Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

A TECHNICAL REPORT ON POST GRADUATE WORK

EXPERIENCE AND RESPONSIBILITY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

PRESENTED

BY

ALLI-OLUWAFUYI, MAKNUN OLORUNTOFARATI

(B.ENG. CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SUBMITTED TO THE

COUNCIL FOR THE REGULATION OF ENGINEERING IN NIGERIA

(COREN)

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR


REGISTRATION AS A MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL FOR THE
REGULATION OF ENGINEERING IN NIGERIA (COREN)

FEBRUARY 2016
CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that I, ALLI-OLUWAFUYI, MAKNUN OLORUNTOFARATI have written


this report myself and it is a true account of my training and work experience in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for admission into the corporate membership of the Council of
Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria.

--------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------
Signature of candidate and date Signature of Senior Engineer and
date

ALLI-OLUWAFUYI, MAKNUN O. ENGR. ABAYOMI


AWOSANYA
Name of Candidate Name of Senior Engineer
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to show gratitude to my current employers LuxxorGas, for giving me the privilege to
undertake the project that has been a focus of this report and to all my former employers who
gave me the opportunity to acquire these various civil engineering experiences. Particular
mention is Engr. Gabriel Ojo and Engr. Sanni of Sanni, Ojo & Partners who helped me
appreciate civil engineering during my six months internship at their firm. And lastly, to my
teacher, Professor A.A. Adedeji of Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin who
taught me Structures in the most beautiful way.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES
Acknowledgment
List of pictures
List of tables
List of figures
Summary

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 13
1.1 Brief history on personal experience
1.2 About LuxxorGas
1.3 Organisational culture

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Project Discussion
2.1 Introduction of the project design
2.2 Site construction
2.3 Gas Station site selection
2.4 Location of Gas Plant

CHAPTER THREE
1.0 Design discussion
2.0
LIST OF SYMBOLS
BS 8110 British Standards 8110
As Area of Steel
c concrete cover
b width of the section
fcu characteristic strength of concrete
fy characteristic strength of steel
h height of section
d effective depth of section
gk characteristics dead load
IL imposed load
LC = load combinations
LL live load
M moment due to ultimate load
qk characteristics live load
V shear force
v shear stress
WL wind load
Vc ultimate shear stress in concrete
Y high yield steel
N design load
ABSTRACT
It is a standard for prospective corporate members seeking admission into the Council of
Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) to have undergone four years of postgraduate
engineering experience, write and submit a report of experience of work after graduation. This
report is hereby presented by me.

The report is comprised of a summary of my post-graduate experience till date composed of


five chapters each detailing the various experiences I acquired over the period after graduation.
The experience covered in the various aspect of civil engineering includes:
1. Building Construction
2. Road construction
3. Piling
4. Gas Plant Development and Construction
5. Structural drawing and detailing
6. Project Management
7. Preparation of Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation.
CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

I graduated from the University of Ilorin after studying Civil Engineering and awarded a
Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng) degree. I started my career as an Engineering Supervisor with
Hydraform during my NYSC. I worked on a 200 unit residential estate with infrastructure.

The project was a mass housing residential estate in Kuje. The housing units were three
bedroom semi-detached built from lateritic blocks which required no mortar. This was an
innovative technology from south Africa. The blocks were producing my mixing 1 part of
cement to 8 parts of lateritic soil. For soils with high clay content, one part of sharp sand is
added. Water/Cement ratio is about 0.2. The mix is fed into a machine with top and bottom
molds. This compresses the mix to produce a block. Average weight of blocks is 10kg. There
were 200 housing units to be built along with road networks. While working on the project, I
was involved in the construction of 48 units out of which 12 were completed ready to be
habited.

I directly supervised using direct labour the construction of six unit bungalows, a 200m road, a
reinforced concrete reservoir, 2 overhead steel water tanks. I was also solely responsible for our
production facilities - which produced hydraform blocks, sandcrete blocks, concrete pavers and
concrete kerbs. In my stay ay at hydraform , I produced a total of about 200,000 hydraform
blocks, 50,000 kerbs and over 500,000 paving stones. I also headed a quality audit team which
was responsible for quality control of all concrete works on site. I attended a road construction
management course organized by the Nigerian Institute of Civil Engineers in Abuja.

In conjunction with my project manager, I designed the drainage and pavement structure of the
road and was solely responsible for the construction of a 200m road. Interlocking paving stones
were used as wearing course for the road. I carried out remedial works on a failed underground
water structure. In addition, I successfully supervised the construction, installation and
commissioning of a water plant for the estate.

Before leaving Hydraform, I completed trenching for electrical cabling, and piping from the
river (water source for the plant) to the water plant site of about 10km stretch across the site.
This work involved taking spot levels, transfer pump installations and erection of safety signs.
I proceeded to Kharrl Tech Engineering Nigeria Limited as a Projects Engineer, where I
successfully completed three bored pile installation projects and a shoreline protection project.
I was involved in pile design and construction. I was also involved in sheet pile production. A
manufacturing like process was adopted in the sheet pile production.
I presently work as a Project Manager with LuxxorGas, a subsidiary of The Luxxor Group. I
have oversight responsibility for all construction projects across the groups subsidiaries. I have
three projects on-going.

1.2 ABOUT LUXXORGAS


LuxxorGas L.L.C, is a privately owned company specialising in the distribution and
commercialisation of Natural Gas in West Africa. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of The
Luxxor Group.
We serve the market a cheaper, cleaner, more sustainable alternative fuel. Our Services are
aligned to the Nigerian Federal Government's efforts to increase domestic Natural Gas
utilisation as an alternative energy source to the more costly, overwhelmingly imported fuel
oils, which negatively impact the local economy.

We are committed to continually introducing innovations that have, and will change the face of
the Industry. LuxxorGas views every Natural Gas distribution challenge as one more
opportunity for an exciting and comprehensive solution. Our proprietary delivery mechanisms
are only part of the answer to the sustainability related problems that continue to challenge the
Energy industry at large.

Our corporate philosophy and business model is centered on the core belief that investment in
innovation, progressive development and consistent implementation is the key to success.
While our company takes pride in its past successes, our unwavering corporate focus continues
to look towards the new and dynamic natural gas opportunities of the future.

1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


The Group CEO has the overall responsibility for the company. The project management team
is headed by the Project Manager who assigns project developers, engineers and
superintendents to the various projects. Find the organogram attached in Appendix 1.

CHAPTER 2
2.0 PROJECT INTRODUCTION
This section explains in details one of my designs and built project I undertook after graduating
from the Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University
of Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria.
This design involves the design of a reinforced concrete isolated pad foundation manually with
use of the text book Reinforced Concrete, Analysis and Design by S.S. Ray, BE (Cal), CEng,
FICE, MBGS.

The design calculation was carried out manually and structural details presentation was drawn
with the use of AUTOCAD.

This project is based on a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Plant development and construction
for LuxxorGas Nigeria.

2.1 Project Purpose


This project has been created to supply gas to meet internal demand for use in power generation,
and also to enter the untapped segment of CNG processing and distribution in the gas market in
Nigeria.

The business objectives for this project are in direct support of The Luxxor Groups corporate
strategic plan to streamline process across its subsidiary groups.
Distribution of Compressed Natural Gas (Methane/Pipeline Gas) to stranded assets
which are off pipeline networks
Enabling wider access to cleaner, cheaper more sustainable natural gas
Strategically place CNG in the automotive market place as a verifiable alternative to
conventional fuel sources including Petrol and Diesel.

2.2 Project Description


The project is to develop a CNG Mother Station in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria with a capacity of
producing 866.44 MMSCF/year of gas in the first year and increased to 8,385.00 MMSCF/year
by the 5th year. The project will be used to supply internal demands for gas which will account
for 35% of production in the first year. The excess production will be commercialised by serving
areas that have no access to pipeline gas using our proprietary distribution network which is also
part of this project. The distribution network will make use of trailers, trucks and barges to
distribute CNG to areas with no pipeline accessibility.

2.3 Project Duties and Responsibilities


I am the Project Manager and Technical Lead for this project and have ultimate responsibility
for the project. The project involves the design, construction, commissioning and transfer of
operation of a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Mother Station. My main duty and
responsibility as a project manager was to manage all phases of the project up to handing over
for operations. Other duties I effectively carried out include the following:
- Site assessment and selection
- Commercial negotiations with land owners
- Site recommendation for onward purchase
- Selection of design professionals
- Co-ordination of all design activities
- Selection of equipment vendors and material suppliers
- Assembly of project team
- Assignment of roles and responsibilities to team members
- Co-ordination of activities with external agencies Ministry of Works, Town Planning,
Fire Agency, Police etc.
- Direct supervision of construction works
- Engineering Design of pavement structure
- Implementing QA/QC program
- Chief Safety Officer
- Direction of project management activities

The project deliverables are as follows:


- Trailer park
- Compressor building
- Piping system
- Fencing
- Drainage
- Compressors Installation
- PRMS (Pressure Reducing Metering Station) Installation

2.4 PROJECT SCOPE OF WORK


- Designs
- Soil Tests
- Equipment/Materials Procurements
- Project/Construction Management
- Contracts Management
- Gas Piping System
- Testing and Commissioning of the Gas Station

2.5 GAS STATION SITE SELECTION


Different sites were visited prior to final selection. Sites were assessed based on the following
criteria:
- Proximity to gas pipeline route
- Site accessibility
- Absence of encumbrance
- Site Topography
- Property Title Documents
- Final Acceptance by Gas-Line Franchisor

The site was selected based on certain criteria which include proximity to a natural gas
pipeline, easy trailer access to site, traffic considerations etc. An Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) was carried out and approved by the planning authority.

2.6 GAS PLANT DESCRIPTION


A CNG Mother Station, is a gas processing facility which off takes gas from the pipeline,
compresses it using mechanical compressors and then transfers it in skids or tubes that are
loaded and transported using trailers.

Natural gas is transmitted through pipelines at low pressures from the gas fields in Escravos.
The natural gas is thereafter processed at the Mother Station by compressing at high
pressures. The term Mother Station refers to a compressing station, where gas is processed.
A Daughter Station on the other hand - mostly located at client sites - is a downloading
station where compressed natural gas is decanted from the gas trucks.

A valve is connected at the take-off point located in a valve pit. The valve-pit is a manhole for
the pipe connection.

2.7 PROJECT DESIGN CONSIDERATION


The overall design consideration was to design a gas compression station that gives most value
and least cost. Value Engineering was done on all designs. This was done by seeking second
opinions from equally qualified design professionals and subsequently getting the designer to
meet with the constructor/contractor prior to starting works. The main structure is a
compressor building which houses the compressors. The compressors are heavy mechanical
equipment used in natural gas compression. Other structures include the office building,
generator and gate houses, trucking bay, car park area and a piping system.

Other design considerations include, storm water drainage, slip proof easily maintained
pavement structure, long span high clearance building, transparent fencing etc.

Site layout designed was carried out by me in conjunction with the gas project development
team. This formed the basis of the design brief subsequently transmitted to the Architect.
Structural design of steel frame, M&E Services, ICT were outsourced to external consultants..
The project design can be sub-divided as follows,
- General Site Layout
- Architectural
- Civil/Structural
- Electrical
- Mechanical/HVAC
- ICT
- Gas Piping

2.8 SITE DESCRIPTION


The site covers 4,200 sq.m area of land located along Idiroko Road in Igboloye Village, Ota,
Ogun State. It is of a steep topography with maximum and minimum spot heights of xxx and
xxx respectively. Top soil is black organic soil with underlying firm lateritic soil of close to 2m
depth.

CHAPTER 3
3.0 DESIGN OBJECTIVE
The design objective was to design a structurally fit and economic isolated pad footing to
transfer the stanchion loads to the ground.

3.1 PROJECT DESIGN RESPONSIBILITY


Site layout was done by me taking into consideration international standards, guidelines and
regulations of CNG station development. The particular project to be discussed in this report is
the design of an isolated pad footing. I was solely responsible for this design and creation of its
BEME.
Structural design of steel frame for the compressor building was outsourced while I carried out
other designs which included pavement design, drainage design and the design of a retaining
wall submitted to the consultant engineer for review and approval.

3.2 BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENTS AND EVALUATION


I was solely responsible for carrying out BEME for the entire project. Civil engineering related
items of the project were estimated and billed by me. This include the following
- Earthworks
- Fencing
- Compressor Building
- Fencing
- Paving
- Trenching
Other non-civil related items were outsourced to their respective professionals. These include;
- M&E Services
- HVAC
-

3.3 LEARNING OUTCOME FROM THE DESIGN PROJECT


I learnt the various stages of the design process, gained a knowledge of the overall project
lifecycle and appreciated the practice of value engineering. I made use of BS8110 in the design
of the pad footing.

3.4 OVERALL DESIGN REPORTS


As this is an in-house project, I was appointed as the Project Manager with the sole mandate to
deliver the project.

3.5 SCOPE OF WORK


- Designs
- Soil Tests
- Topographical Survey
- Project/Construction Management
- Contract Management
- Installation of Piping System
- Testing and Commissioning of the Gas Station

3.6 DESIGN STANDARDS AND PARAMETERS


The design processes and parameters employed in this report are based on the applicable
British Standards Code of Practices as recommended by the Nigerian Society of Nigeria.
Particular BSI codes employed are BS 8002 and BS 8110.

3.7 DESIGN INFORMATION

Project Name and Location: CNG Mother Station, Ota, Ogun State

3.8 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE PAD WITH SINGLE COLUMN


3.8.1 Pad footing details
Length of pad footing; L = 1500mm
Width of pad footing; B = 1500mm
Area of pad footing; A = L B = 2.250m2
Depth of pad footing; h = 300mm
Depth of soil over pad footing; hsoil = 900mm
Density of concrete; conc = 24kN/m3
Column spacing = 5m x 6m on plan

3.8.2 Column details


Column base length; lA = 600mm
Column base width; bA = 600mm

3.8.3 Soil details


Suitable bearing stratum at 1200mm below ground level. Firm lateritic soil.
Density of soil; soil = 20.0kN/m3
Angle of internal friction; = 10.0deg
Design base friction; = 19.3deg
Allowable bearing pressure; Pbearing = 200kN/m2

3.8.4 Axial loading on column


Dead axial load on column; DL = 200.0kN
Imposed axial load on column; IL = 169.0kN
Total axial load on column; V = 369.0kN

3.8.5 Moment on column base


Total moment on column in x direction; Mx = 31.571kNm
Total moment on column in y direction; My = 31.571kNm

3.8.6 Foundation Type and Depth


Type: Reinforced concrete pad with single RC column
Depth: 1200mm below finished ground level

The depth was selected from considerations of:


Swelling of soil
Suitable bearing stratum
3.8.7 Size Approximation
Allowable bearing capacity = 200kN/m2
Maximum vertical load V = 369kN
Mx and My = 31.571kNm

31.571
Maximum eccentricity = ex = = = 0.08m
369

Assuming foundation pad dimension of 1.5m by 1.5m; A= 1.5m, B=1.5m

6ex = 0.48m A

= 7.32
200

3.8.8 Determine minimum thickness of pad


Assume concrete grade C25
= 0.8 , or 3N/mm2 (whichever is lesser) = = 0.825 = 4N/mm2

= 2( + ) = 2(600 + 600) = 2400


Total factored load from column
Nu = 1.4 x 200 + 1.6 x 169 = 550.4kN
550.4 103
= = 57.33
4 2400

1
1
[(12 + 42 )2 1 ] = 129.14mm
2

2400
where C1 = = = 400
6 6
550.4 103
C2 = 12 = = 101925.932
12 0.45
Assumed vc = 0.45N/mm2

Assume overall depth of pad of 300mm allowing for cover

3.8.9 Load combinations


Bearing pressure calculations
1 = 1.0 + 1.0
3 = 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0

where DL = dead load


IL = imposed load
WL = wind load
LC1: Combined vertical column load, N = 200 + 169 = 369kN
Hx = 0, Hy = 0, Mx = 0, My = 0

LC3: N = vertical load =369kN


Hx = 0kN My = 31.571kNm, Hy = 0, Mx = 0

Bending moment and shear calculations


5 = 1.4 + 1.6
6 = 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.2
7 = 1.4 + 1.4

5 : = 1.4 200 + 1.6 169 = 550.4


Hxu = 0, Hyu = 0, Mxu = 0, My = 0

6 : = 1.2 200 + 1.2 169 = 442.80


Hxu = 0 Hyu = 0 Mxu = 0My = 0

5 : = 1.4 200 + 1.6 169 = 550.4


Hxu = 0 Hyu = 0 Mxu = 0My = 0

3.8.10 Bearing pressure analysis


Weight of foundation = 2.252 0.30 24/3
= 16.2kN
Weight of backfill +ground slab = 2.252 0.90 20/3 + 2.252 0.2
24/3= 51.3kN
Surcharge on ground slab = 5kN/m2

Weight of surcharge on half foundation = 1.1252 52 = 5.625


Eccentricity of surcharge = 0.50m
Weight of surcharge on full foundation = 11.25kN
LC1: p = total vertical load
= 369 + 16.2 + 51.8 + 11.25
= 448.25kN

Bearing pressure under foundation


448.25
LC1: p= = 199.22 < 200kN/m2
2.25

3.8.11 Sliding resistance of foundation


P = 200 + 16.2 + 51.3 = 267.5kN (dead load only)
Ps = P tan = 267.5 x tan19.3 = 93.68kN
PH = qAtan + cA
= 267.5 x tan22 + 10 x 2.25
= 130.57kN > Ps = 93.68kN

3.8.12 Check combined sliding and bearing


P = 448.25kN
Pv = 200kN/m2 x 2.25m2 = 450kN
Hx = 0kN
PHx = 0kN
448.25 0
+ = +
450 0

= 0.9961 > 1 OK

3.8.13 Analysis of bearing pressure for bending moment and shear


LC5: NU = 550.4kN
PU = NU + 1.4(foundation + backfill) + 1.6 (surcharge on backfill)
= 550.4 + 1.4 x (16.2 + 51.3) + 1.6 x 11.25
= 662.9kN
Hxu = 0 Hyu = 0 Mxxu = 0 Myyu = 0

LC6: PU = NU + 1.2(foundation + backfill + surcharge)


= 550.4 + 1.2 x (16.2 + 51.3 + 5.625)
= 638.15kN
Myyu = My + Hxuh + M*yu
= 1.2 x 31.571 + 0 + 1.2 x 5.625 x 0.75 = 42.95kNm

LC7: PU = NU + 1.4(foundation + backfill) + 1.6 (surcharge o backfill)


= 550.4 + 1.4 x (16.2 + 51.3) + 1.6 x 11.25
= 662.9kN
Myyu = My + Hxuh
= 1.4 x 31.571 + 0
= 44.20kNm
3.8.14 Calculate bearing pressure for bending moment and shear

662.9
LC5: = = = 294.62/2
2.25

6
LC6: 1 = + 2

638.15 6 42.95
= +
2.25 3.375
= 283.622 + 76.36
= 359.98kN/m2
6
2 = 2

638.15 6 42.95
=
2.25 3.375
= 283.622 76.36
= 207.26kN/m2

3.8.15 Calculate bending moments and shears in pad

LC5: Downward load on pad = pd


pd = self-weight of pad + backfill + surcharge
Upward load on pad = pu
pu = pressure of ground on pad

pd = (0.30 x 24 + 0.90 x 20 + 0.15 x 24) x 1.4 + (5kN/m2) x 1.6


= 48.32kN/m2
pu = 294.62kN/m2 constant
Cantilever overhang at section 1-1 = 750 300 = 450mm = l
( )2
Bending moment at section 1 = 1 = 2
(294.6248.32)1.50.452
= = 37.41kNm
2

Shear at section 1 = 1 = ( )
= 246.3 x 1.5 x 0.45
= 166.25kN

Assume d = 150mm
Shear at section 2 = 2 = ( )( 0.150) = 110.84
Shear at section 3 = 3 = ( )( 2 0.150) = 55.42

76.360.3
LC6: Pressure at section 1-1 = 283.62 + = 314.16/2
0.75
pd = 1.2(0.30 x 24 + 0.9 x 20 + 0.15 x 24 + 5) = 91.44kN/m2

0.452
Bending moment = M1 = (314.16 91.44) 1.5 + (359.98 314.16) 0.5 0.45
2
2
1.5 3 0.45
=33.83 + 4.64 = 38.47kNm

3.8.16 Cover to reinforcement


Class of exposure = 3
Minimum cover = 50mm
Assume Y16
Effective depth d = 300 50 16 8 = 226mm

3.8.17 Area of tensile steel


Maximum bending on section 1-1
37.41 106
= = = 0.016
2 30 1500 2262


= [0.5 + (0.25 )] 0.95
0.9

0.016
= [0.5 + (0.25 )] = 0.98 > 0.95
0.9
Adopt 0.95d = 0.95 x 226 = 214.7mm

37.41 106
= =
0.87 0.87 460 214.7
= 435.39mm2
Provide 8 nos. 12mm dia. @ 250c/c (452mm2)

3.8.18 Distribution of tension reinforcement


Cx = Cy = 600mm
dx = 300 50 8 = 242mm
dy = 300 50 16 8 = 226mm

1.5(Cy + 3dy) = 1917mm


1.5(Cx + 3dx) = 1989mm

2 2
= 435.39 = 290.262
3 3

Reinforcement over central Cy + 3dy = 1278mm and Cx + 3dx = 1326mm


290.26
= = 227.122 /
1.278

Provide 7 nos. 10mm @ 250c/c (314mm2) over the central zone in each direction

3.8.19 Check shear stress



Check 1 = 1 0.8 5/2
.
= = 0.49N/2 < 0.87


Check 2 = 1 0.8 5/2
.
= = 0.33N/2

Ast = 7nos. 12mm dia. bars = 791.7mm2


Using larger d for calculation of p
100
=

100 791.7
= = 0.22%
1500 242
For fcu = 25N/mm2
vc = 0.42N/mm2
shear stress O.K.
3.8.20 Check punching shear
dx = 242mm dy = 226mm
d = 0.5 (242 + 226) = 234mm
U0 = 2(Cx + Cy) = 2(600 + 600) = 2400mm
U1 = (U0 + 12d) = 2400 + 12 x 234 = 5208mm

0 = 0.8 5/2

LC5: Nu = 550.4kN
550.4 103
= = 0.98/2 < 0.8
2400 234

1 = = 294.62 48.32 = 246.3/2


A1 = (Cx + 3.0dx)(Cy + 3.0dy)
= (600 + 3.0 x 242)(600 + 3.0 x 226) x 10-6
= (1326 x 1278) x 10-6
= 1.69m2
1 1
0 =
1
(550.4 246.3 1.69)
=
5208 234
= 0.11N/mm2 O.K.
vc = 0.42N/mm2

structural detailing of the pad footing can be found in Appendix3.


3.9 CONSTRUCTION OF PAD FOOTING
3.9.1 Site Preparation and Excavation

Foundation soils at the bottom of the base trench must be firm and solid. If the soils are made
up of heavy clay or wet soils, or the areas have been previously excavated, the entire material
must be removed and replaced with granular base compacting in 8 in. (200 mm) lifts or less. In
this case, the existing soil was firm lateritic soil and thus there was no need for soil
replacement.

All surface vegetation and organic soils were removed and carted away from site. 26 nos. base
trenches of 1.5m by 1,5m were excavated, leveled and compacted using a 5tons hand operated
roller.

Fig. 3.1 Profile board for compressor building. This is to serve as a guide in excavation works.

3.9.2 Concrete Blinding


A thin layer of concrete with mix ratio 1:3:6 was laid as blinding to achieve perfect level of the
excavated surface.

Fig. 3.2 Compaction of excavated trench Fig. 3.3 Concrete blinding of base pit

3.9.3 Placing of rebar


Concrete biscuits of 50mm thickness were tied to the rebar cage. The base cage was tied
outside the excavated pit and thereafter placed in the pit. Formwork was placed at the sides of
the pit and concrete was placed for the base. A construction key was provisioned at the
construction joint to ensure continuity between the base and the stub column.

Fig. 3.4 Typical column base reinforcement cage Fig. 3.5 Stub column reinforcement cages to be lowered into
excavated pit
Fig. 3.6Placing of the reinforcement cages in the trenches. Fig. 3.7 excavation of column base
The cages were aligned using lines tied on the profile board.

Fig. 3.8 Typical excavated column base


Fig. 3.9 Levels were taken to determine column heights.
for rebar and formwork.

3.9.4 Formwork

Fig. 3.10 Column boxes of 600 by 600 with depth corresponding to site levels at each column point.

3.9.5 Placing of concrete

Fig. 3.11 Fresh concrete mix Fig. 3.12 Arrangement of column rebar cages prior to casting of
column base
Fig. 3.13 Freshly placed base concrete Fig. 3.14 Typical finished concrete base

Fig. 3.15 Formwork lined with membrane to prevent Fig. 3.16 Alignment of formwork using string lines tied
seepage along formwork to the profile board

3.9.6 Curing
Formwork was left for a minimum of 7 days before removal. Columns were wetted daily for 21
days after formwork removal.

Fig. 3.17 Front view of completed stub columns Fig. 3.18 Side view of completed stub columns

Fig. 3.19 Completed concrete columns.

3.10 BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENTS AND EVALUATION (BEME)


This section details the creation of the BEME for the pad footing. It involves cost estimation
for each item of work concrete, rebar, formwork etc.

3.10.1 MATERIALS EXTRACTION


3.10.2 Reinforcement Extraction:
From bending schedule,
Numbers of Bars * cut length of Bar = Total length of Bars on any (Bar Mark)

(I). 12mm bar Bar mark 01 = 208 x 1800mm = 374400mm


Total length of 12mm bar is 374400mm, convert to meter length is
374400/1000 = 374.4m
1 length of standard reinforcement = 12m
Therefore: 374.4m/12m = 31.2 lengths: use 33 length

(II). 10mm bar Bar mark 02 = 208 x 1800mm = 374400mm


374400/1000 = 374.4m
1 length of standard reinforcement = 12m
Therefore: 374.4m/12m = 31.2 lengths: use 33 length
However, factors of constant used in converting round bar in kg is as specified here below;
Y10 = 0.617kg/m
Y12 = 0.888kg/m

Converting all bars into kg:


12mm bar = 374.4m x 0.888kg/m = 332.45kg = 333kg
10mm bar = 374.4m x 0.617kg/m = 231.00kg

3.10.3 Concrete Volume (1:2:4)


Column stub
volume = length x width x depth
Average width due to site topography = 2.1m
Col. Dimensions
L = 0.6m
W = 0.6m
D = 2.1m
For one column,
concrete volume = 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.1 = 0.756cu.m

Column stub
volume = length x width x depth
Average width due to site topography = 2.1m
Col. Dimensions
L = 0.6m
W = 0.6m
D = 2.1m
For one column,
concrete volume = 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.1 = 0.756cu.m
For 26 columns = 0.756 x 26 = 19.66cu.m

Column base
volume = length x width x depth
Base dimensions
L = 1.5m
W = 1.5m
D = 0.3m
For one base,
concrete volume = 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.3 = 0.675cu.m
For 26nos = 0.675 x 26 = 17.55cu.m
Total foundation concrete volume = 19.66 + 17.55 = 37.21cu.m

For a 1:2:4 concrete mix, therefore,


Multiply by 1.4 to compensate for shrinkage,
= 1.4 x 37.21 = 52.09m3
Add 10% wastage = 1.1 x 52.09
Adjusted vol. = 57.30m3
1
Cement = 7 57.303 = 8.12m3 of cements required
2
Sand = 7 57.303 = 16.37m3
4
Aggregate = 7 57.303 = 32.74m3

To convert all materials to kg, = m/v


Density of concrete 2400kg/m3
Density of sand, dry 1602kg/m3
Density of Portland cement 1506kg/m3
Density of crushed stone (granite broken) 1650kg/m3

Cement
= density of portland cement = 1506kg/m3
V = Volume = 8.12m3
M = Mass =?
= M/V
12228.72
M= x V = 1506kg/m3 x 8.12m3 = = 244.57 = approx. 245 bags of Cement
50
Sharp sand
= density of sharp sand = 1602kg/m3
V = 16.37m3
M =?
M = 1602kg/m3 x 16.37m3 = 26224.74kg

For a 20tons truck therefore,


26224.7
= = 1.311
20000

Granite ( Inch)
= density of granite = 1650kg/m3
V= 32.74m3
M= 1650kg/m3 x 32.74m3 = 54021kg

For a 30tons truck therefore,


54021
= = 1.80
30000

Water
Water/cement ratio of 0.5
Water required therefore is,
W/C = 0.5
Where W = quantity of water, C = quantity of cement
W = C* 0.5 = 12228.72 kg *0.5 = 6114.36kg or litres
Adopt 6200 litres

3.10.4 Concrete Volume (1:3:6) - Blinding


volume = length x width x depth
Base dimensions
L = 1.5m
W = 1.5m
D = 0.075m
For one base,
concrete volume = 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.075 = 0.16875cu.m
For 26nos = 0.16875 x 26 = 4.39cu.m

For a 1:3:6 concrete mix, therefore,


Multiply by 1.4 to compensate for shrinkage,
= 1.4 x 4.39 = 6.15m3
Add 10% wastage = 1.1 x 6.15
Adjusted vol. = 6.77m3
1
Cement = 10 6.773= 0.677m3 of cements required
3
Sand = 10 6.773 = 2.03m3
6
Aggregate = 10 6.773 = 4.06m3

To convert all materials to kg, = m/v


Density of concrete 2400kg/m3
Density of sand, dry 1602kg/m3
Density of Portland cement 1506kg/m3
Density of crushed stone (granite broken) 1650kg/m3

Cement
= density of portland cement = 1506kg/m3
V = Volume = 0.677m3
M = Mass =?
= M/V
1019.56
M= x V = 1506kg/m3 x 0.677m3 = = 20.39 = approx. 21 bags of Cement
50

Sharp sand
= density of sharp sand = 1602kg/m3
V = 2.03m3
M =?
M = 1602kg/m3 x 2.03m3 = 3252.06kg

For a 20tons truck therefore,


3252.06
= = 0.16
20000

Granite ( Inch)
= density of granite = 1650kg/m3
V= 4.06m3
M= 1650kg/m3 x 4.06m3 = 6699kg

For a 30tons truck therefore,


6699
= = 0,22
30000

Water
Water/cement ratio of 0.5
Water required therefore is,
W/C = 0.5
Where W = quantity of water, C = quantity of cement
W = C* 0.5 = 1019.56 kg *0.5 = 509.78kg or litres
Adopt 510 litres

3.10.5 Concrete Summary


Cement = 245 + 21 = 266bags
Sharp sand = 1.31 + 0.16 = 1.47 = 2trucks
Granite (1/2 inch) = 1.80 + 0.22 = 2.02 = 2trucks
Water = 6200 + 510 = 6710litres

3.10.6 Formwork
For one column,
Side area of stub column = (0.6 x 4 sides) x 2.1 = 5.04m2
For 26 columns,
= 5.04m2 x 26 = 131.04m2

Using 8ft by 4ft 1Inch marine board


Converting to metres = 2.44m by 1.22m
131.04
=
2.44 1.22
= 44 pieces
Provide for 50 pieces

BEME BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION FOR


ISOLATED PAD FOOTING CONSTRUCTION

S/N DESCRIPTION UNIT QUANTITY RATE AMOUNT


1 Mobilization SUM 300,000.00
2 Site Clearing SUM 120,000.00
3 Setting-out/excavation for
26 nos. column bases to a SUM 160,000.00
minimum depth of 1200mm
(1.5m by 1.5m)
4 Reinforcement cast in
plain in-situ concrete
12mm bar Length 208 1,250 260,000.00
10mm bar Length 208 1,150 239,200.00
5 Plain in-situ concrete
61.69m3
Cement Bags 266 1,950 518,700.00
Granite (1/2inch) 30tons 2 155,000 310,000.00
Sharp sand 20tons 2 70,000 140,000.00
Water litres 6710 10 67,100.00
6 Formwork for all sides of Nos. 50 9,000 450,000.00
stub column (marine boards)
7 Post construction cleaning SUM 60,000.00
8 Sub Total 2,625,000.00

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 DISCUSSION OF CNG PLANT CONSTRUCTION
4.1 DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT SCHEDULE
Prior to commencing the project, I developed a project management plan which included the
Project Schedule. This can be found in Appendix 2.

4.2 SITE CLEARING


The construction phase began with site clearing using a D8 Caterpillar Bull dozer. After site
clearing, the surveyor was called to re-establish the boundary beacons and carry out a
topographical survey of the site. This can be found in Appendix yyuy. In addition, temporary
benchmarks/reference points were established on the site. This served as a datum for all levels
to be taken on site.
Fig. 4.1 First site clearing operation Fig. 4.2 D7 Caterpillar Bulldozer in operation

Fig. 4.3 Site clearing using a D7 Caterpillar Bulldozer Fig. 4.4 Cleared site

4.3 EARTHWORKS
Final ground levels were determined and referenced to the established TBMs (temporary
benchmarks0. Suitable fill material was located from a nearby burrowed pit. 421 trips of 30 tons
of lateritic soil were deposited on the site to achieve the required fill. This was done in four
batches of a 100 trips each. After each batch, a grader was used to level the fill and compacted
immediately with an 18ton steel drum roller. The level of fill was limited to 20mm to ensure
proper compaction of the layers.

Fig. 4.5 Site clearing Fig. 4.6 Dumping of laterite fill


Fig. 4.7 Grading and compaction

4.5 DRAINAGE CONSTRUCTION


4.5.1 Excavation
Excavation for the drainage was done manually. The drainage was of two types trapezoidal
section and rectangular sections. The rectangular section was blinded with weak concrete 1:3:6.
The trapezoidal section due to absence of base reinforcement had a concrete overlay of 1:2:4
with 100mm thickness. The side slopes of the trapezoidal section were reinforced wit BRC
mesh. 50mm biscuits were attached to both sides of the mesh to provide cover at both surfaces.
For the rectangular section, reinforcement cages of U shape were placed in the excavated pits.
The concrete base for the rectangular section was placed immediately after rebar placement.

Fig. 4.8 Concrete blinding for drainage Fig. 4.9 Concrete blinding for drainage

4.5.2 Formwork
Fig. 4.10 Marine board cut to size for formwork Fig. 4.11 Formwork for trapezoidal drainage

4.5.2 Concreting
The drainage was concreted in panels. This was to optimize the use of the formwork. The wall
thickness was 100mm and concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4.

Fig. 4.12 Formwork for rectangular drainage Fig. 4.13 Formwork for rectangular drainage

Fig. 4.14 Completed drainage wall Fig. 4.15 Completed drainage with trench covers

4.6 COMPRESSOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION


4.6.1 Foundation Construction
The compressor building sits on a pad foundation with 26 column points. Each footing is a stub
column of 600 x 600 with a minimum depth of 1.2m depending on site levels. Pad dimension is
1.5m by 1.5m and 300mm thick.

A profile board was set out around the building to guide excavation works. The site was
excavated manually for both strip and pad foundations.
Thereafter lean concrete of 1:3:6 was placed at the base of the pits as blinding to form a perfect
level. Biscuits of 50mm were tied to the base cage to allow for cover. Thereafter the column
rebar cage was tied to the base cage. The bases were cast to 300mm thickness of 1:2:4 concrete.
25mm anchor bolts were tied to the top of the column cages to receive the stanchions.

Thereafter, formwork for the stub columns were placed and aligned and the concrete placed.

Concrete samples were taken at each batch, cured for 7 days and sent to the consultant for
testing.

Blockwalls were erected at the sides of the wall. At the north end of the building, where there is
steep topography, an inverted tee beam was introduced at the base of the wall. The blockwalls
wre filled with concrete. Laterite fill was dumped in the building and compacted at 200mm
layers using an 18ton steel drum roller.

Fig. 4.16 Tying of column rebar cages Fig. 4.17 Construction of column formwork
Fig. 4.18 column rebar cages in place Fig. 4.19 fresh concrete during column casting

Fig. 4.20 completed and cured stub columns Fig. 4.21 Filling of building foundation

Fig. 4.22 20 tons truck dumping laterite in building Fig. 4.23 Payloader spreading laterite in foundation
Foundation
Fig. 4.24 Compaction using an 18ton steel drum roller Fig. 4.25 Laterite fill in foundation compacted in
200mm layers

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 CONCLUSION
This report gives a fairly detailed representation of my professional and practical experience in
civil engineering though there are other projects not mentioned here for convenience sake.

In summary, my exposure in the engineering profession includes the area of structural design
both manually and the use of structural software, road construction, piling, building
construction, contract management and project management.

With my experience I can proffer viable, economic and sustainable solutions to emerging
problems in the society.
Therefore, by the presentation of this report, it is believed that part of the requirement for the
registration as corporate member of COREN has been met.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
1. I would recommend the involvement of engineers particularly as a body in the formulation of
policies that affect the profession viz a viz infrastructural development, manufacturing, public
health safety and sustainability.

2. Engineers should be trained in the use of state of the art technology in designs as well as
construction.

3. More emphasis and attention should be placed on sustainable development.