Allowable
Working Pressure (MAWP) at the design temperature. This is an expensive
process and has limited the widespread use of Class II equipment because
lined metallic vessels are generally less expensive.
Both contact-molded and filament-wound construction are permitted in
Class II equipment; in addition, Class I equipment permits bag molding and
centrifugal casting techniques. Code Section X neither requires the use of nor
defines the construction of a corrosion liner. Any liner shall be specified by
the User and is not included in the structural calculations. This Practice
requires an ASME/ANSI RTP-1 liner as a minimum in any Code Section X
vessel. Code Section X permits metallic and thermoplastic liners, non-glass
structural reinforcements, and all types of resins (including furan). However,
this Practice prohibits the use of metallic liners and furan or phenolic resins,
and limits structural reinforcements to types E and S glass for Code Section X
vessels.

5.2 Resins
The most common types of resins used to manufacture ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code
Section X vessels are polyester, vinyl ester, and epoxy resins. Code Section X also
permits the use of phenolic and furan resins, but they have very limited application
and are outside the scope of this Practice. ASME/ANSI RTP-1 does not permit furan,
epoxy, or phenolic resins at the present time.

Page 10 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

5.2.1 Polyester Resins


Polyester resins were the first resins developed for fiberglass construction
and have several variations. Types include orthophthalic, terephthalic,
isophthalic, bisphenol-A fumerate, chlorendic anhydride, and brominated.
The last four of these types are primarily used for corrosion-resistant
applications; orthophthalic and terephthalic resins are primarily used for
marine applications (e.g., boat hulls). Isophthalic resins have limited
corrosion resistance and shall be used only for mild services. All polyester
resins are generally more brittle in nature than vinyl ester resins.
Bisphenol-A fumerate polyester resins have excellent acid and good caustic
resistances. Chlorendic anhydride polyester resins are more resistant to
oxidizing atmospheres but are not recommended for caustic environments.
5.2.2 Vinyl Ester Resins
Vinyl ester resins are more recently developed and are widely used in all
types of fiberglass construction. Because of their flexibility, ease of
application, and excellent corrosion resistance, vinyl ester resins are the
preferred resins in most applications. A variation of a vinyl ester resin called
epoxy novalac is recommended whenever the contents may contain
insoluable organic chemicals. Epoxy novalac resin also has increased acid
resistance and a higher temperature rating, but poor resistance to caustic
solutions.
5.2.3 Epoxy Resins
Epoxy resins are primarily used for pipe manufacture, but are also permitted
for Code Section X vessels. These resins have better caustic resistance than
vinyl esters and have good acid resistance and some resistance to organic
chemicals. Because they are difficult to cure, epoxy resins are not widely
used for custom equipment.

5.3 Corrosion Veils


There are three types of corrosion veils widely used for corrosion-resistant fiberglass
equipment: C (chemical grade) glass veil, polyester veil, and carbon veil. Although
corrosion veils are only covered in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, all three are permitted in
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X construction. The veil is the inner most layer
of the corrosion liner. At a minimum, the corrosion liner shall be at least 100 mils
(2.5 mm) thick, normally consisting of 1 ply of corrosion veil and 2 or more plies of
chopped strand mat totaling 3 oz/ft2 (915 g/m3). A corrosion liner is required for all
construction under this Practice unless a thermoplastic liner is used. Severe corrosive
applications may require 2 or more plies of veil and 3 or more plies of chopped
strand mat. The resin manufacturer shall be consulted for specific recommendations.
5.3.1 C glass Veil
C glass veil is most commonly used and is a randomly deposited glass
filament cloth approximately 10 mils (0.25 mm) thick. The glass used is a
chemical-resistant glass as opposed to electrical grade or structural grade
glass used in the structural portion of the laminate. Due to good saturation
properties, the veil layer can have 90% resin (by weight) for maximum

Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

corrosion resistance. For more severe applications, 2 or more plies of C glass


veil are commonly used. Because glass is attacked by hydrofluoric acid (HF),
high concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and demineralized water, this type
of veil shall not be used in those applications. Even a small percentage of HF
can negatively impact C glass veil. Also, this veil has less resistance to
abrasive services than other veils and shall be avoided in that type of
application.
5.3.2 Polyester Veil
Polyester veil comes in a variety of types including perforated, non-
perforated, and conductive-treated. Perforated (or aperatured) polyester veil
is the most common and can be used for most applications in lieu of C glass
veil. Polyester veil also offers resistance to HF and demineralized water and
improved abrasion resistance over C glass veil. Polyester veil is stiff and hard
to roll air out, making it generally more expensive to use. Multiple plies of
polyester veil are sometimes used; however, multiple plies make it difficult
to remove all of the entrapped air, and surface pits are common. For this
reason, a ply of polyester veil is backed up with a ply of C glass veil in
severe services.
5.3.3 Carbon Veil
Carbon veil is used where surface conductivity is desired (e.g., dissipating
static charges in some flammable gas applications such as stacks or
scrubbers). Carbon veil is relatively expensive and very difficult to work
with. It also offers the least abrasion resistance of any type of veil. Where a
conductive veil is desired, a more suitable alternative is to use a conductive
polyester veil.

5.4 Construction Methods


5.4.1 Contact Molding
Contact molding was the initial type of method used for fiberglass vessel
construction. In this method, resin-saturated glass fabric is applied over a
male mold or cylindrical mandrel. The fabric layers are either chopped strand
mat, woven roving, or uni-directional or bi-directional fabric layers. The
resin is usually applied using brushes, but may also be sprayed on.
Contact molding lends itself to the manufacture of complex and non-circular
shapes. It is normally used for small diameter shells, dished heads and flat
bottoms on vessels and tanks. Because of the higher void area associated
with the types of glass fabric used, contact molding offers a higher resin
content (usually above 70%) and hence, is the most corrosion-resistant type
of construction. Since glass reinforcement is not continuous, this type of
construction typically has less tensile strength and modulus of elasticity than
filament-wound construction. Therefore, a vessel wall is typically thicker
using contact-molded construction.
Code Section X limits the maximum pressure for Class I contact-molded
vessels to 150 psig (0.103 MPa). For Class II vessels, the product of the
pressure (in psi) and the diameter (in inches) is limited to 7200 lb/inch
(127.5 kg/mm).

Page 12 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Note: This method is also referred to as hand lay-up, but this term
does not capture all methods of contact molding such as spray-
up and machine-applied.
5.4.2 Filament Winding
Filament-wound construction uses multiple glass filaments that are applied to
a rotating mandrel in a band. The band is typically dipped in a resin bath
during this application.
Because the glass fibers are continuous, the resulting laminate has the highest
tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of any type of laminate
construction. However, the resin content is lower and hence, the corrosion
resistance is lower than in contact-molded construction. The vessel wall is
more difficult to repair because any repair overlay will necessarily be of
contact-molded construction and typically be twice as thick as the original
wall. Because liquids can weep along the fibers, the external location of a
leak does not represent the internal location of a liner failure. The advantages
of filament winding are that it is faster and stronger than contact molding.
This results in cheaper fabrication costs for large vessel shells.
Because of the great strength of continuous filaments, Code Section X limits
the maximum pressure of Class I vessels with uncut filaments to 3000 psig
(20.68 MPa) and with cut filaments to 1500 psig (10.34 MPa). For Class II
vessels, the product of the pressure (in psi) and the diameter (in inches)
cannot exceed 7200 lb/inch (127.5 kg/mm).
5.4.3 Centrifugal Casting and Bag Molding
Centrifugal casting and bag molding are two other methods used to fabricate
fiberglass vessels. These methods are used primarily for small diameter
(i.e., less than 12 inches (300 mm) in diameter) Code Section X Class I
vessels because the tooling does not lend itself to large fabrications.
In centrifugal casting, a female mold is loaded with the appropriate fiberglass
reinforcement mats and cloth. Resin is injected into the center of the mold,
then thrown to the outside of the spinning mold by centrifugal force. The
advantage to centrifugal casting is quick fabrication with a well-saturated
resin laminate and no joints. The main disadvantage is that applications are
limited because it is almost impossible to do any side-mounted nozzles.
Bag molding also uses a female mold into which fiberglass cloth is inserted.
Resin is then added and a central inflatable bag squeezes the resin into the
cloth. Again, complex shapes are very difficult to manufacture. Because the
reinforcement fibers are not continuous, the maximum permitted pressure in
Section X is 150 psig (0.103 MPa) for bag-molded construction.
5.4.4 Dual Laminates
Dual laminates are thermoplastic-lined fiberglass vessels. These are currently
allowed in Code Section X and ASME/ANSI RTP-1. Materials covered in
Section 6.4.8 can be used for linings. Linings typically are formed into the
required vessel shape, then glued, welded, or molded into one piece. The
fiberglass laminate is laid on top of the thermoplastic liner.

Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

In most cases, the thermoplastic liner is backed by imbedded glass or


polyester cloth which helps anchor it to the outside fiberglass laminate. In
some cases like PVC or CPVC, a solvent primer is used to bond the liner to
the fiberglass overwrap. In most cases, a conductive cloth is placed directly
behind the plastic liner so that the entire surface can be spark tested to find
any voids or defects.
Only a few Fabricators strive to maintain the tooling and special skills
required for this type of construction. Dual laminate construction offers
greatly improved corrosion resistance over straight fiberglass, but is typically
much more expensive. Dual laminate construction may be advantageous
when compared to high-alloy or shorter life solid fiberglass vessels.

5.5 Cure Systems


There are two common types of cure systems used for polyester and vinyl ester
resins. These are methyl ethyl ketone peroxide/cobalt naphthenate (MEKP/CoN) and
benzoyl peroxide/dimethylanaline (BPO/DMA). In certain applications, a cumene
hydroperoxide/cobalt napthenate (CHP/CoN) is also used. In each case, the peroxide
acts as a catalyst and the other part acts as a promoter. A BPO/DMA cure is normally
reserved for the highest degree of resin curing which gives greater corrosion
resistance. Because it is more difficult to use (requiring a two-part pot system and
normally an elevated temperature post cure for maximum effectiveness), this system
is generally more expensive. Therefore, the BPO/DMA cure is more suitable for the
toughest applications. The MEKP/CoN system is the most common, and both parts
can be mixed together in a single resin pot. An elevated temperature post cure can
also be used with this system to ensure maximum resin cure, but is normally not
needed.
Epoxy resins are typically mixed together with a curing agent such as an organic acid
hardener. Because of the difficulty in achieving a cure in a reasonable period of time,
elevated temperature post cures are normally required for epoxy resins.

5.6 Design Methods


Both ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X provide for two design methods: design
by rules (Method A) and design by stress analysis (Method B). In Code Section X,
Method A and Method B may be used for Class II vessels only. For Class I vessels,
the design is verified by cyclic testing and a burst test. For Class II vessels, the design
is verified via an acoustic emission test. In general, the design rules of Method A are
similar in both ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X, but each has different design
factors that are applied. Design rules in both ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X
are limited to specific configurations; for most other configurations, Method B shall
be used. In ASME/ANSI RTP-1, a lower design factor is permissible using Method B,
but this is not true in Code Section X. Also, ASME/ANSI RTP-1 contains fabrication
details and additional rules and guidance for supports that are not contained in Code
Section X. All design calculations required by ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X
shall be performed and certified by a registered professional engineer experienced in
fiberglass design.

Page 14 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

5.6.1 Design by Rules


Part 3A of ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Paragraph RD-1170 of Code Section X
contain basic design rules for the fabrication of fiberglass vessels. Both
contain rules for the design of cylindrical shells and torispherical, elliptical,
and conical heads under internal and external pressures. The design rules in
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 are slightly different and employ a higher design factor
than in Code Section X. Part 3A of ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Paragraph RD-
1170 of Code Section X shall be utilized whenever possible for vessels
composed of standard elements. In addition, there are rules for the design of
nozzle reinforcements, stiffening rings and for flange design. ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 also contains rules for the design of lug and double ring supports and
holddown lugs.
Note: Code Section X places an upper limit to Class II vessels
designed by rules to 75 psig (0.517 MPa) and 96 inches
(2438 mm) ID.
5.6.2 Design by Stress Analysis
Part 3B of ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Paragraph RD-1180 of Code Section X
cover design of fiberglass vessels using stress analysis. Design by stress
analysis can be any of several methods, but the most common method is
finite element analysis after having determined the laminate properties by use
of lamination analysis. ASME/ANSI RTP-1 allows a lower design factor if
Part 3B is used. Code Section X has the same design factors as in design by
rules, but allows a higher design pressure for Class II vessels--up to 200 psig
(1.38 MPa). Because this method can encompass many vessel configurations,
it shall be used for all types of complex vessels and when transient loading
such as thermal and cyclic are encountered. This method is normally required
for some parts of tanks larger than 16 feet (4.87 m) in diameter.
5.6.3 Design Factors
There are some differences between ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X
regarding magnitude for the design factors. In ASME/ANSI RTP-1, the design
factor using part 3A analysis is 10 for continuous loads and 5 for intermittent
loads (e.g., wind and seismic) and for external pressure. The maximum
ultimate tensile stress established by laminate testing is divided by the design
factor to give the allowable design stress. In Code Section X, the design
factor is put in terms of a strain limit of 0.001 for both internal and external
pressure by Method A or a maximum stress ratio of 6 for Method B. In
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, if Part 3B analysis is used, the design factor can be
reduced to 9 without acoustic emission examination and 8 if an acoustic
emission examination is performed on the completed vessel. Further, the
design factor is always required to be 10 in the corrosion liner. ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 also provides that for vessels in User-designated critical corrosion
service, the design factor shall be multiplied by 1.25.
5.6.4 Maximum Allowable Design Stress
The maximum allowable design stress is established by testing in both
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X. In ASME/ANSI RTP-1, the

Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Fabricator shall have test data for all qualified laminates. For Code Section X
Class II vessels, a basic laminate unit is qualified and the maximum
allowable design stress is determined from that test data. Code Section X
Class I vessels are destructively tested to verify the design. In ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, testing is not required for filament-wound laminates, but the laminate
properties are determined by lamination analysis. In general, the minimum
allowable design stress for continuous loads shall not be below 900 psi
(63.3 kg/cm2) for an all-mat construction and could be over 2000 psi
(140 kg/cm2) for a well-constructed laminate of mat and woven roving.
Filament-wound laminates can have design stresses that exceed 3000 psi
(207 kg/cm2). In addition, ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X allow a
maximum shear design stress of 200 psi (13.7 kg/cm2). ASME/ANSI RTP-1
also gives a maximum allowable stress of 50 psi (3.5 kg/cm2) in peel. For all
field-fabricated tanks and vessels designed for 2 psi (13.78 kPa) and above,
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 requires a proof test of the as-constructed laminates to
verify the design stress values in both the axial and hoop directions.
5.6.5 Maximum Allowable Design Strain
For filament-wound laminates, the maximum allowable design strain for
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels is 0.001 for continuous loading and 0.002 for
intermittent loading and for external pressure. In Code Section X, the
allowable strain is approximately 0.001 for all types of loading in Method A
analysis. In ASME/ANSI RTP-1, this elastic modulus is determined via
lamination analysis. In Code Section X, it is determined by test method.
However, due to the difficulty of applying the test method (which involves
winding a flat laminate), only contact-molded laminates have been used thus
far for Class II equipment.

6. Materials

6.1 Resins
6.1.1 Resins specified on the UBRS or drawings shall be used throughout the
laminate. Where resins are not specified, the Fabricator shall submit a request
to the Purchaser to use selected resins that are suitable for the operating
conditions and fluids shown on the UBRS or drawings. All resin shall be
commercial grade, and selection shall be based on supplier test data as
published in corrosion guides or actual field or laboratory tests. Resin
substitution shall not be allowed in any step of vessel fabrication.
6.1.2 The Fabricator shall follow the resin manufacturers current fabrication
instructions for proper formulation and cure. If FDA compliance is required,
only resins certified by the resin manufacturer to meet FDA requirements
shall be used, and a post cure using hot air or steam followed by cleaning
with water or steam is required.

Page 16 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

6.2 Resin Fillers and Additives


6.2.1 Thixotropic Agents
Resins shall not contain fillers for viscosity control or fire retardancy except
as recommended by the resin manufacturer and agreed upon by the
Purchaser. Addition of thixotropic agents for viscosity control shall not
exceed 2%. In cases where the chemical environment contains hypochlorites
or attacks glass, thixotropic agents shall not be used in the corrosion liner or
other surfaces that will be in contact with that environment.
6.2.2 Resin Putty
The use of resin putty shall be minimized and shall not be considered to
provide any structural strength to the laminate. Resin putty intended for use
as filler material shall be made by mixing up to 5% (by weight) of silica
flour, carbon flour, or milled fibers with the resin specified. Resin putty shall
never be exposed to the process fluid and shall always be overlaid with
laminate. Resin putty shall be formulated to cure crack-free.
6.2.3 Styrene
Styrene may be added as a dilutent for viscosity control where required to
improve workability and wet-out characteristics. The amount added shall not
exceed the resin manufacturers recommendations and shall not impair fire-
retardant or chemical-resistant properties of the final product.
6.2.4 Ultraviolet (UV) Inhibitors
When the vessel is not to be pigmented, up to 1% (by weight) of the resin
manufacturers recommended UV inhibitor shall be added to the resin in the
outer three plies of laminate.
6.2.5 Paraffin
Up to 0.6% (by weight) of paraffin or wax shall be added to the resin-rich
topcoat of non-mold surfaces to aid in curing and assure a tack-free surface.
This is required only for polyester and vinyl ester resins.

6.3 Catalysts and Promoters


Proper curing of the resin is the Fabricators responsibility. All vessels fabricated to
this Practice shall be cured to at least 90% of the minimum Barcol hardness specified
by the resin manufacturer. This requirement applies to both interior and exterior
surfaces. Use of a polyester veil or paraffin in the resin may lower the Barcol
hardness below the resin manufacturers specifications. The cure system for polyester
and vinyl ester resins shall be MEKP/CoN or CHP/CoN. BPO/DMA shall be used
only when recommended by the resin manufacturer for the intended chemical service
or when specified by the Purchaser.

6.4 Reinforcements
All resins shall contain reinforcements of one or more of the types described in this
Section. A separately cured, unreinforced interior resin gel coat shall not be used.

Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Integrally bonded chopped strand mat and woven roving are not permitted in the
laminate.
6.4.1 Glass Surfacing Veil
Glass surfacing veil shall be C glass, 10 mils (0.25 mm) thick, with a silane-
type finish and a binder compatible with the lay-up resin.
6.4.2 Organic Surfacing Veil
Organic surfacing veil shall be apertured or non-apertured polyester veil,
12 to 16 mils (0.3 to 0.4 mm) thick, with a finish compatible with the lay-up
resin.
6.4.3 Carbon Surfacing Veil
Carbon surfacing veil shall be 0.5 oz/yd2 (16.9 g/m2), 6 mils (0.15 mm) thick,
with a finish compatible with the lay-up resin.
6.4.4 Chopped Strand Mat
Chopped strand mat shall be type E (electrical borosilicate) or ECR
(electrical corrosion-resistant) glass; 0.75, 1, or 1.5 oz/ft2 (236, 354, or
472 g/m2), with a silane-type finish.
6.4.5 Woven Roving
Woven roving shall be E glass, nominal 24 oz/yd2 (813 g/m2), 5 x 4 square
weave, with a silane-type finish.
6.4.6 Continuous Roving
Continuous roving used for filament winding or in chopper guns for spray-up
shall be E or ECR glass with a silane-type finish.
6.4.7 Oriented Glass Fabric
Uniaxial or biaxial glass fabric used as structural reinforcement shall be
E glass with a silane-type finish.
6.4.8 Thermoplastic Liners
Thermoplastic liners may be used in lieu of or in addition to fiberglass
corrosion liners. The thermoplastic liner materials can be TFE, FEP, PFA,
MFA, PVDF, ECTFE, ETFE, PP, HDPE, PVC, or CPVC from 40 to 250
mils (1 to 6.35 mm) thick. All materials shall meet ASTM specifications and
be adopted by ASME/ANSI RTP-1 Appendix M-14, Part M14-2. All
thermoplastic welders shall be qualified in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Appendix M-14, Part M14-8. Filler materials shall be of the same
ASTM specification as the parent material.
6.4.9 Core Materials
Core materials may be used to provide forms for molding ribs, head
knuckles, or other parts. They may also be used as filler between the bottoms
or shells of double-walled vessels. Core materials may be considered part of
the structural wall in the design and can be used as filler in flat-bottom tank.
The cored bottom can be subject to bending loads from internal or external
pressure. Balsa wood, cardboard, urethane or glass foams, plastic fillers,

Page 18 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

fiberglass mats, or other materials compatible with the lay-up resin may be
used as core materials. Core materials shall always be covered by laminate
and shall never be exposed to the chemical environment.

7. Design

7.1 Design Pressure and Temperature


7.1.1 The design pressure and coincident maximum temperature shall be
determined by carefully considering all operating phases (including liquid
head) that the vessel or tank may experience during the specified project life,
such as:
a. Initial startup
b. Normal operations
c. Temporary operations
d. Emergency shutdown
e. Emergency operations
f. Normal shutdown
g. Startup following a turnaround or emergency shutdown
h. Cleaning, steam out, and decontamination
i. Upset conditions
j. Environmental restraints on relief venting
7.1.2 The UBRS shall specify the maximum and minimum operating pressures and
temperatures.
7.1.3 The UBRS or purchase order documents shall specify any margins to be
applied to the maximum operating pressure(s) and coincident temperature(s).

7.2 MAWP and Coincident Maximum Temperature


For both Code Section X and ASME/ANSI RTP-1 nameplates, the MAWP to be
marked on the nameplate shall be defined as the maximum gauge pressure (in psi)
permissible at the top of the completed vessel in its normal operating position while
at the designated coincident temperature for that pressure. This MAWP may be
determined from either the design pressure or calculations based on the specified
nominal component thickness (but reduced by the specified liner thickness).

7.3 Minimum Design Temperature and Coincident Pressure


7.3.1 The minimum design temperature and the coincident pressure to be marked
on a Code Section X nameplate shall be determined by considering the
operating phases such as those listed in Section 7.1.
7.3.2 The minimum design temperature shall be given on the UBRS.

Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.3.3 When atmospheric temperatures govern the temperature during startup or


normal operations, the lowest one-day mean atmospheric temperature at the
installation site shall be considered.

7.4 Design Loads and Load Combinations


The loads listed in this Section shall be determined and specified in design
calculations. Design loads are defined and classified as follows:
7.4.1 Dead Load (L1)
The Dead Load is the installed weight of the vessel or tank including
internals, catalyst or packing, platforms, insulation, linings, piping, and other
permanent attachments.
7.4.2 Operating Live Load (L2)
The Operating Live Load is the weight of the liquid at the maximum
operating level, including the load of liquid on the trays or held up in
packing.
7.4.3 Pressure Load (L3)
The Pressure Load is the MAWP (internal or external at the coincident
temperature) load, including the pressure drop through the vessel or tank.
For vessels with more than one independent chamber, each chamber shall be
designed and constructed to withstand the most severe condition of
coincident pressure and temperature in normal service.
7.4.4 Thermal Load (L4)
Thermal Loads are loads caused by restraining thermal expansion/interaction
of the vessel or tank and/or its supports.
7.4.5 Test Load (L5)
The Test Load is the weight of the test medium (usually water). Design basis
shall consider that the vessel or tank will be tested in its normal operating
position.
7.4.6 Wind Load (L6)
The Wind Load shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7, UBC, or
applicable local code.
7.4.7 Seismic Load (L7)
The Seismic Load shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7, UBC, or
applicable local code.
7.4.8 Snow Load (L8)
The Snow Load shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7, UBC, or
applicable local code.
7.4.9 Piping and Superimposed Equipment Loads (L9)
Loads caused by piping (other than the dead load) and superimposed
equipment shall be considered as applicable.

Page 20 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.4.10 Dynamic Load (L10)


Dynamic loads caused by the action of agitators, spargers, or other vibratory
equipment shall be considered as applicable.
7.4.11 Load Combinations
Vessels or tanks and their supports shall be designed to meet the most severe
of the following load combinations (see Section 7.5.7 for vessel supports):
1. L1+L6 Erected Condition with Full
Wind Load
2. L1+L2+L3+L4+L6+L8+L9+L10 Design Condition with Full
Wind Load
3. L1+L2+L3+L4+L7+L8+L9+L10 Design Condition with
Seismic Load
4. L1+(F)L3+L5+(0.25)L6 Initial Hydrostatic Test
Condition with Vessel in
Normal Operating Position
and 25% of Wind Load
Note: F is the minimum required increase over MAWP to be marked
on the vessel and is equal to 1.1 for Code Section X vessels and
1.1 to 1.2 for ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels.

7.5 Component Design


7.5.1 Heads and Shells
7.5.1.1 The Purchaser shall specify on the UBRS the principal dimensions of
the shell and heads.
a. Dimensions specified shall include diameter, height or length,
minimum wall thickness (including liner thickness), and head
shape.
b. Thicknesses specified shall be the minimum required by the
Purchaser.
c. For ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels, thickness shall be a minimum of
0.22 inches (5.6 mm) including the corrosion liner.
d. For Code Section X Class II vessels, thickness shall be a
minimum of 0.25 inches (6 mm) not including the corrosion
liner.
e. For both ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X vessels,
corrosion liner thickness (100 mils (2.5 mm) minimum) shall not
be included in the structural calculations for heads and shells.
7.5.1.2 Top heads of vertical tanks, if specified, shall be designed to support
a 250-pound (91 kg) person walking anywhere on the head, in
addition to any external pressure.

Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.5.1.3 Maximum deflection of the top head or flat bottom head under all
combinations of loadings shall be 1/2 percent of span at any location.
7.5.1.4 On any flat-sided tank, the maximum deflection of any wall shall be
1/2 percent of span at any location.
7.5.1.5 If a tank shall be agitated by a vertical, top-entering agitator, the
agitator shall not be supported from the tank head unless an
advanced analysis of all agitation loadings into the top head is
performed. The shell shall be reinforced with external
circumferential stiffening ribs if the tank is agitated.
7.5.1.6 The shells of an open-top, vertical tank shall be provided with a
reinforcing ring at the top of the tank shell. The ring shall be of
sufficient rigidity to maintain the shape of the tank.
7.5.1.7 Dished heads subject to internal or external pressure or hydrostatic
loads shall be reinforced in the knuckle in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-2(a), or Code Section X, Figure
RD-1175.2.
7.5.1.8 Flat bottoms on tanks fabricated to ASME/ANSI RTP-1 shall be
reinforced in the knuckle in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Figure 4-3, and have a 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) minimum knuckle radius.
In addition, flat bottoms shall be suitable for installation on flat,
cushioned surfaces (such as those described in Section 11.2.3)
without the use of grout.
7.5.1.9 Shell joints shall be reinforced in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Figure 4-5, or Code Section X, Figure 1175.2.
7.5.2 Nozzles and Reinforcements
7.5.2.1 Nozzles shall be as specified in the UBRS and any requirements of
the purchase order.
a. If not otherwise specified, the design shall conform to
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-6, or Code Section X, Table
RD-620.1.
b. Minimum nozzle size shall be 2 inches (50 mm).
c. Threaded connections, bulkhead fittings, or pad-type nozzles
shall not be permitted.
d. All nozzles that are 4 inches (100 mm) and less shall be
equipped with plate or conical gussets in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-11, or Code Section X, Figure
RD-620.4. Code Section X requires gussets on nozzles 6 inches
(150 mm) and less.
7.5.2.2 All manways and nozzles except those providing clearance for
connecting internal piping (i.e., dip pipe mounting nozzles),
instrumentation, or other specified penetrating nozzles and internal
appurtenances shall be installed flush with the inside of the

Page 22 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

equipment in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-8, or


Code Section X, Figure RD-620.5.
7.5.2.3 Where penetrating nozzles are required, they shall be installed in
accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-9, or Code Section X,
Figure RD-620.6.
7.5.2.4 For ASME/ANSI RTP-1 stamped equipment, the placement of nozzle
installation and cutout reinforcement laminates shall be in
accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1 Figure 4-10.
7.5.2.5 For Code Section X vessels, the placement of nozzle installation and
cutout reinforcement laminates shall be in accordance with Code
Section X Figures RD-620.4 and RD-620.5.
7.5.2.6 The reinforcement for nozzles and other vessel openings shall be
external to the vessel wall, and the area of opening reinforcement
shall be increased where necessary to limit shear stress to 200 psi
(14 kg/cm2).
7.5.2.7 All nozzles with internal projections shall have the ends capped or
wrapped with the same number of surfacing veils present in the
corrosion liner of the shell and heads.
7.5.2.8 All nozzle necks that extend inside the vessel shall not contain any
woven roving.
7.5.2.9 If corrosion liners thicker than 100 mils (2.5 mm) are required, the
increased thickness above 100 mils (2.5 mm) shall be added to the
thickness given in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-6, or Code
Section X, Table RD-620.1.
7.5.3 Nozzle Flanges
7.5.3.1 All flanges shall be flat-faced and molded integrally with nozzle stub
in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-7(b), or Code
Section X, Table RD-620.1.
7.5.3.2 Flange drilling, dimensions, and thickness shall be in accordance
with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-6 or Code Section X, Table
RD-620.1, for 50 psi minimum rating, unless a higher rating is
required.
7.5.3.3 Unless otherwise specified, bolt holes in flanged nozzles shall
straddle natural equipment centerlines.
7.5.3.4 Bolt holes shall also be spot faced on the back of the flange for
ASME B18.22.1 Type A Narrow washers.
7.5.4 Manways
7.5.4.1 All vessels and tanks more than 36 inches (900 mm) inside diameter
shall be equipped with at least one manway.
7.5.4.2 Tanks more than 16 feet (4.87 m) inside diameter shall have at least
two manways one in the shell and one in the roof.

Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.5.4.3 Unless a vessel has an integrally molded thermoplastic liner and is


a Code Section X Class I, vessels and tanks less than 36 inches
(900 mm) inside diameter shall have a full-diameter body flanges for
access.
7.5.4.4 Manways size shall be 20 inches (500 mm) minimum inside
diameter, but 24 inches (600 mm) inside diameter shall be provided
unless the smaller size is specified in the UBRS.
7.5.4.5 ASME/ANSI RTP-1 manway dimensions shall be in accordance with
Table 4-2, and installed in accordance with Figure 4-8. Code Section
X manway dimensions shall conform to Table RD-620.1 and be
installed in accordance with Figure RD-620.5.
7.5.4.6 All manways shall be flush with the inside of the vessel or tank and
be provided with studs, bolts, gasket, and cover.
7.5.4.7 All manway covers shall be provided with two handles for lifting.
7.5.4.8 The number and size of manways shall be indicated on the drawing
or UBRS.
7.5.5 Gaskets
7.5.5.1 Gasket type, thickness, and material shall be as specified on the
UBRS or in the purchase order.
7.5.5.2 Unless otherwise specified, all gaskets shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm)
thick, full-faced elastomeric types having a Shore A durometer
hardness of 60 (plus or minus 5).
7.5.6 Bolting
7.5.6.1 Both interior and exterior bolting shall be as specified on the UBRS
or in the purchase order.
7.5.6.2 Bolts are permissible in sizes up to and including 1 inch (M25) in
diameter. Studs shall be used in sizes over 1 inch (M25).
7.5.6.3 Bolting and studs shall be ASME SA-307 Grade B minimum.
7.5.6.4 Nuts shall be ASME SA-563 Grade A minimum or other ASME
standard. Nuts shall be semi-finished heavy hex pattern.
7.5.7 Supports
7.5.7.1 The type of equipment support shall be in accordance with the UBRS
or as shown on the Purchasers equipment drawings.
7.5.7.2 The Fabricator is responsible for proper design of the supports even
if design details are shown on the Purchasers equipment drawings.
7.5.7.3 Equipment supports shall be designed for all maximum coincident
loading conditions.
7.5.7.4 If seismic and wind loads are specified, these loads shall be
considered in the support design, but shall not act concurrently.

Page 24 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.5.7.5 The loading and weight basis of the support design shall be included
in the design calculations.
7.5.7.6 Flat-bottom tanks shall be installed with fully supporting foundations
and shall be anchored. Minimum size of anchor bolts shall be 1 inch
(M25).
7.5.7.7 Design of anchors shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Appendix NM-4, with holddown clips in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure NM4-5.
7.5.7.8 Suspended vessels shall use design methods given in RTP-1,
Appendix NM-5.
7.5.7.9 If horizontal tanks or vessels require saddles for support, a finite
element analysis shall be performed to design the supports and check
for excessive stresses in the shell and heads. A Zick analysis shall
not be used to design horizontal vessel support systems because of
the different properties of fiberglass laminates versus metallic plates.
Multiple saddles and additional stiffening are typically required.
7.5.7.10 Skirt supports shall be attached to the vessel in accordance with
Appendix C, fabrication detail VESFG001-01of this Practice.
7.5.7.11 All skirts shall be provided with vent and access openings in
accordance with Appendix C, fabrication detail VESFG001-02.
7.5.7.12 Skirt holddown methods are given in Appendix C, fabrication detail
VESFG001-03.
7.5.8 Body Flanges
7.5.8.1 If required, body flanges, shall be designed in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Appendix NM-2, or Code Section X, Paragraph
RD-1176, and shall always contain woven roving.
7.5.8.2 Body flanges shall be flat and true to a tolerance in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Table 4-3 and Paragraph 4-700, or Code Section
X, Paragraph RD-620.3 and Figure RD-620.3.
7.5.8.3 Under no circumstances shall the finished machined and resin coated
flange thickness be less than that specified. (See Section 8.1.4.)
7.5.9 Stiffening Rings
7.5.9.1 If provided, stiffening rings shall be a minimum of 3/16 inch (5 mm)
thick and be constructed similar to ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure 4-4.
Other shapes such as trapezoidal, triangular or flat ribs may be used.
7.5.9.2 The required moment of inertia for stiffening rings used to support
the shell against external pressure is given in ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Paragraph 3A-330, or Code Section X, Paragraph RD-1172.1.
7.5.9.3 Core materials used to help form the rib shape shall not be
considered to increase the moment of inertia.

Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.5.10 Internals
7.5.10.1 Unless otherwise specified, all internals shall be manufactured with
the same materials as the equipment wall.
7.5.10.2 Metallic pipe for tubing or coils shall be as specified on the UBRS
and shall be suitable for cold bending.
7.5.10.3 Coils and other internal piping, trays, or other internals shall be
supported to prevent vibration or breakage during shipping and
operation.
7.5.10.4 Baffles for agitated tanks shall be of the wedge type with sealed
ends or the plate type with gussets. See Appendix C, fabrication
detail VESFG001-04 of this Practice for baffle construction.
7.5.10.5 Support ledges for packing supports or other heavy internals shall
be integrally molded into the wall or shall utilize a plate clamped
between body flanges. Secondary bonded rings may also be used to
support lighter loads such as trays but they shall be well sealed and
all cut edges shall be capped with veil. See Appendix C, fabrication
detail VESFG001-05, for internal support ledge construction.
7.5.10.6 All internals shall be covered with a full corrosion liner on the
outside and all edges shall be capped with surfacing veil. A coating
of resin only shall not be permitted.
7.5.10.7 Secondary bonded internals shall not contain woven roving; they
shall be all mat construction.
7.5.10.8 On internal piping with butt joints, the joint edges shall be wrapped
with surfacing veil before the butt joint overlay is attached.
7.5.10.9 Internal glued joints shall not be permitted.
7.5.11 Nameplates
7.5.11.1 The completed equipment shall be provided with a nameplate in
accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Paragraphs 1-530, 1-540, and
1-550, or Code Section X, Article RS-1.
7.5.11.2 In addition, the following information shall be provided either on
the RTP-1 or Section X nameplate or a separate nameplate:
a. Users equipment item number
b. Initial test pressures
c. Purchase order number
d. Resin used
e. Liner construction
f. Capacity in gallons
g. Estimated weight when empty, full of process fluid, and full of
test water
7.5.11.3 Nameplates shall be located in an accessible location.

Page 26 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

7.5.11.4 The Fabricator shall show the nameplate location and information
provided on the dimensioned fabrication drawing.
7.5.11.5 On insulated tanks, the nameplate shall be located on a bracket that
extends 1 inch (25 mm) beyond the insulation thickness.
7.5.12 Ladders, Platforms, and Handrails
7.5.12.1 If specified in the purchase order, ladders, platforms, and handrails
shall be provided.
7.5.12.2 Design and material for ladders, platforms, and handrails shall be in
accordance with PIP STF05501, PIP STF05520, PIP STF05521,
and PIP STF05535.
7.5.12.3 All materials shall also conform to OSHA regulations or equivalent
national standard and any local building code, as required.

8. Fabrication

8.1 Laminates
8.1.1 Corrosion Liner
8.1.1.1 The corrosion liner shall be 100 mils (2.5 mm) thick minimum, and
consist of as a minimum, 1 ply of surfacing veil and 2 or more plies
of chopped strand mat totaling 3 oz/ft2 (915 gr/m2)
8.1.1.2 Spray-up or chopped strand mat from a chopper gun shall not be
permitted in the corrosion liner.
8.1.1.3 Colorants, thixotropic, or fire retardant additives shall not be
permitted in the corrosion liner.
8.1.1.4 Paraffin used for surface cure and fillers may be used to increase
abrasion resistance.
8.1.1.5 Only C glass, polyester, or carbon surfacing veils shall be permitted
in the corrosion liner.
8.1.1.6 The corrosion liner shall not be used in structural calculations to
determine vessel wall thickness.
8.1.1.7 For vessels having a thermoplastic lining, the fiberglass corrosion
liner described in Section 8.1.1.1 can be omitted. However, a
conductive layer shall be placed directly behind the thermoplastic
liner to enable the entire liner surface to be spark tested.
8.1.2 Structural Layer
8.1.2.1 The structural layer shall consist of multiple plies of glass cloth, such
as chopped strand mat and woven roving, in contact-molded
construction or multiple cycles of filament winding roving
interspersed with chopped strand mat and/or oriented glass cloth.

Process Industry Practices Page 27 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

8.1.2.2 All filament-wound shells shall contain chopped strand interspersed


between winding cycles. All shells, filament-wound and contact-
molded, shall have a minimum axial strength of 9000 psi
(632 kg/cm2).
8.1.2.3 Pigments shall not be added to the structural layer.
8.1.2.4 The structural layer shall not be applied until the corrosion liner has
been allowed to gel so that resin will not be squeezed out of the
corrosion liner during the fabrication of the structural layer.
8.1.2.5 A layer of chopped strand mat shall always be laid directly behind
the corrosion liner as the start of the structural layer.
8.1.2.6 The resin used in the structural layer shall be the same as that used in
the corrosion liner.
8.1.3 Exterior Layer
8.1.3.1 The exterior layer shall consist of either chopped strand mat, a gel
coat, resin paint, or surfacing veil.
8.1.3.2 UV inhibitor or pigment shall always be provided in the exterior
layer. The exterior layer is the only part of the vessel wall that may
be painted or pigmented.
8.1.3.3 Painting or pigmenting shall be done after all internal inspections are
completed.
8.1.3.4 On polyester and vinyl ester resin vessels, a paraffinated topcoat
shall be applied unless resin paint is applied.
8.1.4 Cut Edges
8.1.4.1 For any interior cut edges exposed to the chemical environment, the
edges shall be capped with resin and have the same number of
surfacing veils as the corrosion liner.
8.1.4.2 If machining of flange faces is required, the faces shall be faced with
surfacing mat. All other exterior machined surfaces or cut edges
(e.g., boltholes) shall be coated with resin only.
8.1.4.3 Under no circumstances shall the finished machined and resin coated
flange thickness be less than that specified in the Purchase Order.
8.1.5 Joints and Secondary Bonds
8.1.5.1 All resin for capping cut edges and making joints, secondary bonds,
and coatings (and elsewhere throughout the equipment) shall be the
same resin used to construct the structural wall and corrosion liner.
8.1.5.2 Interior secondary bonds covering shell and head joints shall be a
minimum of 3 inches (75 mm) wide on each side of the joint and
shall consist of a minimum of 1 ply of surfacing veil and 3 plies of
1-1/2 oz/ft2 (457 gr/m2) chopped strand mat.
8.1.5.3 If the corrosion liner thickness exceeds the thickness in Section
8.1.5.2, the interior lay-up shall match the corrosion liner.

Page 28 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

8.1.5.4 Each successive ply shall overlap the preceding ply by 1/2 inch
(12 mm) beyond each side. The first ply shall be a minimum of
3 inches (75 mm) wide minimum.
8.1.6 Lapping of Reinforcements
8.1.6.1 All edges of reinforcing material shall be lapped a minimum of
1 inch (25 mm) for mat and oriented cloth and 2 inches (50 mm) for
woven roving.
8.1.6.2 Lapped edges of adjacent layers shall be staggered.
8.1.6.3 The laps in nozzle reinforcing pads shall be located at least 45
degrees from the longitudinal axis of the vessel.
8.1.7 Tapering of Secondary Bonds
8.1.7.1 To minimize stress concentrations, all interior and exterior secondary
bonds shall be tapered at the edges a minimum of 6:1.
8.1.7.2 The material in the taper shall not be included in the required
structural strength of the bond.
8.1.8 Thermoplastic Liners
8.1.8.1 Thermoplastic liners shall meet the requirements of ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Appendix M-14, except that Part M14-7 for shop
qualification is not mandatory for Code Section X stamped vessels.
8.1.8.2 All provisions of ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Appendix M-14 are mandatory
for ASME/ANSI RTP-1RTP-1 stamped equipment.
8.1.9 Mold Release Agents
8.1.9.1 Molds shall be prepared using a layer of polyester film, carnauba-
based paste wax, or polyvinyl alcohol.
8.1.9.2 All mold release agents shall be removed before inspection and
shipment.

8.2 Laminate Tolerances


8.2.1 Laminate thickness tolerances shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Subpart 2C, or Code Section X, Paragraphs RQ-130 or RQ-140.
8.2.2 Incorrect laminate sequence shall not be permitted even if the laminate
thickness exceeds requirements.
8.2.3 The fiberglass corrosion liner thickness shall be 100 mils (2.5 mm)
minimum.

8.3 Laminate Acceptance Criteria


The laminate acceptance criteria for ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X stamped
vessels shall be in accordance with Section 9.4 of this Practice and Table 6-1 of
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Appendix 6 of Code Section X as applicable.

Process Industry Practices Page 29 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

8.4 Repairs
8.4.1 Minor defects in workmanship shall be repaired before stamping.
8.4.2 Before a repair is started, the repair method and extent of repair shall be
approved by the Purchaser and the Code Section X Authorized Inspector or
the ASME/ANSI RTP-1 Certified Individual.
8.4.3 All repairs to ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels shall be in accordance with
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Appendix M-9.
8.4.4 For Code Section X vessels, corrosion liner and structural layer repairs for
Class II vessels shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Appendix
M-9.
8.4.5 Structural repairs to Code Section X Class I vessels shall not be permitted.

8.5 Post Curing


8.5.1 If the UBRS or Purchase Order requires post curing the vessel, the post
curing shall consist of a cure temperature of at least 180F (82C) for a
minimum of four hours.
8.5.2 Post curing shall be required for equipment containing food or
pharmaceutical products, equipment using a BPO/DMA cure system, and
equipment fabricated with epoxy resins.
8.5.3 Post curing by placing the vessel in a circulating hot air oven is preferred.
Circulating hot air from external sources inside the vessel or using steam
may also be used.
8.5.4 If steam is used for post curing, care shall be taken so that the steam sparge
pipe does not impinge on the interior surface or inside any nozzle.
8.5.5 Steam sparge pipes shall project at least 12 inches (300 mm) minimum
beyond the interior surface of the nozzle and 12 inches (300 mm) minimum
from any wall.
8.5.6 Only low-pressure (less than 5 psig (34.5 kPa)) steam shall be used.
8.5.7 During the steam post curing process, the vessel shall be maintained at
atmospheric pressure.
8.5.8 If hot air for the post cure is generated by fired heaters, a clean burning fuel
such as propane or natural gas shall be used. Kerosene shall not be permitted.

8.6 Field Joints


8.6.1 If field joining of vessel or tank components is required, all necessary
material shall be provided by the Fabricator.
8.6.2 The fabrication procedures shall conform to the requirements of this Practice
and ASME/ANSI RTP-1 or Code Section X.
8.6.3 For stamped equipment, the Fabricator shall be responsible for the equipment
until it has been completed, tested, inspected, and stamped in the field.

Page 30 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

8.7 Field Fabrication


8.7.1 Tanks with field-fabricated shells shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, including a field hydrotest.
8.7.2 Tanks greater than 16 feet (4.87 m) in diameter shall require a laminate proof
test performed on the nozzle cutouts.
8.7.3 Only an ASME/ANSI RTP-1 accredited shop with certificate scope permitting
field fabrication shall be used.
8.7.4 Field fabrication of Code Section X vessels shall not be permitted.

8.8 Fabrication Tolerances


In addition to the mandatory fabrication tolerances given by ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Figure 4-1, or Code Section X, the recommended Users fabrication tolerances given
by ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure NM7-1, shall be required.

9. Inspections and Tests

9.1 Inspector Classifications


The following types of inspection individuals in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1
and Code Section X shall participate in the inspection and tests:
9.1.1 Inspector
9.1.1.1 The Inspector for ASME/ANSI RTP-1 equipment shall be an
individual who is mutually agreeable between the Purchaser and
Fabricator.
9.1.1.2 The Inspector may be employed directly by the Fabricator or
Purchaser or be an independent person hired by the Purchaser or
Fabricator.
9.1.1.3 The Inspector shall be designated on the UBRS.
9.1.1.4 The Inspectors duties shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 Paragraph 1-400 or Code Section X, Paragraph RG-330.
9.1.2 Certified Individual
In accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, a Certified Individual employed by
the Fabricator is responsible for ASME certification.
9.1.3 Authorized Inspector
In accordance with Code Section X, an Authorized Inspector who is
registered with the NB shall be responsible for the certification.
9.1.4 Purchasers Inspector
The Purchasers inspector shall be responsible for inspecting the vessel in
accordance with the Purchasers Quality Overview Plan in Appendix D.

Process Industry Practices Page 31 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

9.2 Resin Cure Tests


All resin cure tests shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Paragraph 6-910,
and the following requirements:
9.2.1 Barcol Hardness Tests
One week after manufacture, all fabricated equipment shall be cured to a
minimum of 90% of the resin manufacturers recommended Barcol hardness
for fully cured laminates.
9.2.1.1 Post curing may be required to attain the required hardness.
9.2.1.2 Barcol hardness values of laminates containing organic or carbon
fiber surfacing veils can be 3 to 5 points less than those specified.
9.2.1.3 Values measured when the vessel temperature is greater than 70 F
can also be lower. Cooling of the surface may be necessary to obtain
specified values.
9.2.1.4 A light sanding of the surface to remove the paraffin layer may also
be required to lower the readings.
9.2.1.5 Barcol hardness tests shall be determined in accordance with ASTM
D2583 for Code Section X vessels or in accordance with Paragraph
6-910 for ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels.
9.2.2 Acetone Sensitivity Tests
9.2.2.1 For polyester and vinyl ester resin vessels, all potential air-inhibited
cure surfaces shall be checked for acetone sensitivity.
9.2.2.2 A tacky surface after application of acetone indicates an undercured
laminate. To correct this nonconformity, the surface shall be
recoating with a paraffinated wax topcoat.

9.3 Laminate Thickness Checks


9.3.1 The thickness of laminates shall be checked in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Paragraph 6-920, or Code Section X, Paragraph RG-141.
9.3.2 A spot check of all pressure containing laminates shall be performed.
9.3.3 Permissible thickness tolerances shall be in accordance with the applicable
standard.

9.4 Laminate Visual Acceptance Checks


9.4.1 All laminates shall be checked visually in accordance with ASME/ANSI
RTP-1, Paragraph 6-940, or Code Section X, Paragraph RG-141.
9.4.2 The acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Table 6-1 equipment or for Code Section X, Appendix 6, Table 6-100.1 or
Table 6-100.2 for structural laminates.
9.4.3 Unless the Purchaser has declared the vessel to be in critical service,
corrosion liners shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Table 6-1,
for Level 2 laminates. If critical service is declared on the UBRS, the
laminates shall meet Level 1 requirements.

Page 32 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

9.4.4 The maximum permissible air entrapment density for ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Table 6-1, Level 1 and Level 2 laminates shall be 10 bubbles per square inch
(6.45 square centimeters) for the corrosion liner.
9.4.5 For ASME/ANSI RTP-1 structural laminates, the maximum density shall be
10 bubbles per square inch (6.45 square centimeters) for bubbles 1/16 inch
(1.5 mm) and smaller or 4 bubbles per square inch (6.45 square centimeters)
for bubbles larger than 1/16 inch (1.5 mm).
9.4.6 The criteria for foreign inclusions in the corrosion liner shall be a maximum
dimension of 1/32 inch (0.75 mm) with a maximum density of 1 particle per
square foot (929 square centimeters) for both Level 1 and Level 2 laminates.
9.4.7 Thermoplastic liners shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Appendix M-14, Table M14E-1, Lining Visual Inspection Acceptance
Criteria.

9.5 Laminate Physical Property and Proof Tests


If specified in the UBRS or when ASME/ANSI RTP-1 equipment is field-
fabricated or designed for pressures 2 psig (13.7 kPa) and greater, the
physical property tests of fully-cured specimens described in this Section
shall be conducted by a qualified and experienced independent laboratory
using ASTM test methods:
9.5.1 Test Specimen Preparation
9.5.1.1 Test specimens shall be a full thickness of the laminate as produced
and not be machined on the surface.
9.5.1.2 Test specimens shall be marked with the Purchasers equipment
number and sample location so that results can be correlated to the
specific production piece sampled.
9.5.1.3 Specimens prepared from shell cutouts less than 16 feet (4.87 m) in
diameter shall be cut in the axial direction of the cylinder to
minimize specimen curvature.
9.5.1.4 Specimens prepared from filament-wound shells 16 feet (4.87 m) or
more in diameter shall be cut and tested in both the hoop and axial
directions.
9.5.1.5 Specimens prepared from flat laminates shall have their long axis
parallel to the warp of the woven roving.
9.5.1.6 Depending on thickness, tensile test specimens shall be Type I or
Type III, in accordance with ASTM D638, Figure 1.
9.5.1.7 Flexural test specimens shall be Type I in accordance with ASTM
D790. For thicknesses greater than 0.230 inch (5.84 mm), specimen
dimensions shall be interpolate to the nearest 0.062 inch (1.5 mm).
9.5.1.8 Edge compressive test specimens shall be in accordance with
ASTM D695, Paragraph 6.2. For thicknesses less than 0.525 inch
(13.3 mm), specimens may be plied to approximately 0.525 inch

Process Industry Practices Page 33 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

(13.3 mm). The ends of compressive test specimens shall be milled


flat and true at 90 degrees to the surface plane of the specimens.
9.5.2 Testing Specimens
9.5.2.1 Tensile properties shall be determined on specimens in triplicate in
accordance with ASTM D638, speed B (0.20 inch (5.08 mm) per
minute).
9.5.2.2 A load extension plot shall be made and the chart speed recorded.
9.5.2.3 All flexural tests shall be made with the liner face of the laminate
in compression (under the loading nose).
9.5.2.4 If edge compression properties are required, three specimens shall be
tested in accordance with ASTM D695.
9.5.2.5 Test reports shall be provided in duplicate to the Purchaser.
9.5.2.6 Test reports shall include all pertinent details in accordance with the
Report section of the applicable ASTM test method. Load-elongation
and load-deflection plots shall be included.

9.6 Laminate Reinforcement Content Tests


9.6.1 Reinforcing sequence shall be checked by visual means at nozzle cutouts and
joint edges.
9.6.2 If a visual check is not practical, a burnout test shall be made on three
specimens in accordance with ASTM D2584.
9.6.3 The guidelines given in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Paragraph 6-930, shall be
followed.

9.7 Hydrostatic Test


9.7.1 A hydrostatic test to check for leaks shall be performed on all liquid-filled
equipment.
9.7.2 Flat sidewall deflection shall not exceed 1/2 percent of span during the
hydrotest.
9.7.3 Test pressure shall be 1.1 times the design pressure at the top of vessel in the
installed position.
9.7.4 All testing shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Paragraph 6-950,
or Code Section X, Article RT-6.
9.7.5 Test Water
9.7.5.1 Hydrostatic testing of vessels shall be performed with water that is
clean and free of debris.
9.7.5.2 Potable water is acceptable for fiberglass equipment.
9.7.5.3 Brackish or untreated water shall not be used.
9.7.5.4 Test water in contact with austenitic stainless steel internals shall
have a maximum chloride content of 50 ppm.

Page 34 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

9.7.5.5 If the test water will be in contact with stainless steel internals for
more than 72 hours, the water shall be treated with an appropriate
biocide to prevent biologically induced corrosion of stainless steel.
9.7.5.6 The Fabricator shall provide all facilities and materials (e.g., blinds,
bolting, and gaskets).
9.7.6 Test Temperature
Before applying the test pressure, the test water and vessel material shall be
permitted to equalize to approximately the same temperature.
9.7.7 Hold Time
Unless otherwise specified, the final hydrostatic test pressure shall be held
for a minimum of one hour.
9.7.8 Post Test Requirements
After completion of the hydrostatic test, the vessel shall be drained, dried,
and closed as quickly as practicable. This includes drying internals.
9.7.9 Field Test
If field assembly/erection is required, the hydrostatic test shall take place on
the Users site. The Fabricator shall provide a detailed test procedure to the
Purchaser for review before testing.
9.7.10 Horizontal Vessels
Horizontal vessels shall be designed to support a full weight load of water.
Horizontal vessels shall be tested while resting on its support saddles without
additional supports or cribbing.
9.7.11 Tall Vertical Vessels
Tall vertical vessels shall be tested in the installed position in accordance
with ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X. These vessels shall be
adequately supported during the test to prevent damage. A field hydrostatic
test is usually required in cases where the vessel is supported by lugs or ring
supports in steelwork.
9.7.12 Flanged Joints
9.7.12.1 Any flanged joint for which the service gasket is to be provided by
the Fabricator and which will not be disassembled after testing shall
be tested with the specified service gasket.
9.7.12.2 If the joint is to be disassembled after testing and employs flanges
in accordance with ASME B16.5, the test gasket may be selected by
the Manufacturer subject to the limitations in Sections 9.7.12.4,
9.7.12.5 and 9.7.12.6.
9.7.12.3 If the service gasket is not specified and the joint is to be
disassembled after testing and employs nonstandard flanges
(i.e., other than in accordance with ASME B16.5), the test gasket
shall be as specified by the Purchaser.

Process Industry Practices Page 35 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

9.7.12.4 In no case shall the nominal thickness of sheet or laminate


gasketing be less than 1/8 inch (3 mm).
9.7.12.5 Unless otherwise specified, joint sealing compound or gasket
lubricant shall not be permitted.
9.7.12.6 Flanged joint assemblies specified to be furnished with service
gaskets (e.g., main shell joints, manways, and blind flanged
nozzles) and disassembled following tests shall be reassembled
using new service gaskets. If such joints are shipped unassembled,
new service gaskets for field installation shall be suitably packaged,
marked, and shipped with the vessel (see Section 10.2.3).

9.8 Pneumatic Test


9.8.1 In cases where a hydrostatic test is not feasible, vessels built to ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 or Code Section X shall be pneumatically tested to 1.1 times the
design pressure.
9.8.2 Because of the inherent danger of pneumatically testing a relatively non-
ductile material, extreme caution shall be taken if conducting this test.
9.8.3 All pneumatically tested vessels shall be remotely monitored by acoustic
emission examination during the test.
9.8.4 After the vessel has been brought up to the test pressure and held for 30
minutes minimum, the pressure shall be reduced to 80% of test pressure or
less and all nozzles and manway joints shall be checked for leaks.
9.8.5 The purchase order shall specify if pneumatic testing is required in the field
at the Owners site. A detailed test procedure for pneumatic testing shall be
submitted in writing for the Purchasers approval before performing the test.

9.9 Vacuum Test


9.9.1 As required in ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X, all vessels designed
for vacuums below 6 inches of water column (1.47 kPa) shall be vacuum
tested as well as hydrostatically tested.
9.9.2 The vacuum test shall be performed after the hydrostatic test.
9.9.3 If the vessel is designed only for vacuum, it shall be vacuum tested with
acoustic emission monitoring.

9.10 Acoustic Emission Test


9.10.1 ASME/ANSI RTP-1 vessels designated in critical service and all Code
Section X Class II vessels shall have an acoustic emission examination
performed during the hydrostatic test.
9.10.2 The testing shall be conducted by a qualified independent testing agency
approved by the Purchaser.
9.10.3 The acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Appendix M-10, or Code Section X, Article RT-6.

Page 36 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

9.10.4 Test procedures and equipment shall be in accordance with Code Section V,
Article T-11.

9.11 Sample Cutouts


9.11.1 If required by the purchase order, all cutouts from vessel laminates shall be
marked to identify the equipment number and sample location and shall be
retained for the Purchasers inspection.
9.11.2 Cutouts shall be the property of the Owner.
9.11.3 Cutouts shall be retained at the Fabricators facility for six months minimum
after shipment, unless instructed otherwise by the Owner.
9.11.4 The extent to which cutouts shall be used for mechanical property testing
shall be in accordance with the UBRS or the purchase order.

10. Shipping

10.1 Cleaning and Painting or Pigmentation


10.1.1 The tank or vessel shall be cleaned inside and outside and shall be free of oil,
grease, marking compounds, mold release agents, grinding dust, stray glass
fibers, and general shop soil. The interior shall be dried after testing and
cleaning.
10.1.2 After all internal and exterior laminate quality inspections have been
completed, the vessel shall be painted or pigmented with an exterior resin
coat in accordance with the UBRS.
10.1.3 Any exterior carbon steel surfaces (e.g., holddown clips, ladders, platforms,
and handrails) shall be prepared and painted or galvanized in accordance
with the UBRS.
10.1.4 To protect from rust, exterior alloy steel bolting shall be coated with a
lubricant, galvanized or PTFE-coated.

10.2 Preparation for Shipment


10.2.1 Nozzle Covers
10.2.1.1 Blind flanged connections, including manways, shall have the
blinds attached with a full complement of new bolts. These bolts
may have been used for the hydrostatic test.
10.2.1.2 All nozzles shall be provided with covers.
10.2.1.3 All flange faces other than those furnished with permanent blinds
shall be covered with 1/2 inch (12 mm) thick wood or 1/8 inch
(3 mm) thick steel plate no smaller than the flange outside diameter.
10.2.1.4 The cover shall be secured with a minimum 25% (but no fewer than
four) complement of bolts.

Process Industry Practices Page 37 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

10.2.2 Internals
10.2.2.1 If any internals cannot be safely shipped in place, the internals shall
be assembled in the vessel to assure the internals fit properly in
accordance with any specified clearances or tolerances.
10.2.2.2 After the trial assembly is completed, the internals shall be
removed, identified, tagged, and shipped separately.
10.2.3 Accessories
10.2.3.1 All bolting and other loose parts shall be suitably packaged and
labeled with the purchase order number.
10.2.3.2 Uncoated bolts and nuts shall be coated with a suitable thread
lubricant to prevent corrosion during transportation and storage.
10.2.3.3 The thread lubricant shall be easily removable with mineral spirits
or a solvent.

10.3 Handling and Lifting


Impact or excessive distortion can cause cracking or crazing of the laminate structure.
Therefore, the following recommended handling and lifting recommendations in
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 shall be followed:
10.3.1 Vertical fiberglass vessels shall be provided with lifting and/or tailing lugs
for moving or repositioning.
10.3.2 Vessels shall not be rolled, slid, dropped, or thrown.
10.3.3 All shop-built vessels and tanks shall be provided with metal lifting lugs
designed by the Fabricator for a shock factor of 1.8.
10.3.4 If lifting lugs are not provided, woven fabric rigger-slings of 3-inch (75 mm)
width minimum shall be used for lifting cylindrical vessels in a horizontal
position.
10.3.5 Open-end equipment (e.g., open top tanks) shall be provided with internal
cross bracing or external structure to prevent damage from distortion during
handling and transporting.
10.3.6 For lifting an uncrated and unskidded open-end vessel in a vertical position,
a spreader bar shall be used to prevent damage from excessive distortion.
10.3.7 If a spreader bar is required for proper lifting, a stenciled notation to that
effect shall be applied to the vessel in a prominent location before shipment.
10.3.8 Woven fabric rigger-slings of 3-inch (75 mm) minimum width and adequate
strength shall be used for lifting fiberglass vessels. The slings shall be used in
direct contact with the vessel.
10.3.9 Unpadded chains or cables shall not be wrapped around a fiberglass vessel
for lifting.
10.3.10 Lifting cables and/or straps shall not be attached to or permitted to come in
contact with nozzles, flanges, gussets, or accessories other than lifting lugs.

Page 38 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

10.3.11 If a vessel is being lifted, a guideline shall be attached to prevent impact


damage caused by swing contact with other objects.

10.4 Temporary Storage


10.4.1 As recommended in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, fiberglass vessels shall be placed on
shipping cradles or dunnage resting only on firm level surfaces during
storage or repositioning.
10.4.2 Vessels shall not be rested on stones, tools, chocks, or other small hard
objects.
10.4.3 If stored outdoors, vessels shall be adequately tied down to prevent
movement from wind or water flotation.
10.4.4 Closed vessels shall not be completely sealed.
10.4.5 If a large open-end vessel is stored in a horizontal position, bracing shall be
provided at the open end to prevent excessive distortion. One cross brace
with suitably padded end plates to distribute the load shall be installed
perpendicular to the surface on which the vessel is resting.

10.5 Shipping Protection


Cylindrical vessels that are being shipped shall be protected in accordance with the
recommendations of ASME/ANSI RTP-1:
10.5.1 Vessels shipped horizontally shall be mounted on padded cradles. These
cradle saddles shall have 120 degrees minimum arc and be at least as wide in
inches as the vessel measures in feet of diameter. The cradles shall be placed
as close as possible to the top and bottom heads and/or other stiffened areas
of the vessel.
10.5.2 Vessels shall be secured to the truck or railcar with padded banding straps
that are properly fastened to the bed of the vehicle. Vessels shall also be
blocked at the ends to prevent shifting in transit. The blocks shall be padded
and bear only on the knuckle radius of the flat or dished heads.
10.5.3 Railcar transportation shall be avoided whenever possible. If railcar
transportation is necessary, a cushioned end car shall be used.
10.5.4 Road trailers shall be of the airride suspension type.
10.5.5 Vessels being shipped in a vertical position shall be secured to a pallet or
skid, then fastened to the bed of the vehicle with padded banding.
10.5.6 Small vessels being shipped in an enclosed trailer shall be completely crated
with padded blocking between the vessel and the inside of the crate.
10.5.7 Vessels shall be secured to the vehicle with 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) or greater
clearance between the vessel (including external fittings, nozzles, and other
projections) and the bed of the truck or railcar.
10.5.8 Small vessels may be shipped on pallets or skids to permit handling by
forklift truck.

Process Industry Practices Page 39 of 41


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

10.5.9 If two or more separate units are shipped together, sufficient clearance shall
be provided between units to prevent contact during transit.

11. Receipt and Installation


This Section provides guidance to the User, as given in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, on proper receipt
and installation fiberglass equipment.

Note: This guidance is not the responsibility of the Fabricator unless the Fabricator also
installs the equipment.

11.1 Receiving Inspection


11.1.1 Before removal from the truck, trailer, railcar, or shipping container, the
vessel shall be inspected to determine if damage was incurred during transit.
11.1.2 If damage is observed, the carrier representative shall be notified
immediately and the unloading operation shall be delayed until the carrier
representatives inspection has been completed.
11.1.3 The receiving inspection shall include a complete check for the following:
a. External surface damage such as cuts, penetrations, delaminations, or
fractured areas
b. Nozzle damage such as broken nozzles, broken flanges, or gouged flange
faces
c. Internal surface damage such as crazing-white areas with star-shaped
surface cracks
d. Vessel damage at contact points of dunnage, cradles, chocks, or
holddown strap bands

11.2 Installation
During installation of fiberglass vessels and tanks, the following considerations shall
be given to ensure adequate service:
11.2.1 To avoid localized damage during storage or repositioning, fiberglass vessels
shall be placed only on firm level surfaces that are free of stones, tools, or
other small hard objects.
11.2.2 The support base surface for flat-bottom tanks shall be nonporous and free of
cracks, depressions, and vertical projections. Reinforced concrete with a
trowel finish is often used as a support base. The support base shall be flat
within 1/4 inch (6 mm) of a horizontal plane; if sloped, the support base shall
not have projections greater than 1/4 inch (6 mm) above the surface plane.
11.2.3 Flat-bottom tanks shall be set on a cushioning pad to minimize stresses
caused by seams, shrinkage distortions, and/or support base or vessel bottom
irregularities. The pad shall be 1/2 inch (12 mm) thick, closed cell
elastomeric sponge material of suitable composition with a compression
deflection range of 5 to 9 psi (34.5 to 62 kPa) or 1/2 inch (12 mm) asphalt-
impregnated felt. Resin or cement grout, petroleum base mastic/sand mortar,

Page 40 of 41 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

or other suitable conforming material which will cushion the vessel bottom
over surface irregularities of the support base or tank bottom may also be
used.
11.2.4 If the vessel has a bottom drain, the support base shall be notched to provide
clearance with the nozzle flange or reinforcement.
11.2.5 If the support base has a trench to accommodate bottom discharge piping,
a structural grating trench cover shall be installed flush with the top of the
support base to minimize any unsupported area of the tank bottom.
11.2.6 To prevent nozzle damage due to piping strains, flexible connectors shall be
used to connect metallic piping that is 2 inches (50 mm) and larger to vessel
nozzles.
11.2.7 Valves attached directly to vessel nozzles may need to be independently
supported so that weight and torque forces will not be transmitted into the
nozzle.
11.2.8 Flanged piping connections shall use flat face flanges with full face gaskets.
If a raised face piping flange must be connected to a flat face fiberglass
flange, a blocking ring spacer shall be utilized (see ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
Figure NM9-2). Metal washers shall be used under all bolt heads and nuts.
All bolts or studs shall be well lubricated before tightening. Do not exceed
the Fabricators recommended torque when tightening the bolting. Tighten in
a sequence as shown in ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figure NM9-3.
11.2.9 Vertical or side-entering agitation equipment shall be supported
independently from the vessel to prevent excessive vibration that might
damage the nozzle or vessel wall.
11.2.10 Provision shall be made to prevent the vessel contents from freezing.
A positive venting arrangement shall also be provided, such as a
conservation vent, relief valve, or open vent sized to prevent the maximum
allowable working internal and external pressure from being exceeded.
11.2.11 Storage tanks shall have overflows as large as any inlet nozzle. Roof nozzles
shall not be used as overflows on flat-bottom storage tanks as required by
ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Paragraphs 5-400(b) and 5-400(c).

Process Industry Practices Page 41 of 41


APPENDIX A

Fabricators Design Report


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

APPENDIX A

Fabricators Design Report

The Fabricators Design Report, in accordance with Paragraph 1-300 of ASME/ANSI RTP-1,
or Paragraph RG-321 of Code Section X, shall contain at least the following data:
1. Design Calculations
2. Fabrication Drawings
3. Certification by a registered professional engineer of the above two items for ASME/ANSI
RTP-1 vessels and Code Section X Class II vessels
4. Final copy of the UBRS updated with all fabrication changes
The following are required only in a Code Section X Fabricator's Design Report:
1. Material manufacturers specification sheets for resin, fiber reinforcement, promoters,
catalyst, and other components used in laminate construction
2. Procedure Specification for all laminates
3. Properly certified Form RP-2 for parts of the vessel fabricated by other fabricators
4. Qualification Test Report for Class I vessels
5. Records of Quality Control Test Reports
6. Production Test Report

Page A-2 Process Industry Practices


APPENDIX B

Documentation Schedule
PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

APPENDIX B

Documentation Schedule

Equip. No. ___________________________ P.O. No. ____________________________ S.O.


No.___________________________
Equip. Description _________________________________________________________________________________________________
Project Engineer __________________________________________ Phone No.
_________________________________________

"WKS" Column = Number Of Weeks Required From P.O. Date


"P" Column = Number Of Legible Prints Required
"T" Column = Number Of Transparencies Required
(2)
WITH BID FOR APPROVAL FINAL CERTIFIED DATA WITH ALLOW FOR USER
(3)
BOOKS EQUIP APPROVAL
ITEM T P WKS T P WKS T P WKS P P WEEKS FROM
RECEIPT OF DATA

Current UBRS

Vessel Outline Dimensions

Vessel Details

Vessel Structural Attachments


For Ladders, Platforms, etc.

Foundation and Support


Loadings

All Laminate Sequences with a


Legend

Nondestructive Exam. &


Post Cure Procedures

Design Calculations

Shipping Diagram & Rigging


Instructions

Fabricator's Data Package


(See Sheet 2)

Fabrication Sequence &


Schedule

Sub Vendor/Supplier List

Progress Report (Monthly)

NOTES:
1. Drawings and data are to be mailed to ____________________________________ unless submitted with quotation.
2. Final certified drawings are to be submitted within 2 weeks of receipt of Approved or Approved As Noted prints.
3. All data shall be supplied before submission of invoice.
4. All questions of a technical nature shall be directed to __________________________________________________.
5. Reproducibles and original film drawings shall not be folded for mailing.
6. Each copy of all data (e.g., Drawing Sheets, manuals) shall be certified by Fabricator. Equipment or instrument Tag
Number and Purchase Order Number shall be written or typed on the face of each copy.

Page B-2 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Fabricators Data Package

The Fabricators Data Package shall include:


1. Final certified assembly and fabrication detail drawings as described in this Appendix
2. Fabricators Design Report (see Appendix A)
3. Post cure charts (time/temperature record)
4. Pressure test charts (time/pressure/water temperature record)
5. Non-destructive examination records and reports
6. Nameplate facsimile
7. Copies of all material log sheets, including material certifications and lot numbers
8. Copies of all inspection checklists or travelers
9. Copies of any certified laminate or proof tests required
10. Description of non-conformities accepted by the User, if any
11. Required bolt preload for custom flanges
12. Any other documentation required in the UBRS

Process Industry Practices Page B-3


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Fabricators Drawing Information

The Fabricator shall provide certified assembly and working drawings for all vessels and tanks.
Fabricator's drawings shall have the same designation for nozzles, manways, skirt openings, and
column trays as shown on Purchaser's drawings. Drawings shall be complete and shall include, but
not necessarily be limited to, the following information:

1. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure and coincident maximum design temperature (internal
and external, if applicable) (see Section 7.2)
2. Minimum Design Temperature and coincident Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
(see Section 7.3)
3. Reference to ASME RTP-1 or Section X, Edition, and Addenda. Include any Code Cases used
and special service restrictions.
4. Special service notes (e.g., for Critical Corrosive Service followed by a description of the
service)
5. National Board registration number (RP-stamped vessels)
6. Design specific gravity
7. Liner thickness and type
8. Secondary bonded joint details. All secondary bond overlays shall be detailed and identified by
use of standard symbols described in a drawing legend.
9. Nondestructive examination requirements
10. Post curing requirements
11. Hydrostatic, pneumatic, or vacuum test pressures, as applicable
a. Shop test in horizontal position (referenced to top of vessel)
b. Shop test in vertical position (referenced to top of vessel) (except for horizontal vessels)
c. Any Field in operating position (referenced to top of vessel)
12. Material specifications for all components and all attachments to components
13. Thickness and laminate sequences of all components.
14. All pertinent dimensions, including location of joints, knuckles, manways, nozzles and
projections, vessel supports, insulation supports, and any other information necessary for a
complete description of the vessel
15. Complete description of all vessel flanges (including both standard and custom-designed),
pressure bolting, and gaskets
16. Legend describing laminate sequence symbology
17. Sensitive leak tests, if any
18. Vessel support details
19. Surface preparation, painting, or other protective coating specifications
20. Estimated weight of vessel when empty, operating, and full of water
21. Design capacity of vessel (or each compartment) (in gallons or liters)
22. Full size reproductions of Fabricator and ASME nameplates as stamped by Fabricator

Page B-4 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

23. Purchaser's vessel identification number(s) and title


24. Reference to Purchasers specifications. Fabricator shall include on the drawings a reference to
all applicable codes, standards, and specifications (including all applicable PIP documents and
any applicable Fabricator standards). References shall include date of issue. When reference is
made to Fabricator's own standards, copies of such standards shall be included with the
submitted working drawings.
25. Special cleaning instructions and purging instructions, if applicable
26. Extent of any laminate sample testing requirements
27. Details of any thermoplastic lining. Include thickness, joint configuration and location, and
material specification, if applicable.
28. Wind and seismic zone design conditions
29. Recommended bolt torque for all flanges
30. Name of the User and Fabricator
31. Design fill level of liquid contents in the vessel or tank
32. Installation name and location
33. Full details of all attachments
34. Operating conditions, if given
35. Special fabrication tolerances
36. Nozzle schedule. Include nozzle mark, nozzle service (if designated), reference to nozzle
details on drawing, gusset type, and all dimensions shown on ASME/ANSI RTP-1, Figures 4-6,
4-8, 4-9, and 4-11, or Code Section X, Figures RD-620.1, RD-620.4, RD-620.5, and RD-620.6.

Special Notes
Fabricator's drawings shall also include the following notes as applicable:
1. Declaration of critical or lethal service (lethal services are prohibited in Code Section X)
2. Laminate defect level and maximum density of entrapped air

Process Industry Practices Page B-5


APPENDIX C

Fabrication Figures
APPENDIX D

Quality Overview Plan


for
RTP-1 and Section X Vessels
TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

APPENDIX D
Quality Overview Plan
ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X Vessels

Equip. No. _______________________________________ P. O. No. S. O. No.


Equip. Description
Project Engineer Phone No.
Inspection Contact Phone No.

Activities checked apply to the above item. In most cases, the Purchaser representative will require five (5) days notification to make
arrangements for hold point inspections.

QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION

REVIEW WITNESS INSPECT HOLD POINT REQUIRED

No. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

1. Resin identification

2. Acetone wipe test

3. Barcol Hardness test

4. Ultraviolet stabilizing record

5. Nozzle cutout specimens

6. Visual inspection of laminate quality

7. Post curing

8. Hydrostatic test and/or vacuum test

9. Acoustic emission test

10. External dimensional check -


orientation/elevation

11. Internal dimensional check

12. Laminate thickness

13. Out-of-roundness check

14. Shell wall taper check

15. Plumbness and squareness of


connections, supports, etc.

16. Flange drilling check

17. Flange bolt hole spot facing check

18. Flange face flatness check

19. Vessel bearing surface flatness check

Process Industry Practices Page D-1


PIP VESFG001 TECHNICAL REVISION
Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification March 2007
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Quality Overview Plan


ASME/ANSI RTP-1 and Code Section X Vessels

QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY DOCUMENTATION

REVIEW WITNESS INSPECT HOLD POINT REQUIRED

No. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

20. Knuckle radius of head-to-shell joint check

21. Non-slip surface on top head check

22. Radiusing of all corner joints check

23. Inspect nozzle joint secondary bond lay-up

24. Inspect secondary bond lay-up for attachments

25. Gusset installation and sealing

26. Bolt hole resin sealing check

27. Spark test of thermoplastic liner

28. Nameplate stamping and installation check

29. Final cleaning and shipping protection check

30. Check shop fit-up of field assembled items

31. Check match marking of field assembled items

32. Check proof test results

33. Release for shipment

34. Obtain Fabricators Data Report

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

Page D-2 Process Industry Practices


TECHNICAL REVISION PIP VESFG001
March 2007 Fiberglass Tank and Vessel Selection, Design, and Fabrication Specification
ASME RTP-1 and Section X

Quality Overview Notes


1. The Owner or the Owners Designated Agent will provide the Fabricator with a completed
Quality Overview Plan.
2. The Fabricator is to provide the Owner with the documents for review, witness/hold point
activity notification, and inspection opportunity as indicated by the Owner on the Plan, as
follows:
2.1 Review: Fabricator is to provide documentation, the review of which will allow the User
to verify that the referenced construction activity has been performed as specified.
Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
2.2 Witness: Fabricator is to notify Owner not later than five days before performing the
referenced construction activity so that the Owner may exercise the option to observe.
Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
2.3 Inspect: Fabricator is to provide Owner access to physically conduct internal/external
inspection of the referenced item. Other construction requirements may be
verified/audited.
2.4 Hold Point: Fabricator shall notify Owner not later than five days before performing the
referenced construction activity and shall receive authorization from the User before
performing the activity. Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
3. Some of the items in this Quality Overview Plan are covered elsewhere in this Practice.
4. If a work item is not checked, then there is no requirement to provide documentation or
notification to the Owner. However, the work item itself is still required to be performed if
specified elsewhere in this Practice, the Data Sheet, the purchase order, the Code, etc.

Process Industry Practices Page D-3

Оценить