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. .

II

81 86

95-06-31829

81

Except the Publishing House (fax: 095 246-20-20, E-mail: lrc@koshelev.msk.su) the Danish bookseller firm G-E-C GAD (fax: 45 86 20 9102, E-mail:
helle_d@danadata.dk) has an exclusive right on selling this book outside Russia.

, ,
G GAD.

ISBN 5-88766-045-7 .., 1995 ...

. . , 1995 ... , 1995

.5

-
< <=> 8

1.
8

1 1 9

1 2 " <=> 10

1 3 - ()- 11

1 4 - () 16
1 5 - 26

2. 29

2 1 29

2 2 35

2 3 41

3. 47

3 1 49

3 2 53

3 3 56

3 4 64

4. 68

4 1 69

4 2 74

4 3 80

5. 88

88

98

100


102

1. 102

2. 103

2 1 103

2 2 105

-114

1. ( ) 114
1 1 114

1 2 116

1 3 120

1 4 121

1 5 123

2. 124

2.1 126

22 128

3. 129

3 1 () 129

3 2 133

4. 133

134

-
135

1. 135

2. 136

2 1 136

2 2 137

2 3 139

3. 141

3 1 141

3 2. 143

3 3 144

4. 145

4 1 145
4 2 147

4 3 149

4 4 152

154

156

1. 156

2. 157

3. 163

3 1 164

3 2 164

3 3 165

34 , , 165

3 5 166

36 168

4. 170

5. 174

176


178

1. 178

2. 179

2 1 179

2 2 183

3. 187

3.1.

189

3.2.
190

4. 194

196

197

199

1. 199

2. 202

2.1. 203

2.2. 204

2.3. 204

2.4. 209

3. 210

3.1. ? 210

3.2. - 215
218


219

1.

219

2. 226

3. 234

4. - 238

II.
-
242

1. 243

1.1 243

1.2. 248
1.3. 252

2. 256

2.1 256

2.2 260

2.3 269

2.4 270

2.5 295

2.6 296

2.7 301

2.8 305

3. 305

305

1. 305

1.1. 306

1.2. 307

1 3 310

2. 311

2 1 312

2 2 313

2 3 318

24 320

2 5 320

2 6 322

3. 324

3 1 325

3 2 325
3 3 , , ,
326

3 4 328

4. 329

4 1 329

4 2 330

4 3 332

4 4 , , ,

333

5. 334

5 1 - 335

5 2 336

5 3 337

5 4 338

6. 339

7. 340

7 1 341

7 2 342

7 3 343

7 4 344

7 5 344

7 6 345

7 7 346

346

348

:
348
1. 348

2. 349

3. 352

31 352

32 355

4. 367

5. 374

386

:
389

1. 389

2. 392

404

: 405

1. 405

1.1. 406

1.2. 407

2. 1 3409

2.1. 410

2.2. 1 3415

2.3. , 421

2.4. 422

2.5. 423

2.6. - . 427

2.7. 430

431
: 434

1. 434

2. 438

2.1. 438

2.2. 438

2.3. 439

2.4. 446

2.5. 447

2.6. 448

2.7. - 450

2.8. 451

2.9. 452

III. .
453

1. 453

1.1. 454

1.2. 455

2. 458

2.1. 458

2.2. : 459

2.3. 461

2.4. 463

464

466

1. 466

1.1. .466
1.2. : 469

2. 476

3. 478

483

-
485

1. 485

2. 487

3. 490

3.1. 490

3.2. 493

502

(
) 503

1. 503 1 1
503

1 2 508

2. 512

2 1 512

2 2 513

23 515

3. 518

4. 528

536

IV.
538

V. -2

1. -2 554

2. , 559

3. -2565

4. 577

-582

:
584

1. 584

2. 588

3. 589

3 1 590 3 2
,

, 592

3 3 , 593

4. 596
598

VI. MISCELLANEA

598

1. 598

2. 603

3. 608

4. 609

5. " <=> " 621

622


629
1. 629

2. .630

3. 637

4. 640

5. 645

6. 648

650

"" 651

1. 651

2. "" 653

2.1. ""653

2.2. 666

3. "" 670

3.1. ""670

3.2. "" 673

3.3. "" 678

693

695

711

712

25 ,
: 1) , 2) , 3)
, 4) , 5) .
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-
" <=> " .
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,
.
, , ,
; , ( 1.5 3.4.2 3.4.4)
.

Sonderband 1 Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, Wien, 1980.

- ...

==9

" <=> ",


1974 ( . 1967). , ,
,
.
.

1.1.

, " ".
. ,
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, " ".
, ,
( ),
,
( ) . .

: (1)
( , ) , . .
(, ); (2)
,
(, ); (3)
.

-, (1) (3)
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-, (2) ("
")
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(1), " <=> " -

==10

I.

( ) (
) .

1.2. " <=^> "

" <=> "


, ,
.
"", "", ,
1964 (Katz and Postal 1964)
, " <=> "
: (4i)
,
; (4ii)

,
( ); (4iii)
, ,
, , ,
, ,
2 (. Gruber 1976: 3).

" <=> "


.
, , . ,
,
;
(. ).

" <=> "

- ,
(
,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
1967, 1978);
- ...

==11

- () , ,
, ,

(. Lakoff 1970); "" ,
; - -
,
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.

, ( )
( ), ,
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)
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3, , ), )
, )
.

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- -.

1.3. - ()

, . . ,
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- )
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==12

I.

- 6 (,
. 1974), ,
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, .

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, .
.

.

( ., ,
1977) , ,
, .
, (5i), ,
(5ii): (5i) ,
(' '), (5ii) ,
(' ').

, (5i) (5ii) - -
.
- , , - (5i)
veH
- (5ii). "'' ^ Y
- (5'i)
'', 6"''""1 >
- (5'ii)
'':

- ...

==13

(5'i)

2 Y

(V),
(V),

i1
v

2 21 COREF (Z1,Z) Zl =- Z (. e. Zl Z )

(5'ii)

" -

./\ , -

=
COREF(Zl,Z)iiZl Z

, -
, .
.

- . ,
- .
, ,
- , . e. ,
, , . e. ,
' , .

(6i) (
) :
==14

I. (6'ii)

VI

'

(Caus Func^),,,,

"... "

/ v

0 0
^

(6'i) ,
- ,
(6ii) (6vii) , (6-i): (6ii)

( <=> <=> Syn(X)), (6iii)

( <=> ), (6iv) -

( <=> - <=>

Conv2i(X)), (6v)

( <=>

<= Copul Si (X)), (6vi)


( <=>

^ Copul Sz (X)), (6vii) -

( <=> -

X Y ^ Y ^4 AdviB (X)).

-
.

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, 1) (.
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, --

- ...

==15

); 2) ,
,
; 3)
.

- .

, -
, -
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par excellence. ,
, -,
. (
So, Ao, Advo, Vo, S Sresi Sioc, Smstr. A Able,, Adv,)

,
,
( ).
(Syn, Conv, Anti, Gener, Mesur, Sing, Mult )
( , )
. - (1-6)
, . .
,
. ,
-
,

(. (6i)-(6vii));
. 1967.

, .
, , , , -
, : -,
- ,
; -, ,
,

.

==16

I.

1.4. - ()

" <=> " ,


. ,
(), .
- . , "", . . ,
() , .

, , .
, ()5.

( ) ,
, . ,
() , ,
.

, , . ,

() .

,
, , .

- ,
, , ,
.

, , ,
, . (Wierzbicka 1972), .
(. Fillmore 1969, 1974, 1974),
, (. McCawley 1971,
Lakoff 1971, Chomsky 1971).

- ...

==17

, ,
, .

.
, , ,
.

,
, (. 1934,
Jakobson 1959, 1960).
. , ,

, , ,
, 6. ,

,
, .

, ,
. , , ,
,
, .

' -.' ,
, , , (, ,
), sortir.
,
,
(7i), (7ii): (7i) , (7ii) 7
.

, - sortir en marchant,
, ( , ),
- , , , ,
, sortir.
(81), (8ii): (81) Le chien est sort! de sa niche, (8ii) ?Le
chien est sorti en marchant de sa niche.

==18

I.


: ( ),
( ), (), (), ()
franchir (la frontiere, les Alpes, un fosse, un fleuve, le seuil).

,
franchir le fleuve a la nage '
'. , -
,
, , .

,
. - : (9i)
, (10i) ?He !
: (9ii) , (lOii) He !,
,
, . ""
. (9ii) (lOii) (Hi)
(12i) (9i) (10i): (Hi)
Paul se trouvait pres de la fenetre, (12i) Ne reste pres de la fenetre!
,
: (Ilii) Paul se trouvait debout pres de la fenetre, (12ii) Ne reste pas debout pres
de la fenetre!7

.
(.
, , , , , ,
, , ,
, ). , (.
1979),
, (., ,
, '

- ...

==19

' , ).

-
, , .

, ,
, :
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) .

,
:
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.

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,
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, , ,
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, .

, " "
(
) - ( ).
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- -
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, " <=> "


.

==20

I.


, , . ,
, -
, .

: -,
- ,
(. (6i) (6vii))? , , -
.
(6i)(6vii) - ,
(6i)<=> (13), ,
: (6i) .

(13) .

(13) ( ) - (13').

(13')

COREF(X5,X2)

(6'i) <=> (13') - ,


"" , ,
(6'i) (13')
, . . , .
(6'i)-(13') , -
,
(6"i) (. ).

- ...

==21

.
,
.

(. McCawley 1968, Lakoff 1971),


Katz and Postal 1964
Chomsky 1971 "
", :

(15) John almost killed him : (15')


' , , ,
' (, , ).

(15" )' , , ' (,


,
). (15'") ' , - , '
(, ).

. ,
, () , ,
"" . ,
, almost kill ,
.
(16) kill s 'cause to begin to be dead". almost 'cause',
'begin' 'be dead'. (15'), (15" ),
(15"') .

,
, .
, .

. , .
, , , ,
(), (. Weinreich 1966),
. ,
. ,
, (. , 4.2.),

==22

I.

.
.

, -
: () ,
() , ; ()
("" )
,
; ()
.

- :
() ; ()
( ) .


: -
,
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.


/ , .

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, indefinibilia
,
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() , . 9.
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.

- ,
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-
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( )

- ...

==23

( , ) .

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- .

- -
, : -
, - , 5-6
(. - 1.3.). ,
- , , ,
.

- .
(, , )
( )
.
, -
.

( ) (6'i) , ,
(6i); (13')
(13)8. . (6"i).

(6i) :
(17) = ' '.

(18) S ' Bz X;
Y; -; Bi ; Bi bz ; bz '
(
, ).

(19) Z-oe s ' , Z, , '


(
Z).


, . , , ,
,
. (. )
, ,
.

==24
I.

- ...
==25

,
: () X; ()
- (. ); ()
, (): ,
" ", - .
1974.

, - ,

, . ,
: , ,
,
.

1.5. - .

- " <=> " -


- - , . .

(20) {} {} .

(20) , . .

(21) () {()}.

(22) () => {}

,
. , ,
, , ,
, , .

(21) ( , ) ,

==26

I.

. , .

(23i) , (23) < > , (23iii)


.

(23i) : (23'), (23-): (23') '


', (23") ' , , , , ,
, , , , '.

, (23ii) (23) , (23) (23'), (23iii)


(23").

(23i) ,
, , . . ,
(. (23')) ( )
" " (. (23 ")). (23ii) (23iii) ,

(24) (V), ,

.
<=> : , (23i), ,
, (23ii) (23iii) .

(23") (23ii) (23') (23iii) ,


. ,
9.

=>
. ,

(25) ,


. ( ?, -)
- ,
(), .

(26)

,
,

- ...

==27

, ,
. ( ?),
( ), (
), - ( 0 ) -
( ) .
( ) -
, .

, ,

(27) , ()

-. 3
; = ( ),
3, 1 (.
) 2 (.
) .


. , . . => ,
,
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10. ,
.
. (23i), ,
, (23) (23iii) .

( ). ,
,
,
.

-, =>
,
, .

, ,
:

==28

I.


( => );
; (,
) . , ,

, ,

. =>
, .

00.htm - glava02

2.
2.1

" ", ,
( ),
, ,
.
" ".
"" ( "" ""), "" ( "
, ego" " " "
") . . "", ,
, .

( )
, , .
.

, , ,
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, .
, " " ,
() ,
.

- ...

==29

,
- ".

, , , , , ( ),
, , , . . (V), , ,
(V), , : (28) <, , > , (29) *0
< , , > .
.
. (
- " <= ") ,
(),
. (30)
- ,
(, , , )
=
Y: (30) (V, ), Y .

, , . ,
. ,
,
(. - 1975).
, , : (31) <
>. ,
, : (32) <> .
, () ,
, , , .

() ,
150,
,
. , ,
(
) .

==30

I.

, . . -
.
,
(30)
, .

''. ,
= ' ', = ' ', = ' ' = ' '
. . (30) : (30') (X)
'', Y ^ . , , , (30') ,
'' ,
(V), , , .

(33) <, >

, , , , ,
''. , () ,
, -
. , ,
,
12.


. -,
; -,
, ; -,
, . . ,
. :
, (-) -
-13.

, -
. .

Austin 1962 ,
(., , Fillmore 1969,
, ,
),
.
.

- ...

==31

(34i) X(V), 1, , , , .

, , (34)
<> , . . :
(34iii) < >, .

(34iv) , .
(34v) , , -
(Praesens historicum).

, , . . ,
''/'', .
, ,
, ,
''/''. , ,
, .

, , ,
'' '', . , , , ,
, , .

, ,
'' .
( . . . 3. ).

, ,
,
(. (34i)); . (35i), (35ii) (35iii) (35vi):
(35i) , , .

(35ii) , , , .

(35iii) ", <>, .

(35iv) *, <>, .

(35v) *0, <>, .

(35vi) ?emp, <*>, .

,
, . , , . . , , ,
, .

==32

I.

,

.

,
; .

(36i) [Mi] [^} [].

(36ii) (= 0).
(36) ?ocmu (Mz= 0).

(36iv) * (Mz= 0, 0).

(36v) * (Mi= 0).


, m)= 0 = 0, : (37)
, .

, , ,
1970, , (38') (38i), (38ii):
(38') ' Y,
'.

(38i) " !" [], [X] [Y).

(38ii) "!" [], [X] [Y].

,
(. ), ,
X, . (39i), (39ii): (39i)
<> (Mi= 0 - 0).

(39ii) ', <> (= 0).

, ,
(. (37))
(.(39)). ,
- .

,
2.2.3.

1.5 => .
,
.

, , , - ,

,

- ...

==33

, , , , , , . . . =>
: -,
, , , ; -,
.
.

,
, , . ,
, , '
', ' ' ' ' .
, , , , . .
, ; . (40i)
, (40) (40iii) : (40i) , .

(40) ... ( Praesens historicum, . .


).

(40iii) ? (. (23iii)).

.
, , (41i), ""
(41) , , (41 in): (41i)

(41 ) , !

(41iii) , , .

, "" (42i), (42ii)


(42).

(42i) ?

(42ii) ?

(42 , , !

, ,
. , ); . (42) ,
! >
, >
. . , ,
. => 1,
.

3686

==34

I.

,
: .
, , ,
,
.

(43i) <= RT^ X'|X =(?), , (


), R i-ro (
'', '' . . ), 'X'
- , Y> - ,
('') - -.

(43ii) (-.) , R^ ( R^).

2.2


.
, , . .
, (., , 1947;
1968; Forsyth 1970; 1971).
,
1977, 19776, 19806.

, , ,
: -, (. (23) (40i) ),
(. (23) (40) )
( ). :
, , .
, , ,
.
.

(44) - , ,
: - , . -

- ...

==35

, ,
, (. 1968: 28).

(45) " "? .

, ,
, .
, ,
19806, . ,
(46i) (46)
,
.
(46i) ( , - , .
VS. ).

(46) , ( - VS.
).


: '', '',
'', ' ', ' '.

2.2.1 -
. , , , , , ,
, , , , . . , , , ,
, , , , , , . . -
-
, , (47i) = ' , , ,

, '.

(47) = ' , , , ,
14
' (MAC) .

1967 ,
, (48)
(49): 2*

==36

I.

(48) < , , , , >.

(49) < , , >.

(48) , (49)
. , .

(50i) * < , , > .

(50ii) * .
,
.
(48)(49),
, ,
, ,
.
- , (.
, ).
' ',
' '.
- ,
- , , - ,
, , , , , , . .


: (51) = (V, ' '), , '' ^
' ' ' '.

, , (48),
. , -
( () ) :
,
- .

(52) = (V, ' '), , ^ '' ^


' '.

(49),
, , .

- ..

==37

2.2.2 1948 , , , , ,
, , , , . .
; . (53i)(53iv),
() ,
: (53i) *0 , (53ii) *
, (53) * , (53iv)
*, < >.

, , ,
(* ),
(* VS. ... , *
VS. ... )15,
.
, , :
-.

, -,
, , . ;
. - -, .
, , < >.

, ,
-. -,
, , ,
, ( 1948): (54i)
, (54) , , ? -,

,
, , ; , ,
, : (55) *0 < ,
>.

, ,
. , , ''. ,
,
,

==38

I.

. -,
: (56) '
Y', (57i) , (57ii) Co
, (57) , , .

'' , ,
, , , ,
, , . .
: (58) = (V, ''), , ''.

, ,
(, , ),
''.

' , ,
, .

2.2.3 2.1
.
; : (59)
= (V, ''), , , , , 1, , ''.

(59) ,
: (60) * , .
(60) Praesens historicum. ,

Present continuous ,
. I promise
you, swear to you, beg your pardon, apologize, I am promising you, swearing to you,
begging your pardon, apologizing,
, Present continuous.

2.2.4 ''. ,
: 1) , . , , , , ,
; 2) , . , , ; 3) , .
, , ; 4) , . , , .

- ...
==39

'' '',
(. 4)), .
, '' ,
' , . , , .

'' : (61) = (V, ''), , ^


'' ^ '' ^ ' '.

, ,

(62i) *3 <> , (62ii) *


<> , (62) * .

(63i) .

, , ,
( ). ,
, . ,

(63ii)
, (61),
.

'' . , ,
( ,
, , -, , ,
, , ,
"" ). ,
(. *0
(*, 7 ) , , , *
?). ,
- (. *
, <7nouaem> )16.


. ,
.

==40

I.

2.3

, ,
, ,
, , "" . " <=? "
, ,
. ,
, .
. 3.3.

2.3.1 Fillmore 1969 , , ,


.

, ,
, .
. , :
(
),
. ,
, , . .
, ; ,
, .

, ,
:
,
.

(. 1974: 111-112).

(64i) , (64ii)
,
: (64') Y- = 1. 'X
Y-a, Y , Y-a,
Y-a' | Y = ('').

- Y- Y-a :
(, ) ,

- ...

==41

. \ (.66').

(65i) , (65ii)
, : (65')
Y- = 2. 'X Y- , - Y-a ,
Y-a -
, - ' | Y = ('').

(' '),
- Y-a .
2 ,
: , ,
, 10
,
, , ,
.

- Y-a ''
() .

- -
"Y X" "X ", , (65ii).
, , , 10-12 ,
(65ii), ,
. , "Y-X"
, "X ", :
, ,
(65ii).

, mutatis mutandis, (67').

(66i) , (66ii) .

(66' ) Y- = 1. 'X Y-a, , Y


, Y-a, Y-a' | Y =
('').

(67i) ,

==42

I.

(67ii) .

(67') Y- = 2. 'Y - , - Y-a


, , - Y-a
, Y-a ' | Y =
('').

,
, .

2.3.2
. -,
, ,
.
Bierwisch 1967
1974. , ,
, .


,
, , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, . .

(68i) <> , (68ii) < > .

, (68i) (68ii) : ()
(), , ( , ,
) . ()
: () ,
() .


(, ),
.
,
, ,
, / , , .
, , -

- ..

==43

, , , , ,
, , , .

,
. ,
, ,
. '
,
.

, ,
, ,
.
, (,
) ,
.

(68i) (68ii) ,
(. Wierzbicka 1972 101): (68'i) <
> - = 1. ' Y X,
-, ' | =
(' /').
(68"i) < > - = 1. ' Y X,
-, ' |
= (' /').

(68'ii) < > - 2. ' Y X,


-, ' | =
(' /').

(68") < > - " 2. ' Y X,


-, ' | (' /').

(69i) <> < >, <>


.

==44

I.

(69'i) Y - = 1. ' Y X,
-' | = ('
/').
=
(69"i) Y - 1. ' Y X,
-' = ('
/'). (69) <> , <>

(69'ii) Y - = 2. ' Y X,
' = ('
/'). (69"ii) - - 2. ' Y X,
' | =
(' /'). 2.3.3. 1974
,
. :
(, ,
; . 19).

, ,
(). , , .
, (, , . . ),
()
. , , ,
, .
.
.

.
, : )
(. = ' ',
, , ); 6) ,
(. , , , ).


(, , . <>), (,
) , ""
(, , , , ).

- ...

==45

, -
, ,
, , -, ,
, .
" ",
.

,
. , "" :
, .
, , ,

. "" < . . > :
, ()
.

, , , -
. ,
, ,
17. .
, , ,
, , (
). ,
, , , .

,
.

, -
, , .
. .

, , .
, , , ,
(70i)(70iii),
, (70i)(70iii): (70i)
VS. \ (' '), (70U) VS.
, (70) VS. .
==46

I.

,
, , , 18. :
<> () "" ,
<> () . ?
<> (), <> (),
, , ,
.
<s^> : (70') () > Y(Adv, ')

19
= ('') .

00.htm - glava03

3.
,
.
,
,
. , , ,
( ,
. 1974).

,
(. 1974: 178 .), , (71)

*1 (S) <ffr
' ?3''

I"" . /\

^2 *1 ^^ /Y* ^

''

(71) , .

Xi -"^4 ,
, ,
- .
- ...

==47

: ,
, ,
(71) . , , ,
, . . ,
(71), ,
, , -.

, , ,
, ,
. ,
( ): ,
() . ,
, , , .

3.1.

, , .

. , -, , ,
(Frege 1892). , 60- (Fillmore 1969)
. "" Garner 1971;
, .

, , ,
; , , .
: (72) S 'X Y,
Z, Y, , Z'.

==48

I.

(73) X S 'X Y, Z, Y, ,
Z'.

(73), ('X Y') ,


, , , ,
.

,
.

, (
), ,
. ,

. 20.
, ,
, .

, , ,
,
. ,
, .

(74 i) , (74ii) -

- "
", " , ".

, - . (74i)
(74ii), ,
.
.

(74'i) ~ 'X Y; , Y;
, Y' ( , Wierzbicka 1969).

(74'ii) X-mo - 'X Y; , Y;


, Y'.

(74'i) , Y, , (74'ii)
. , (74'i) , Y, (74'ii)
, Y.

- ...

==49

(75i) ?, (75ii)
? : <> ?,
<> ?. <> ?.
<> ?, <> ?,
<> ?.
?. - ?.
?. ?

1960: 645 " ...


"; " ...
". ,
.
: - '? ?', - ' , , ?' (: 1972); "
' , , ', - '? ?
, , ' (MAC), '...; , ', -
'' ().

, .
( ) ,
.
, , )
, ; )
, ; )
(-2 1969), (-3
1969). ,
.


. "" ,
, (-3), ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
.
, ,
.

==50

I.

, , , ,
: (75'i) ? S ' , ;
, ;
, , '.

(75'ii) ? s ' , ;
, ;
, ,
, '. ,
,
. ,
(75'i) (75'ii) .
(. " "),
, , '
, ', (75'i) (75'ii)
, .

,
, .
, , -
(74'i) (74'ii), (74"i) (74"ii): (74"i) ^ 'Y Y;
, Y, ; , Y,
'.

(74"ii) - s 'X Y; , Y, ;
, Y, '.

:
, .
,
, ,
.

.

: , - ' ', = '
'. ,
: = ' ', = ' '. ,

- ...

==51

,
, . . .
,

. ,
"", , , :
= ', , , ,
, '.
, ,
:
, , ,
(. ),
(. ).

, , ,
- . 1978 ,
.
.
(76i), , ,
: (76i) , , ,
, , ,
, .

,

.
( ) ,
. , , , (
)
.


- (74'i) (74'ii),

(76) * - .
(74"i) (74") ,
, (76ii) ,
(76i) , .

==52

I.

, . , , ,
, 1) ()
, 2) , 3)
, .
4.

3.2.

,
. , , . )
, ) , , , ) ,
. , (77i)(77iii) .
1979: (77i) , (77) , (77)
.

U (, ), W (, ), (,
), Y (, ), Z (, ). : U
; W ; ; Y
; Z .
: U Y- Z-y; Z W -;
W -.

, .

, , - , .
.

, ,
, . , ,
, ; ,

- ...

==53

, , .

,
:
, . ,
' ,
.

, .
, , , , , ,
.
.

(78i) Y-y Z S ' Y Z;


Z Z '.

(78ii) S ' Z,
Z Z '.

, ( ,
-) . ,
( )
(
), , .

(79i) Y-e (, < >


) gg '
Y, Y-a'.

(79ii) X Y- Z- = '
Z Y, -
- - , Z
'.

(79i) (79ii)
.

(80i) W Y-a Z = ' Y Z,


W, Z Y-a'.

==54

I.

(80ii) X Y-e = ' Y


'.

, '' : ,
, ; . < * > . ,
, , Z,
, . <, ^ <
. (. (47i), (47ii)),
,
: ' ',
, '
'.
(811) Y-a W Q = ' , Y W
Q; W Q, Y-a Q
-'. .
, , ,
' -. ':
, .
, , (,
)
', ': (81ii)
Y-a Z-e W Q = ' , Y
W Q, Y Z;
W Q, Z-e
Z-, Y-a Q -'.

, Y-a,
Z (. )
, Z (.
).

: (81iii) Y
/ Z-e W Q -= ' , Y W
Q, W Q,
Y / Z-e - Y / Z, ,
Y-a Q -'.

, .
VS. .

- ...

==55

?, , (
' ').

3.3.

,
,
.

3.3.1. 1967 , ,
, , , .
,
.

(i) (ii): (82i)


, (82ii) , (83i) , (83ii)
, (84i) , (84ii.)
.

, , , Y,
(i) (ii)
: (i') ' , Y W-e' VS. (ii') ' W-e'.

, (i) (ii), ,
.

, (i)
(i') ( ,
, , .
. ;
): - X,
, . . , (),
. , , , , . . ; , , , , , 1 ()
, , , 2 ( ),
; - - Z
();

==56

I.

- ,
( ()), z
.
, , ,
, , :
(), ()
, z; , (),
() , z
(. VS. ).

' -
22
', (i) () .
, . .
<=> , : (85)

,(, 1[()] )

' 2

'
'

2.

'(,)/ (Adv, )

'

(X = () Z - ('')

3.3.2. ,
" ", . . ,
, , , , , <, ,
>, , , , , , ,
, , < , > -., -, -, ,
(., , 1935: 363, 1947: 739, 1960: 151,
1973: 148).

(. , ,
. . ) ,

- ...

==57


. . . , , ,
" , ,
: ". .

( 1978) , ,
,
. ,
(. , , , , , , ,
, , - . . ), ;
(. , , )23,
. .: (86i) ,
<, > , , (86ii)
" , < , > ,
. (871) <, >,

, (87ii) < , >,

. (88i) , < >


, , (88ii) * , <>
,

.
(89i) < >,
, (89ii) <>,

.
, R,
: (90) ' ,
R-a,

, R-a '.

(90) (86i) (86ii) .


; R
, . (. (86i)),
, R-a . (. (86ii)),
, , R-a: ' , ' ,

==58

I.

, ', '. :
, R-a , R-a
.

(86ii). ,
(90), (88ii). , (87) (89)
, ,
.

3.3.3. , , .
,
. :
, ,
.

:
(: , , ),
(: , , ).
, , ,
, , , ,
(, , ), , "" (
1978), , .


( 1948, 1967,
1974: 83-84, 1977, 19776, 1980).
, . ,
1977,
, .
,
,
.

, , -
. , ,
,
.

(91i) s ' ti ; t? ; tz
, ti'.

(91ii) s ' ti ; t;, ts,


..., tn-i , , -, Pn-i> , Pi+i
, );

- ...

==59

Pi, , ..., , tn '.

' '
, , "
"; . , , , ,
, ( ) , ,
, , , ,
( ) , .

(92i) Y-a (, < >) S '


, Y '.

(92ii) Y-a (, < *!> )


S ' Y , Y
'.

(92i)(92ii) '0 ', , ,


, () , ,
. , , ,
, , ; .
Continuous Lakoff 1968.

(92) , , '' , . ,
,
'Pi ', .
(93i) (93ii): (93i) X Y (, )
= ' , Y,
Y-e '. (93ii) Y S '
, Y,
Y-e ; '.

, (93i), '1 ', ,


(92), . ,
, -, , , (92).
, , , ,
.

. (93ii)
. ,

==60

I.

Y , Y-e ,
, , Y-y.
(93i) (
' ...'). ,

("" ), ,
.


, , . ,
.

(94i) Y-a (, ,
) s ' Y , Y-a;
Y-a, - Y-
'. (94) Y-a s ' Y ti,t2, ...,tn-i
, Y-a, Y-a,
- Y- ; tn, ,
ti, tz, ..., tn-i X Y-'. (94i)
( ) , (94);
'X Y-a,
- Y- ',
(94i). , Y-a ,
Y-a ( ). ,
Y-a, , Y-
; , tn Y-a ,
, .

(95i) Y-a (, ) s '


,
Y'.

(95) Y-a (, ) ^ '


, Y, ,
-, '.

,
.
, , ,
, .

- ...

==61

( <> ),
, , (
) .

(91) (92) ; (93)-(95) ;


(96) :
(96i) Y-y S ' W
, Y-y '.

(96) - S ' W
, Y-y '.

(96) ,
'' ''. , ,
,
.


: 1)
. ,
, . ,
(
),
.

, ,
, . .
, (. 1980).
, .

2) , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
( , (91)
(93)), , , ,
.
: -

==62

I.

, ,
, ;
,
.

,
. ,
,
.

3) : ,
,
, .

3.4.

, " <=> ", :


( ), ( )
.

, ,
, , , ,
. -
.
<=> ,
.

3.4.1. . , pea

(97i) <, >?


; .

(97) (, )?
. "" .
"" (. (97i)).
(. (98), (99))
(. (100), (101)): (98i) * , (98ii)
,

- .

==63

(99i) *0 , (99)
, (99iii) * , (99iv)
, (lOOi) *' , , () ,
, (1011) ?Ka ""
, (101 ) . "" .
3.4.2. .
(. 1.5.).

,
, . " <=> "
, ,
, .

, , ,
- ,
(
, ,
).
.

(Adv, ) (Prep, ): (102)


< , , > .
(5), () : (103) .

,
, (
1974): (104) ,
.

- (S)p, (),
(5), (), (), (), (), (Num), (Adv), (Prep) (S): (105i)
<, >, (105) ,
(105iii) , (105iv) ?, (105v)
< >,

==64

I.

(105vi) , (105vii) , (105viii)


.

, -
: (106i) <, >, (106)
, (106iii) .


. ,
,
,
(, , 1935: 127, 211-219;
1976: 300-325. ).

1. : ,
, (
).

2. ,
, ,
(.
VS. ).
3.
, , , -
.

4. ,
( , ,
).

,
.

(107i)

: , (
), , -
( ).


(107) (107iii).

- ...

==65

(107ii) , (107) .

(107i), (107ii) (107) .


, .
,
,

.

, , 25
.

3.4.3. . (. 2.2.), ,
.
,
(*, *) ,
.

(108i) <> ,
,

(108ii)

, (. * ).

( ; , ) ,
( ) .
(,
, !), ,
, .
, , ,
,
.

3.4.4. . ,

.
, .
.

'Xi' 1) ,
2) , 3) , 4) , 5) , ,
, 3 3

==66

I.

.
.

[X] , (5) (S)op[Y].


,
(
): (1091) < ,
>, (109ii) <, ,
>.

, , , , ,
, (S)op (5).
,
. , , , , ,
, , , . . ( ): (llOi)
< , , ,
>, () <, ''',
''', 7meeau>.

, , (5),

( ): (llli) ?, (11 lii)
.

14 ( , )
( ): (llliii)
().

00.htm - glava04
4.
, , ,
. , ,
, , .


, ,
. 15 . ,
.

- ...

==67

, "
<=> ".

" <=? "


,
.

, , ,
() ().

, ,
, .
1974: 84-94, .

4.1.

4.1.1. .

4.1.1.1. (1121) (112ii): (112i) X , . Y


Z = 'X Y-a Z, , Y Z', (112ii)
, Y Z = 'X Y-a Z , Y
Z'.


(112ii). ,
, :
, , , , 26.
(112i) (112ii)
: (112ii) ( Q) = Q.

, ... ... = '... (... ...)' = '... ... ...' =


'... ..., ..., ... ...'.

(113i) , (, , ) ^ 'X
, ' (
1970: 23), (113ii) X , S 'X
'.
(112), (113) , ,
(''),
.

==68

I.

. (
) ,
.

4.1.1.2. , . ,
( ) " " ( 1958: 377; . 1924 .). .
: (a) not lukewarm '() ', not half full '
() '; (6) does not read three books a year '
', does not see her once a week ' '; ()
The hill is not two hundred feet high ' ', His income is
not 200 pounds a year ' 200 '.

, ,
, .


(""), : "",
"".

,
( '', ''),
, ,
(. 1974: 81-82).

,
, .
, ,
, ""
"" .

27: )
, ) / , ) ,
) - .
, , : 1.
. : )
; ) ; )
; )

- ...

==69
(114) < < , ( - <>
).

2. "" .
: ) ; ) ; )
; )
, , , .

, . (
), ( ), ( ), ( ), (
), ( ), ( ), (5000 ),
( ), (-. ), ( ), ( 100
), (200 ), ( ) .

(115) < ,...> (, 50 , 50 )


= 'X <,...> , '28 : (115')

attr

.(V,i[''], '')

S)E &.W |(, ,,, NOMP

3. "" . :
) , ) , )
, )
- , , , .

(116i) ( ,

), (116) ( ,

), (116iii) < >


( ).

==70

I.

4. ""
( ). :
1) ) , ) , )
, )
, , , , ;
2) ) , ) , )
, ) , , , .

(117i) ( ,

), (117ii) < >


( , ,
), (117iii) ( ,

), (117iv)
( ,

, ), (117v) < >


( <> ,
).

. , (.
1.-4.), , , ,
, . , ,
, ) ), 1:
(118i) 40 < > ('

, 40 < >')29, (118ii) ( '


,

, ') , (118iii) ( ,

).

(. (115'))
, , , . 4.1.2.
. 4.1.2.1. (119),
, ^119'), (119"): (119)
. (119') ' '. ,(119") ' '.

- ...

==71

1974: 114, (119') (1201)


(120iii), (119") (120i), (120iii) (120iv): (120i) X
S '- '. (120) - S '- '. (120) 'X,,.->Y.-
>P'- V; (120iv) ^- Q'-'P Q'30. , (119) , =

' ' = ' ' ' ', . . (119').


(119) = ' ' = ' ' '
', . . (119").

.
, , "" ,
, ,
. (. " "),
. () , ,
.
( -., . (121)),
( -., . (122)):
(121) S ' '.

(122) S ' '. ,



.
(
).

4.1.2.2. (123)
, , (. (15)
(16)): (123) .

(123') ' , '.

(123") ' , '.

(123'") ' , (") '.

==72

I.

(., , McCawley 1968,


) (123') (123"') ,
(),
' , <>
'. . (123') (123'")
.
, ;
(124i)(124iii) : (1241)

('... '), (124ii) ('...
'), (124)
('... ').

, (123')(123 '") , ,
.
4.2.

: -
, - ( ); -
, - ,
, . . ( "");
, - (
); ( ) ,
( ).
. 4.2.1. (125i)
,

(.)

, ( ) ,
: ,
( ,
, . . ,
), , ;

- ...

==73

?
(125ii) a

,
.

,
. ,
, , <=> :

! tli
(V) ^
V

Z W

4.2.2.

(127i) ,
, , . .
. , (127i) , ,
, , .

(127) ?0 ,
, ,
' '.

, (127i) " ",


, (. (120iv)
28).
: -, ,
, , , .

(127) , (127ii) ,
. , (127)
, (127i), ''
: ' ', -

==74

I.

, , , , .

4.2.3. (127iii)
, ,
.

,
: ; , '', '', '',
'', '', '', '' (. );
'', '', '' . . (. , = '
, , ', "... , ');
'', '', '', '', '' . .

, , ,
,
.

(128i)
, , ,
. ,
, (128),
(128iii): (128ii) , (128iii)
.
, . . .


. (128i).

, (128i) : (129')
1 Y-a S ' X Y', (129")
2 Y-a Z s ' Z
Y'.

1 = ' ...', . . (128ii), 2 = '


...', . . (128iii).

- ...

==75

. , 'Bi' ';'
,
; .

(130) " ', , ' VS. ',


', (131) =
', , ' VS. ' ,
'.

(132) (
, - .
). , (128iv)
:
, , ,
. ,

.

.
,

(133) ,

___1___ (133') , _____2_____

(133") .
(133') (133) ', ' (.
300 000 /), (133") ' ,
, ' (.
).

(128i)
: ) ,
( ),
( ); )

, , () ,
.
, :

==76

I.

________

(128) , 2-

(128i") .
. ,
( ,
.

(134) Y-a Z S ' Y


Y Z'.

-
( -) ,
'', (128): (135) Y-a S '
Y Y Z'.

( -
( -),
Y, , (128):
(136) Y-a S ' Y
Y '.

, (128i) ,
() .

,
, .
, ,
--.


(137) ,

, (
, ).
. ,
(134)
.

(138) , (139)
, (138) ,

- ...

==77

(128), (139) , (128iii). ,


,
.
, , -
, ; .
.

, , , ,
; (140i) , (140),
, (' '), (''):
(140i) , (140ii)
.

,
'' ( ' ') ''. ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
(. (139)).

, ,
, . . ( ,
().


. ,
,
'' ''.

(141) .

, , -,

(142i) <> (
(128ii)).
(142ii) (
(128iii)).

,
. , , ,
, , , ( (128ii)) ,
, , ( (128iii)). , ,
.

==78

I.

, , --. (143i)
, (143), () . . , ( 128ii)),
, : (143i)
<>, (143) <>. ,
: ,
.

4.3.

, , : X,
'X', 'X' 'X + , ''
.

: -, 'X + '
X, ; -, , 'X + ' ,
, , 'X'.

, . ,
, .
, . , ,
'X' 'X + , , = 'X' ~' +
', , . , 'X' 'X + '
X, , =' +
, = 'X'.


(. , 1967). - ( 1970-1976),
" ".

,
,

- ..

==79

'X'. .

4.3,1.

(144i) < , >, (144ii)


!
(144) .
(144i) (144)

(144') Y Z S ' , Y,
, Y Z'.

(144) : (144" ) Y- Z S '


, Y, , Y
Z Z'.

(144') (144") , (144") '', '


' ' ', ' '.

-
: (144i) (144ii)
, (144) , (144i)
(144ii) , (144iii)
.

(145i)
(145ii).

(145i)

Ml = 2 Y - Z

1. (S), 1. (S), 2. (S), 1. (,)

1)

1)
"2 = 2.2

2) Z -

= 2, =

(145ii)

... ... , Z, Z'


==80

I.

(144').

, (1441) (144m)
1 2 .
.

,
2 ( ,
), 1. ,
,
, , .

4.3.2.

(146i) , (146)
: (146i)
, ,
(. ).
(146)
(. 7 ),
.

,
: (146i) (146) , ,
.

' ' VS. ' '


.
.

, ' '
, ' '
,
: ,
(. , ,
). ,
.

, ,
; .
, ('
') VS. , -

- ..
==81

(' '). ,
" ".


, . .

4.3.3. , , , ,
: (1471)

MiX Ma-Y - Z M4W

1 (S), 1. (S), 1.(S), 2. 0 (S), 1. (S),

1) - Da2- 4 =

(147) , (147iii) , , (147iv) /


, (147v) ' .
(147) (147v), (S),
VS. (S), : () ' , ' VS. '
'; () ' VS. ''.

() ( ) (S), (S), . (S),


, (S), , ; . VS.
, VS. .

() : (S), (.
), (S), (. }.

() , , . .
, , . . ''
, :

==82

I.

(148)

(, ...) ''

.''

4.3.4. : (149i)
Y W / Z S ' ,

Y, - , W
Z '. : (149U)

Mi -X Ma-Y -W M4=Z Ms- P

1. (5), 1. (s),bhh 1. (,) 2. 1. (,) 2. 1. (5), 2.


(1,) (Adv,KOHe4H) 3A(S),Ttop 3. (),


( -. <=> -. ),
. , (S),
( -. <=> ' -.
'), , ,
.
:

- ...

==83

(149)

" (=^ '... -

( , ...'

:i

4.3.5. , ,
, 1970-1976.

, (, , , ,
, . . ), .
, ( , ,
, , , ),
. : (150)

, - X Mz- Y
1. (S), 1. (nump),hm 2. (NUMP),
.() 4. (5),

(150), ( , .
, 500 , ), ( , .
, ).

,
.
(. (133)),

(1511) , (151ii) , (151iii)


, (151iv)

==84

I.

(151i ) ' , ', (151') ' ,


' . . , ,

. : (152)

(...)

'... (, ..) -, (, ..) Z

"2 "2.4

, , , ,
, , . . , ; . ,
.

, .

(153)

.'

'... Y -, , -'

( ( }). (154)

2
"2 = "2.4

'... -, Z-a , Z-
'

( [] [2], [X] }.

- ...

==85

(155)

<=^ '... Y |.
X, Z'
Z { ).

(156)

<=> '... Y

1 Z'

Z ( ()).

==86

I.

00.htm - glava05

5.
,
, , , {} <=> {},
- () ,
.
, ,
, (.
).
, -,
,
, .

. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . , . . 3. ,
.

1. . ,
. ,
(Katz and Postal 1964, 1975).

.
(, ) -
, . , .
, , , . ,
, . . ,
. ,
-

- ...

==87

. . ( 1977).
, , .
, ,
, ,
: '', ''.
, , ,
. , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, . ,
,
, .
,
, .

2. . ,
, '' (), ', ' (,
), ' ' (), '' (), ' ' (), '' (),
'' (), '' ( ), '' ( ), '' (
), '' ( ?), '' ( ) . .
, ; , = ' ' (
). ,
,
; . => '
', => '' -'.
,
, , ,
, .

3. "" "", "" "" . ,


" <=> ", , , ,

==88

I.

. , ,
.
- : <> ,
. . ,
, , .
-:
() ( ^ ' ,
' ), ()
(^ ' , ' ).

4.
, - , .
: () ' ' () ' '. ()
, () .
(') ... < -> ... ( ) (') ... <
[ -> ...] ( ). . 19786. 1979
, ,
, . , ,
, , . 1979 , ,
,
< ,

> < ,

> < ,

,
.
.

5. " " . (Fillmore 1968), (. Schank 1972),


,

- ...

==89

, , , , , , , , . .
, 1974.
19746 .
, .
, ,
, .

6. . (. 3.3), , ,
,
. , , .
, ,
, , - commencer, ,
- . :
, , commencer ,
. ,
, ,
commencer . , ,
. ,
( , ), ( ,
), .

7. 1966, 1972, 1972.


(. Ullmann 1952), , ,
; ., , couper, decouper
, , , (), , , , , , , , ,
, , ; layer , , , (, ), , , ,
, , (, ), . ,
, . couper (.
), ebarber ( , ), ebrancher, elaguer ( ), rogner ( -. , ), tondre
( , ). arpenter ( ), cuber, jauger (
, ), sender ( ). .
, ,

==90

I.

, , , , ,
(. Kluckhohn 1961).

8. (")
.
("", ),
, . . , .

(6"): 1) , ,
(, ). ""
: ,
, , - . 2) (6" )
. (
) , ( , . XI, 2, 6, 12). ,
() .

9. , , . (23i)
, .
, , . ,
, , . ,
, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
. ( ) , , ,
, " <=> ",
. . . 1979.

10. , <= <=


, ; .

11. -, - . -
, , . ,
. , ( <, , ...>),
(-

- ...

==91

<, ...>), ( <, , .:>) DEF(INITION)


Operi (Y), Y .
- , .

- , -
.

12. , . , ,
'', .
, , . . .

13 - , ,
.

14. , , :
, ; - , , , -
; , , , ; . .

15. , ,
( , ).
, ; .
3.4.

16. - . 1980.
17. - ( ) -
, . , , ,
, . ,
. . 1964.

18. ' ', , , Magn (. Lim 1975)-


, ; . , ,
, , , , , -
., -., ^ , " , 7ueao , '
, * , * . . , ,
, ,

==92

I.

19. . , , "" ,
, , "" ,
. , , "" , ,
, "" , . ,
, -, , .
, , , .
, ( :
, ;
, , ,
). 2
' ', . ): 2
, 1, , 1, 2 (
, 2, , , , 2). , ,
, , .
,
.

20. . . (
) , , , modus '
, ...' (., , Bally 1950, , . Fillmore 1969).
, ,
. ( ) ,
,
. .
Wierzbicka 1969, .
, . . : "... , - "
( 1947: 738). MAC ( - ' ') ,
1972: " ' ( , , )'.

21. , : 1) '
, ' VS. 2) ' ,

- ...

==93

'.
' , , ' 2' = ' 1 '.
, ' '
' -. ' ; . < > VS.
< >, VS. . .
, ,
. ,
, .
, .
, , ,
,
: 1 ' ' '| . -? VS. -
? ( , );
VS. (
); ( : ); 2)'' ' ', . VS.
( ) ( : ); 3) '' ',
Q', . (38)(39) " ", , ''.

22. , , . .
, (1), , ( ). ,
, ,
"" - , .
, ,
.

23. , , , , ,
, '' : , ^ ' ,
, '; , ^ 'X , '; S ' ,
'.

24. , , . . , , , , .
.

==94

I.

25. (, , , , , ),
, ; .
.

26. , (11211) (), Weinreich 1966.


, ,
.

27. . -,
( ) (
"" ); . 19786. -,
, , , ,
"" . , -, ,
,
<> . . ( ,
, , , ""),
"" ( , , ).

28. , , ,
, . (115)
. ,
. , ,
, . ,
; . ' ( )
*0 ( ).

29. , "". , ,
' ', , , . , -
Y-a ^ ' Y Z, Y Z (); Z'
, Z ()'. - 'Y-a = ' Y Z, Y
Z', Z' , Z' = '... Z' , Z' = ' ... Z , Z' ', . . - Y-a,
.

- ...

==95
30. 1974: 114 (120iv) " "; . negtransportation
. 1974: 154 " ".
. . 1978.
31. , , -, :
() (), .
. . ,
: , . .
: 1935 ( )
Jakobson 1936, 1964, 1972 ( ).
Wierzbicka 1980.

==96

I.

, ,

()

()

()

()

1-

- ..

==97

(Adv) AdviB(X)

attr CausFunco(X)

(Conj) Conv2i(X)

Copul(X)

coref(x|, Xa)

D,j, d,|<

(Num)

(NUMP)

(Prep)

(S)

S,(X)

Syn(X) (V)

X='Y

, , ( ) X, .
, - -

, , , ( ):
[], [], [], []

(, )

, , , : [], [],
[] |

i-

, i- , ()
= , S; () = )

-, . .

4 3 686

==98

I.

1967 . . .
., 1967.

1974 . . . . .,
1974.

1978 . . // Tekst. J?zyk.


Poetyka. Warszawa, 1978.

1979 . . // Wiener Slawistischer


Almanach. 1979. Bd. 3.

. 1979 . ., . ., . ., . ., . .,
. ., . 3. - //
.
II. ., 1982.

1976 . . .
. ., 1976.

. .; ., 19511965 (
). . 1-17.

1977 . . :
? // . . . . . 1977. 3.
1978 . . .
- . 1978 .107.

19786 . .
// Studia grammatyczne. Krak6w, 1978.

1971 . . . ., 1971.

1969 . . . ., 1969.

1947 . . . . ., 1947.

1966 . . . (
). ., 1966 .

1972 . . //
1971. ., 1972 .

1979 . .
. . // Slavica, XVII
Debrecen, 1981.

1977 . .
//
. ., 1977.

19776 . . //
, 1977. 3.

- ..

==99

1980 . .
. ., 1982.

19806 . . (
) // 1979. ., 1980.

1960 . T.I.: . ., 1960.

1970 / . . .
. . ., 1970.

1958 . . ., 1958.

1967 , , . . //
. 1967. .19.
1977 . . . . .,
1977.

1973 . . . ., 1973.

1979 . . .
// } , 35, 1979.

1975 . ., . ., , .
. 1. // -
. . 2. 1975. 7.

1967 . . . ,
1967. . 2.

1970 . .
// .
1970. . 13.

1972 . . . .,1972.

1967 .
// . . 1967. 2.

1967 . .
// . 1967. .10.

MAC : 4 . ., 1957-1961 ( ).

1948 . . // . , , VII.
1948. .4.

1974 . . " <= ".


1974.

19746 . . ( .
). 1 // - . 2. 1974. 6.
4*

==100

I.

1960 . . - //
. 1960. . 4.
1975 . ., . .
. // -
. 1975. .64-66.

1964 ., 1964. .8

1964 . . Praha, 1964.

1972 . . . ., 1972.

1974 . . . ., 1974.

1935 . . . 5- . .,
1935.

1968 . . . ., 1968.

1972 . . . ., 1972.

1979 . 3. : ,
// Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. 1979. Bd.4.

1934 . . . ., 1934.

1978 . . . VIII
, , 3-9 IX, 1978.

1970-1976 - . 1970. .2; 1970. .4;


1970. .7; 1971. .23; 1972. .26; 1972. .28; 1972. .29; 1973. .34; 1973. .35; 1973.
.37; 1973. .38; 1973. .42; 1975. .63; 1976. .80; 1976. .85.

1975 . . (
) // .
. , 1975. . LXVIII. 1.

Austin 1962 - Austin J. L. How to do things with words. Oxford, 1962.

Bally 1950 Bally Ch. Linguistique generale et linguistique francaise. 3-me ed. Berne, 1950.

Bierwisch 1967 Bieransch M. Some semantic universals of German adjectivals // Foundations of


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Chomsky 1971 Chomsky N. Deep structure, surface structure and semantic interpretation //
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Fillmore 1969 - Fillmore Ch.]. Types of lexical information // Kiefer F. (ed.). Studies in syntax and
semantics. Dordrecht, 1969.
- ...

==101

Fodor 1977 Fodor J. D. Semantics: theories of meaning in generative grammar. The Harvester
Press, England, 1977.

Forsyth 1970 ForsythJ. A grammar of aspect. Cambridge, 1970.

Frege 1892 . // . 8. .,1977.

Garner 1971 Garner R. "Presupposition" in philosophy and linguistics // Fillmore Ch. J.,
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Gruber 1976 Gruber Jeffrey S. Lexical structures in syntax and semantics. Amsterdam; N. Y.;
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Jakobson 1936 Jakobson R. Beitrag zur allgemeinen Kasuslehre // Travaux du Cercle Linguistique
de Prague. 1936. 6.

Jakobson 1959 Jakobson R. Boas' view of grammatical meaning // American Anthropologist. 1959.
Vol. 61. 2.

Katz, Postal 1964 KatzJ.J. and Postal P. M. An integrated theory of linguistic descriptions.
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Kluckhohn 1961 Kluckhohn Ch. Notes on some anthropological aspects of communication //


American Anthropologist. 1961. Vol. 63. 5.

Lakoff1970 - LakoffG. Global rules // Language. 1970. Vol. 46. 4.

Lakoff 1971 Lakoff G. On generative semantics // Steinberg D. D. and Jakobovits L. A. (eds.).


Semantics. London; N. Y., 1971.

McCawley 1968 McCawley J. D. Lexical insertion in a transformational grammar without deep


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McCawley 1971 McCawley J. D. Prelexical syntax // P.Seuren (ed.). Semantic Syntax. London,
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Cognitive psychology. 1972. Vol. 3. 4.

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Wierzbicka 1980 Wierzbicka A. The case for surface case. Ann-Arbor, 1980.

==102

00.htm - glava06

1.
()
: , .
, .
, .

:
,
, .
.
, , , xj,
,
, ,
.

,
, ,
, ,
, () .

' The language and verse of Russia. UCLA Slavic Studies. New Series. In honour of Dean S. Worth on his
sixty-fifth birthday. M., 1995.

==103

00.htm - glava07

2.

, ,
, .

2.1.
, .

: ( ) ,
; () , ; ( )
, ; () , ;
() , ; () , ;
() , ; () , ; ( )
, ; ( ) , ; ()
, ; () , ; (
-.) , ; () , .

: (
) , '.
.

,
.

-, . , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,

' ., , . . . . . ., 1935-1940 ( );
.; ., 1948-1965 ( ); . ., 1957-1961 ( -
1); . . 2-. ., 1981-1984 ( -2); . . . ., 1988 (
); . . . . . ., 1983 ( ); . .
. .; ., 1947. . 508 .; . .
. . . 2. , 1960. . 190.

==104

I.

, , . ,
, .

-, ,
, . , ,
( ). ,
, -2 . ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, , . , ,
, , , , ,
, -2, .

, .
. .

)
, . , -
(. ), ( -.) ( ^
). - ,
: , *.
) , -(--) -- (--)
, .
-. (-. )
. ()
, MAC2, ( *),
() ( -.), , (
*). ,
, .
.
.

--, : -- --.
. : , ;
, ;

==105

, ; ;
, ; , .
, ( )
, , :
-- . ,
apec .
-- , ; ; .
.
-- H .
; .
" (: )
.

-, .
: , (); ,
(-. ); , (); ,
(-. ). - - ,
() ,
. - (, ,
. .) ( ) (, , *).
- (*, *). -
(, . .)
(, , ). ,
, 7 , '''').

: ? -
,
,
. - ,
. .

2.2.


, :
() ; () ; (
. .) . -

==106

I.

2. ,
, ,
. , : . ()
; ( ) ; () ;
() . imperfectiva tantum,
,
, . . , , .

,
.

(1) ,
, . . . , . .
, . . , -1 (
). , ,
( , . .),
, .

, , - .

, .
- (, ' '),
, . , ,
,
. . -
, (.
. . :
, ).
,
-
2
., , . . . . . 508 .; . . . . . 167-172; . . . . 1984. .
69 .; . . // . ., 1975; . .
., 1976. . 97 .; . . . . ., 1974. . 174-175; . .
- : . ... = . . ., 1986. . 209 .

==107

, . *

, , , 3.
(2) :
. , -, -2,
. -2 ( -1)
,
. , ,
. , ,
, , -2
, . . , , .

: , . .
. . ,
- . ,
, : 1, , (
) - 2, , ( ).
, ,
.
( ) ,
, . . . :
(),
.
( ) ,
.
.

(3) ,
,
, , .
3
. :
), - ('), (*), () ('),
(*).

==108

I.

: , ,
. ,
, .
, .
, .

, , , .
, ,
,
. ,
. -2 , ,
, , . :
( ) . ; ( )
; () . ; (
) . : ( )
; ( )
; () ; ()
. : ()
, . . -2
, , .
, 3, ,
,
, .


. ; ,
; ; ,
; ,
, 4.
4
. : . . . . . 477 .; . . . ., 1976. . 28-42; .
. . . , 1934. . 115; . . .,

==109


. , ,
.
. , ,
, . . ,
. ( , -2)
. ,
.

.
.

: , . :
( ) , () . : ( )
, ( ) , () - , () ,
( ) , () , (
) , ( ) , ()
, () .


. ,
.
. , ,
. , , , . ,
. : . , , .

, . , , , , , ,
, -

. . - => . , 1980. . 66-67;


. . . . 209-213.

==110

I.

, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
. .
, . . ,
, . .
. ,
, , , ,
(, -2 ).
, , , ,
, ,
.

, ,
-
. , ( , -)
; . ?M , *
( . ,
). , -
; . ? 3500 (: ), ?Ce
(: ).

, , ,
, ,
. , , (),
, :
. .

1. ( praesens
historicum) (. ,
,
).

2.
.
, ,
. ,

, ,
.

:
-

==111

. : ( ) ,
( ) . : ()
, () , ( )
, () , ( )
, () , () ,
() , ( )
.
, ,
.

, , ,
,
imperfectiva tantum. ,
, , ?
, . , :

- ,
. . ? . ,
; ? .
,
, ,
, (.
).
. , ,
; . ( ) VS.
( ) ?.
, . . .

, ,
, ,
.
, , : 6..., .

, :
.
. : ( )
, () . : ( )
, ()

==112

I.

, () , ( )
, ( ) - , ()
, () - .
.


, .
, , ,
( ), . .
. " , "
.
,
- . .
.

.
, ,
. . <>
: ' ', ' . .'.
<> : ' , ', " ' , '.


. , (, , ),
, ,
. ''' <> , >,
.

,
imperfectiva tantum.

, :
, .
: () , () ,
() .

,
, ; .
. : ,
(. . );
(. . -

==113

). ''
.

, , ,
.
imperfectiva tanturn, . . .
.

==114

,
[, , 1982; , , 1984].
, , ,
. ,
[Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987] , [
., 1989].
, ,
. [, 1986].

.
,
( ) , , , ,
.

00.htm - glava08

1.
1.1.

, ,
( )

" ", ., 1988

==115

( ). , ,
, , , , , , ,

. ()
, .
() , !

(1) <, , , , >, .

(16) <, >, .

, ,
.
, 2, ( ), , ,
.

, ,
, , , , , : (2) <, ...>
< >.

(26) < , , ...>.


, , .

() <, >?

(36) <> <>.

,
. ,
: (4) ,
< >.

.

, , , ,
,
1: (5) * <>, .

(56) * <>, .

(5) * , ?

, ,
: (6) * <, , > < >.

==116

I.

(66) * <, , , , > <>.

, , ,
.

1.2.


:
( - ) ( ). ,
.

, ,
, , .

:
, , :
(7) <> <>.

(76) <> .

(7) <, > .

.
,
( ) .

, , ,
- , :
(8) .

(86) .
(8) <> .

(8) .

(.) -
-., ,
: (9) ?

(96) , ?

==117

-., .

(10) .

,
, , , , , ()
. .; ; .

() .

(116) .

(11) ?

, ,
( ): , 1,
, : (12) <>
<>.

(126) .

(12) <>,
.

(12) <, > ,


.

(12) <> <, >, <>


.

(12) , <
>.

, ,
.

(12)
, , .
,
.

, (12),
. , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, . . ,
, .
, -

==118

I.

. ,
.


, ; . (13), (136),
(13): (13) . (136) *
. (13) * .

., , ,
: (14) . (146)
.

(15) <> .

(156) <> . (15)


, , (156),
, (15).

(16) .

(166) .

(166), , , (16)
()
[, 1973]: , () , ,
() .
,
.


: (17) <> (
).

(176) <> ( ).
, (17) , ,
(176) .
(176)

==119

(166)
, , .

(18) , > ,

, ; .

(19) .

(196) . * , * .


(156), (166), (18), (19),
; ( )
.

, ,
, , , , .

, (12) (12)
, . .
, (12) (12)
, . ,
(12) (12)
. . [1974, . 159], [1982, . 44-57]
( ), [1980, . 5758] ( ), [1980, . 351] (
).
.

(20) [Z] [X] [Y] .

(206) [X] [Z] [Y].

(20) [X] [Z] [Y].

(20) [X] [Z] [Y].

(20) [X] [Z] [Y] , .

(20) [X] [Z] [Y]. , , , ,


. (20) (20)
, :

==120

I.

(20) (20) - , , (20) (20)


, . ,
, ,
. Z
Y.

(12) (12) ,
, .
, ,
. (12) (12)
, , , -
.

1.3.

.
.


.
,
.

,
. ,
: = ' , '. ,
,
; .

(21) , * . ,
,
, ,
. , ,

(22) , <> * <> .

,
.

==121
, ,
: (23) <, >,

VS. <, > .


, ,
. ,
, . , ,
- , , ; .

(24) <, > < *>.

(246) <, > <*>, .

-, ,
; .

(25) <> <>, .

(256) <*>.

;
.

1.4.


.
, .

(26) , [Y], [X].

(266) [Y], [X] .

(26) [Y], [X]

(26) (26) .
, (26),
. , (26)
: [X] . [X] [Y],
, , ,
.

==122

I.

,
; .
(27) * <, , , >, .

, :
, , , ,
, , , ,
. .

,
.


. ,
[. , 1984]. , , ,
. , , ,
. , , , ,
; . <> -
., <> -.
. , , , ,
, . . , , . <>
<> -
.

, , , , , ,
, , ; . (28)
(28), (28): (28) <> .

(286) .

(28) <> .

(28) .

(28) *0 <, , > <, , ,


...> , , ,
, , , ,
, , . <, ,
> -. , , ,
, , ,
.

==123

, , ,
, , .

.

(29) <>, .

(296)

, ,

(30) < , , >.


1.5.

, ,
. -; . [Postal, 1974;
Ruwet, 1981; Ru^icka, 1980].


. ,
believe think, croire penser, glauben denken
: (31) I believe <think> it possible

' '.

(316) Je le crois <pense> possible

' '.

(31 ) Ich dachte (mir) deinen Bruder anders

' () '.

(31 ) Er glaubt sich sicker

' '.

, ,
-. ( ) ,
, .

(hold, tenir halten)


. ,
-. ', .

(32) / hold you for a friend

' '.

(326) Je tiens ce fait pour bien assure

' '.

==124

I.

(32) Ich halte dasfur Unsinn

' '.
hold, tenir halten ,
: .

() / hold him to be wrong

' , ' (. ' ').

(336) I hold it a point of honour

' '.

() le tiens comme propre frere

' '.

() Was halten Sie von diesem Menschen?

' ?'

, hold
,
; .

(34) Plato holds that the soul is immortal

' , '.

,
: .
,

. ,
, ,

00.htm - glava09

2.
( , )
(. .
. ). -

.
, , .
. .
, , .

==125

.
.
(), (). ,
, , .

, , , , (
).
, . ,
, .
. ,
, , , .
. ,
, .


. , , , , ,
, ,
. ,
.

2.1.


( ): , ;
, ; ,
. ,
.

==126

I.

2.1.1.

(1) (4), (7) (12) . .,


, ,
, .
, .

(1), ,
( , ) 1 (
, )
1.

(7),
. -, ,
.
. -,
. ,
, , (.),
, , , , , .


.
.

2.1.2.
(2) (3), ,
2, , , , .
, ,
.

(12) (12),
. -, ,
, 1, ,
(. 1.2).
. -,

==127

,
, , , . . -, ,
.
, (.
<> , ).
-, ,
, ,
,
(. 24).

, (7) (12),
. -,
( ) . -
, . -,
( ) , ,
. -,
,
, ,
(. (7) (12).

(11), . -
, , , , , ()
. . -, ,
.

2.2.

, ,
, .
.
,
.
==128

I.

2.2.1.

-
.
, - ,
. ,
, 1.4. (
). (
), (
), - ( ): (35)
. ).

(356) , . ,
).

(35) , . ,
).

(35) , . ).

(35) , (. ).

(35) : , . , ) [,
, , 1978].

, ,
. -
, , .

,
.

2.2.2.

- ,
.
. , , (28) (29),
-.

- , (28), .
, , , , .
. , .

==129

00.htm - glava10

3.
, ,
.
, .
.

3.1. ()

, :
.

3.1.1.

.

.

, , ,
, :

1. 1 .

1 2 3
1. . 1. 2. ,
.

(1), (7).
, , (. (21)
(23) ), -
.

,
, ,

. , .

53

==130

I.
,
.


, - ,
: () <, >
.

(366) < >


.

() - <, >,
.

, ,
.
,
.

, ,
(), ().

( ) ADV
( ), .
ADV (
< >) ( -. ).

, , 1, ,
, ( ). ,
, . . -
. .
,
,
(. ). ,
(, , )
, . . ,
.

,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

==131

, ,
, ,
, , .

3.1.2.
, [Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987],
, ,

. .

,
(12), (156), (166), (17), (18)
,
, , , , .
.

,
, , , , , , , ; , ,
, , , , ; , , , , ,
, . . ,
, () (
): (37) < >.

(376) <>.

(37) <>.

, ,
, , ,
; . (12) (126).

, , ,
, , ( -,
) ( )
, .
.

==132

I.

(38) , .

(386) , .

(39) , .

(396) , .

, , , , ,
, .

, ,
. ,
, ,
1, , , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.

, , ,
,
. ,
,
.

, .

, , , ,
, 32, . .

, ,
.

, , ,
, , ,
.

, 1,
, .

==133

3.2.

, .
. ,
(, ), , .
,
. , ,
2.1.2, , 2.2.2.

00.htm - glava11

4.
, , ,
,
. ,
. - . .
. . , , -2 [
., 1989], . - ,
, ,
.

, ,
, .

. . . . .,1974.

. . : //
. , 1980.
==134

I.

. . // . . 1986.
N 2.

. ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . 3., .
. -2. ., 1989.

. ., . ., . .
// ja3HK. CKonje, 1978.

. ., . : .
, 1982. . 12.

. . //
. 1982. ., 1984.

. .
: . ... . . . .,1982.

. . //
. ., 1980.

. . . ., 1973.

, ., . . - .
- . , 1984.

. . :
. ., 1974.

Mel'cuk Igor A., Pertsov Nikolaj V. Surface Syntax of English. A Formal Model within the Meaning-
Text Framework // Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe. Vol. 13. Amsterdam;
Philadelphia, 1987.

Postal P. On Raising: One Rule of English Grammar and its Theoretical Implications. Cambridge;
London, 1974.

Ruvset N. The epistemic dative Construction in French and its Relevance to some Current
Problems in Generative Grammar // Festschrift Manfred Bierwisch. Reidel; Dordrecht, 1981.

RH&cka R. // Russian
Linguistics. 1980. N 4.
==135

00.htm - glava12

1.

,
, ,

, ,
[1] , (
, . )
.

1) ,
,
( ).

2) ,
, ( )


, ,
, , , ,
() .


. -

' " ", , 1988

==136

I.

,
, ,
. ,
'.

2.

(, , ,
) : 1) , 2) ,
3) .
, , , ,
,
, , .

,
.

2.1.

, ,
; ., , , ,
.
: , ,
/.

.
. : - = ' ,
, X'; . ,
, <>.

, , , -
. ,
. -

' , XVI
[2], . . . . [].
Syntax and Semantics [4], [5]; [6]; Journal of Pragmatics, .
[7]; . 3. [8].

==137

- -, ]
- ; . <, >,
< > ( ).

,
. -
; . ,
, <>.

.
,
.
: . ,
| ,
.

/.
... - (. ), ,
.
.
, , , , [9, , 246]. .
. ,
,
.
2.2.

:
(, , , )
.

.
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , -, , , , . .
[10], ; .
; , ; , .

==138

I.

, , ,
. (., , [10, . 51-58], [II], [12]).

, , , , ,
, ' ' [11, . 74]. , ,
<>,
. , () . . , = '
, , '.

, , ,
, [12, . 101-104]. : )
?; ) - ?
[] (. . )
- . , ,
. , ,
.

- -
.

. , ,
, . .
, , , , , , . . , ,
,
(, , ).

,
, ,
. , , , ()
.
; . -

==139

( ). (]
; . [13, . 728]).
, ]
" .
.

[14, . 90 .]
' '.
.

, ,
: ? < , >.
: ? * < >.
, ,
, ,
; . , <>, . ,
( ),
: . ,
,
.

2.3.

,
, ,
, .
, , .
.

(, !)
, -.
( ) . (
. [15].

, .

, , ' '
; .
, .

==140

I.

, , ,
. ,
. , . .
, , .

.
. 2,
, ;
, '*.
1, .
,
. . , , ,
, , , .
(. ).


, , . . [16, . 70], .
, .
. .
.

: ,
, .

,
. ,
, .
. ,
.
. , (!) ,
(! !),
( , !), .

3.

: 1) (
); 2)

==141

, . . - ; 3)
.

3.1.

, , ,
, , , , , .
,
, .
, . . : , ~ 'X
, , , '. -
, : = '
, , , '.
<, >,
,
.

, ,
, . ,
, . . ('' ''),
('' ''), , (' ' ' '),
(", ') (' ,
').

, , ,
, . .
, ,
, ( )
, , .


. :
, , ,
. [17, . 61-62].
,
(
; . ,

==142

I.

). .
( , )
() .
( , , )
,
.
.

,
. . ,
, , / , /
, / , / ...
,
[18, . 605]
[19, . 76-77]. , ,
: , .

,
. ,
, . . , , . .
[20]; . [21]. ,
, , ,
, , ,
: - !, !, !,
( , ).
, , ,
, .
. .
, , ! (. ), , ?!
( ); (. . ),
! ( );
! (. . ), ( , ,
[18, . 593]). . [18, . 593-604], [9, . 106 .], [22,
. 50-51]. . (., , [23] [24]).

==143

3.2.

,
, . ,
, , .

, , , ,
? ( . . , ); ,
. ),
, ) ,
, .
: 1) (), 2)
( ), 3) (.
" ), 4) , 5) .
/
, .
.
: '', ''.

, . ! (. . )
, .
. :
' '. ,
, : , /
, (. ).

, ,
. .

3.3.

,
. .

-, , ,
() .
[25, . 4142] , .
,

==144

I.
.
, . ,
. . .
.
. , ,
. , ,
, , .
, , .

, ,
.
. , , , ( ),
.
; , .
, . .
Y-y = 'X Y-,
Y-a; X
, Y'.

-,
. . ,
, , , ,
.
, . ,
. -
,
, .
. . - - ' ; , X;
X'. ()
, . . .

,

, .

.
, .

==145

4.

,
, ,
.
: 1) , , 2)
, 3) , 4)
, 5) , '.

4.1.

, (), (),
(), (), (), ), (), (),
(), () .
;

.

()
.

,
.
[26,. 361].

,
; . , , , , , ,
, , . . (, , ,
, , ) (),
. (, , , ...)
' ', ' ' . .
() , ,
.

, , , . .
-

* , , ,
, .

==146

I.

, , -
.
. , , , ( )
,
. ,
, , . . 2.
.
, ; .
.


, - ; . ,
, , , , , , ; ,
, .
. <>, ,
, , 3.

, , ;
. ,
, , , , , ,
. , , , ,
.
(, ,
), - : <>
<?>.
, .
: ' <> -
*.
- .

,
. '
2
, ;
, . ' ' ' '
.

3
. [10, . 46], , . . .

==147

X, - ',
' X,
'. . , , , .
.

,
.

4.2.

(., , )
, .

.
[27]. .

, , ,

. :
, , , .
. .


, ,
. . , ,
.

. , ,
- . ,
.

.
,
; .

,
.

, .
, , , .
, , |
:

==148

I.

, .
.

.
, , ,
. ,
. : ?
, , -
?
,
''.

''.
. , ,
'' , , .
, , ; .
. , ,
'' , , .
, , , , . .
(. [31, . 243-244]).

, '',
.
.

) () ,
, , . .
''.
(), , . .,
.

) () .
, : ,
'',
. .

.

==149

4.3.
,
, .

, , , ,
, , , , , . .
. ,
,
, .

: , , ,
, , , , . .
, . . , ,
. (., ,
[28, . 132-136]) .
, , , , , ,
, . . .
.
''.
,
.

,
, , .

,
, . ,
, , , , .
.

, , , ( ,
, ) .
, .
, ,
, , . .

, ; " , *
(

==150

I.

. ).
, , .
. . [19, . 72].

,
, . . , , , , ,
. . , -,
. , , ,
: ' , ; , , ; , ;
, , , , '.
,
, . , : ,
, / : / , / (. ).

,
. . , , / . , /
. , .

,
. , - ' , ,
; , , '. . , <
>.

,
; (* <>, ).
, .
< >
, : = ' , ; ,
'. ,
< , >
. , ,
(), , .

, ,
, , , . . , -, .

; . , (. .
) ~ '... '; , = "...
'.

==151

,
, . . ,
='... ...'; : , , / (. .
) = '... ...'; : , = '...
...'.

,
.

,
. [29, . 106 .]. ,
, . . ,
. ,
. , . .
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.

. .
() -, -, ,
, , . .
.

, ,
, , . .
,
.
, .
, , .

: , .
: , ~ ' , ; ,
; , ;

==152

I.

, '4.
. \

4.4.

, ,
,
. ,
.
[30, . 290-292]. , -.

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) (
); 4) ; 5) ; 6)
. .
, .
( ?), (,
?), ( , 1 ), , ,
(, ; , , ),
( , ), . ,
, ,
; . , , .


: ( ,
, ); (
).
4
' ' . ' '.
; . , ,
, . ,
, . ' ' - :
'' '' , , . ,
, , * (
). ' '.

==153


.
( , )
, .

,
,
. , , ,
, , , .
: ,
? , .
? (. , ). ,
5. ,
, ,
. .
, ? ,
, . ,

, ; . ?. ,
?

, . . ,
, ,
.

, ,
.

.
, 1015
, , .
6.
3
() . . ([15, . 29])
.

6
. . . . ,
.

==154

I.

1. . . // . . 1986. 2.

2. . . XVI. . ., 1985.
3. . ., . . , //
. . XVI. . ., 1985.

4. Syntax and Semantics. Vo'l. 3. Speech Acts. N. Y.; San Francisco; London, 1975.

5. Syntax and ueiiiantics. Vol. 9. Pragmatics. N. Y.; San Francisco; London, 1973.

6. . , . . . 1981. 4.

7. Journal of Pragmatics // Special Issue on 'Particles' edited by Anna Wierzbicka. 1986. Vol. 10. N 5.

8. . 3. (. . ): . .
... = . . ., 1987.

9. . . II. . ., 1980.

10. . . -
. // . . 1958. No 6.

10a. Wierzbicka Anna. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw; Warszawa; Krak6w, 1969.

11. . . . .
// Zbornik radova instituta za strane jezike i knjievnosti. 1983. Sveska 5.

12. . .
// Zbornik radova instituta za strane jezike i knjievnosti. 1984. Sveska 6.

13. Lyons John. Semantics. Vol. 2. Cambridge, 1978.

14. . ., . . //
. . . ,
1984.

15. . . // .
1986. . 28.

16. . . . ., 1979.

17. . . - "
" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.

18. . . . ( ). .; 1947.

19. . . // .
., 1982.

==155

20. . . . , 1888.

21. . . // . 1972. N 5.
22. . .
// . 1961. N 5.

23. . . . ., 1971.

24. . . - : . ... =
. . ., 1985.

25. . . //
. 1986. . 28.

26. . . I. . ., 1960.

27. . . // . . . . . 1986. N 3.

28. . ., . . . . ., 1986.

29. . // . . VIII. . .,
1978.

30. . ., . , - .
- . , 1984.

31. 3. // . . XVI.
. ., 1985.

==156

00.htm - glava13

( )

1.

"" . . . .
, ,
. .
. . , ,
, , , ,
, , , , .
[, 1977, . 71-73],
[ , . 85-86], , [ , . 88-90],
"
" [ , . 28]. ,
.

" , , ,
.
, ,

. , , ,
-, ,
. , -

' " . ", ., 1992.

==157

.
, . ,
, ; [ 1977, . 163].
XVII ,
, , .

. . ,
. .

, .
, , . . .
: ,
, (. [, 1988, . 8-16]).

, .
. ,
.
, (, ), ,
, .
[, 1988]. .
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .

2.
, "" . , , ,
XIX ,
(. [Webster, 1951, . XIV .]). "".

, "" (, -) -

==158

I.

, . , righteous
'' just '', . .
XIX Selection of Synonyms (1851): "Righteous
, ,
just .
just, righteous" [Webster, 1951, . XVI].

, ,
, ,
. . . swine's flesh '
' pork ''. .
, . . ,
(presents to the mind a gross idea), [
, . XIV]'.

"" ,
(.
, [Isacenko, 19726, . 82-85; Komlev, 1976, . 127-128; Bartminski,
1984, . 13-16; , 1986; , 1989]). ,
"" XX : 1) "" =
, , "" (- ,
. . ); 2) "" =
(- , . ); 3)
"" = " , " [Isacenko,
19726, . 84-85]; 4) "" =
[Tokarski, 1988]; (
"" [Konotacja, 1988];

[Majer-Baranowska, 1988]).
' , , . . .
. . . . (29 1845 .): " ,
, , , ,
. . ,
. (), ., ,
" [, 1977, . 165-166].

==159

, , ,
. ,
.
"" :
, , , (
= '... ' = '... ' ),
, , , .
.

"" "
, ".
"" . ,
, ,
.

.

[, 1974, . 6768],
[, , 1980, . 196 .]. . : "
L , L
".
[Bartminski, 1980, . 13-14]: " ,
",
" , ,
". , , .
.
,
.

,
. ,
' '.
; ,
, , - -,
. '' . ,
,
, .

==160

I.

,
, , , , .
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
' , ', '',
', '. . ,
(. . ); ; ,
(. , ). ' '
, <>,
<>. , , . . ,
, .

, ,
, .
,
[, , 1980, . 201-202]. .

. L . L
' ' , .
, . ,
'' 1 = '' ,
.
2 = '' ,
* .
, ;
. * " .

. , L. ,
, , ,
L; . , 1 =
' ...' '', 1 = '
...' ''.
. , ''
(, ' ')

==161

1.
.
, '' (, ' ')
1.

. L '',
, , , . ''
L, (
), L. , ' '
. ,
, , ,
.

.
, ,
.

, , 1 1
, . * *
<> , , '' , ''
. ''+'', '^ ''
.

, () .
, ' ', , ,
, '', L. ,
'', ,
'' ' ', .
<> -., '
-.' , , ''
, () , ,
''; . -
.

, ,
.
,
(, , , , , , . .).
, , : ' ,
, , , ' (). -

63

==162

I.
( )
MAC'e, ', . . . .
[, , 1984, . 722] [Bartminski, 1984, . 10].
,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
> . ,
,
, .

, , "-" , . . ,
.
, ,
. ,
. ', -'
. , ,
, . , ,
' -' ? (.
" " [, 1988, . 37-43]).

, ,
. . . [Isacenko, 19726,
. 82] . , , . .
[Bartminski, 1980, . 24; Bartminski, 1984, . 10, 13, 16, 18, 19]. , ,
' ,
, , ' ()? . .
. "
, (, ), (,
, ), ( , )" [. .].
? . .
; ,
'' '' .

,
, , ,
.

==163

-, ; ., ,
( ) ( ).
,
. ,
; . " ".

-, ,
.
.

-, , ,
. , ,
. ,
(" ) ,
.

3.
, , , , , ,
, , , ,
. .

3.1.

, , , , (.
[, , 1984, . 722]). '' (, \), '
' (, ), ' ' (, , (.
, ).

==164

I.

' , ': ,
. (. , ).

' , , '
, , , , .
' , ', , , . .
, / , / / / ...
, ,
, . . : . ,
. , , ... , ... ,
, , , (. ). , ... " ",
. , " ", . ...
(. ).

3.2.

-,
. ( )
( ). . : , ,
, , , . ...: ,
(. ).

. ,
', ' , ,
''; . [] , (. ,
); , , , "" (. -, ).

: , , . .
, , , , ,
, , ( . 3.3.).

==165

3.3.
, . .
', '; ' ' ', '; ''
', '; ', ', . ; -',
' ' ' ', . ,
, (. ).

' , '
, , , ,
. , -: ,
< ->; ... , -.
(. ).

,
', ' ', ', . , .

3.4. , ,


= ' , , ,
'. , -
. . , .

, , ,
,
, , .

.
, , , , .

3.5.


X; . ; - ,
(. -

==166

I.

). .

, . ,
, , " , " [Grice, 1975, . 52]. . ,
, ,
, . , , , ,
, ,
.

" " .
" " .
( , ), ,
, . , - Boys will be boys
' ' ( ), , , ,
; , [Wierzbicka, 1987, . 106].
Boys will be boys : [ ]. . [,
, 1988, . 295-296].

-, ,
. , . . [1985, . 42]
. . , "" , "",
, . . .
, , , ,
, , .
. () ,
() .

, (
) , .

, , , ,

==167

,
. , , , .
,
, , , ,
.

,
. ,
. .
, , . ,
, ,
,
^ , ?0mpou , ?Tecm , ?y
, ?aa , ? ,
. , ,
, 2. , ,
, ( - ),
. , ,
,
, ,
.

3.6.

< Y ,
- ( )
Y, ,
, - -. , ,
.

.

(. -
2
,
. . ... . (" ?" " !"
. , ; ;
) (. ).
==168

I.

). , ,
' '. ,
, ' '.

, :
, .

, ,
, . , , , . . <>,
' ' ' ', , ,
'' '' ( [Lyons, 1977, . 278]).

, , , ' ', ,
. . ,
, , , (, , ).

. -
, , , ,
, , , "
", , , . , .

"" <""> <> .


<> . , ,
, , , . ,
' ', ' '.
, , , .

, , . . . 3. ,
, (., ,
[,

==169

1987, . 252 .]). ,


, .
, . ,
, , , ,
. , .

**

, , , , , ,
, .

, , . , , :
.

4.
, ,
. ,
- . ,
, , , ,
. [, , 1984] ' ',
[, , 1980, . 204] : " ... , , ,
, ". ., , = '
1 '. , ,
.
.
-

==170

I.

, , , , ,
, , , . . [1948], " "
. .

. . Ziege, . . .
, , . .; .
dumme Ziege ' ', alte Ziege ' ', mager wie eine Ziege ', ', neugierig wie eine Ziege ', ',
wahlerisch wie eine Ziege ', '. , "
() , .
" [Isacenko, 19726, . 79]. , , ,
. .
(. [, 1984, . 117]); . , .

. , , ,
, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( )
. (
) . : , / , /
, / . . : , . / .
. / / .

, , .
. ,
.
Dutch ''. ,
, , . . Dutch bargain ', ', Dutch comfort <consolation> ' ', Dutch
concert ' ', = ' , ',

==171

Dutch courage ' , ', Dutch defence ' ',


Dutch feast ', ', Dutch metal '
( ), ', Dutch treat
', '. . Dutch :
in Dutch ' ', double Dutch ', ', It beats
the Dutch! ' !'. Dutch
XVII

. ,

Spanish '' .

(. , -, , , )
(. , , , , )
.
(. , , < > ) (.
, , , , ).

, .
.

. , ,
, ; . . ,
, , ; . , , ,
, , , . ,
,
. [, I960],
, ,
.
'' ( ) '', '', '', '',
'', '' . ., '' ( ) '',
'', '', '', '', ''.

. . ,
[, , 1974, . 260266] [, 1987, . 171]. ,
. . . . , ,
, -

==172

I.

, -, , , , ,
, . ., , .

,
. ,
. [, 1974, . 67-68] (
; . !) ( ); . , ... .
) (. ); ( ) ( ); (, )
( , ); ( ) ( ).
.

, . ,
. ,
, , ; . ,
. , , ,
' , '; . .

. , : , , ,
. . , , , , !
.

, , -, ,
' '. . , <
>. , . , (=
' ') .

( [Isacenko, 19726, . 79]). , ,


(. -, ), , , (.
, , , <, > , !). , -

==173
, ;
.

, .
. ; . .
(, ) ( ). ; .
. , , ' " ", '.

, , . ,
, .
. . [1958, . 86]: " , , ;
' ' , ,
'' (eau de ris, eau d'orge). ,
, eau ".

. ,
, , , , , , ,
. , (, , ),
(, , , ), (, , . .).

, , , , ;
. [Isacenko, 1972a, . 9].

5.

.
,
.

,
,
-

==174

I.

. , . , , .
, , ,
(. [, 1974, . 185]).
.

, , , : 1 " ' ', 2 = '


, '. , . 1
2 = ' , ', 1 2 = '' . .

, : ,
, , .

-, .. . .
, ,
, . , ,
, () . , ,
: 1) ' ', 2) ' '.
: 3) ' ', 4) ' '. , ,
[, 19726, . 84 - 85).

, .. ( )
. , 3 ~ ' ' . ,
, , - , , , 4.

, , (. [,
19886 . 72 73, 78]). .
, . , " "
( [, , 1980]), , ,
. -

==175

, , , :
2 = ' - 1 ' .


= , 70- .
- , . . ,
. , .. , ,
.

==176

, 1948: . . // . .; ., 1948. . XI.

, 1974: . . . . ., 1974.

, 1988: . . //
. - . ., 1988.

, 1977: . . . . ., 1977.

, , 1974: . ., . . . .,
1974.

, , 1980: . ., . , //
Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. 1980. Band 6.

, 1988: . // .
. XXIII. . ., 1988.

, 1989: . . // .
. 1989. N 1.

, , 1984: . ., . .
. . , 1984.

, 1985: . . .
. ., 1985.

, 1987: . 3. (. . ):
. ... = . . , ., 1987.

, 1986: . . . .,1986.

, 1984: . . - // .
. ., 1984.
, 1987: . . ,
// . ., 1987.

, 1960: . . "" "" ( )


// . . 1- . . . - . ., 1960. . XXIII.

, 1958: . . //
. ., 1958. . 1.

, 19886: . . //
. : . ., 1988.

==177

, , 1988: . ., . .
// .
. ., 1988.

Bartminski, 1980: Bartminski Jerzy. Zahizenia teoretyczne s^ownika // Stownik ludowych stereotyp6w jezykowych.
Zeszyt . Wroclaw, 1980.

Bartminski, 1984: Bartminski Jerzy. Definicja leksykograficzna a opis JQzyka // Stownictwo w opisie j^zyka. Prace
naukowe Uniwersytetu Slaskiego. Katowice, 1984.

Grice, 1975: Grice H. P. Logic and Conversation // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3, Speech Acts. N. Y., etc., 1975.

Isacenko, 1972a: Isacenko A. V. Opening remarks // The Slavic Word. Proceedings of the International Slavistic
Colloquium at UCLA / D.S. Worth. The Hague; Paris, 1972.

Isacenko, 19726: Isaeenko A. V. Figurative Meaning, Derivation, and Semantic Features // The Slavic Word.
Proceedings of the International Slavistic Colloquium at UCLA / D.S. Worth The Hague; Paris, 1972.

Komlev, 1976: Komlev N. G. Components of the Content Structure of a Word. The Hague; Paris, 1976.

Konotacja, 1988: Konotacja. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcja^ Jerzego Bartminskiego. Lublin, 1988.

Lyons, 1977: Lyons John. Semantics. Cambridge, etc., 1977. Vol. 1.

Majer-Baranowska, 1988: Majer-Baranowska Urszula. Z historii uzycia terminu konotacja // Konotacja. Praca
zbiorowa pod redakcja^ Jerzego Bartminskiego. Lublin, 1988.

Pisarkowa, 1976: Pisarkowa K. Konotacja semantyczna nazw narodowosci // Zeszyty Prasoznawcze. Z. I. 1976.

Tokarski, 1988: Tokarski Ryszard. Konotacja jako skl-adnik tresci s-bwa // Konotacja. Praca zbiorowa pod
redakcja^ Jerzego Bartminskiego. Lublin, 1988.

Webster, 1951: Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms. Springfield (Mass.), 1951.

Wierzbicka, 1987: Wierzbicka Anna. Boys will be boys // Language. 1987. Vol. 63. N. 1.
==178

00.htm - glava14

1.


, () .
[, 1986]. .

, (
, . . , )

. , 1) ,
; 2) ,
.
.

1) , 2)
, 3) , 4) , 5)
(- ) , 6) ,
. .

, ,
. .

(., , [Webster, ' "
", , 1990

==179

1981] [Barnhart, 1982]). , , ,


.

2.
: ) (,
, )? ) , ?

2.1.

, .
: 1) , . .
[, 1960-11, . 77]; . [, 1960, . 23-25; , 1977]; 2) [,
1949; , 1978, . 61-72, 178; , 1982, . 97; , 1982, . 85 .; , 1987, . 5-6].

, , .

, , (
).
, , , ,
[, 1982, . 97]. , ,
.

(. . ) ,
, , , , , ,, . . (., , [, 1969, . 31
.; , 1978, . 126; , 1979; , 1982, . 60 .]). ( ),
: 1) (), 2)
, 3) (), 4) .

==180

I.

(, )
.

( ), (!)
.

, -, .
, , .
, , .
(,
, ) .

, ,
. , ,
. , ,
, . ,
, .
/ , . . .

, :
;

, .

. ,
, ,
.
.

) ,
, , .
, .
, ,
, , .

) ,
. , ,
.

==181


, . . ,
.

. , ,
: , , (. . );
, , (. . ); ,
, , (. . ); ,
, , , ( )
, , , ( . .
). , , . 14
, . . - 16, . . - 22 (. [,
1969, . 117-118]).

, ,
, - ,
'.

, ,
,
. .

, (, . .)
, .
, ,
() , .
, , ,
. ,
: ( ), (, ,
. .), (, , . .),
(, , , , .
.).


. ,
( )
.

,
, , , . . . ,
, -
==182

I.

. , -6 -7
.

, ,
.
( . ) ,
. , ,
.

, , ,
, . ,
( "") . , -
3, . . , : ) ( ?); )
( ); ) ( ,
); ) (, , ); ) (
..,).

,
.
(, . .),
.

, . ,
,
("") . ,
, , (-
, -), (-, ) ( ),
, . (
) .

, . . ,
.
, , .
:
.
. -, , , , -, .
(.

==183

[, 1974]). -,
, .
, , ; , ,
, . . , .

,
. .
, , .

,
.

/ -

/ ; : / -

, / , / ;

' , ' -

' , '.

, ,
.

2.2.

, , .
. , .
, (. . ) ,
, . . (., , [, 1960] ).
, , ,
, .

, ,
.
,
. , , ,
, .

==184

I.

(26)(2) (3) [, 1949, . 112 .; , 1955, . 11;


, 1969, . 15, 7071; , 1969, . 28, 75; , 1978, . 19-20, 28; , 1982,
. 58 .; Sappok, 1986, . 233237] .

, .

, [, 1977].

(1) /
, :

.
' <'> ( ) =
' < >'

<> ( <> ) ( ) =
' <> '; ' = '
' -

= ' '.


- .
,
. ; . , , ,
, , . .

, , , ,
. , ,
; .
' .

(2) /
,
.
-
.

() .

', '; , , '


' .

==185

(6) . /
/ ; /
/ .

() .

? (-2) ! (-7, ''); ? (-2)


! (-7, ''); ? (-2) ! (-7, '
'); ? (-2)- ! (-7, '').

() .

? (-2) ! (-6, ' '); ? (-2)


! (-6, ' '); ? (-2) ! (-6, '
'); ? (-2) ! (-6, '').
()
. .

() ,
() .
,
.

() -2 , -7
.
-2, -7.

(): ,
, -6.

(2) .

-,
. , ,
(, , ,
, ),
.

,
(, . .) ,
. :
-

==186

I.

. (2) (2)
. -7 -6
, .

(3) /
-
.

, , [, 1985, .
122]; , [,
1979; , 1982, . 54-55; , 1985, . 123-124]; ""
, [, 1987, . 8 .]; , ,
, , , [, , 1988, . 11 .].
. . . . .

: ' ,
.
(): ' (, ), ' (, ).
, ,
. . ' ( , ) '
( , ).
, .
. .
: ? , . ' <'> .

', ', '


. ' , '
. . , '
(. ). -,
.


, . . ' (-
' ') , ' (-'
').

, , ' -
'; . ' .

==187

' -.': '. ,


. ' '
, .

,
, , ,
. , ,
.


.
( ).
( ), .
, . ,
,
.

3.


/ , . .
. , 2.1., ,
: , , (), .

.
. .

, , , :
, -, , , . .
, ,
. ,
; . ,
, , .
. -,
, ,
; .

==188

I.

, ; , ; , . .

. . , ,
, . .
: (), (;
, ) , \
( ; ,
).

- 3 3 : ?!
, ? ?!

?! , ?

1 1 2 2. 1 1
: , ; , .
2 2 , : , , /
(. . ); , ' /
(. ); , ?; , ' ?

() ,
,
.

, , ,
- ,
. . ,
, , .
, .

3.1.

1) .

) 1 . / .
/ . : '
, '. :
,

==189

, :
' 6) 2 ,
, , .

.
. .
, . : ' <
> Q' = ' , Q, Q "^ Q>'.

: .

) 3 ,
.

, ^ .

^ .

^ (=' ' ).

: ' '.

: .

) 4 . . .
.

: '
'. : -, . : , 2)
.

) 1 . ^ . \-
< >. , 4- . 4- . : ',
'. : .

) 2 .

. .

: () = ' , ();
'. : , .

==190

I.

3.2.
1) .

, [, 1985],
.

) 1 () () = '(1) () //; (2) (),


//'. : ' ' ( , , ,
); ( , , , ).

) 2 () () = '(1) ti R(x), Qi
//; (2) t2 (),
, R(x), Qa //'. :
' ( - ,
); ' ( , . . -
, ); []
...
(. ); -
).

1 2.

1 () :
-, . 2 ()
, : R(x), ,
(), .

1 , , ,
, 2 , ,
.

1 .
, , -. 2
R . ,
. , , . .
.
. .
. , 2
: * . . *
. .

1 . 2 -
, ,
.

==191

2) .
, , , , ,
, ,
; , . .
, < >, ; , < ,
>, . ,
. .
, < , >, *0 , '
<' , ' >. ,
, , , ,
: ' < ' ,
' >.


() ()
. (. . )
.

, (),
, . ,

; . ' < ', '> .
. . ' .

3) .

()
.

( )
. .
. ? . , ,
(. ). .
? , .

( )
. .
? . . ,
.

==192

I.

:
' '. [, 1985, .
54-55, 71 .].

, , ,
..
.
( ) ,
.
, .
, ,
, .

, ,
.

, ,
: < , >, <
, >. , , -
: <> , <>
. ,
, ()
() .

, . (. . )
-
, . ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.


, . ,
; . ( )
( ).


: ? .

==193

(. ).

() ,
: ' .

, , , ,
.
, . .
( , ) (
) <> ( ,
) , ( ).

,
.

, , .
, , ,
, . ,
, , ; . ? ?0 .
.
, , . ,
, , , .
, , .

, , .

4.


. , , ,
.
. .

1) .


? ? . <>
?. <> ?, <> -

13

==194

I.

?. <> ?.
?. - ?.
?, ?

-
[, 1980, . 51-52]. .

,
,

) , (, ,
); ) , , -2, . .
, -3, . . . :
[, 1969, . 124].

.
, ( )
: ? = ' , ;
, , ; - ,
[]; []'.

? = ' , ;
, , [];
;
, , []'.
, (
) . ? ?, ?
!

[, 1960-1,
. 645], .
. [ , 1982;
, 1985] [, 1972, . 437-464].

2) , , , , , , , , , . .

2.2. . ,
, ,
, , .

==195

.
, ,
. , ,
( ?) , .
.

( )
( ).
.

? ' ? ?
- - ^'
? ? - "[' ? ? -
'' ? ? - ' ?


( Q,i
, Qa
): Q,i(P)? = ' , ();
,
; , , (), ;
'.

. ' , ()'
' , ';
' , '; ' , '; ' , ' . .
, , , , , , . .
, . ' , ,
Q2(P), ' ,
, , , , , . . .

, ,
q.i Qz
.

(,
)
. . , : ?, ,
,
- .

7*

==196

I.

:
, ,
3.

' , . ,
, . -()-, , ,
(. [, 1975]). : ''; 5-6 : ''
(), '' (), '' (), '' (), '' (); 15-20
, , '' '' (), '
' (), ' ' () '', , ' ' (,
), ' ' (, ), ' ' () . ., . ,
. , , :
, , 4-6, . ,
, '' '', '', ''.

2
, , , .

3
. . , . . . . ,
.

, 1980: . .
<=> . // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband I. Wien, 1980

, 1986: . . // , 1986, 2.

, 1985: . . '' ''


. / / . ., 1985.

, 1969: . . . ., 1969; 5- . ., 1977.

==197

, 1982: . ., . .
// . , . . ., 1982, 4.
, 1988: . ., . . (
): : . ., 1988.

, 1949: . . .-., 1949.

, 1975: . .
// 1972. .
. ., 1975.

, 1960-1: . . I. . ., 1960.

, 1960-11: . . II., . I ., 1960.

, 1974: . . . ., 1974.

, 1978: . , 1978.

, 1969: . . . .,1969.

, 1979: . . "": ,
// . ., 1975.

, 1982: . . ., 1982

, 1985: . . . . .,
1985.

, 1987. . . .
. . . ., 1987.

, 1972: . . . Oslo-Bergen-
Tromso, 1972.

, 1979: . . . //
. ., 1979.

, 1982: . . . ., 1982.

, 1985: . : . //
. XV. ., 1985.

, 1969: . . . //
. . . -. . 36. . , 14, 1969.

, 1955: . . ., 1955.

, 1960: . . . ., 1960.

==198

I.
Barnhart, 1982: Bamhart . L. Bamhart R. K. (Eds.) The World Book Dictionary. Vol. I-II. Chicago-
London, 1982.

Sappok, 1986: Sappok Chr. Gliederungsminimalpaare.// Slawistische Beitrage. Bd 200. Munchen, 1986.

Webster, 1981: Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. Unabridged. Springfield
(Mass.), 1981.

==199

00.htm - glava15

1.

. [I].
.
, . [2, . 163 .] . [3, . 299 .]. .
, ,
. . , ,
.

( . . .), . ,
... , , ,
[2, . 163]. , , ,
. , . ,
, ...
"". , ,
, "" ,
, ( ).

.
,
( ) ,
. .
.

' " . ", 1986, 3

==200

I.

(. ). , ,
, , . . .
. , . , , , , ,
(. ).

, (.
2 3).
, .
.

.
([1; 4, . 84 .], [5, . 189-
193; 6, . 48] .), .

(1) ( expositives), .
, , , ( ),
, , , , ,
, , , (
), , ,
; : ; , ,
, (.
); , . (. ).

, ,
, .

. , . . ,
(. , 3.1).

(2) , . , ( ), ,
( ), :
, . (. .
).

(3) ( commissives), . , ,
, () , , , ,
( ), , , :
<> .

(4) , . , , , ( ),
. .
? ,

==201

*
.


([4, . 85; 7, . 234 .] ). , ,
, (. 3.1).
(5) ( exercitives), . (
, , \ . ), ( ), 1 (),
, ( ); 1,
( <> ),
.

(6) , . , ; ,
, , , . .
, 7 .

(7) , . ( ),
( ), (
), 2 (
), (
), , ( ( -
.)).

(8) , . ( ), ( ),
( ); , ( ),
, .

(9) , . , ( );
( , , , ), ,
( -.), , (,
). : , ,- . (. );
: , (. ).

(10) , . (-. ), , 2 (
), (.
), ( , , ,
, , , ).

(11) , . ( , ), ( ;
CRITICIZE ),

==202

I.

( , ), , .

(12) , . , (), ( ,
).

(13) ( behabitives), . ,
, , , , ,
, : , ,
(. ).

(14) , , , . ., .
, (-.) , , , ,
(-. ), , , ,
( ), ( -.; .
), (-. ), (-. ), (
), , (-. ), , ,
( ), .

(15) ( operatives), . (
), , ,
( ), (-. ), (
).

2.

, , ,
. -,
(,
, , ). ,

, .

,
, .

2.1.

(1) 1 ,
. ,
,
( ) -

==203

. () ,
.

. ( [1]-[3]).

) ; .
; ; <, >: .

) - ;
. . (
. ); .

) ; .
, , .

) ; .
<
> ( ).

) , , ; . .
<> ; ;
, , (. .
).

) (. [8, . 154-156; 9, . 28]


[5]); . <, , > , ,
; ... , (.
). , , .
.

,
.
. . \
, \ ,
. , ^. ,
<, >, . , ,
.

(2) - ,
. ,

==204

I.

,
; . , .
.

2.2.

(3)
. .

) ,
; . ; ,
.
. . * ?
<>. .
, ,
.
, ; .
.

)
-.,
. -.,
; . < > , .
, VS. -.
, ; ., ,
[10] [4] , .

2.3.
(4) -
, .

) - ,
(, , , , ),
(, ) (, ).
,
.

==205

6) , ,
, , ,
, , , . .
< , > <> (, ,
'- , ).

j) " .
, , . , ,
.

(5) , . .
, ,
[3, . 307], ,
. ,
, : '
, '. ,
, : ' , '. .
,
, (. . ).

(6) .
, .
,
. .

) , :
, , , , , , , ,
, . . , .
: [ }

(. ). .
,
(, , )
. : < ,
, >;
, ... {} (. .
).

==206
I.

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1. Austin J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford, 1965.

2. . . // . .,
1962. . 105-167.

3. . . ., 1974.

4. Vendler Z. Say What You Think // Studies in Thought and Language/Ed. Cowan J. L. Univ. of Arizona Press,
1970. P. 79-97.

5. Fraser Bmce. Hedged Performatives // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3: Speech Acts / Eds Cole P. and Morgan J. L.
N. Y.; San-Francisco; London. 1975. P. 187-210.

6. . . . ., 1976.

7. RossJ. R. Where to Do Things with Words // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3: Speech Acts / Eds Cole P. and
Morgan J. L. N. Y.; San-Francisco; London, 1975. P.233-256.

8. Damson Alice. Indirect Speech Acts and What to Do with Them // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3: Speech Acts /
Eds Cole P. and Morgan J. L. N. Y.; SanFrancisco; London, 1975. P.143-185.

9. . . (
). ., 1985.

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I.

10. Miller J. E. Static Verbs in Russian // Foundations of Language. Internal. J. of Language and Philosophy. 1970.
N 6. P. 466-504.

11. . . //. . 1985. N 3. . 13-24.

12. . ; . . //
. . . , 1984. .
83-93.

13. Lyons John. Semantics. London; N. Y.; Melburne, 1977. Vol. 2.


14. . . . . ., 1974.

15. Austin]. L. Philosophical Papers. N. Y.; London, 1961.

16. Stampe D. W. Meaning and Truth in the Theory of Speech Acts // Syntax and Semantics. Vol.3: Speech Acts /
Eds Cole P. and Morgan J. L. N. Y.; SanFrancisco; London, 1975. P.1-39.

17. . , //
. . XIII: ( ). ., 1982. . 391-405.

18. VendlerZ. Res Cogitans. Ithaca; N. Y.; London. 1972.

19. VendlerZ. Telling the Facts // Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language. Minneapolis, 1979. P.
220-232.

20. . E.
// . 1983. . 21. .76-88.

21. Ross J. R. On Declarative Sentences//Readings in English Transformational Grammar / Eds Jacobs R. and
Rosenbaum P. S. Waltham (Mass.), 1970. P.222-272.

22. Vendler Z. Illocutionary Suicide // Issues in the Philosophy of Language / Eds McKay A. F., Men-ill D. D. New
Haven; London, 1976. P. 135-146.

23. . . . ., 1971.

24. Comrie Bernard. Tense. Cambridge; London, etc. 1985.

==219

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5
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Cambridge, 1974. P. 497529; . : Dowty D. Towards a Semantic Analysis of Verb Aspect and the English Imperfective Progressive // Linguistics
in Philosophy. 1977. N 1. P. 4577; Lyons John. Semantics. London, etc., 1977. Vol. 2; X. P.
( ) // . . XV: . .,
1985. . 227249. . . // . ., 1982. . 785;
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==222

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Kucera H. Aspect in Negative Imperatives // The Scope of Slavic Aspect. Columbus; Ohio, 1985. P. 118-128.

8
Timberlake Alan. Reichenbach and Russian Aspect // Ibid. P. 153-168; Flier Michael S. The Scope of Prefixal Delimitation in Russian // Ibid. P. 4158;
Russel Pamela. Aspectual Properties of the Russian Verbal Prefix na-// Ibid. P. 5975.

9
Vlach Frank. The Semantics of the Progressive // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 14. Tense and Aspect. N. Y. etc., 1981. P. 272-292; Mourelatos Alexander
P. D. Events, Processes, and States // Ibid. P. 191-212; Tedesci Philip J. Some Evidence for a BranchingFutures Semantic Model // Ibid. P. 239-269.

10
Russel Pamela. Op. cit. P. 72.

==223

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16
Vendler Z. Op. cit. P. 104.

17
Kueera Henry. Op. cit. P. 124.

18
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19
Vendler Z. Op. cit. P. 103.

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==229

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151.

22
Vendler Z. Op. cit. P. 106.

23
Kucera Henry. Op. cit. P. 124.

24
Tedesci Philip J. Op. cit. P. 259.

25
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==230

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27
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30
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Vlach Frank. Op. cit. P. 277; Mourelatos Alexander P. D. Op. cit. P. 193; Tedesci Philip J. Op. cit. P. 259.

34
Lyons John. Op. cit. P. 712.

==233

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==237

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41
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. ., 1974; Austin}. L. How to Do Things with Words, Oxford, 1965; Vendler Z. Say What You Think // Studies in Thought and Language.
The Univ. of Arizona Press, 1970. P. 79-97; RossJ. R. On Declarative Sentences // Readings in English Transformational Grammar.

==238
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Waltham, (Mass.), 1970. . 222-272; Fraser . Hedged Performatives // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3: Speech Acts. N. Y., etc., 1975. P. 187-210; Stampe
D. W. Meaning and Truth in the Theory of Speech Acts // Ibid. P. 139; . . . ., 1976; Vendler Z. Telling the
Facts // Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language. Minneapolis, 1979. P. 220232; . .
( ). ., 1985; Lyons]. Op. cit

42
Austin}. L. Op. cit. P. 56.

43
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==239

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Vendler Z. Say What You Think // Studies in Thought and Language. Ed. Cowan J. L. Univ. of Arizona Press. 1970; , Telling the Facts. Op. cit.

==240

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==241

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II

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' "- ", ., 1979.

: . . . . 1974, Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms. A Dictionary of


Discriminated Synonyms with Antonyms and Analogous and Contrasted Words. Springfield, Massachusets, 1968.

==243

, -.

1.
. ,
, , , , ,
.
.

-, ( ,
). , , :
. , , , ,
, .
,
.

1.1

, , ,
, . . ,
. , .

, , . victim
prey *he has fallen a prey to an accident, : prey
, , , he carefully marked down his prey before dealing the blow '
, '3. ,

. ,
1) , 2) 3) ().
(, ), (''),

==244
II.

victim, victim, prey, ,


, : they could not
identify the victim nor the man who had killed him ' , '; The victims of an earthquake [a shipwreck] '
[]'.

: , surprise, ambush
: to surprise [ *to ambush} the enemy camp [the fortress] ' [ ]'.
, , , , to ambush
[ *to surprise} motorcyclist: surprise (
), a ambush ( ).

. *he has fallen a prey to an accident , .


. . he desired me to stay:
' , ' ( he wanted /wished/ me to stay), '
, '.

, ,
. ,
; , ; , ,
, , ,
.

, ,
( - )
( ).

healthy, healthful, wholesome, salubrious, salutary '


'. -

(). , , .
, ,
.

==245

, ^salubrious diet ' ', ^salubrious mineral waters ' ', ^salubrious way of life "
', : ,
, . ,
( healthy diet, salutary mineral waters, healthy way of life). ,
- , , salubrious, ,
air '' climate ''.

*he sprang the fence ' ', - - .


jump, leap, skip hop, ', '
, (to jump /to leap/ a stream over a stream ' ',
to hop a hedge over a hedge ' ', to skip a pool over a pool ' '), spring
to spring over smth.

, , ,
().

, , , ,
. . , .
, , , , ; ,
, , , .

,
. (. he writes short stories <=>
he is a writer of short stories, he sold me a book for two dollars <=! bought a book from him for two dollars, he is never present when needed most <=>
he is always absent when needed most, linguistics is his hobby <=> linguistic science is his hobby, <=> the science of language is his hobby,
). ,
.
==246

II.

, , ,
" "
. .
, ,
.


, . ,
, -
. ,
. , -,
, -,
. ,
.

gather
collect , dust gathered /collected/ in all the corners '
'. ()
menace threaten ''.
: to menace smb. with ostracism [new miseries].
: "If you interfere with my sister, I shall
call an officer", he threatened. menace threaten
(), , ,
, , ,
: the dog menaced /threatened/ them with bared fangs.

,

, .

,

. , , , ,

. ,
,
, ,

==247


, " ".
, ,
.

, , ,
, .
, , , situation place place, situation, position, post, office
", ' : situation wanted '
', situations vacant /available/ ' '. , : ^ place wanted, 7 places vacant.

office, , place , )
office , place ; ) office , place
; ) office , a place
. "" , post
office (a diplomatic post, the post of State Secretary),
place: the first post of his medical career, to get the post of a governess.

, , ,
, , .

, ,
, - , .
, ,
, , (, ,
). , , ,
, .. ,

==248

II.

1.2.

,
: . , , :
.
, , ,
, - . ,
, , , ,
, .

-, , , fire
.
, . , , , a fire .
,
, =>fire.

to chop: ,
(to chop wood, to chop (up) cabbage), (to cut the ropes), (to fell /to
hew/trees) to chop .

, , ,
. , , (, ,
); , , ; , , ,
, , , ; , ,
-. , - , ,
, . , , , : '
(

==249

!), *.
, , , ,
. ,
: to split /to chop/ wood (
), to break ice ( ), to crack nuts. ,
,

. , , thrill , What a thrill it was to


go down the rapids in a tiny boat s ' , '. Thrill
, , ,
. , ,
, , .
, ( ), ,
, , .

, , abandon. ,
, . -,
; , , : to sing
with abandon , to act with abandon , ( , ), he spoke with
complete abandon , , Se .

"" :
, , . , ,
, , ,
. .
, , : ' Ti Ti'. ,
, , ( -

==250

II.

\) stop. ;
stop (.,
, cease,
). , stop , ,
.

( s fire, S
to chop, thrill S , abandon s , ),
.

: -
, ;
-, ,
, , .

help, aid, assist


, . Help :
(to
help smb. to chop the wood [to solve the problem] -.
[ ]), , ,
. . (to help smb. with money [with advice] -.
[], to help smb. across the street [into the car] -.
[ }).
( ,
).
, , , - , ,
, , .
help aid assist
. Aid ,
(to aid in the preparation of the funeral)
,
: to aid the underdeveloped countries, to aid the
government with subsidies. Assist, ,
, , ,
( ,
).

.
choose, select, opt, elect, pick , , ,
choose ,

==251

. Select ,
; opt ( , ); elect ; pick
(to pick new words). . ,
( , );
, , .


, ,
.

, ,
, , ( )
, ,
. , , ,
: , ,
. , ,
, , .

, , ,
, ,
, .
.

, , , , ,
. , ,
. , , .

==252

II.

1.3.


.
, , ,
.

"
" . . (.: , 1970, . I; 1971. . 2). -,
,
: ,
, . "
"
. -, ( , )
, ,
, .
.

, , Webster's New Dictionary of


Synonyms, , ,
1968 .
,
:
, - (implications,
applications, connotations).

.

,
, ,
. , 50-
, , , .
: ) ,
,
, , door '', gate '', portal ', ', postern
' ', doorway ' '.
,
-

==253

6) , .
, , . , mend, repair, patch, rebuild
: 1) '', '': to mend one's dress; 2) ', ': mend your
manners /ways/; 3) '': the wound mended slowly. Repair : 1) '': to repair a car; 2)
'': to repair the lack of early education; 3) '': peace can be repaired. Patch : 1)
'': to patch overalls; 2) ' ': to patch up one's marriage; 3) ' ': to patch a car together from pieces out of the
junkyard; 4) ' -. ': his life must be patched together from scattered
references. , rebuild : 1) ', ': to rebuild a house; 2) '': to rebuild a
typewriter. , (., , mend, repair, patch
rebuild) ; - ,
, ,
. , (. , 2.1).

) , , ,
( ). , ,
, , , . ,
give, lend, render '', , to give /to lend, to render/ assistance; foot, bottom '', head, top '', , the foot /bottom/
[head /top/} of the stairs; back, ago '', , a few years back /ago/; get, bring, make '', , I couldn't get him to help me, she
couldn't quite bring herself to do it; good, clever '', , to be good /clever/ at arithmetic. courage ''
heart, , . "Rawdon had not the heart for that manoeuvre" (Thackeray); perform, fulfil . .
'' do, perform fulfil , . to do /to perform/
one's duty, to do /to fulfil/ a function. , )
, . ,
, ,

==254

II.

.
, ,
( 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 2.7).

.

) . ,
. , ,
, , , child, . kid '', head, .
chump '', '', lie, . tale ', '; , effrontery, gall . .
'' face, brass, sauce; courage, mettle
'' spunk.

) ,
,
.

, , , .
( 2.1) , ;
, ,
70- .

, ,
. ,
, .
,
(. 1.1).

, ,
, .
,
,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, .

==255

( , )
( , ).

,
, : , . .
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
. ., .
,
, : ,
, .

, :
,
.


, - .
,
, ; ,
,
, .

,

, .
,
,

2.

.
,

==256

II.

(
, , ;
, , 2.2).
( )
; ( )
. , ,
, .

400 .
, . ,
,
, . , ,

, .
: 1) , 2) , 3)
, 4) , 5) , 6) , 7) , 8) .
.

2.1

, . . ,
.
. : )
, ; ,
solitude, seclusion, isolation '' loneliness,
solitude.

) ,
. , remember, recollect, recall '' remind,
' -. ', ' -. -.'.
recede, retreat . . ', ' retract '',
. slide, glide, glissade, slip . .
', ' coast ' ' tobbogan
' '.

) ,
-

==257

. , , ,
. , , swing '', sway
'', undulate '', fluctuate '', oscillate '', vibrate
', '; shake '', quake ', ',
shiver ' , '; .
jump, leap, spring, bound, vault ', ' skip,
hop ' , '.

) , ,
,
. .

, ,
() . ,
, . ,
, , .
: 1) '
'/' ' 2) ' '/'',
' ' /'', . intelligent [stupid] man ' []
' intelligent [stupid] look [answer] ' [] []', merry [sad] boy
' [] ' merry [sad] eyes [smiles] ' []
[]', deft [awkward] animals ' [] ' deft [awkward]
movements ' [] ', honest [sly] person ' [] '
honest [sly] question ' [] '.
, , (
), , . intelligent mind ' ',
sad soul ' ', deft hands ' ', upright character ' ';
,
, , , .

,
,
, , .
intelligent, clever, bright, smart . . '', angry, wrathful,
indignant, mad . . '' .

, ,
, ,

93

==258

II.

. threaten, menace -: 1) ' -.


': to threaten /to menace/ smb. with destruction [to kill smb.]; 2) ' -. ' (.
): the clouds threatened rain, stones and loose earth menaced to bury him entirely, tears [smoke] threatened /menaced/ to choke him; 3)
' ' (. ): a fog [death, the earthquake] was threatening /menacing/.

, ,
. . , summon, call, convene,
convoke, muster : 1) convene, convoke, call, summon, muster ', ' (, . .); 2)
summon I, call, muster ', , ' ( , , , ); 3) summon II, call ',
, , '.


, , ,
, ( ). (.
2.5).

) ,

.

) , , .
, , summon, ', ',
'': , summon, convene,
.

) (, , )
. ,
, . . . , slide, slip, glide, skid, glissade, slither
slide, glide, glissade, slip, skip, slither glide, glissade (
, ) slip, skid (, ,
).

) , , ,
-

==259
.
, ( )
,

, , ,
, , , ,
, .
,
.

face, countenance, visage '' , ,


, ,
, : the monkey's face, "The face of
Katy ( . . A.) was a tiger's face" (Steinbeck). Countenance visage,
, ,
, ,
( 2.2).

effrontery, nerve, cheek, gall ', ' ,


, , effrontery.
,
, to have the effrontery /the nerve, the cheek, the gall/ to do smth., smb.'s effrontery
/nerve, cheek, gall/ (maddened him), the effrontery /the nerve, the cheek, the gall/ of smb. (was
maddening). Cheek nerve it's (awful) cheek
my coming so late give: "Nothing but genuine inspiration
could give a woman such cheek" (Shaw). , , , the
effrontery of looking into her soul, a kind of haughty effrontery, the cool effrontery of a Yankee
cheek, nerve gall .

, ,
(, ).

, . ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, . .

9*

==260

II.

2.2

, . .
(, ) , , , . .
(, ).
: 1)
, , , , . .; .
, ,
, .
(, ) ,
, .
distant, far, far-off, far-away '' .
remote , ,

, : I went abroad to a remote spot
where I thought I wasn't likely to meet anyone who knew me.

2) , . . , . . ,
, , , . .
,
( , , , ), ( ,
, ), ( , , ).

. ,
. , ,
,
.

.
() : "
, '.
, ,
, : .
, -

==261

* ^ ,
. ,
, - ,
.
. S ' ;
; , ',
.' = " ;
; ,
', '.

, , ,
,
. , , take care bother
'()'. Take care
, : the criminal took care to rub off
his finger-prints. bother :
, ,
, , the criminal didn't bother to rub off his finger-prints; do you think he
will bother to rub off his fingerprints?; he would scarcely bother to rub off his finger-prints.
*the criminal bothered to rub off his finger-prints.
take care bother , bother
, take care.
: bother (to do P) =
'() ; ,
' (. 2.6), ( ,
) ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , , ,
, , ,
.

, .
, bachelor - ',
' ('') bachelor,
. , Peter is not a
bachelor, , ;
, . -

==262

II.

- ,
.
.

, ,
, .
prey '', , - ,
, , . victim .

,
grateful, thankful ', , ,
' (. , ). Grateful
, -. , a thankful ,
: you've helped me, and I'm grateful to you: I'm thankful that his life was spared in the accident.

, , , , ,
, , . stem, severe, austere, ascetic
', , ' ,
, , .
stem ascetic. severe , ,
: a severe teacher ' ', he was as severe with himself, as with others '
, '. , severe : he is a severe one. Austere, ,
, . . , , : an
austere character ' ' an austere father ' '. severe austere, , '
' ' ' , ;
'', '', '', ''4.

4
, , .

==263

. , salubrious
climate air (. 1.1), , '' ''
:
salubrious, .

,

. , ,
.
.

, , 1.2,
. ,
, , , ,
,
.

,

( ).

Grateful, thankful . ; : '


(gratitude)'.

Attachment, affection, love ', ,


'. :
', , (is genuinely fond of) -
. -.'.

Hatred, detestation, abhorrence, abomination, loathing ', ,



'. : ' (aversion),
'.

Enemy, foe ', , -., '.


: ' , (is hostile)
'.

Misfortune, adversity, mischance, mishap ',


'. : ' (bad luck)
(adverse fortune) '.

Accident, casualty, mishap ' ,


'. :
' , '.

==264

II.
Jump, leap, spring, bound, skip, hop ')
, , ) '. :
'
(by or as if by a muscular effort)'.

Beat, pound, pummel, thrash, buffet, baste, belabour '


, '.
: ' (repeatedly)'.

: )
, ; ) ,
; ) ,
, , ; )
,
; ) (''),
; ) ('', '',
'', '', '', '', '', '', '', '', '', ''
), .

, .
: ) (.
). ,
: -,
, , ,
hatred , a detestation
(. grateful thankful . 262); -,
,
(., , attachment, affection, love
hatred, detestation, abhorrence, abomination, loathing; misfortune, adversity, mischance,
mishap accident, casualty, mishap).

, ('',
'', '', '') ('', '', '',
''). ,
. , grateful thankful,
, , 'gratitude';
, thankful 'thankfulness'. Hatred '', ,
aversion '': ,
. misfortune bad luck, attachment fondness.

==265

, -
, .. . , , '':
, . :
desire, wish, want '' (: , ).

) . , ,
; ,
. . ''
.

' ' , , ' , '.


'' , , open = ' ', kill = '
' . . , '' -
.
open, kill, break, grow, burn . . to cause. , to cause
: to open (the door) = 'to cause (the door) to open', to kill (a bird) = 'to cause (a bird) to die', to break (the window) = 'to cause (the window) to
break', to burn (the toast) = 'to cause (the toast) to burn' . . , , , to cause
, . he caused the door to open by tickling Sally who was pressed against it,
*he opened the door by tickling Sally who was pressed against it: , . , John's negligence
caused the toast to burn ^ ""John's negligence burned the toast . . , to open the door, to burn the toast
, to cause. to
open (the door) = 'to cause (the door) to open' .
to cause :
; , ^ ' '.

open, kill, grow, break ( )


, , (, ), (, ), (, ),
(, -

==266

II.

), (, ), ( , ), (, ),
(, ), (, ), , . .
: , '' ,
.

, open, break, burn ,


. , ''.

) , , , ,
, ; , ( )
( , ).
, , :
, , . . ; ,
(. ).

, . .
, , ,
. .

: desire, wish, want, crave, covet 'to have a


longing for something' long, yearn, hanker, pine, hunger, thirst 'to have a strong and urgent desire for something'. crave
, 'implies strongly the force of physical or mental appetite', covet 'implies a strong, eager desire'.
, . , desire longing
? , : longing 'strong and urgent desire'; desire
wish want 'longing', ?
, , ? , crave covet
, ? 'strong and urgent desire' (long, yearn, hanker . .) 'strong and
eager desire' (covet), ' '?
- (

==267

, ) 'means a strong and urgent desire' 'implies strongly the force of physical or mental appetite',
, ? ,
, .

,
. , , , (
) : ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
, , , .
( ), '': , , , , , ,
, . .
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , . .
, , ' '
' , . .'.

, ,
: ( ), .
, , , .
, , , ; , ,
, , . . ,
,
; , , , . , ,
-

==268

II.

. ,
, . ,
, , , , /, / .
.

, , , ,
.
,

2.3

, , :
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
, , want, wish, desire, crave,
comet , , ; care, concern, solicitude, anxiety, worry
, , , ; throw, cast, fling, hurl, pitch, toss, sling
, , , .

, ,
: frigid climate
, frigid wind , chilly weather , chilly wind
; proficient /expert/ player , proficient /expert/ in the art
of selfdefence .

- ,
: attachment , affection
, love ; cold ; cool , frosty
.


, 1.2.
(sharp, keen
'', victim, prey ''), . , ,
brawl, broil, . row, . rumpus, . scrap(e),
, , , ,
,
( , , ), ,
-

==269

. ,
, .

, .
, ,
, .

,
. ,
.

, ,
: invaders looted and robbed throughout the entire country
; a group of officials who looted the
treasury , .

, ,

: ...You have robbed me of my wife's affection like a low hound (R. Aldington) ...
. , .

2.4


.
, .

, . ,
, ,
(roam S ''),
,
, . . (rove S ''), ,
(meander), ,

(, , ), (.
roue meander) ( ,
).

, ,
, .

==270

II.

, , ,
:

, ,
. , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
( , , help!, *aidl *assistl),
, , (,
, firm, , ,
hard, , ).

.


,
, .

, , . .
, ,
. : 1)
? , 2.2, : )
, , ) , ) , , )
, .

2) ? : )
, ) .

3) ? : )
, ) .

,
, ,
. ( )
, . . (. .
), , ,
.

==271

2.4.1
)

,
, .
, , . ,
,
() .
, , , .

,
,
, .

, , ,
, , , ,
, , ( ,
). , , . .
(, , , , )
(, , , , , , ,
, , , . .).
, ,
. ,
.

, . escape, avoid, evade, elude '


' escape ,
(he managed to escape punishment, he escaped death by a
mere chance); avoid ,
(to avoid an accident [responsibility]); evade ,
,
(to evade one's pursuers [one's duties, military service, the question]); elude
, , (to elude
the enemy [the creditors]).

Temerity, audacity, hardihood '' -


: temerity ,
-

==272

II.

(such temerity in attack can be expected only of young and


inexperienced leaders); audacity ,
(to show audacity in speech [in dress]); , hardihood
, ,
(it took hardihood in Copernicus to deny the current
conception of the universe).

, . ,
. , throw '',
; cast , , toss
, hurl, , : to cast fishing rod, he
cast his cigarette ash on the carpet, to toss a penny to the beggar, tossing pebbles on her palm, he
tossed an envelope into the fire to hurl a spear at the bear [wood into the fire].

, , ,
, , , . , ,
imagination, fancy, fantasy ", '. Imagination
, ,
-
: he had enough imagination to see the possible consequences; she has a
powerful imagination and systematically thinks the worst of everyone (.
). Fancy fantasy ,
: the power
of fancy /fantasy/, a flight of fancy /of fantasy/. Fantasy
(his fantasy has created an unreal
world), a fancy , .

desire '' (he received the


position he desired, people desire political reforms), a wish crave
: I wish I were a Gipsy, to crave for fresh fruit in winter.

. swing, wave, flourish ', ' wave,


, ,
. . ,
: to wave to the man to go on.

commend, recommend, applaud, compliment ' -


-.', '' ' --.,
': I did not fail to commend these
things as they deserved; he is an expert watchmaker and greatly recommended.
applaud compliment

==273

(. . ): we applaud
your decision; to compliment a lady on her appearance.
:
( ), . ,
.

, . beat, pummel, thrash, buffet ''


- (, ) , pummel
, thrash , , buffet
.

defend, protect, shield, guard, safeguard ", '



: to defend oneself with a stick, the fortress is protected with walls, to shield one's eyes
with one's hand. ,
, : to guard a fortress, to
safeguard children who play in the street.

, . lean, spare, gaunt ', , '


, : lean,
good-looking young men, he had an excessively long and lean brown face. Spare
, ,
(. , ): he was slight and spare. ,
gaunt , ,
: a gaunt old man, his gaunt, weather-
beaten features pinched with cold and fatigue.

Try, torment, torture ''


: the great heat of the sun tries his body, rheumatism tries me a good deal; the horses
are tormented /tortured/ by flies, headaches [suspicions] tormented him.
rack , ,
: his body was racked with pain, to be racked with doubts [jealousy].

Co . Intimidate cow ''


, , .
Intimidate ,
, : to intimidate workers by the
threat of discharge; her deficiences in this subject intimidated her. Cow
, :
the population of the colony was thoroughly cowed.

==274

II.

. Examine inspect ' ,


-. '. Examine
(he examined the passersby, then with the same lack of intensity he
examined his fingers), (he raised his eyes to examine her face very
carefully; the jury examined the cups closely). inspect
, , ,
: to inspect each car [the pearl under magnification, the fire-prevention
system of the plant], to inspect every length of cloth for defects.

Sharp '' (sharp knife [blade, needle]),


, (the sharp edge of a table, sharp elbow, sharp
icicles). keen ,
, : the keen edge of a knife, a keen razor,
*the keen edge of a mountain.

.
, , , swing, wave, flourish, brandish
', '. ,
. Swing : to swing a scythe in
mowing, to swing the pump-handle [the hammock], to swing one's arms to circulate the blood, to
swing one's arms [one's stick] in walking. Wave
,
(, , ), ,
(, , . .): to wave flags,
the excited men waved and shouted to them, he waved his hand in return, to wave (to) the man to
go on, to wave smb. aside [away]. Flourish '
-. , , ': " flourished the certificate in Andrew's face"
(Cronin), the deer flourished his first antler and was very proud of it.
brandish : to brandish a sword [a club, a stick,
a revolver], "They began to shout and brandish their fists" (Winsor).

. Pain, ache, twinge, stitch ' '. Pain


, ,
,
: she felt a sharp pain in her back [the knee, the chest], he felt pain when the needle
touched bis skin. Ache ,
: a dull ache in one's bones, the racking ache seemed continually an
element of her being, muscular aches. twinge
, , , : a twinge
of gout [of rheumatism].

==275

, stitch ,
, : a stitch in the side.

. Associate, pal comrade ', '


;
, ( ,
. .). Companion . Crony
, ,
, : his cronies at Harrow.

, . ponder, meditate, muse . . '' ponder


,
(. ): to ponder the situation [the mystery, the problem of how she could
help him], the government should ponder well whether the prize would be worth the cost.
Meditate ,
: to meditate on the
nature of happiness [on holy things, on the hypocrisy and spiritual stagnation of the High Church
party]. , muse ,
,
: to muse on the happy events of
one's childhood; where Elisabeth hesitated, mused, suffered, Fanny acted; up till then he had
been musing but now he woke up with a start.
Pain ' '
: she felt a sharp
[dull] pain. Ache , pang ,
(I feel a sharp pang if I touch an aching tooth . ), a
throe , ,
, : the throes and grippings of the belly.

. Expert , skilful: skilful surgeon


' ', expert surgeon ' '.
surprise '', astonish '', amaze ''; cool
'', cold '', frosty '', icy ''.


. ,
, , , , . .
, . summon II, call, muster
' (, ,
) ,

==276

II.

' (. , , , ) muster , summon call.


, , , ,
, : she resolved to summon (up) her courage to
refuse him; you'd better call (up) your pluck and resolution before starting the conversation. muster (up) ,
, ( , ,
), , ,
; , , ,
summon call: it seemed as though she could not muster enough strength to move again; they could see the effort with which she mustered up her
self-command.

[] . loving affectionate ''


: let us continue to be a loving and united family. Affectionate
, , ,
: she was gay and sweet and affectionate, an affectionate brother [child], you are much too
affectionate to me.

afraid, aghast ,
, ,
. . ( . ).

() (). Afraid '' (to be afraid of the dark [of snakes]),


( ) (he was afraid to fall, don't be afraid), a aghast ' '
: the door opened, and a big dog ran in; the girl stood aghast.

honest upright '' honest (he is an honest man) (be honest about it), a upright (.
he was an upright man, *be upright about it).

-. crass, dull, dense . . ''


, : "crass minds
whose reflexive scales could only weigh things in a lump"


==277

(Webster). Dull dense ', ,


', . .
: a dull pupil, it is difficult to explain even
elementary arithmetic to a dull child; a particularly dense group of students.

quick-witted, smart bright


', , '.
,
: he was quick-witted /smart/ enough to see the danger and change the
subject. bright ,
,
: a bright boy [pupil, student].

-. Awkward clumsy ', '


: awkward ,
: he is an awkward dancer, awkward in gait
[in gestures, in manners], some animals are awkward on land, but very clever in the water.
, clumsy, ,
: ,
: he was rather heavy and clumsy, clumsy in shape and
build.

-. Passionate ''
, : a
passionate nature, he was hot-blooded and passionate. ardent ''
,
- -
: an ardent stamp-collector [theatregoer, globe trotter], an ardent follower of an idea
[advocate of a principle].

. Thoughtful
, ,
,
: the thoughtful girl undertook the house-cleaning for her sick aunt, "Leaving me to
gather the sticks... Not very thoughtful of you" (Cronin). Considerate ,
, ,
: he was too considerate to let her see his distress at her sickly
look; to be considerate to smb. in his grief.

-. gather, collect, assemble ' -.


' gather : he soon gathered a crowd around himself

==278

II.
, , , ,
, . Collect
(to collect the flock [the pupils, the group for a
lecture]), a assemble ,

(to assemble the committee [the government]).

Stop cease '' ,


: to stop /to cease/ stroking the dog [trembling]. quit,
discontinue desist : to quit
laughing [talking], to discontinue a subscription [payment, systematic training], to desist from
one's occupation [from one's intention to write to a friend].

, remember '',
: he remembers every detail of that occurrence, he suddenly
remembered an appointment I can't remember his name, I tried to remember his name but
gave it up. , recollect,
: recollect where you were on the night of June 17.

,
,
. ,
(, ) , .

, . 246.

, , : "Caesar: Are you trembling? Cleopatra (shivering with dread):


No, I I ..No" (B. Shaw, "Caesar and Cleopatra") tremble ( ,
, ) shiver
( ,
) . ,

( , . 284
290).
,
,
.
,

==279

,
: " never had an ache or a pain, ate his food with gusto and ruled his brothers with a rod
of iron" (Th. Dreiser "The Financier"). "M alone: ..My father died of starvation in Ireland, in the
black 47. Maybe you've heard of it. Violet: The Famine? Malone (with smouldering passion):
No, the starvation. When a 'country is full of food, and exporting it, there can be no famine" (W.
Collins, "The Moonstone").
)

2.2, , ,

. ,
,
.

Vehement ' ' intense


,
: intense heat ' ', vehement heat =
" ' ( intense cold vehement cold, intense pain vehement
pain), intense red ^ ' ', vehement red gg '
'. , , , intense
, :
the letter was of intense significance, *the letter was of vehement significance,
5.

Stir, flurry, fuss, ado ,


(. , , ).
, , ,
-
5
, , .
, , ( , ,
, ,
, , ), .
, , ( :
).

==280

II.

Sharp keen '


' (. , , , , , , ,
. .). Sharp :
,
: a sharp voice [whisper, cry,
yelp] ' [, , ]', a sharp flash of lightning '
', sharp wind ' '. Keen ,
- ,
, : keen savour of the roast-beef, the wind came keen with a
tang of frost.

)
Jump, leap, spring, bound, skip, hop ' '
: jump . Leap
, , ,
: to leap into the saddle, the chamois was leaping from crag to crag, I love to watch a
dancer leap. Spring , , bound
, bound :
to spring across the stream, the cat sprang upon the bird, to spring onto a moving train, she
sprang to her feet and bounded across the intervening space like a tiger. Skip hop,
,
, , . Skip ,
, , : to skip along the road
[out of the way], to skip upstairs two at a time. Hop '
, , ,
'; , , : the kids chalked out a
/-skotch game and began to hop around its squares, the sparrows hopped nearer, how far can
you hop on your right leg?, he hopped on one leg and then the other to shake the water out of his
ears.

Tickle regale ' '


,
: tickle ( '')
, , regale (
'') : the joke will
really tickle you; to regale smb. with one's story; when in humour, he would regale her with the
choicer gossip of the town.

==281

Naked, bare ', ',


, , , . ,
: (naked woman), , (naked children playing on
the heaps of rubbish), , (a charming naked baby, a perfectly shaped naked body).

imagination, fancy, fantasy , , ,


, ,
, .
imagination, , fancy, fantasy, ,
. ( ), imagination
,
: a job that requires imagination; poets, artists, and inventors need imagination; "it's only through imagination that men
become aware of what the world might be" (Russell); he is a man of no imagination. ( ,
), fancy, fantasy, , , : he had believed
implicitly in the smiling future his imagination has wrought; she has a powerful imagination and systematically thinks the worst of everyone. ,
, fancy fantasy,
.

Stoop, condescend ' ,


' (. , ). stoop
( ),
condescend (
): to stoop to stealing [to cheating, to meanness, to begging], to stoop to lies; to
condescend to trickery; he said he would never condescend to their society.
Hard, difficult ', - ,
'. hard
: we have a hard lesson to learn; chopping wood is a hard job; it's a hard thing to fulfil
the plan ahead of

==282

II.

time. Difficult ,
: she came across a difficult passage in translation, he
is a difficult writer, it was a difficult problem for a pupil of the fourth class, designing a sputnik is
a difficult task.

Sparing frugal ' ', ',


'. Sparing : he is sparing enough and
never runs into debt. frugal ,
,
: with fifteen shillings a week and a family he had to be frugal (
, ).

Guard safeguard , 2.4.1) ),


, .
. guard (. , )

: the entrances are well guarded, the president is always guarded by secret
service men. safeguard ,
,
, : to safeguard
our health ' ', to safeguard one's country from a surprise
attack ' ', to safeguard children who play in the
street ' , '.

, , , ,
. , ,
.

2.4.2

, :
.
.

2:
. , , ,
.
(, , -

==283

. . 259 267268), - .

-
. ,
, ,
, .
, , , . sharp,
keen, acute ' ' (
, . ) ,
. ,
; sharp
(sharp eyes [sight, hearing], keen
(keen eyes, a keen sense of smell), a acute
(acute hearing); acute eyesight, acute sense of smell .

,
. ,
, (.
), (. calling vocation '': to
make one's choice of a calling /of a vocation/, to mistake one's calling /one's vocation/,
(. healthy . healthful '
': healthy /healthful/ diet [exercise]),
(. damn, bit, snap . . I don't care a damn /a bit, a snap/
about it), (. far-off far-away
'': far-off/far-away/ hills [sounds]).

,
.

,
, ()
. Anger, wrath, rage fury
', ' : ^ (wrath ,
anger, a rage fury , wrath); 2) ,
( , wrath, ,
rage fury); 3) (anger ,
wrath -

==284

II.

, a rage fury
). , the anger of the sea, the
math of elements, the jury /rage/ of the storm,
. ,
; ,
anger, wrath, rage fury ,
, a rage /, -, .

. Hunger thirst ",


', ''
' ' ,
- : to hunger /to thirst/ for
knowledge [for information], to hunger for friends, to thirst for peace, to hunger /to thirst/ for
power [for wealth, for revenge].

Hard difficult ' ' (


, , . .): hard cough, difficult breathing, hard /difficult/ birth
[death]. . hard difficult,
(. . 281282).

Large big : larde /big/ profit [number, score, price].


large
(a large basket [man, field], a big
(a big stone).

Summon (up) call (up) '


': to summon up one's energy [one's courage, one's wits, one's self-
command], to call up all one's pluck [one's wits, one's resolution, one's dignity].

6)

,
, ,
: .
, '', , -
, (),
, .

, :
, ,
, , . . .

==285

. Ci '', (,
Ci) . , ,
''. CiCa '' , 2 .
, ) , , ,
Ci - ''. .

Stay ' -' remain : stay


, remain : to stay to dinner [to supper], I can
stay here for about an hour; we remained there much longer than we expected. remain , stay, ,
- , : few remained in the building after the alarm was given; he
remained behind. , (, ,
decide, intend, wish, try . .) , stay
remain , : he stayed to learn the doctor's verdict, he remained on the platform to wave a farewell to
his friends; we decided [intended] to stay /to remain/ in the hotel till the end of the month; I had to stay /to remain/ at home till I felt better.

Remember, recollect, recall '' : 1) - (remember


, , a recollect recall ; , , no one remembers the
exact number of casuaties recollect recall ); 2) ( recollect
recall , remember ); 3) ( recall , recollect ,
remember ). , , ,
, : try to remember /to recollect, to
recall/ his exact words [where you were on the night of June 17].

, stay remain, remember recollect recall ( ) ,


, , ,
.

==286

II.

, . stay
remain remember recollect recall, ,
, ,
:
. : remember, recollect
recall
. , ,
.
support uphold ''. to support
the principle [the demand, the decision] , [,
]
, , , []
. to uphold the principle [the demand, the
decision] , [, ]
. uphold
, ,
, support uphold : he could not support /uphold/ their
behaviour. ,
uphold, support, .

, , '' ''
'', '' .

, ,
: , , ,
. ,
, ,
.

, .
,
, : , ,
.
, ,
,
. Odd, queer quaint
'

==287

', : odd ,
: an odd fellow [laugh]; the old man
and the boy have formed an odd friendship; the odd thing was that he was happy through all that
hard year. Queer , ,
: queer character /bird/; queer aches in his body; it's
queer that he's made a lot of money lately he is not very clever at business. Quaint, ,
, ,
- ^ quaint old castle; there are many
quaint nooks and corners in this town; she was a quaint kind old woman; "the quaintest and
simplest and trustingest race" (Twain).
: it was an odd /queer, quaint/
way to look at things; he had an odd /queer, quaint/ habit of using phrases of hers.

hard difficult, ,
2.4.1) ), : it's a hard /difficult/
problem [book, language].


. stupid I, dull
' ' ( ,
, , . .) ,
. Dull
( ),
, . dull persistency [apathy],
dull face [look].
, ,
.
it was stupid /dull/ of her to invite so many guests; how stupid /dull/ of you
to expect his coming!

,
,
.

Want '', wish, , ,


: "...the young
Forsyte meant having what she wanted" (Galsworthy); they wanted only truth, justice.
want
(. ).
, wish,
, ,

==288

II.

, (.
): he wished to be alone; eagerly, I wished for tomorrow. , wish
, ,

: I wish I were a Gipsy; I wish the week were over. wish
want , : want

. ,
(Accusativus cum Infinitive), want wish
(
),
( ): "She was
ambitious for me. She wanted me to rise in the world" (Anderson); I want you to come for the
afternoon next Sunday; do you wish me to see him about it?; "Now, with this visit in prospect he
wished her to accompany him" (Cronin).

Grateful thankful ''


: grateful , a thankful
(. . 262).
: grateful ,
, (grateful to smb.) (grateful for
smth.). Thankful , :
, , ,
, ( ) ,
: I am thankful that he is no worse [that there were no
casualties] ( , grateful).
thankful to be thankful for smth., to be thankful to
smb., to be thankful to smb. for smth.
grateful thankful ,
: I'm grateful /thankful/ to you (for help), I'm grateful /thankful/ for all you
have done for me.

, .
Apt liable ', ',
: apt
, . . , ,
: idle children are apt to get into mischief, he is
apt to lose his head under stress, china cups are apt to break, dry wood is apt to take fire.
liable ,


==289

: he is liable to be punished [to be killed], he is liable to encounter


difficulties. , (
) , apt liable
: this car is apt to skid ( ) cars
are liable to skid on wet roads ( , ).
, :
, apt liable ,
, , : snow is apt /liable/ to fall in these
parts as early as September, difficulties are apt /liable/ to occur.

leave, abandon, desert ' -., -.', ''


leave : his fear left him, her assumed bossy manner left her.
, , leave, , ,
, : his gaiety [his selfcontrol]
abandoned /deserted/ him.
, , ,
(. ). leave, abandon desert
, ,
. leave, , abandon
desert, , : his eyes never left /abandoned,
deserted/ her face.

. Doubtful
dubious ',
-.' (. , ). doubtful
, , - ,
. .,
, ,
. .: he was doubtful about the outcome of this project [of the prospects of the
rebellion]; "He was more than ever doubtful whether the battery would last him home" (Greene).
Dubious doubtful (
, ), :
dubious , ,
: I'm dubious about his stories of early success,
I'm dubious of his honesty. ,
,
, : I'm doubtful /dubious/ about
what I ought to do.
John was doubtful /dubious/ about his ability to cope with the situation: 10 3

==290

II.
John his (
), doubtful dubious
; John his ( ),
.

2.4.3

: ()
(, , )
, . .
; ) ,
, /
, . , ()
,

().

,
, .
.

, , :
(, ) (, ).
,
, , . .;
, ,
, ,
. . ,
.

Calculate, compute, reckon, estimate ', , '


1) , 2) , 3)
. Calculate

,
, ,
, : to calculate the

==291

velocity of light [the speed of a rocket, the cost of furnishing a house, the purchasing power of eighty cents for a
dinner]. Compute reckon calculate
, , ,
: to compute /to reckon/ the number of women in
American colleges. , , (compute) ,
, (, ,
. .) ; (calculate)
,
, ,
, . . , compute
reckon, calculate ,
, , reckon
, : to
reckon (up) the bill, to reckon the number of people present. Estimate
, ,
.

Discuss, argue, debate, dispute ', ' 1)


(,
, ,
); 2) (
); 3)
( , ). argue,
dispute debate discuss,

- . discuss argue,
, debate,
, dispute,
. , debate dispute
, -, : debate
(,
), ; dispute
,
.

Sullen, morose, sulky, surly, glum, gloomy ', '


: 1)

==292

II

, 2) ( ), , 3)
. sullen morose ,
, : he was a sullen /a morose/ man, suddenly he grew sullen /morose/.
. Sullen morose , sullen
, , a morose
, , : "Sheridan was generally very dull in society and sat sullen and silent" (Webster), one must be very
cold-blooded and morose not to like this book. Sulky surly glum gloomy ,
-, , glum gloomy,
, , . sulky surly ,
. sulky ,
surly , he turned sulky and did not answer the question '
', the surly maid shut the door in my face ' '.
glum gloomy (. ): glum ()
, , gloomy : you sit there as glum as the mutes at a funeral; he was gloomy all these days
because he didn't see a gleam of hope.

Sly, cunning, crafty, artful, tricky, foxy, wily ', ' ( ,


, , ). Sly cunning , , ,
. , ,
, : it was not intelligence, but a low kind of cunning /slyness/. Crafty
artful, , , ,
, . Foxy wily
. '' '', '' '
'. Tricky , -

==293

, : "Fear a tricky opponent more than a


crafty one" (Webster). sly-cunning ,
,
, :
women are sly and catty and wanting to get their own back. Cunning, ,
, : he was very cunning in dealing
with his customers. crafty-artful
, . .: crafty man of affairs [moneychanger];
being artful she cajoled him with honey-mouthed flattery. foxywily
,
, ; foxy
: he is a foxy old man. Wily foxy
, sly cunning,
, : a wily fox! we never knew what a
rascal he was.

polite, civil, courteous, courty, gallant, chivalrous ', ,


' . Polite , , civil
,
. polite ,
: she was always polite to servants; he was too polite to ask such questions. Civil
,
: he forced his son to be civil to the stranger; the servant was sullen, but civil.
Courteous courtly
, , .
courteous ,
: the young man was quite courteous and helpful; he was so charming and courteous to
the old lady. Courtly ,
, ,

: a courtly and stately old gentleman '
'. Gallant chivalrous ,
. gallant
, ,
: trying to be gallant, he bowed. Chivalrous (. )
, : he was kind
and chivalrous to women of all ages, he felt strangely chivalrous and paternal to her.

==294
II.

2.5

, , , ,
, (
), .
desire desire, wish, want . .: to desire
smb. to do smth. ' ' (he desired me to stay in a peremptory tone)
. : love, affection,
attachment ', , ' ,
, ' ': love at first sight, to
fall in [out of] love.

, , .

, , . ,
, , .
.
, .
,
,
.

angry, indignant, wrathful, irate, furious, acrimonious, mad ' ,


' angry, wrathful furious.
'', '' ( ),
() ; . an angry /a
wrathful/ sea, a furious storm.

,
. , support I, uphold, advocate, back (up), champion '',
' -.' support back (up) ,
: 1) ' -.',
. he could not find any arguments to support /to back/ his story; 2) '
-.', . this information supports the suspicion, the bills will not be
discounted unless they are backed by responsible names.

, , ,
.

==295

2.6

,
. , .
, ;
.

, , , , , -
,
.
.
, .
it , .

try, torment, torture, afflict rack '' it,


, : it tried /tormented, tortured/ him to think that, *it afflicted /racked/
him to think that. hard, difficult '', , arduous, : it was hard /difficult/ to
climb up the steep slope , a *it was arduous to climb up the steep slope .

Condescend deign '' , deign , ,


, ( hardly
scarcely): to deign no reply, I do not [will not] deign to reply to such impertinence, will you deign to answer my question?, he hardly /scarcely/ deigned a
comment. Condescend : he condescended to his younger brother [to the suggestion, to accept the
message], to condescend no answer, will you condescend to answer my question? . . abstain ' -.',
, resist, withstand ' -.', : he abstained from drinking I can't resist a cigarette, I
could harly resist a cigarette, the curiosity that I could scarcely withstand, human nature could not withstand those bewildering temptations, will you be
able to resist /to withstand/ such a temptation?

budge stir '': budge


: 'he did not budge, he could hardly budge'.

==296

II.

,
. -, stir budge, condescend deign, abstain withstand
.
,
, .
budge, , : budge = ';
, ,
*. *he budged
,
, . . , , , .

, .
: 1) ,
2) , .

, ,
.


. pleasure, joy, delight ', '
with (with pleasure, with joy, with delight), delight
in: to jump in delight, *to jump in pleasure /in
joy/. Rest ease '', comfort,
at: my mind is at rest /at ease/ (about it), *my mind is at
comfort (about it).

( )
( ). affectionate, devoted, fond, doting . .
, , a doting
: an affectionate /devoted, fond, doting/ mother, she is
affectionate [devoted to me, fond of him]; she is doting on her daughter
, doting , .
watchful, vigilant,
alert wide-awake ' ':
, ,
, : to be watchful /vigilant/ of /against/ danger
[the enemy], to be alert /wide-awake/ for /to/ a new adventure, a watchful /vigilant/
sentinel, *an alert /wide-awake/ sentinel.

, ,
,

==297

.
.

, , bare, naked nude. , bare


, naked , ,
, , nude
. bare naked to smth.,
, a nude : bare /naked/ to the waist, "nude to the waist.

wave '', swing flourish, ,


, ,
(
). wave to wave
to smb. ( ), to wave (to) smb. to do smth., to wave smb.
to smth. (, to silence), to wave smb. away [on, aside,...] (
). Swing flourish, ,
, , .

,
(. stir budge . 295).
.
, , leap ', ' ,
(to leap over a fence to leap a fence), spring
(to spring over a fence); attain ''
, (to attain success [glory], to attain to power [to
prosperity]), gain (to gain success [glory]).
.

,
,
.

, ,
, : ,
. wave smb., to smb.
(
, , , , , , ,
, , , , . ., . . ,
);
(smb.) (to smb.) ; ,

==298

II.

() to ().

, ,
( , ),
(,
, ), (
), .


, , , . .

discuss, argue, debate, dispute ()


().
: to discuss /to argue, to debate, to
dispute/ a point. argue debate
(up)on, about, over round: to argue /to
debate/ on art, to argue /to debate/ about /over/ religion, to argue /to debate/ round the topic.
dispute about /over/
smth., on smth. (to dispute about /over/ religion), discuss debate
(to discuss /to debate/ how to do it).

Beg, entreat, beseech, implore, supplicate, adjure, conjure ', , '


.
.
,
: to beg /to entreat, to beseech,.../ smb. to listen [that he should grant permission],
"Help me", he begged /entreated, beseeched,.../. , adjure
conjure, for smth.:
to beg /to entreat, to beseech,..., *to adjure, *to conjure/ smb. for a loan.
;
beg entreat, ,
of smb. : to beg /to entreat, to
beseech, to implore,.../ smb.'s help [smb.'s protection], to beg /to entreat/ leave of
smb.

Commend, applaud compliment '' ,


;
for smth., on smth.: to commend /to applaud/ smb. for his
performance, to compliment smb. on his presence of mind. Commend applaud
-

==299

, compliment: to commend /to applaud, *to compliment/


smb.'s presence of mind.

Companion, comrade pal ", ' to smb., ,


crony buddy associate: he was a good companion /comrade, pal/ to me.

Hard difficult '', arduous, , : the lesson was hard


/difficult/ to learn, *the lesson was arduous to learn.

Appear, emerge '' from smth., : to appear from nowhere, he


emerged from the side door of the house. Appear, , , ,
emerge: to appear in the doorway [on the threshold], the city appeared beyond it.

love '',
: for smb. ( , , love for children) of smth. ( , . ., ,
love of one's country). attachment, love, (,
) to smb. [to smth.]: attachment to one's daughter [to one's home]. attachment for smb. ,
.

attentive, considerate, thoughtful ', '


. attentive to, thoughtful of,
, : attentive to a friend [to smb.'s needs], thoughtful of other people [of his son's well-being].
considerate, to smb., , of smth.,
: considerate to old people, considerate of the comfort of old people.

Discuss, argue, debate dispute, , .


. ,
argue, debate dispute ; , discuss,
, -

==300

II.

: to discuss the people who attended the funeral; we are discussing you, not mankind in the abstract.

2.7

,
.

,
. doubtful dubious '' ,
, to feel, to look, to seem, to sound, , , to turn out. even after they had been assured that there
was no danger, they looked [felt, seemed, sounded] doubtful /dubious/, *he turned out doubtful /dubious/ about it. ,
doubtful dubious ,
.

, ,
, . escape, flee, fly, abscond, decamp ''
, : , : his best
two dogs escaped from the camp, the dog fled into the forest. abscond decamp .
. reach, achieve, gain,
attain ''. ,
: to reach /to achieve, to gain, to attain/ one's aim [the object of one's desires, success, fame, glory], to reach an understanding [an
agreement], to achieve a reputation for being rude, to achieve the realization of a dream, to gain /to attain/ the attention of the clerk [the confidence of the
mountain people]. , gain attain reach achieve:
*to reach /*to achieve/ the attention of the clerk [the confidence of the mountain people] ( ).
attention confidence, gain attain,
reach achieve, : ,
attention confidence, , gain attain: ,
, -

==301

- . gain attain ,
(, ), : to gain /to attain/ one's aim [success, glory]
, gain /attain/ .
reach achieve: ,
.

condescend deign '':


, condescend (he condescended to smile), ,
condescend (to condescend to smb.'s folly). deign
: he didn't deign to smile, *he didn't deign to their folly.

, , .

, , surprise '' amaze, astound ', '. , ,


. , surprise (he was a
little [not a little, very much] surprised, he was surprised out of all measure), a amaze astound ,
, : he was amazed /astounded/ to such a degree that he could hardly talk.
, , ''he was a tiny bit amazed, ^e was a little astounded. :
amaze astound , , ,
'', ''.

Concern solicitude '' '' , - ,


- . , ,
, (deep /profound/ concern /solicitude/), ,
: to feel concern /solicitude/, to express profound concern, to manifest /to show/ solicitude.

.
.

==302

II.

, , , cold cool '


'.
: I sat in the armchair feeling sick and cold; I'm perfectly cool, but
open the window if you like. cold
: his fingers [toes] felt cold, his
fingers [toes] felt cool ( '
'), ( : '
').
-
,
.

(,
, , , , , , . .),
.

, ,
.

.
, :
.

Reach, achieve, gain, attain ''


. reach achieve, gain attain,
, , , ,
: his words reached /achieved/ their aim /their object/, his determined
perseverance reached its aim, *his words gained /attained/ their aim.
, .
, * .

Reach, gain attain ''


- : they couldn't
reach /gain, attain/ the opposite shore. Reach , ,
: the boat reached the shore,
the train reaches Oxford at six.

Gather '' assemble congregate ,


assemble congregate ( )
, gather , . the clouds
are gathering, it will rain.

==303

Ponder, meditate ruminate '' , ,


() : to ponder /to meditate/ upon the
course of actions; to ruminate over the past; to ponder /to meditate, to ruminate/ the point.
ponder meditate ,
ruminate: to ponder on modern young men, he meditated on all those
people and the things they represented in his life.

Depress, oppress weigh down (upon) '' , ,


. . : a feeling of isolation depressed
/oppressed/ her, she was oppressed by fear, oppressed /weighed down/ by the heat. ,
depress oppress ,
weigh down (upon): the dim room depressed /oppressed/ her, she
depressed me.
2.8

, ,
: -, ,
; -, ,

.

, -
, ,
. . ,

, , , ,
, .
(, )
, , , ,
.

, ,
, XIX XX .
, ;
, .

==304

II.

3.

,
. , ,
, , .
, . . , ,
, ,
, .

==305

00.htm - glava18

1
,
2.

1.
, . . , .
, ,
: ) , ; .
( <> ); ( <>
); ( >); (
<> ); ( < ,
, < > , < >); (
, , ); (
).

) , , ( ), ( ) . .; 1
, (), 2 (), 3 ().
,
. . () <> / <>), 1 () ,
2 () , () ; <> -.
<> -. . . -

==306

II.

, , ,
[] (. , ).

) - , , "" "
", " , " "
", . . , ( ) ,
( ) - ( ), (
) ( ). -
, " "; .
, , . .
; -
.

1.1.

, ,
,
, , , , . . . 2
(, ) , , , , ; ,
, , ; , , , ;
, , , , ; 1 ,
2, ; 1 , , , , ', . .

, .,
, , , . ,
,
, . . ,
. .

, ,
.
, , ,
, , .

, , , , , , ,
, . , , :
- ;
;

==307

- , ;
;
-
; (
);
.

,
. , ,
, .
. ',
'; . ---
, ,
(. , ).
, , , ,
: ; - ; ,
(. , ); ,
; [] : "
, , " (. . , ).

, ,
.

1.2.

, , , ,
. .
, .


. : )
(., ., . . .); ) (., ., , . .); )
(., ., . . .); ) ,
(., ., ., ., ., . . .); )
(., ., ., ., ., ., , . .); ) (., ., ., .,
. . .); ) (., ., . . .).

==308

II.

".", "." "." "."


".".

"." ,
.
; ;
; .

"." , . . . .
, , , , , , . .
(. . ), , , . . [ , ] (. . ) .
.
, , ,
. .
( . , . .).
, .
,
. ".",
, : -, , ,
; -,
.

".", ".", "." . . .


, ,
/ . ,
"." ".", ".-.".
,
. . -
.

".". ,
,
, .
- - ( .
. ) , -. "."
,
.

==309

".", ,
.
, (. ) (. ).

,
, ".".
. .
.
, .
, XIX
; . (. . , MAC),
[] ,
(. . , ).

"": ) ,
. . <>
?nopou ; ,
^ <>, ^ <>.
, ,
.
, <, >, ,
?nopou <>; ) ;
, * , ?nopou , ; )
, ; .
; ) ,
, ; . .
" ": - ;
; , , , , , , -
?

".". ,
. , , ,
; . , . / ,
(. , ).

, ,
" ".

==310

II.

".". , ,
. , :
, , , , .
"." , ".".

. ,
. . [ ], [ ], [ ].

1.3.

, .
, , , , ,
, . . , ,
, ; () , ,
, ; , , , , ,
. , , . . 2
: 2, , ; , , ;
, , , ; , , , .

. ,
.

1) , , . .
. 1, ,
, , , 2, , ,
. . <> < >,
<> < >.

( -
) .

==311

, (, , )
. ., , : 1 = ' (
-., -. . .)', 2 = ', .'();
1 = ', -; - , -
', 2 = ', , - ' ().

, 1994,
. 1 = '
-. - ,
,
'. 2 = ' ,
, '.

,
.

2) , (.
, , ), "
".

2.

(
, , , , )
,
, .
(. . ),
( )
.

2.1.

, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
-

==312

II.

,
. ,
.

, , .
: 1) , (
, , , ;
,
); 2) (
, , ,
); 3)
( , . . , ,
); 4) (

,
); 5) ( ,
); 6)
(.
); 7) (
,
, , . .); 8)
( ).

, , .
: 1)
( , ); 2)
(), (),
(), (); 3) ,
(
, ); 4)
( , ); 5)

( ,
, ); 6) -

==313

( , ); 7) ,
( ).

2.2.

, ,
, .

, . , ,
, . , ,
, (
,
). ,
, 3.
.

, . ,
.
.

. , .
,
.

. , , , , ,
, .

, . , . .
, .
, , . : ()
; () ; () ,
- (-

==314

II.

-) , ; ()
.

(), () ()
.
, , ,
.
- , ,
.
, ,
. .

,
4.

, .
.

. , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
.

,
, , ,
.
,

.

, .
,
. ,
, ,
: , , , , ,
, , . . , ,
, , , ,
. . , ,
-

==315
. ,
, , , , ,
, , , . . .

, ,
, . ,
, .

, , .
, , , . . ,
, , <, >, .
, , , (, )
, . ,
,
.

, , ,
, , .

,
, . .
<, >, ?0 <, >. , .

( )
. , , . .,
, , :
! ! . <, >.
, , . . .

, ; .
,

==316

II.

, . ,
; . []
[]. ,
, , , , .
, , . . , ,
.
; . []
[].

,
.
, , , , . .
, 1990: 82
. .

, ,
: <> .
, : ,
. .
.
- , -
. , ,
- .
^ ; . . ,
, . . - ,
, .

,
: ' , ' ( , ,
).
,
.
: )
; ) , .
(
), .
(
, . .),
: .

==317

, ', ',
. ( )
,
. (
) : ,
, ,
. ,
.


, .
, - ,
- ; .
.

, , ,
. . ( ,
, ) ( ); ( )
( ); ( - , ,
) ( ).

.
, , .

2.3.

(., , 1992)
. , , ,
, , (= '')
, , , ,
. ,
, , ( ,
) .
,
.

,
, . . ,
(.); !; ,

==318

II.

, , , , ,
(. , ); . ,
, (.
, -). , ,
, . . [, ]
, , (. . ,
); , ,
! (. , );
, [] (. , );
(. ,
).
.

, ,
.
.

, ,
,
; . -?;
; . , ,
(. , ).

( , )
. - ,
, : ) :
; , , (.
, ); ) ,
: < > , ; )
, , , , ,
, : ,
; (.
, ); - ;
, ;
, / / (. , ,
). ,
.


==319

1 ( ) 4'
( ).
, -
. , ,
.
, (
). , ,
.


, , .
: ,
, -; .
( . 4.3).

,
: . ,
, .
,
- ( , ).

2.4.

1.2, : '
X, - ,
'. ,
<, , >, .

1.2,
,
.
, ,
(). . .
, ,
.

==320

II.

. ,
.
,
. ,
.

, , ,
, .
, , , ,
.

,
, , . ,
, - , , .

2.5.

, ,
, .
.

,
, . ,
-, , .
, ,
,
. . - , . : .
(. , );
(. , ); [ ]
(. , ); []
, [] , (.
, ).

, , , .
,
. , .
. () ,
() , -

==321

. . ( , , )
, ( , , ).
, . .
, (. 1992. N 29); . ,
(. 19.11.92).

, , .
. . . -
11- (. , ).
.

, .
, , ,
: <>7; ,
, <> .

.
. , , , -
, : ;
! , (. , ); ,
, , , ,
(. , ).

, ,
, , .
, , , :
<> .
2.6.

,
: ) ,

11 3fiSfi

==322

II.

(
, . .); )
, ; ) ,
, . .

, , , . .
.

1. XIX XX
2, 1.3 : , ,
(. . , ); []
[] , (. , );
[ }
(. , ); ,
, (3. , );
, , , / , (. . ); ,
[. ] , (. ,
).


3.2 -.
< >; . , .
. . - - ,
(. 1992. N 3).

2. ',
-.', -.: .
, ? , .

3. , ,
, , . . . .
, , , ,
- , - (. ,
); , ?; ,
(. , ).

, , , , ,
.

1. XIX XX . ; .

==323

, (. . -, );
, (.
. , ).
( () )
, ' ,
X'; . , !;
, [.]; , :
, ! (. , );
", ? .
" (. , ).

2. ,
: ' ': . <> ,
: ? , (. ,
).
: ? = ?

, : ' ,
, ,
': ;
; [] ,
, , , , -
(. , ). (-.)
-. ,
. . ' , , ,
, ' 2', , . .
. . , ,
, .
, - ,
(. , ).

, , , , ,
, , ; . " , ",
<> . '' ''; .
...? ! (. .
, ), .

==324

II.

3. , ,
: ' -. '. .
, (., ).

3.
(),
, , , , ,
, , ,
.
. .

3.1.

( ) , ,
( , , , ), , , , .
,
, .

, . . ,
( , , ); ,
(, , ); ,
(, , ).

, , , , ,
, , .
.
: , , ;
.

, , :
; ?; , ,
--- (. , ).

, , ; .
'
.

, (
. -

==325

3.4). , , ,
; . , ; ,
(. , );
, (. , ).

3.2.

, , ,
.

, , , ,
.

: , / /
? (. . , 1816 ); , - [}
, , . , ,
(. , ). -
: ,
.

, ,
- .

3.3. , , ,

, ,
, , ,
, .

, , , , , ,
,
. . .
.
( ),
. ' , ; , ';
, < > ' ,
[], ,

==326

II.

< >'. . ,
, (. , Fondamenta degli incurabili).

,
' ' : ,
, , , (. ,
MAC).


. . ,
~ ' '
, ~ ' , ,
'. . , ,
[. . ]
150 ! (. , ).

,
, , , 1-, ,
: 1) ; . , , -
(. , ); ,
, , , (. ,
);
(. . , ); 2) , , , 1-; .
; . , ,
3) (.
) 4) (.
; ,
).
( )
:
, . ., :
<> ?


. ( XIX XX )
, ,
, . .
?

==327

. (. , ).

, , , . ,
, , : ,
, , .

'' ,
. "" ,
, , , : ?;
, . ' .
, , ;
. .

1 , :
''. . , ; , .
, , ; .
, (, ) ,
(, ). ()
(. , , <> . .), ,
; .
, ,
, . 1982: 131-132.

3.4.

, ,
,
. , () ( , . .)
. .
,
. . ? . , -

==328

II.

; ? . .
,
, .
, , .
: <>
, .

, , .
5 .

4.

,
. , ,
, .

, ,
, , , , ,
, .

4.1.

. .
, .
'. <, , >
.

, .
, , .
, --. -.,
:
; - ,
(. 12.06.84); ,
, - , , ,
(. , ).

==329

,
( , , ,
, , . .): < , > ;
, . ,
, , , ; .
< , >.

, , .
.
( --. --., --. --.),
<> -. --.

, , , ,
. , ,
, , , (
, 1-) . .; . [ , ]; , (. .
, ); , . / (. , ).

, . .
; . .
, ,
. ) ( -. < >); )
, ( < ,
>, ); ) , ( -
. < , >); ) ( ).

==330

II.

4.2.

,
"" , .

, , , , ,

. ^ < > , "
. . .


: . .
; .
= ' ' - ' '.

, - ,
.
,
. .: , .
,
.

'' :
, - . , ,
; . ' ,
.

,
: , , ; , ,
; , , ; ,
(. , ).

: ,
, ;
, , , ,
, , (. , ).
: ^ , , .


1 - 2-: ,

==331

; , <>, ?
, 2-, .

; . ' ,
, ; ' , , ; ',
.

4.3.

, , . .
: , ,
.
.

- , , , , , . .
, FUNCo ,
-. . ,
, . , , .
.
. ,
, , , , ,
, . , :
, - , , . . ,
, ,
. - ,
. . 6.

, ,
.
.
.
. . ,
' .
. 2.2,

: , , ,
, . ,
, , .
.

==332

II.

4.4. , , ,

,
. ,
. .
-, (). , ,
- , ,
. ,
, (. 1982): ;
?

, . ,
- . ,
(. ), . -,
. ,
, : , .

.
: [' '],
[' '].
( < >), , - ,
( < > ), ,
(- , . , ).

, ,
, , , . , ,
, : , , (.
? ). , , . ., :

==333

, ( ), .

, . .
: + , , . .
, - ( ), +
, , ( ).
, ,
.

5.

, , ,
, , .
( ) X,
Y,
'S'. , , ,
\\ , Y^ , ..., Y^ , X,
(). , , , ,
X,
Y, , ,
F .

: )
- Y- ,
; ) , -
( , , , . .).

, ,
, .
Y . ,

, .

, "-
".
.

==334

II.

5.1. -

, , . .
. ,
(, , . .) :
; ,
;
. .

, ; . ,
. , ,
.

,
. ,
, .
,
: ?0 <>.
-
, : <, >
<-. >.

, ,
, .
, , , , , , ,
. , "" ,
, ,
, , . . , , . . ,
, .

- , ,
--. -.
,
, .
, ' <>.
, , ,
; . <>.

==335

,
, , . . <, >
, <> .
?Eo , ^
.

: ) , ,
. ., : <>, ;
?; ?
( ?), ; )
, , , ,
: <, > <, >, ;
; <>
; <>, - . :
<, , > , .

5.2.

, 1, ; . ,
, .
. ; .,
, , . (.
). ' , .

, , , , , -
, , .
. ,
, : ' <> , ' <> , '
.

==336

II.

(
), :
, , ;
? ,
, .

5.3.

, ,
. ,
, , . ,
,
- , .

:
.


: ,
.

1 (, ,
, 1 '').
, ,
. 1
: () ,
. . .
, , ,
,
. 2
' , X, - -'. 2
. :
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
i
. . .

==337

,
.

5.4.

,
, 3.3 4.4.
, , . .,
-
Y- .

( , .
1- ),
: <>, , .
, . . ,
,
. (
<>, ) ,
, -
. . {} (
), , ,
, - (, 28. 11. 91).
(. <> )
(^ <> , ), .


. ,
- , , ,
. . < >.
,
: <, >,
; ,
< >; <>
-. . , ,
.

==338

II.
,
: , 180 ; ,
< >.
, .

, ,
, ' ', ' ': ,
. . '
': , .

6.

. ,
,
. ( 10-12)
: .
, ,
( ) .

.
, . .
XX . XIX XX ,
" ", , , ,

. .
, (, ,
, " " " " ) ,
.

, , . .
" " .
, . ,
, ,
(. 11.10.90) , ,
, , , , . -

==339

. , ,
. , ,
, .
, :
/ , , / / (. ,
); , / . / ,
, / ! (. , ).
, ,

''.
, ''.

7.
.

-,
.
:
.

-, , , (, ,
, ),
, (. ).

" " . . .

-, .
:
.
, ,
- ( ),
( ).

==340

II.

,
"" , . , , ,
- , .
, .
, .

. ,
, , .
,
.

7.1.


. ( / , ()
. .) ,
.

, :
.

.
, -
. . : ; : (-.); :
, ; : , ; :
; : , , <> ( ) ,
, , <> <> ,
; : .

7.2.
, ,
, ,
, ,

==341

. ,
.

.
-
. .

: , ; ; , ; 2.2; ;
; 2.1.

: 2, ; , , ; 1, , 1.2;
; , , ; ; ; , [ };
() [ ].

: , , ; 1; , [
<> };
-. [ ], , ; ; 1
[ }; [
(, 02.06.92]; -
-.; -.; -.

: 1; 3 [ , }, . 3
[. . , . }, 3 [
, , }; ; ; ;
.

: ; -. [ . .]; ; 2;
, ; ; ; 1; ;
; ; ; [
}, ; ; () .

: , ; ; , , , ;
, , , , ; , ; ; , ;
; , , , , ; , ,
, ; , ; , ; ; ,
, ; , ; [
(. , . )]; ; , ,
, ; , [
(. , ); ,
(. , )]; 2 ( -.), ; ;
, .
==342

II.

: , , , , , ,
[ }; ; ; , , ; ;
; , ; .

: ; 1; ; ; ; , [
[} , / , , / , /
(. , )]; 2 [, - ; .
1 }; ; [ :
(. , )].

7.3.

, , ,
, . .
10 10 , ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
.

,
. .
:
.

, ;
. . <> - Y-a
<>; Y - <>, Y-y, ;
;
<, > ;

.

7.4.

. , ,
,

==343

.
: : ; ; ; ;
<> .

1: 3, 3 [ ?; ;
; , },
.
: {
( ) }; .

: 2 [ }.

7.5.

, ,
, ''-'', ''-''.
;
. . ( ' ');
(= ' '); -, -,
- (''-''); (- ' , ,
, -
') (' , ,
, - ');
( ' , , ,
') ( ' , , ,
, '); ( ' ,
, , - ') ( '
, , , -
').

,
; . ,
, ,
.

7.6.

, , .
, -

==344

II.

,
- . ., ,
: ,
(. . , )
, ,
. ,
, . .
, ,
, , , , ,

; . ? () ?, ?
?. ?
? . .

( ) : : , ; ;
; , , ; ; 1, ; 2, .
: [ ], , , [
], [ ], ; [' -
, ,
'].

: (, , , , ; ;
; ; ; ; ; .

: 1, 2 [ }; ; ; (.
. . " "
1974: 738).

: ; ; ; .

; , , ; ; ; ;
, ; ; , .

: ; , , ; , ; .
,
,
,
(. ) .

,
. . , ,
, , , , ,

________

==345

, .
(
),
.
,
,
.

7.7.

,
,
7 .

1. , " :
", "
. " (., 1995).
, .
2. , , ,
. . , , . .
: , . .; , . .;
. .

3. , , , , "".
. : "
. -
. .
, " ( 1982: 394). ,
, . , :
,
. ,
, ,
. . . 1993: '
', ' ', " ' ',
' ', ' ', ' ' . .

==346

II.

4. .
.
,
: ,
. - ,
, ,
.

5.
. , , ,
(), . ,
. , , ,
, . , ,
, . . , , .
, , ,
, (
).

, .
, .

6. . .
" ( ,
)" / / : . 1995.

. .

1990 - , . //
. . ., 1990.
1992 - . . ( ) //
- . 1992. . 2. N 3.

1994 - . . // . .
. . . 1994. N 4.

. 1993 - . ., . ., . .
. ., 1993.

==347

1974 - . . . . ., 1974.

1982 - . . . ., 1982.

1982 - . . . ., 1982.

1982 - . // .. . ., 1982.

==348

00.htm - glava19

:
* 1

1.
, , , .
, , , .
, . [1: 93111, 2: 101199,
35] [], .

.
[712], . . . ,
" " , [2] , ,
"", . ,
, . ,
, , .
.

' " ", 1995 1 '


. . . .
. . . . . , . .
, . . , . . . . ,
.

:
==349

1. " " . ,
"" (, , , , ) .

2. ,
( , , [13: 101 .]), ,
- .

3. , , ;
( . [14]).

4. , ,
(. [1516]; . [17]),
. ,
(, , , , , ,
. .), ("" )
.
, , , , , .

"", , ( 2).
( 3)
, ( 4). ,
.
.

2.
(. , ,
, . .), .

==350

II.

-, , -
(., , [1825]). ""
; . , , [22],
, , (), (), , [23: 117 .]. ,
; ., ,
2.

-, , "",
. , ,
, .
, .
,
.

1. (=
) . ,
,
. -
, , .
,
.
2. ( ) ,
,
2
[26: 17] ,
. , ,
, , , ; ,
, , , , ; ,
, , , , ,
, ; , , ,
, , , ; , ,
, , , .
, ,
.

==351

-, .

3. , "" ,
. .
, . , , .

.

4. ,
(., , ,
. [27]), , . . ,
, , , ,
, ( -.) , ,
, , ,
, , , ( )
( ), . .
- . : "
" (, , ); "
" (, , , ); "
" (, ); " "
(, ); " "
(, , , ); " ,
" (, ); . . ,
, , .
.


, , , . .
, , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
, ()
.

==352

II.
3. .

"" .
( , ,
) , .
, . ,
, , , , . . ,
.

, , .
, ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .

, .
, , , ,
: -
, .

3.1 (). 3.2


, .

3.1.

.
, 3; , ,
.
3
( ) , [9: 5660],
" ". "" . . . . .
" ", , , ,
. , : " " (, ,
). , , . . , ,
.

==353

, , , ,
; . , <> , <, > ,
, < , >, , ,
(, , ).

, :
, .
, .
, ,
. . <> ( -
.), , , ( -.).

, , , , (. .
). .
(. -. ,
), ,
- (. , ),
, .

, . ,
, < >,
<> . ,
, , : < , ,
>, ,
<> . . , ,
<> .

:
, ,
. .
- , ,
. : ,
, . ,
,

123

==354

II.


4.

, ,
, ; . , (~ '
'), 2 (~ ', ').
, , . , .
- .

, , , ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
.

: , ,
, ,
.
4
, , . -
, . . " ,
, , ,
, , ,
; ,
, , " [28: 331332]. .
'', , [1: 9597]: "
, ", " ",
" ", " , ", "
, tabula rasa", : ",
.
" (. 97). . (Gewissen), ,
, : conscience '' ''.

==355

3.2.

, ; ,
,
; , , ,
. , .
(. [4: 10]); . [14].

1) (, , , , ).
(, , , 1, ). ''.

2) (, , = ' ', ,
. .). . ''.

3) (, ,
, , , , , . .).
(, , ) . . , ''
,
: ' ' ~ ' ti
[]; t; , , ti ,
- ;
'.

4) (, , , , , , ,
, , , , . .). .
'.

5) (, , , , , , ,
, . .). , .
, , ; .
<, >. -, .
, ; .
- ; , [} (.
, ). , ,
, . ''.

6) , (, ; , ; ,
; , ; , ; , ; ; , ;
, , , ; . .).

12*

==356

II.
(, ) . '', ''
, , . ;
. [14]' .

7) (, , , , , , . .).
, (, ), (,
, , , . .). ,
. ''.

8) (, , , , , , , ,
, , , , . .). 2.
' (-, )'. ,
, 5.

:
(3.2.1); (3.2.2.);
(3.2.3); (3.2.4);
(3.2.5); ,
(3.2.6).

3.2.1.

-
. , -, , -, ,

().

' . " : ".

5
., , : 1 Y-y Z = ' X , Z, ,
Y Z' [29: 71]. , :
- . ,
2 . , ( )
, , . . 1. . ,
, , ', '. -
' : , , , ,
1.

==357

. , ,
, .
( ),
. ,
, ; .
6. ,
,
; . .

- ,
, .
.
: '' '' ' '.
,
; . , , ( )
. , ,
.
(, , , , ),
( , , ),
( ) 3 5 = 15. -
.

: (-.)
, (-.) , () ,

6
(. , ), (. ), (. .
) . . . , . , "
, , " [30: 179]. .
[3132] . , , -
.
: ( ), ( ), (, )
(, ; . , , .
500 ). , ,
.

==358

II.

(. , ) ,
. . ,
(. , ).

,
. 15 .
(. ), ' '
: () , () .
'' ().

, ,
. ,
.
,
. . to see to be visible to look , to hear to sound to listen
, to smell to smell to smell (. / can smell apples Apples smell
good He bent over to smell a flower), to taste to taste to taste (. / can taste
something very spicy in the food The meat tastes delicious He raised the glass to his mouth
to taste the wine), to feel to/eel to/eel (. / could/eel the rough surface of the
table The water feels warm Feel the bump on my head).

He ,
(, , , ), )
, (.
[14]), , , , )
, ,
, , , , ,
, , , . . . , < , ,
, >; , < ,
, >. ,
, , )
, ,
() . , .. (.
[2: 115117]), , ,
; . , (
). ,
; . ,

==359

(, , -
).

,
.

3.2.2.

(
). :
. , , ,
. : .

, . ,
. ,
.
, .
"" (, , )
. .
(, ,
), , (),
(),
( ), ( ,
, ).

-, Cj ,
; , ,.
, Cj ..
, , , ,

, .

-, .
. ,
.
7
, , [3,
33]. ,


==360

II.

3.2.3. .

, , .
(). ,
. , , ,
. ,
(. , ). , ,
, , (, ,
). . , , .

, , , ,
, () ().
: = ' ', = ' ',
= ' ' . .
. ,
, - . .,
, ( < >),
, .

, , , , ,
(), , , (). ,

.

, (
). , .
. -,
, , .

==361

,
,
. . , ( ), (
), ( ), , ( ), (
) . ' ',
, .
, ; .
, . , '
-. ', . , ,
, -
, , . .
[ . ,
} , , , .
(. , ). ,
, .
.

, . .
; . , , ,
, , , , .

3.2.4. .


. , . , , . .
, .
. ,
. , -.,
, , , .
, -
, ; . , , ,
, .

. , , -., -.
-. . , ,
, ( , -.,

==362

II.

. .), , . ,
- ; , , ()
.

. - .
, .
. ,
. , ( ,
) , (
). . [11: 867, 34 361.

; .

-
, . .
. , , : " ,
, , ... , ,
, , . ,
, , ... ,
, " [37: 128129].
(. < >), (. ) (. ).

,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
, . ,
(. , , , '' . .)
-

==363

(, , . .).
. [3, 33].

3.2.5.

. . , , . .
; , , , , , ,
; .
; , (.
<> , , <> , <> ,
. ) , (. ,
, , .; . [11: 559 ., 38]).

.
, ,
.
. , , ,
, .

, ,
- ,
.

, ,
, . ,
, . , ,
. , , ,
.
.

50- . [39] :
80 % ()
, 20%
. , <>
, , , <> , , ,
, , , <, , > , ,
<>, . . ( ),
, (3. , -

==364

II.

), <> , , , . . ,
, , .
.

: (,
, - ), . , , , , ,
, , 300 .
. "" , , .

3.2.6.

3.2 , .
, ( ), ,
( ).

, 8,
, , , .
, () , , .

( )
"" "" (. "" "").

, , ,

. .
1) . , , ,
, , ,

8
. . . : " , ,
"", , " [1: 95].

==365

. . ,
,
(., , [2: 110 .] [40]).
, , ,
.

: 1) '' ( ,
, ); 2) '' ( ;
,
, (. ,
));
'', . , -.
. .; 3) '' ( <. > ?); 4) '' (
).

,
: 1) '' (.
[""} ,
(. , )); 2) '' ( = '
, , '); 3) '' (
, ?); 4) '' ( -, ).

. '' (, - ),
'' ( ) . .

2) . ,
, (. = '
', " ' '), ,
(. < >, >).
, - ,
- . ,
,
, , (, ),
. . ,
<>, , .

3) . , ,
. ,

==366
II.

. (. [41]).
, , , ,
, [41: 34]; . < >, < >,
< >. <> . .

, : , , , . .,
, , - . . ,
,
.

4) . , ,
, . ,
- ; , ; -.,
, ; -, ( [33: 184]).
,
.

(, ) ,
. , ""
. . , .
; . <, , > .
, , (. <> ,
), (. , , . .).
"", , , , . .
. [2] [23: 4445].

4.
( , -, ), ,

==367

,
, , ( , , )
. ,
, , , ;
. [1: 93 ., 2: 129 ., 46, 11, 15, 17, 22, 42: 39 ., 43: 67-70, 44: 142-157, 45-63]
.

, ,
,
.
[15], , .

, ,
, , , , , , , ,
; , (,
, , , , , , , ) . .

, ,
,
- -
. , , .

, , , ,
. ,
. [47]; .
[41].
<, > < >. .
. . ; .
, ; , ; , ; , , ;
, , ; , , , ; .


, .
, ,
. , ,
, .

1. () , , :

==368

II.

1) . ,
; , (, ),
. . , , ,
, , .

2) , ,
. .
(. ). (, , , ,
. .) - , (, ,
, , . .) - .
. , , ,
. , ,
, . . , .
, , . ,
.

3) , , , ,
. . 'to
feel good' ( - ) 'to feel bad' ( - ).
[46] ' ' ' '.

. . ,
.
, , . [41]
, . ,
, , (. ,
, , .

==369

. .). ,
(. [41: 34]).


, .

4) ,
. ,
, . . , , ,
, . . , ,
< >, .
5) , : ) ,
, ; . ( ) , ,
, , . .; )
, , ; . , ,
, . .

, , .
, ,
,
, . , (, . .),
, . ,
; , - , ,
, . , ,
, . , ,
; , ( ) ,
. , -

==370

II.

[, , , < 9.


. , [
, . [,
, ;
; , ;
, ; , : ,
, , .

2. ()
. , .
1 , ( ) ,
; (. [6]).
, , , , , ,
- ,
, . ,
. , , , , ,
, < , >, <>
. . [} . (.
, ); , , (. ,
). , , , , , , . .,

.

.

( )
( ). , ,
, , , , , , , . .,
, . , , ,
, ; <>
,
9
. [62, . 3031, 175177 .], [5, 45, 49, 61, 63].
, 1979 . (. [17]), , . "
"; . [6466].
:

==371

. < >. , ,
. , , ,
. ,
, . , ,
, . ,
.

3. . , ,
, , , . , , , ,
, , .

, ,
.

, :
(, , , , , , )
(, , , , , , ). (
), , .

, , ,
. , , ,
. ., . ., , , ,
, . .,
.

, ,
. . ,
, (, , ,
. .), ' X' ' X', . , ,
, '' . , , ,
.

==372

II.

,
, , .
,
; . , <> , ,
. . , . .
, ,
. , , .

, ''
, , .

4. , ,
. , , ,
, , , , , , ,
. , , , ,
, .

, ,
,
. ,
, - . , ,
' ' '
'. ,
; . ,
, , <
> . :
' ', ' '. . -
, , , ( ) -
, , , , (
).

5. . ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , .
, . .
<> < >, . .
;

==373

, , . .
.


. <> , <
>, ^ <> .
. ,
. . ,
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
. , , .
,
.

, ,
: , , , . .
: < >,
<>.

, ,
. ., , ""
, :
< >.

, ,
,
,
.

,
.

5.
2-4
, ,
( , ,
). ,

==374

II.

, , ; .
[17: 519 528].

, . .
. , , , . . .
.
.


. , , , . ., , , . .
, , . ., , . . ; ,
, [61].

1. , , .

1.1. .

1.1.1. . ; .
', . ,
; . . ,
, ; . .
,

; . , 10

1.1.2. . , .
( [61]), . ,
( ), () .

10
,
-, - , , -
, ( < >) . . ,
; . - -
, () , -
, , - <> . ..

==375

,
.

1.1.3. . - , -
. ; .
<> , ^ <> .
1.2. .

1.2.1. . , .
(), (),
(), , () . () .
: ,
- ; ,
(. , ).
: , , , ,
(. , ).

1.2.2. .

1.2.2.1. . ,
, -
. , , ,

.

1.2.2.2. . , ,
, , . ,
, , ;
, ;
, ; ,
. ( . .) ,
. ;
,
;
.

1.2.3. . -.
, . ,
, . ,
;
. , .

==376

II.

, , ,
. .; . .
, , .
, , - .

1.2.4. , , . ,
( ) , . ,
, . ()
, . ;
, , .

2. , , .

2.1. . ()
( ) .
, . ,
.

2.2. .

2.2.1. . ,
. ( '') ; , ,
; ,
(, ).
, ,
. , ; .
, .
( ) .

2.2.2. ( . .).
, ,
. , :
, , . .
. . .

2.3. .

2.3.2. . ,
.
, , ,
, .

==377

2.3.3. .
"" <"", >, " " <
>, .
: ' < >
, ,
'. ,
. ""
( ' ', ,
' '); ( '
- ', ' ,
'). ' ' ',
, '
. . . . .
:
( , . .), ,
, . . .
, ""
, .
, . .
- (. [67: 68]).

3. .

3.1. . , .
, ; . ,
.
3.2. . ,
, . -
, .
, , ;
:
, , - .

3.3. . ; .
, -
-. -

==378

II.

, ( ) , , (
). 4. , .

4.1. . , - . . , ,
, . ., .

4.2. . , . ,
( ) . ,
( , ), .

4.3. .
. , , , ,
, .

4.4. .
; -
.

4.5. . ( '') .
, , ,
; . <> . (
, . . ) ( , ).

5. . , () (), ; .
. (, ) (, );
, (, ); , , .
(, , ), (, , ); .
, (, ) .

6. . ' ' ; .
<> < , >. , , (.
-

==379

) .
( ,
),
( ).
7. , , , .

7.1. . (.
- ), , ,
, .

7.2. . , ,
, . .
, ,
. -.,
, . -
, , . ,
,
, -
- .

7.3. . ,
,
, .

8. . ,
, (. [33: 176
178). - ( , ), -
, . -,
- ; ( )

9. . , ;
. , ,
. - , , ;
. -.,
; .

10. , , . 10.1. -.
, . -.
; ., , () -

==380

II.

. - - ,
, ; . < ,
> -. .

10.2. . ( '') , , ,
. , , , ,
, . -. ,
.

10.3. . , , , ,
, . , ;

10.4. , , . ,
. ,
. ,
.

10.5. , , .

10.5.1. , .
, . . (
, ) ( , ).
, , ,
; . < >
, .
-.,
( ).
, . .
. . ( ) (
, . ?) (
, . ?); (. [68: 29, 55]).

10.5.2. . ,
, ( , , ?; ?) ; .
, .

10.5.3. . -. :
<>, . ; .
<>
. (, -

==381

< >), .

11. , , , , .

11.1. .

11.1.1. . ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
; . ( ,
. .) ( , . .).

11.1.2. . , ,
, , ; . -
, (. ) [
]. , () ,
.

11.2. .

11.2.1. .
, . . , ,
. . , ,
( , ).

11.2.2. . ,
. , ; ,
.

11.2.3. , . , ,
.
.
, ; , , ,
-
.

11.3. . , , ,
, , . ,
, , , ,
.

==382

II.

11.4. .

11.4.1. . , ,
-., .
, .
(. !), , .

11.4.2. . ,
. , .

11.5. .

11.5.1. - . ( --.)
( ),
. ( -- .) .
;
.
( )
( )
( . . ).

11.5.2. (, , ,
, ). , ,
( ) . . , , ;
, , (. , ).
, ; ... , ,
(. , ); " "
! , ,
(. , ).

11.5.3. . . , , ,
( , ), (
), . ,
.

11.6. .

11.6.1. . ,
. . , ,
;

==383

-.

11.6.2. . , .
, ; ,
. -, , , .
, , , , .

11.7. . , , , , , , ,
, -. . ( ) (
). , . ( '')
, , .

12. .

12.1. . , , ,
. ( '')
, .

12.2. . () ,
;
. <, >
.
, . .

12.3. . ( ' ')


- , -
. . - ,
, , ,
. () , ,
(), . .

12.4. . , . .

==384

II.

[. ] , ,
. " ", " " (3.
, ). . ...
.
12.5. . ,
.
, .
; . ^ (
; . ).

/ . ;
. <>, - .

13. .

13.1. . ( < , ->)


(- , ),
( <> ). ( )
, ( ) .
. , ,
, .
, ,
. ,
"" "",
. . ,
, , , .

13.2. .
, .

, ,
. ( )
, (
); , (
), .

==385

1. . . . ., 1976.

2. . . . , , . ., 1988.

3. Wierzbicka A. English speech act verbs. A semantic dictionary. Sydney, 1987.

4. Wierzbicka A. Semantics, culture, and cognition. Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. N.
Y., Oxford, 1992.

5. . . Munchen, 1992.

6. . . //
. 1995. . 34.

7. . . // .
1964. . 8.
8. . . //
. 1964. . 8.

9. . . // . 1964.
. 8.

10. . . " <=> ". ., 1974.

11. . ., . . - ,
- . , 1984.

12. . . . . ., 1974.

13. . . " " // . .


., 1990.

14. . . // . . . . . 1994. N 4.

15. . . // . . . . . 1992. N 1.

16. . ., . ., . ., . .
. // . . . . . 1992. N 2.

17. . . // . ., . . .
- . ., 1979.

18. . . "" XIX //


. 1946. . I.

19. Bartminsky, J. Zah)zenia teoretyczne stownika // Stownik ludowych stereotyp6w


jezykowych. Zeszyt pr6bny. Wroclaw, 1980.
13 - 3086

==386

II.

20. Bartminsky, J. Definicija leksykograficzna a opis jezyka. // Stownictwo w opisie jezyka. Prace naukowe
Uniwersytetu slaskiego. Katowice, 1984.

21. . . -. // . . .,
1984.

22. Wierzbicka A. Dusa ('soul'), toska ('yearning'), sud'ba ('fate'): three key concepts in Russian language and
Russian culture // Zygmunt Saloni (ed.), Metody formalne w opisie jezyk6w s-rowianskich. Bia'1'ystok, 1990.

23. . . . , 1992.

24. . . // . . . . . 1993. N 1.

25. . . // .
. 1993. N 4.
26. Greenwood T. G. International cultural differences in software // Digital technical journal. 1993. Vol. 5. N. 3.

27. . . // .
1986. . 28.

28. . . . // . .,
1991.

29. . // . 1991. . 32.

30. . . ., 1958.

31. Fillmore Ch. Lexical entries for verbs // Foundations of language. International journal of language and
philosophy. 1968. Vol. 4. N. 4.

32. Lyons J. An introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge, 1968.

33. . . //
. - . ., 1993.

34. . . : , // .
. ., 1988.

35. . ', // .
. ., 1991.

36. . . : / / .
. ., 1993.

37. . . ., 1957. . I.

38. . . . // . . . . .
1995.

39. Ullmann S. The principles of semantics. Glasgow, 1951.

40. . . "" "" ( ) //


. . ., 1989.

41. . ., . . // . .
1993. N 3.

==387

42. Wierzbicka A. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw, Warszawa, Krak6w, 1969.

43. Wierzbicka A. Semantic primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.

44. Wierzbicka A. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of natural language. Sydney, N. Y. etc., 1980.

45. Wierzbicka A. The semantics of emotions: fear and its relatives in English. // Australian Journal of Linguistics.
1990. Vol. 10. N. 2.
46. . .
// . 1970. . 13.

47. . . ,
// . 1972. . 16.

48. . . , , , , . // . .,
. .. - . -
. , 1984.

49. lordanskaja L. and Mel'cuk I. Semantics of two emotion verbs in Russian: bojat'sja 'to be afraid' and nadejat'sja
'to hope' // Australian Journal of Linguistics. 1990. Vol. 10. N. 2.

50. . . // .
1979. . 11.

51. Lakoff G; Johnson M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago; London, 1980.

52. Ekman P. Expression and the nature of emotion // Approaches to emotion. N. Y.,1984.

53. Shaver P. et al. Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. //Journal of personality and
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55. Kovecses Z. Emotion concepts. Frankfurt/Main, 1990.

56. Pajdynska A. Jak m6wimy uczuciach? Poprzez analize frazeologizmdw do jezykowego obrazu
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57. Apresjan Ju. D. Systemic lexicography. // Euralex '92. Proceedings I-II. Studia translatologica. Tampere, 1992.
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58. Fries N. Emocje. Aspekty eksperimentalne i lingwisticzne. //Wartosciowame wjezyku i tekscie. Warszawa,
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59. Oatley . Best laid schemes: the psychology of emotions. Cambridge, 1992.

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61. . . 1 / / . ., . .,
. ., . . . . M., . 1995.

62. . ., . ., . ., M. ., . ., . .,
. ., . . - . M., 1979.

13*

==388

II.
63. . . // . ., . ., . .,
. .. . ., 1995.

64. Fillmore Ch. Frame semantics // Linguistics in the morning calm. Seoul, 1982.

65. Fillmore Ch. Frames and the semantics of understanding. // Quaderni di semantica. 1985. Vol. 6. N. 2.

66. Fillmore Ch. and Atkins . . Towards a frame-based lexicon: the case of RISK // Lehrer A. and
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67. . . -
" " // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.

68. . . // .
., 1982.

==389

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==398

II

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==400

II.

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. : 7Eo , , .
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==402

II.

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==403

(. <> ) ^
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), 2 ( ,
); 1.1 ( -.), ( -
); (-.), (-.); ( -. - .), ( -
. -.), (-.), (-.); (-.);
, ; ; (,
).
~ , ; , .

; ; ; ; .

1. . . // Linguistische Arbeitsberichte.
Leipzig, 1986. 54/55.

2. . . // .
. ., 1990.

==404

II.

3. . . // . . . . . 1992. N 1.

4. . . ( ) // -
. . 2. 1992. N 3.

5. . . "" "" ( ) //
. . ., 1989. . 7-30.

6. . . : , // :
. ., 1988.

7. . "" "" //
. 1984. . 86-95.

8. . : // . .
., 1991.

9. . ., . . - . ,
1984.

10. Ruwet N. The "epistemic dative" construction in French and its Relevance to some Current Problems in
Generative Grammar // Festschrift Manfred Bierwisch. Dordrecht, 1981.

==405

00.htm - glava21
: * 1

1.

1 3,
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1992 1995. ; .,
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.

==406

II.

1.1.

'' (.,
, Wierzbicka 1969: 21, Lyons 1979: 113-116; . Yokoyama 1986: 6-24,
" "): ) ' ' ( 1, ); ) '-
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2 <>); ) '-' (. 3
<->, 3 <>
). .

1 ,
. 1988: 123 .,
1988, 19886, 1988, 19886, 1988, 19886, 1988, 1988,
1992, 1993, Bogustawski 1994a . .
'' : Moore 1959,
Hintikka 1962, Malcolm 1963, Chisholm 1966, 1982, Wittgenstein 1969, Vendler 1972
( 5), Knowledge 1976, Lyons 1979, Ziff 1983, Cohen 1986, Borillo 1987,
Bogustewski 1981, 19946, 1994 .

, , ,
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: _____

==407

(),
.

1.2.


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( 1986, 1990, 19926, 1995, Apresjan 1992,
1995). ,
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==408

II.

,
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( + ),
.

, , , 1
( wio-), 2, , , , ,
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? (. . , ). Vendler 1972,
1988: 123-128, 1988, 1988 .

, , ; .
< >, <>, ( . 1985).

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1 3,
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==409

, ,
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1, ,
3 ,
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1,
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.

==410

II.

,
4.

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.

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.

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==411

?, ? , ; .
?, ? ( - -
., , 1988, gustewski 1994).

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. 2.4 2.5).

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, ''
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. . 1990: 103, 1992: 21-22; . 1992: 141-142.

, '', .

. - , ,
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==412

II.

, ) : ^' , ( )?

, ''
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(., ,
1988, 1989, 1993) . .
: , , ,
, (. , 1917 - 1927).

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(. , ?).


; . ? <0
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.
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;
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==413

1966), [ ] " , ?", ",


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, = 'X , ,
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) ( )
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, ('', '' ''),

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'' '', ''


'',
1989 41 ( ) ,
5
(1988 251-252, 1993 167) , (
) " " " ", 1- 3-
,

6
' ( '') , 1988 247 cti,
1989 48, 1993 167

==414

II.

, , , .

: <
>, ; , , ,
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"); , ,
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, ,
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("" 1964: 126).

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).
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= 'X ', 'X '.

8
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: 1) + , 2) + , 3) <>: Y = ',
W, , , Y-, , () () -

==415

2.2. 1 3

2.2.1.

, ( 1) ,
, . ,
. ,
(., , Wierzbicka 1969: 21 ., Bogushiwski
19946).

, ', , '.
'', Scheffler 1965, Chisholm 1966, Lehrer 1974,
Steizner 1984, 1988 . . .
Bogustewski 19946: 261-266,
. . .
,
.

. . : "X , Q, ,
(i) , Q, (ii) X (adequate evidence),
Q, (Hi) Q" (Scheffler 1965: 21); " t S , h ,
(1) t S , h; (2) h ; (3) t h S" (Chisholm
1966: 23).

: 1)
.

.
. , ,
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, .
: ,
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, .

Z Y-a' ( 1984: 623).


, -, , . . ,
.

==416

II.

( ) " " ,
,
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, - ,
,
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2) , ,
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= ' , Q '; Q = '
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(, wiedziec,
) . .
: = ' ()'
(Wierzbicka 1969: 22), - ' ,
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-.'.

.
-, , , ,
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==417

(. Bogushiwski
19946: 259-260, 270).

-, '', ,
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, ,
, .

, 1 - ,
, . ''
. . (. Bogushiwski 19946).
. , ; .,
Bogushwski 19946, Bogushiwski 1981, 1986. 1980
'' (. Wierzbicka 1980: 37, 156 Wierzbicka
1992: 10).

2.2.2.

(. ). , ,
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,
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.

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14 3
==418

II.

, , ,
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, ): ,
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, -

==419

/ (. , ); ,
, , (. ,
).
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): , ,
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. . / / (. , "
..."); / ! / , ,
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, , (. , );
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(
): [~ ' '], ,
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. , [~ ' '], ? (.
, ). -
( 1985).
: ~ ' , , , , ';
. . .

;
. [] , --- , , ,
(. , ). :
, ,
. . / ; /
, / (. , ); ,
, ? ("", 10.06.1993);
, [. . " "}
, . ( ?) (. ,
); / -

14*

==420

II.

, / ! / ! / , / ! /
/ , ! (. , ).
, ;
, . . .
.

XIX XX , -, ,
; . ! ? , . ,
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, , , , (. . , MAC).
, , ,
( / (.
. , )) . , ,
; . ,
; / , (. . , ).

, , , , ,
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,
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, (. , ); ,
, / , / , / (. ,
); , / , , /
, / (. , "
..."); : / (.
, "!" . ...). ,
.

2.3. ,

, . .
, , , (
, 6, 3);
(. , ); ,

==421

/ / . /
(. . , ).

' --.', '


--.': < >; .
, :
/ (. , " ").

'': < >


<>; < > , ; , ,
, (. , ); . /
, / . ! / , , , / (.
, " , ..."); ,
, , , ,
(. , ).

, , :
, (. .
, ); , ; -
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, " ...").

, , '
': <>; <>;
<>; <>; <> - ' <>
- '. <>
, ; .
2.5.

2.4.

, ; ,
.

,
; . <> <,
>.

,
. , ,

==422

II.

, : , ,
. , = ' , ; , , ; , ; ,
, , , '9. . [} , , ! (. ,
); , , :
(. , ); "-, , ; / / ,
" (. , ); , / ; / , /
(. , ). . ,
- , . 2.5 2.6.

,
; . , , , / . , /
(. , ) .

- , , , -
, . . , <>,
; <>, ; <>, .
, -, ,
, / , / / (. , " ...")
.

2.5.

, ,
. .


( ): <-.
>; <, >; (. ,

9
, : " " ( 1993:
168).

10
. 1988: 30-32).
:

==423

); / , / , / (. ,
). - ,
,
: ~ , ; ~ ,
; < > ~ < >,
; < > ~ , <
>.


, -, , , , , . . . .
, ? ! : - , (. ,
); - , ! ! ! (.
, ).

, , , . .
, -. (.
). . < , > <>,
- , ,
, .
.

,
: , , / , ! / , , /
(. , ).
, , (. ,
); , / , , ! / -
, / ! (. , ); : , /
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: ,
(. , ).

- : ,
, . / , (. , ); ,
, / , / , /
(. , ); , <, , , , > ; ,
, (. , );
, , (. ,
); , , ---

==424

II.

(. , ); [-] , / , , /
(. , ); " !" " , , / " (. ,
).
2- , : , <>,
; <>, ; , <>, ; , ,
. / , , (. , ).
"" ' <> '. ,
,

- -., -. :
, , (. , ); .
, (. , MAC); . , (. .
, ); , , , , ,
(. , ).

, , - -. ; . []
(. , );
. (. ),
; . ' ' (
- . . ).

, , - , -., -., -.
. . ?; ; ,
(. , );
, , 1918 . ? (. , );
, . , - (. ,
); , , , , , , ? (. , ).

, - .

==425

:
-, , 1-. ,
< >, , <> , , . .
, ". ,
< . . >, .
, .

, -,
, , ,
-; . , < >;
, <. >; , 12.

, , 2-
, ' .

-, ,
.
.
, .

-, ,
, .
: , . . ,
< , >?

-,
. -, ; . ( < >)
, ? -, ,
, ,
-
'' , ( . . ) ,
, .
'' .

12
. . : " ... ,
" ( 1988: 125), -, , ,
: , , , .

==426

II.

. . " , ? " / " , / : ?" / " , , /,


, " (. , ).
(, < ?>), ,
. (. 2.4) .

-
. , , . . "' , ?,
"' , ? ( ).

. - ' , ',
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! (. , ).

,
' '. . " , ; "' ,
, ! (. , ); " ,
. , ,
(. 2.6).


, ; . "' ~ ' '.
, , ( ?). ,
; . ' , ,
( ?).

2.6. - .

, ;
. , ,
; . , (. , );
, . , ,
-

==427

, .

, ,
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; , , , , (. ,
). , , .
, , , .
, , , , , , [ ,
, , , , , , . . ,
' '] , , , (), .
. , , (. , );
, / . / . . / , , (. ,
).

, ,
, .

- , (,
, , , , . .). . ,
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(. . , ); , , (. . ,
). <> , ,
; , ,
? (. , ) .
: , .
, , <> ,
( ) <> ( ), .

-, , , . .
-

==428

II.

,
. , . . <, > ,
< >; [} , . ,
, , : ". , " (.
, ); , ; <
> , < > .

, : 1)
, , . . ; . <
> , ; .
, ! , (. . , ); 2)
, , ; . <> ,
; , , / ! (. ,
); 3) , ,
: . < >, .

,
, , . .
<>, ;
<>, ; <>,
. .
: , : / , / , /
(. , ); , , /
. / : : / (. , ).

,
; . <> <>,
; <> <>; , .
()
( "") , .
~ ' , ' .

, , -.;
-. -.; ; ; ( . . );
< >; <, , , , . > <>; ,
( , . . ); () , () ; ,
< , ,

==429

, . . >. . (. , ); ,
; , ; , , ;
-! , ! , , (. , ); ,
, : " ! , !" (. , );
, ? ! : - , (. , ); ,
, , , - , , (. , );
, . , . , ? (. ,
); -? ! , ... (. , ); {} .
: " ! !" (., );
. , , , , (. , ); "
, , , , ..." (. .
, ).

2.7.

, , , , ,
, , ,
. , , ,
. .
, , , (
, , ), ,
, , ( ). ,
, , .

, , ,
.

: , ; ; ; ; ; .

==430

II.

: [ , ~ -,
(. . , , ,
, ); , ,
], . , .
: , , ( -.); ~ (
< , . . >).

: ; ; ; , , , , ; ,
; , , ; , [ - ,
(. , MAC)]; , , , ,
, , .

1986: . . // .
. 1986. N 2.

1988: . . //
. ., 1988.

1990: . . //
. . ., 1990.

19906: . .
// . ., 1990.

1992: . . // . . .
. . 1992. N 1.

19926: . . ( ) //
- . . 2. 1992. N 3.

1993: . . : //
. . ., 1993.

1995: . . : //
. ., . . , . ., . .
. . ., 1995.

. 1992: . ., . ., . ., . .
// . . , . . 1992. N 2.

. 1995: . ., . ., . ., . .
. . .,1995.

1988: . . . , , . .,1988.

: _________

==431
1984: . . / / . . , . .
. - .
- . , 1984.

, 1988: . ., . . :
? // .
. ., 1988.

, 1989: . ., . .
// .
. ., 1989.

1985: . . ( ).
. ., ., 1985.

1988: . . //
. ., 1988.

19886: . . : , //
. . ., 1988.

1992: .
// MUnchen, 1992.

1988: . . //
. ., 1988.

19886: . .
/ / . . ., 1988.

... 1995: . .
., 1995.

1964: . . //
. 1964. . 8.

1985: X. . //
. ., 1985.

1988: . .
? // . . .,1988.

1988: . . //
. ., 1988.

1988: . .
(, , ) //
. ., 1988.

19886: . . :
, , // . . .,
1988.
1993: . . " , " // .
. ., 1993.

==432

II.

Apresjan 1992: ApresjanJu. D. Systemic Lexicography // Euralex '92. Proceedings I-II, Part 2.
Tampere, 1992.

Apresjan 1995: ApresjanJu. D. Theoretical Linguistics, Formal Models of Language and Systemic
Lexicography // Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Seoul, 1995.

Bogustawski 1981: Bogustawski A. Wissen, Wahrheit, Glauben: Zur semantischen Beschaffenheit des
kognitiven Vokabulars // Th. Bungarten (ed.). Wissenschaftssprache. Beitrage zur Methodologie,
theoretischen Fundierung und Deskription. Munchen, 1981.

Bogustawski 1986: Bogustawski A. You can never know that you know // Semantikos. 1986. 10, 1-2.

Bogustawski 1994a: Bogustawski . . .


// Andrzej Bogustawski. Sprawy s^owa. Warszawa, 1994.

Bogustawski 19946: Bogustawski A. Savoir que p implique-t-il un autre etat mental? // Andrzej
Bogustawski. Sprawy stowa. Warszawa, 1994.

Bogustawski 1994e: Bogustawski A. " Diaczego wiemy, za powinnismy kochac Pana Professora?
diaczego*?"// Andrzej Bogus-l-awski. Sprawy s-rowa. Warszawa, 1994.

Borillo 1987: Borillo A. Deux aspects de la modalisation assertive: croire et savoir // Languages.
1987. N. 67.

Chisholm 1966: Chisholm R. Theory of Knowledge. Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Chisholm 1982: Chisholm R. The Foundations of Knowing. Minneapolis, 1982.

Cohen 1986: Cohen S. Knowledge and Context // The Journal of Philosophy. 1986. N 10.

Hintikka 1962: Hintikka . J. Knowledge and belief: an Introduction to the Logic of the two Notions.
Ithaca, 1962.

Knowledge ... 1976: Knowledge and Belief. Ed. by A. Ph. Griffiths. Oxford, 1976.

Lehrer 1974: Lehrer K. Knowledge. Oxford, 1974.

Lyons 1979: Lyons J. Knowledge and Truth: a Localistic Approach // D. J. Allerton, E. Carney and
D. Holdcroft (eds.). Function and Context in Linguistic Analysis. London, N .Y., Melbourne.
1979.
Malcolm 1963: Malcolm N. Knowledge and Certainty. Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Moore 1959: Moore G. E. Philosophical Papers. N .Y., 1959.

Scheffler 1965: Scheffler H. Conditions of Knowledge. Chicago, 1965.

Steizner 1984: Steizner W. Epistemische Logik. Zur logischen Analyse von Akzeptationsformen.
Berlin, 1984.

Vendler 1972: Vendler Z. Res Cogitans. Ithaca, N .Y London, 1972.

Wierzbicka 1969: Wierbicka Anna. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw Warszawa Krak6w,


1969.

Wierzbicka 1980: Wierbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney, N
.Y., London etc., 1980.

==433

Wierzbicka 1992: Wierbicka Anna. Semantics, Culture and Cognition. Universal Human Concepts in
Culture-Specific Configurations. N .Y., Oxford, 1992.

Wittgenstein 1969: Wittgenstein L. On Certainty. Oxford, 1969.

Yokoyama 1986: Yokoyama . . Discourse and Word Order. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1986.

Ziff 1983: Ziff P. Epistemic Analysis. A Coherence Theory of Know ledge. Dordrecht, 1983 .

==434

*1

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.

' " ( 100- . . )", ., 1995.

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==435

, 3,
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4
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.

5
.: Apresjan Ju. D. Systemic Lexicography. // Euralex '92. Proceedings I-II. Tampere, 1992. Part 2; . .
/ / . . ., 1990; . .
( ) // . . 2. 1992. N 3.
==436

II.

- .

3) , ,
, .

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, (, . .),
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-,
(. ).

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.

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.

6.
-

6
., : A. Action, Emotion and Will. London, 1963; . . //
, 1964, . 8; . . - . , 1979

==437

7.
.

, , ,
.
: 1) , , ,
; 2) , ,
; 3)
; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) - ; 8) ; 9) ,
. , , ,
.

2.

2.1.

3 9
1 [- ] , (.) 1 [ ] , 2
[ ], (.) 1 [- .
( want, wish, desire); Robinson J. Emotion, Judgement and Desire // The Journal of Philosophy, 1983. V. 80. N. 11; SemonJ.-P. Le
vouloir, la negation et 1'aspect // La Licorne. Etude de linguistique. Poitier, 1989. N. 15; Wierzbicka. Anna. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Universal
Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations. N. Y.; Oxford, 1992; .
. Munchen, 1992; . . ( ) //
: . ., 1987.

7
., : Wierzbicka Anna. . . . 428; . . . . 60-62; . . . .

8
(-) , ,
.

!)
"." , , -
, ".", ".", "." . . -

==438

II.

. ]. .

: , , , .

, , , ,
. , ,
''. 10.
. , , ,
(. 2.2 2.3 ). .

2.2.

": 1) (
; - ; -, , ,
).

2) ( , ).

3) , ( ,
).

4) , ( ).

5) (, , - ).

6) , ( , ).

7) ( , ).

8) , , (
, , -

, ; . .

10
.: . . // . . . .
. 1994. N 4.

11
, . .
.
:

==439

; , , ).

9) , (
, , ).

2.3.

,
. ,
.

. , ,
; . , , , (. , );
.
, . <, ->
<> 12.

,
, , ( )
. , ,
, ; . ;
, , (. ,
); ; ,
(.); !; ,
, , , , , (.
, ).

, , ,
. ,
. . .
12
' ' VS. ' '
. , : ,
(. , , , ) (. , , , ),
.

==440

II.
, , (. ,
-); . [, . .
} , , (. ,
);
,
,
(. , ).

, , ,
, , ,
, . . <, >, <>
<, >.

,
( . . , MAC'e '
' '). .
, , , ,
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, , , .

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; . -?;
; ) ; . .
, , (. ,
); []
(. , ).

-, , ; .
, , / (. , " , ...").
: .


, .
, : )
: ;
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==441

6) , ;
< > , ; ) ,
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.
, -. .
, ;
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, " , ...").
, ,
.

, , ,
, .

: : .
(. , ); , (.
, ); , ,
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"" (. . , ).

: (. , );
, . : ,
(. . , ); , ,
.

( )
(. 2.5), , ,
(. ) ,
,
,
. :
(
, , , - (. , -

==442

II.

)); (, ,
: - -? (. , )); (
, (. . ,
)); ( !
(. , )) .

, .

-, , , , ,
. . , ,
! (. , );
, , (. ,
); , [} (. ,
). . "" . . .

-, 1- 2-
.
"", , .
. ; ?;
, ? ,
[ ],
? (. , );
? [, , ].
, -, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.

: )
, - ; . ,
, , -
13
, , (
), ,
,

==443

, , ? , ? (. ,
); ) ; . < > < >; <
> , ; [ ], -
- (. , ).

, , , . .
, , , . . . , < > ,
< >.

. .
~ ! (. , );
, -, , ,
(. , ); , - -
(. , ).

,
.

'' ' , '


. .

-, - :
< ^, <
, >; , - ! (. ,
).

, , ,
: , , , -, , (.
, );
(. , ); , 41- ,
(. , ). , - , , -

==444

II.
, , (. 2.4).

-, , ,
. .,
, , ; . ,
, -, ,
- . . : "
?", "", "".
, , ,
.
. . ,
(. , ).

-,
,
; . (. , ).
(.
! , ) ,
, ,
; . ! .

' - .'; , ,
, ('
'), .

, ,
, .

, -,
. . <, >; ;
! ! (. ,
); , "
", (. , ).

==445

, , ; .
, , , (. ,
). - , ,
, : , , , . .
; ,
, [ . . } , (. ,
).

, .
. , , -
; . -. , ', , ; ,
, (. , ); :
, (. , );
, , , (, 02.08.92).

, , ,
. .
-, ,
(. , ). ,
, .
, : - ,
: ,
.

, , , ,
; .
, , (. , );
, (. , ).

==446

II.

2.4.

1.
., . . '
' . . .14 ' '.
. . -
. ,
! (. , ...);
,
, , (. , ).

2. ,
: ; !;
(. , ).
, .

' . ,
'; . -. <, , >;
? .

( -.)
' , '; . , ;
,
(. , ); .
(. , ); ,
, , (. , ).

, ''; . [}
, ,
(. . , MAC).
: ( )
; [] ,
, ,
(. , ).

,
. . . -
14
"." , , .
:

==447

, , , (.
, ); ,
,
(. , ).

2.5.

. -
:
< > . ,
,
. . <~
> ; ,
, , (.
, ).

,
: <> ?
, . ., ,
, .

, , ,
(, ) , ,
(, ). :
, , ; .

, , :
; ?; , ,
(. , ).

, , .

.

, .

Ti
; .

2.6.

,

==448

II.

: ?; ?
: ' '; . ? =
' ?', ? = ' ?'

, ,
; . <>, ? ,
,
: <, > ~ ',
'; <, > = ', '.

, ,
; . <, , > ;
<, , >, ;
, , (. ,
).

- -.,
: ?; ,
! , , ... ? (. , ).
, .

, , , ,
,
. . [. 2]; ;
(. , );
: , ! ? (. ,
).

, ,
, :
< >; , ,
(. ,
).

, ,
<> , < > . . . , ,
(. , ).

, ,
;
(. 2).
==449

==450

==451

==452

00.htm - glava23

00.htm - glava24

==453

==454

==455

==456

==457

==458
==459

==460

==461

==462

==463

==464

==465

00.htm - glava25

00.htm - glava26

==466

==467

==468

==469

==470

==471

==472

==473

==474

==475

==476

==477

==478

==479

==480

==481


( know, think, say), .
, ,
want, know, say . .,
.

, , " ",
. ,
- . ,
. ., ,
(. ),
( ; , ,
; . .).
,
.

, , ,
, -,
. (cross-cultural, ) ,
-, ,

.
, .
. , (, ,
, , , , (), , , , , ,
[. }, [. },
, . .), , ,
.

) ,
( . . .
, ; ,
). - ,
() . . [26: 30-32]
! , (~ ' '). (~ '
'), , (~ ' , -

163

==482

III.

'), , (~ ' , ;
, '). , ( ).
. .
[27: 72].

6) -
, ( ,
< - >;
, ).

) ,
, (.
< >, ,
/ , ;
<, > ; ,
< >).

,
(, , ) .
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
-
.

, -, .
. . ( )
, , .

, , [22:
25 .] .
-, -
, .

==483

1. . . . // . . . . . 1992. 1.

2. . ., . ., . ., . .
// . . . . . 1992. 2.

3. . . : // .
. ., 1993.

4. . ., . ., . .
// . ., 1961. . 2.

5. . ., 1964. . 8.

6. . . // .
., 1964. . 8.

7. . . // . ., 1964.
. 8.

8. . . " <=> ". ., 1974.

9. . . . . ., 1974.

10. . ., . . - //
- . , 1984.

11. Mel'cuk Igor. Semantic Primitives from the Viewpoint of the Meaning Text Linguistic Theory // Quaderni de
semantica. 1989. Vol. 10. No.l.

12. Bogustawski A. Semantyczne pojecie liczebnika. Wroclaw, 1966.

13. Bogustawski A. On Semantic Primitives and Meaningfulness // Greimas, Jakobson, Mayenowa, 1970.

14. Wierzbicka Anna. Dociekanie semantyczne. Wroclaw, 1960.

15. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.

16. Wierzbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis: the Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney, 1980.

17. Wierzbicka Anna. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor, 1985.

18. Wierzbicka Anna. English Speech Act Verbs. A Semantic Dictionary. Sydney, 1987.

19. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific
Configurations. N.Y., Oxford, 1992.
20. . . // . ., . . .
- . ., 1979.

21. . ., . . . - . ., 1979.

1*

==484

III.

22. . . - "
" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.

23. . . : . .,
1985.

24. . . // Wiener Slawistischer Alamanach. 1993.


Band 31.

25. . . Munchen, 1992.

26. . . //
( ). 1988.

27. . . // .
., 1982.

==485

00.htm - glava27

'

1.

,
, , . [I].

,
.
.
.
, ,
( ).
, ,
, , , , .

, ,
, ( ).

,
, .

1) ,
. , , ,
.

2) . ,
-

' " . ", ., 1990.

==486

III.

(, , ,
). (
) (,
). .
.
, , , ,
.

3) ,
.


. , ,
. , ,
.
, .
.

4) ,
, , ,
, .

5) .
,
(, , , . .)
. ,
, .
, ,
( , ), ,
( , ).

,
[2].
, .

,
.
, -

==487

(. , , , , , . .), .
,
, . .
.

,
.

60- ,
, , , .
:
, , ,
.


.
.
.

.

,
.

2.

( )
, : 1. , 2. , 3.
, 4. , 5. , 6. (
, , ,
), 7. , 8. . ,
, , ,
; ,
.

1. : 1.1. ( ); 1.2.
, , , , . . (.
, -
==488

III.

', ' ' - '


: , , ", ,
*0 ); 1.3.
(. , , , , ,
: , ,
, , ); 1.4.
(. <,...>.

2.
.
( ), :
,
, .

3. : 3.1. ,
(
), (
) ; 3.2.
(., , ,
,
. .; . . . . ,
); 3.3.
(.
: [
, ] [-
, ]); 3.4.
(.
() : = ' '
= ' '); 3.5.
, . . ( , ,
, ).

4. : 4.1. , ,
(. ?,
, , -

==489

); 4.2. (.
, ,
: , ); 4.3. , ,
(. ); 4.4.
, (.
, ,
).

5. : 5.1.
; 5.2.
(.
, , , , ,
, , :
, ,
, , : . ,
^ - . , ?).

6. : 6.1. ,
, (. - Y-a
/ , , , ,
, , , ,
, , ); 6.2.
(, - )
; 6.3.
/ ; 6.4.
/ ; 6.5.
(
, ,
,
).

7. , : 7.1.
(.
:
( ) *
* ); 7.2.
( ', '

?); 7.3. (
'

==490

III.

' - + , N
: < , , ,...>
); 7.4. ( ' - '
- + > N
: < , >
); 7.5. ( , ,
, ,
: ); 7.6. (

, : , , ); 7.7.
( ''
: , ); 7.8. (.
: ).

, ( ) ,
[]. , , , [],
,
, .

3.

3.1.

-, . ,
, ( , , ),
, ( ,
). , -, . ,
(
), ( ),
( , , ),
( ).

-, -,
, .

==491

, ,
.
, " * .
( ) , -
, :
( , *
).

- - ; .
< , > '
', * < , >.
- -, ; .
, ,
,
-
.

, , "- + "
"- + ", . ,
() -
- . , , -
,
: , .
<>7. <> . ,
, .

, , , ,
, ( ),
. , ,
, ,
. ( S '
', = ' ',
S ' ') (
). , , '', '
' ''
, .

==492

III.

, ,
, "" ,
, ,
, , .

,
S ' ', S '
', = ' ',
= ' ', S '
', S ' ' . .

, ,
, ,
, , .
, , ,
. ,
.
(.
3.2), (. ).
'' ''
' ' ''. ,
; .
, ,
.

,
. , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
, . ,
-
, . ,
, .
,
,
, .

==493

() :
.
.
.

: 1)
, , , , ( ); 2) , (
); 3) , , , (
); i) , , , (, ); 5)
, , , ( <> ,
. ). , ,
,
,
.

, ,
. , "": ,
, ,
. . ,
[2]. , ,
.
( ), .

3.2.

, , ; , -, -; ; ; ;
; 1.1. ", '; ; 1.2. ' ':
; 1.3. '': ; 2. ' -.':
; 3.1. ' ': ; 3.2. '
'; ; 3.3. ' ': ; 4. ',
': ; 5.1. ', ': ; 5.2.
', ': ;
==494

III.

5.3. ' ': ; 6. ' ':


; 7.1. '': ; 7.2. ' -.': ; 7.3.
' ': ; 7.4. ', ': ;
8.1. '': ; 8.2. '': , ; 9. ' -.
': ; 1.1. = ' , ,
' [ ' ' '
' , * , (: ),
; = : 1.1; . 3.1; 1.1,
2.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1; : 1.1].

NLV.

? . , , ,
(. ).

2
NL V {/^/ N^} [, , N - N']. <,
>. ( ) < ,
>

NL V {D/Pi N^}.

< , , - , - > . .
. , , (.
. ). , (. ).
, ( ).

NL V {D/Pz N^ }.

< , >. <


, , >. .
< , >.
. -, ,
, (. ).
, (. ). ,
(. ).

N^M V {D/ N^} [. ]. ?


< , ^
< , >.

==495

2
N^ V { njhh / ^} [N - ], ( ) <
>. ( ) , -
.
2
n^m V njhh [N ]. .
2
n^m V N^op [ N ]. <
>.
2
Nmn V N^op [N ].
. :
(. ).

n^m V [ - ].

< >. , -
. ( , )
(. ).

+ - , , .

[.].

, ,
, . <> .

1.2. - "
' [. 1.1; , . .; S :
1.3; 2.1; 2, 2; : 1.2].

NL V {D/Pi N^}.

. . . -
. , .

NLV{D/P2 N^}.

. .
< , >. ...
, (. ).

1.3. - Y - ' ,
Y, Y-y
- Y' [s : 1.1; 1.1;
1.1, 1; ss : I].
2
NL V {D/P N^} [D, P N - ].

==496

III.

< , , , >.

NL V {D/Pi NJ}.
. ,
.

NL V {D/P2 N^}. ( ) .

2-
N^M V { njhh / njhh? [N ]. .
< , >.

2. - = ' X,
' [X , , , , , , ,
; S : 2; 1.1; 1.1; :
1.1; = : 1.1; 3.2; 4.1].

^ .

< >, .
( ). , , ,
(. ).

nwh V njkh [N2 , }.

, ,
, , - (. ).

3.1. - = ' , X,
, -, -' [S :
2.1; 3.2; : 1; S :
2.1; = : 3.1].

^ ^.

. 1956
. <
, >. , <...> ""
, ,
, (. ).

3.2. - - ' X' [s : 2.1].

N^VH3 ^.

. <
> [. ]. -

==497

< >. . .
<> .

nj^m V - .
- <- , - > .
2
- , n^m V n^h [N - , , ...}.
[] [""] ,

(. ).

3.3. - = ' X' [= :


2.2; . I].

NL V ^.

, . : .

4. = ' -
' [., ; ;
: 4; S : 1, 1; 1.2;
1.2; S : 2.1, ].

N^M V [ (, , ) " ,
'].

() <> . , .

NL V ^. .

2
N^M V N^H [N - ]. .

2
N^M V njhh [N - ]. < ,
> .

5.1. = ' ' [


, ; s : 3.1, 2.1, 1.2;
1.1; s : 1.1].

n^m V . ?

N^ V n^h.

.
, .

3
n^m V { / } {D/P N3x} [D, N - ]. <>
? < , ,
>.

==498

III.
5.2. "' ' [S :
1, 1.2, 5.2].

N^M V [ ]. <
, >. ,
(. ). ,
(.
).

n^m V [N' ]. .
.

N^M V [N' ].
< >.

n^m V [N' - ].
.

n^m V / [N* ].
.
2
n^m V N^p [N ].

"". "".

5.3. - = ' , ,
, , X;
,
' [. .;
' -': ,
; = : 2.2; 2.2; 1.3; :
3.2].

NLVHa n^h

, . ,
.

N^M V njhh ^.

, .
(. ).

6. - = ' X' [s : 1; .
2.1, . 3.2; 1,
, 1; : 1; = :
(); : 1, 3.1].


==499

n^[m V . .

NL V n^h.

. ... (..
). .
, (.
).

7.1. - Y-u = " , X,


Y,
, -' [ ' ,
-' , * , ,
* < , >, : ,
[X] , [Y],
(. );
, <, >
, ; . 7.2; =
: 2.2; 1.1; : 5; = : 7.2; =
: 4.2].
2
n^m V ^ [N - ].

< > . . (. ).
().

NL V [N2 - ].

- < >. <


> . .
(. ). ,
(. ).

7.2. - = ' X, ,
, '
[ ; ; "
' , ". <
>; - :
, ; : 2.2; s :
1.1; = : 1.1; 7.1; . 2.2].

NLVH3

. <>.
< > <> [. 7.1].

==500

III.

7.3. - = ' X, ,
, ' [ ;
; : 2.3; = : 5.4; = : 1.1;
2].

NLV. , , .

NLVH3 .

. .
.

NLVy . , (. ).

7.4. - = ' , X;
- X, ,
'
[ : : '
<, ^, : 2.4; = : 2.1;
3.1, 2.1; : 1.1; s= : 8.1].

n^m V D [D ]. <, , >.

2
n^m V (//N^op) [N , , ...].
. <> . <>.
.
, .

8.1. = ' ; -
, , -
' [ ; ]; S :
3.1, 1.1; 1.1, 1.1;
3.2, 2.2; 1.1; 2.1; 4.1; 2;
: I].

V [ ].

, , . / . (. ).

N,L V.

. . .

NL V D. <, , >.

==501
V , Conj S [Conj , ].

, . ,
(. ).

8.2. , = ' ,
' [ ; . ; S : 2.2, 3.1, I].

V. , , ?

V S.

, . , ,
(. ).

VS.

, ? , ,
(. ).

9. = ' , , '
[ ; S : ' '].

NLV{D/P2 N^}. < >. ?

2 3 1
NL V {D/P N^} N^op [N - N ]. .
<, > .

= ', '; = ' ';


= '' [.]; < > = ' -. ' [
]; = ' -. '; = '
'; = ' ' [. 3.2]; =
' -., ' [. ],
' '; - -. = ' - ';
- -. ~ ' . '; = '
'; = '
';
= ' '; = '
'; <, , ...> = ' <, ...> -
. '; - [, , , ...] = ' X,
- '; " ' -.,
'; -. = ' -., -. ,
'.

==502

III.

1. . . //' ". ". 1986. N 2, . 57-


70.
2. . ., . . . ,
1982, T.I2.

3. . ., . . - . ,
1984.

==503

00.htm - glava28

( )'

1.

1.1.

"" [I].
,

.


. , ,
-
[2]. (, ,
) [].

( .
[4]) .
,
. , [5-12].

, ; .
[13].

"- ", 1992, 2, 3.

==504

III.

,
.
, ,
, -
. , , ,
, , .
,
, .

,
, -
. , ,
.

, ,
, (.
, 3,
).


. , , ,
, , .
,
.

.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
( . [14]).


.
. ,
-

( )

==505

. , ,
.
,
.
,
.

, , (= '')
, : <>,
; , .
: <, >,
? .
, , .
( )
: <>, ; ,
; <, >, ?
(),
: <>, ( )?

, , ,
. , ,
: , ? (,
, ) , ? (, ,
, ).
, ,
: , ? ?0 , ? .
to understand: I understand your mother is ill * ,
' (, ), I understand your mother is ill '
, ' (, ,
).


.
.

, ,
.

==506

III.

: ,
(. . ); , , ,
(. ). ,
: . ,
- (. ); , . ,
(. ).
, ,
. ,
(
) (. [15]).

. . .
[= '
-.'] [= ''], . .
/ .
"" ,
[16: 8]. , , .


, .
: Y = 'X ,
-, ' (
). : Y = 'X ,
Y, ,
' (
... . . . ).
,

.

, ,
. , ,
() ' - , ,
. ,
; . ( - ,
).

( )

==507

Y-a . ,
; .
<>. ,
,
.

:
,
. ,
: .
, , ,
, ,
: <, > ,
. .
.

,
( , ,
) , '
( .
, ) ,
(. ),
(. ).

,
, .
, . . . ,
, -
: '
', .


.
: .
,
, , , , .
.
,
==508

III.

- . ,
, .

, ,
. ,
. [17].
.

1.2.

,
, , , , , ,

. , ,
, ,

.
,
.

,
: , , , .
, .

, ,
,
. :
, ( ),
. ( ,
); ,
, ; ; ,
; (,
) ; .

: ,
, .
. ,

( )

==509

; .
. , . .
; . , .
, . . . ,
, .
, .

, ( )
, () , () .
,
. .
, - (.
), (. , ).
, , . ,
, .
, - (. )
(. ). , ,
: - (. ),
(. ).

,
[18: 65 .].
,
, ,
. ' ,
' , , ,
: , , , , ,
( ). ,
, (),
: <>, <>.
, , ,
:
.

==510

III.

:
, , .

,
, ; ., , .
, , , .
, , .
(. ),
(. ).


; . , ,
, .


.
, , ,
.

(. [18: 58 ., 19, 20: 102]).


,
,
. , .
, (
) .
, , '' (. <,
> <, >) ' ' (
, . . ' ', , . . ' '. [ N]
(. . ), . . ' ').
,
; . , . . '
', , . . ' ' . .
, '
' .


: 1) ; . <, ,
> ( , ) <,
-

( )

==511

, , > ( ); 2)

; . <, ...>, <, ...>
' <, ...>, '
<,...>; 3) ,
; .
= ) ' ' ) ' - [,
], * (
); . ,
, , .

, ,
: (.
, ), (. , , ). ,
singularia tantum.

,
. '' '
' .
( , ),
, ( ,
).
. Xi , ,
, X.
X,
Xi ,
.

2.

2.1.
.
, .


.
, .

==512

III.

, (, ,
) . ,
.

.
. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
.


, .
,
( ).

.
, , .
, ,
. . :
~ ' ', ~ ' *, ~
' '. : ' ',
~ ' '. :
~ ' ', ~
'... '.
. , ,
. , .
, ,
.

,
.

, , (, , [21],
, [22-23]) ,

. [4]. -
,

( )
==513

. ,
( ) [4].

2.2.

,
. , , . ,

.
.

, .

.
,
, ,
. ,
. [24],
,
, .

: 1. , 2. , 3.
, 4. , 5. , 6. .
,
.

() ,
, : 1.1. '': ; 1.2.
' ': ; 2.1. '': ; 2.2. ' -.':
; 3.1. ', ': ; 3.2. ' ':
; 4.1. '': !; 4.2. ' , ':
<> ; 4.3. ' , ': ; 4.4. ', ': ;
5.1 ' ': , 5.2. ' ':
; 17 3

==514

III.

5.3. ' ': ; 6.1. :


; 6.2. : .
( // " ").

I. .

1. '': ; // '': ; 2.
', ': ; // ', ':
, // ' , -.': ; 3. ', ':
, ; 4. ', -.': ? ; II.
.

1. : ; 2. :
; 3. : ?

;
. (. ) ,
"" .

2.3.

, ,
, , .

1. . 1.1. . 1.2.
, . . ; . 0 -
. 1.3. : , ; ,
, , , , (. 5.3,
, 3-). 1.4. (.
6.1 6.2).

2. .
,
, , ,
, . .

( )

==515

1.1 (
) ? 2.2. . ,
, ( , ,
), - - (
(. . )) - (
).

3. . 3.1.
, ; . 5.1 - -
' , X, - ,
, ' ( ). 3.2.
; .
3.1 = ( ,
) 3.1 = ( ), 3.3.
()
; .
: ~ ' ' ( ,
), ~ ' ' ( ,
, , , ). 3.4.
,
; . -
2.1

: VS. . 3.5.
; . 1.1
( ),
(. ),
,
( ). 3.6.
, ( ), , .
4. ; . . ,
.

5. .
, , () ,
, , ; . 3.2

17*

==516

III.

0 3.2 : (= '
') (= ' ').

6. . 6.1. ,
() , ; .
5.1 - 3.1 . 6.2. .
(N , , V
, D , ,
, Conj , Rel , Num ),
(, , , ).

. ,
,
.
(, . .), .
(5")
; . <,
, , >.
/ . 6.3.
; .
"", (
), ( 1000 ), (
). (
) () ,
. 6.4. .
, , ,
, ,
+; . + 10 000
. 6.5. , . .
.
, . , ,
: -.
-. , '
-. . 6.6. , .
. , <=> .
7. . 7.1. ; . ,
. ., (
,
-

( )

==517

). 7.2. ; . <>
, 1.1 . 7.3. : )
,
1
; . 1.1 ^ VN2^op, N
, N2
: , ' ; 6)

; .
3.1 () nomina anatomica: ,
, . 7.4.
; . - (, , , , ,
, ), 1.1
. , - (, , ,
, , , ), 4.2
, . 7.5.
; . ( . . )
2.1 .
,
:
< , , >,
-
- : < , ,
>, < , , >. 7.6. ; .
, , ,
: , , . 7.7.
; . 4.1:
. 7.8. : )
, ; )
,
, ; )
, 4.1 (. ); )
, 5.3,
: ; )
, 4.2,
, : ,
< >.

8. . . 0. .
==518

III.

3.


. .
. .

( ),
, .

,
. ,
.

.
;
[25]. , ,
.

, , ; , , ; (); ;
; ( - ), (
/ ( 3- )2 ,
1.1 1.22, (. );
2- : , ,
? . , , ? (. , );
; , ,
: , , 3.

1.1. = ' ^ [
; ( ) ;
( , , , --- ,
, (. ), :
5; : ; : , ;
; ; ; ; ; 6.

1) f^mVD

. . , .

1=
^ V {//^} [ N
'' = :
< >;

( )

==519

= : ; = :
< >; = : ' ]7

. . <> . , (. . ,). ,
. , (. ). , , , / , / ,
, / (. ).
^ V {/^?} [ V = , N2 ; : 1) JV1 , , , a N2
, . .; 2) /
; 3) ; . . ? , '
' ? '']8

<> . . .
, (. . ).

!^ V f^HM [ . ., , N1 = N2 = '',
, . .]

< >. <> . <>,


. (. ). ,
(. ).

^mVPI^x

< , >. [. ? . 2.1]9 . <


>. . < >. . ,
(. . ). (. ).

^ V tfnp [N2 , , , . .; N1 ,
]

< , >. . . [.
2.1 < , }10.

^ V 1^

==520

III.

. . .
.

2) "
12.

1 13
{///^} [D, A, N - ]

<, >. , . , .
, . , (. . ).

2 2
{D1 / <, ; {D //} [D , - ]

< , > <, , >.


. , (. . ).
, , , (. . ,). (. ).
,
(. ).
2
^ {///^} [D, A, N - ]
<, , >. . <>.
[. 5.2 25]. . .
? . ? (. ).
2
{/ Conj S/Rel S/N'nponos}" V {D///^ } [D, A. N - ]

. (. ). ,
ftA. ,). (. ). ,
. , (. ).
, (. . ). <>,
. < >, . , <
, , >. .
2
i^tbop {D///^} [A, N - ; D - , ,
...}

. ? . ,
(. ). (. ).
. .

3) - ,
, , , , , [. 4.2.2)] 15

fNV? ^ D} V

( )

==521

. . (. ).
. (. ). .
. . . .
.
2
^ {^^ NyVD} V [N - ]

. . .
< >. (. ^.
- (. ,).
(. ^. .

4) [. 2.1.2), 3.1.2)16 ; . 4.1.2)]"

2
^ {D/^HM/NumuM} [D, N ]

< >. <> . .


<, > '8 . <> .
: (. . ).
(. ,). , (.
).
1.2. = ' 1.1 -* [ ;
, ]

^^

<>. . ,
(. . ,). , ,
, (. ).
(. ^. :
(. ).

2.1. <> - = ' <> -' [ ;


, ;
(),
; . = ' ',
, [. 2.2]; ,
- ; . " '...
'19 ; : ; -: , ; , ;
; . , . , , , . , . , .
}

==522

III.

1) N^V{D/PsN/}

< >. < , >. . ? [.


2.2]. <> [ -]. , (. .
). , , ... (. . ). , ,
(. ).

N^VPN/

. [. 1.1 }.
(. . ).

^ V N^p [N1 , , , . ., N2 , , ; .
1.1.1)] [] (. ). [] ,
(. ).

2) [. 1.1.4), 3.1.2)] 17

^ V { D/^^/Numm} {D/ ^ ; . < ,


, >. . (. . ).

2.2. <> - = ' <> -. ' [


; : ' <> X, <> '; :
; : , ; , ; , ; , , ; :
, , }

N^V . .

N^V{D/P3N2,}

? [. 2.1]. [. 2.1]. . (.
). - (. ).
V ^ [., ; N2 ] ? (. . ).

3.1. - = ' - ' [ ; ,


-

( )

==523

; , ,
. . - ; . ,
" ;
:
, ; . (
) ;
(, , . .), ,
4.1: <, > 20 ;
-
; - ,
- ; . ~ ' , '
= ', , '21; : ; : , }

1)

N^VyN/^

? . .
. <>\
. , , ,
(. ). ,
(. ).
17
2) [. 1.1.4), 2.1.2)J

^ V {D/N^MM/Numm} ^

, (. ). (.
).

3.2. - = ' - ' [


, ,
; ' '22 ;
; ; :
, ; . , , ; : ; : ]

n^v^^t

[' ']. ['


', ' ']. ? [' ? '].
, . .
==524

III.

4.1. X = ' [ ; ;
, ;
;
; . ;
,
; . , ;
2.121 ; : , ; :
, }

1)

MwV

, . , /
, , / I (. ).
, .../ ! , (. ).
, - (.
). . . . / .
. / , / , , (.
, ).

/ V {D/ ^

<, >. \ < >


- . - .
, / (. ).

2) [. 1.1.4); ]

V {D/N^}

< > . . .
.

1 1
4.2. = ' , X [ N "
, ,
21 : . . , , , ,
, (. ); (.
); , (.
); ; ": ; ; :
, ; }

1)

N^V

( )
==525

. > . 11 . 1941 . < >. .


<>. <, >. ... (. ).

2) -,
, , , , , , [. 1.1.3)]

VRelS

, < >. . . ,
. (. ).

^ V Rel S [N1 V ^ ~ N1} . < >.


^ (. ).

^ V Rel S [N1 - V}

< >. < >. <> .


(. ). - , - ? (. ). +
< >.

4.3. = ' [ ;
, ' , X'22 ;
; ; : ]

\r1 v ^ '

. , . < >.
[' ']. [' '].

4.4. -< = ' ,


X, ' [ ; ,
, ; : , ; ": , ;
, . , . , , ; ]

^ V ^ [f^1 ~ . , , ] , . .

5.1. - = ' , X, - ,
,

==526

III.

'23 [. .; ;
;
; \; : ; , ; -:
^

<>. . .
: , (. ).

5.2. - = ' ,
' [ ; ;
. ;
; . ~ ' , '; : , ;
, }
^ ^ [^2 ~ , -, - . . , , . , , ,
, ...]

() <>. .
: , (. ). ,
, (. ) [. 1.1.2)]

^ W ^

- , , . , ,
? (. ).

5.3. - Y-a " ' ,


, ,
, ' [
; : , , ]

^ < , >.

N/ [.] .

6.1. ,
[
- ,
26; .
; ^ ; ' ; : ]

"

( )

==527

< , > . . .
, . <, >
.

6.2. ,
[ , ;
: <> ;
, : );
: ( ); ": ; }

^ V

<> .

. , = ' , ' [: ,
, }; = ' , , , ' [:
, , ]; = ', ,
' [.; ; ]27 ; ! = ' ' [
]; = ', ' []; = ' ,
, ' [; ]; ? = ' ,
'; = ', , , ';
" ' , , ' [ ];
, 26 = ' , ' [ ]; , 23 =
' , ' [ ]; - = '
, , -'29 .
4.
1. 3- .

==528

III.

( " "): 1) , : , ; 2)
(): , , 3) (): - ? ; 4) ()
: .

, , ,
. . ,
.
. ( ).
[26] , , .
(. 1.1, 1.2, 3.2, 4.3).
, 3- , 3- (.
" ()").
: 3- , .

2. : "3 . . . . . (. ), 3 . . .".
, .
; ( ), ( ),
, ( ). ,
, . 3-
Cue , (. ), ,
.

3. .
.

4. ( ) ( ).
, : ,
, . . .

5. . , (, )
(.), , , , : , ; .
(. . ). .
, . . 1.2, -

( )

==529

: -
( . [27]).

6. , , ,
, . . , , .

7. , ( [23: 70-71])
, ''; . , ,
? .
, ,
.

8. , ,
. .
, ,
.

9. "" (. [28: 190, 18: 179 .]).


.
, .
. , ,
: (. , ) (. ,
). . ,
, , , , .
, ( )
.

10. .
. , , 9,
.: . =>
? , , , 1.1 Y-e Y 2.1 -,
( .), ( . .),

==530

III.

' -.' ' -.',


. 1.1 -. 2.1 -. (
Reali Fact) ).

11. . .
,
, , . ., . . : . ? .
:
, , . , , ,
.

12. , :
(-) (. [29]). ,
; ; ,
, ( , , ).
, , , , , :
= {3- /} { >. , ,
, : . . [30],
[31: 336 .].

13. " ". [32: 301- 308],


" " , , . , ,
, , , , -
. . , , ,
. [33].

14. , , . .,
; . , = .

15. () ,
. [34],
; . [35] [36].
. ,
, : <> .

( )

==531
, ,
,
, "" ,
, , [37-
39]

16 9 , , ,
, , 114),
212) 312), , ""
[40 8], , , "" [18 179 ] ,
( 17)
,

, , (),
( , ) ()

17 ,
, (4 1 2)) [41 133135], [42], [25 556]
""
<, > , ,
<, > ,
"" ,

18 , , ,
, - ,
,
, -
,

19 [20] , [43]

==532

III.

20. " ", -


; . [34].

21. "" .

22. , , , . . '
', ' , ', [8: 27 .]. , ', ': ' ,
' = ', '. , .
. . . 3.2,
4.3, , , . ,
. , ,
200 .
, .
: () ? . ,
' , '. ,
, . , .
' , ', ' '? , -,
. ,
. , , . .
: [20: 74-79].

23. - , ,
, , . . . .
. , .

24. -
, .
, , 4.2, ( )
^ ' - (. ),
(. ), (. . ) . . ,
: 5.1.
, -
( )

==533

, ^.^- ^ ~ ,
. 1)
, .
, . 2)
, ,
, .
; . < > . . 3) ,
, , /.
( ), ( ). 4)
: , ,
; , ^ .
, .

25. , ' , ' ,


^ V ^ > N2 ' ' , , , , . .
, ,
. , ,
, , . ,
, 5.2 . ,
.
<> . .
, - ,
.

26. , .

27. ( , )
. , .
, , -, , , .
(. , ),

==534

III.

- (' , - ). .

28. , , , . . . [44].

29. . . , . . . . ,
.

( )

==535

1. . . // . 1964. . 8. . 3-16.

2. . ., . . - . ,
1984.
3. Benson M., Benson E., Ilson R. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. A Guide to Word Combinations.
Amsterdam (Philadelphia), 1986.

4. . . . // .
. 1990. N 6. . 123-139.

5. . . .
// . 1970. . 13. . 3-26.

6. . . ,
. // . 1972. . 16. . 3-30.

7. . . . 1. '' '* . // Russian Linguistics.


1985. N. 2/3. . 257-279.

8. . M. . . M.,
1985.

9. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.

10. Wierzbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney; N. Y. etc., 1980.

11. Wierzbicka Anna. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor, 1985.

12. Wierzbicka Anna. English Speech Act Verbs A Semantic Dictionary. Sydney; 1987.

13. . . // . . 1986. N 6. . 57-


70.

14. . . " <=> ". M., 1974.

15. ., E. . // .
. M., 1987. . 80-96.

16. . . : . . ...
. . . ., 1987.

17. . . // .
. M., 1990. . 70-95.

18. . . . . M., 1974.

19. Bierwisch M. Some Semantic Universals of German Adjectivals // Foundations of Language. International
Journal of Language and Philosophy. 1967. Vol. 3. No. 1.

==536

III.

20. . . - " <=>


" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980. 119.
21. Verhaar John. The Verb BE and its Synonyms. Philosophical and Grammatical Studies. Parts 1-6/ Ed. by John
W. M. Verhaar // Foundations of Language. Supplementary Series. 1967. Vol. 1.; 1968. Vol. 6.; 1968. Vol. 8.; 1969.
Vol. 9.; 1972. Vol. 14.; 1973. Vol. 16.

22. . ., . . . ( ). M., 1983.

23. Chvany Catherine V. On the Syntax of BE-sentences in Russian. Cambridge (Mass.), 1975.

24. . ., . .
. , 1982. . 1-2.

25. Guiraud-Weber M. Les propositions sans nominatif en russe moderne. Paris, 1984.

26. . , // 1971. M.,1972.

27. . . . M., 1976.

28. Stem G. Meaning and Change of Meaning. Goteborg, 1931.

29. . . // . . ., 1974.
. 343-361.

30. . . - (
) // . M., 1966. .147-
173.

31. - M. // . . . . . 1984.
N 6.

32. . . // Russian Linguistics. International Journal for the


Study of the Russian Language, 1985. Vol. 9. N 2/3. , P. 289-317.

33. . . //
. . 1964.

34. . ., . . : , , //
. 1989. . 29. . 34-92.

35. Garde P. Analyse de la tournure russe Mne necego delat' / / International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and
Poetics. 1976. No. 22.

36. Holthusen J. Russisch necego und Verwandtes // Zeitschrift fur Slawische Philologie. 1953. . 22. Heft 1.

37. Lyons J. A Note on Possessive, Existential, and Locative Sentences // Foundations of Language. 1967. Vol. 3.
No. 4.

( )

==537

38. . . //
. . 1973. N 4.
39. . . //
. . ., 1977.

40. . . : . . ... - . . ., 1969.

41. . . . ., 1973.

42. . . // . 1973. N 3.

43. . . . ., 1982.

44. Wierzbicka Anna. Boys will be boys // Language. 1987. Vol.63. No. 1.

45. Ferrel, James. On the aspects of byt' and on the position of the periphrastic future // Word. 1959. No. 4, P. 362-
376.

==538

IV

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==548

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, 214
(., 1967).

==549

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==552

IV.

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1. -2

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,
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, . . .
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, . . ; )
,
( .: , 1979 Vauquois,
1981).
' ., : Brinkmann, 1979; Vauquois, 1981; Brinkmann, 1981; Melby, 1981; ., 1982; Slocum, 1985
; Vauquois- Boitet, 1985; Nagao et al., 1985; Bennet-Slocum 1985; Isabelle=Bourbeau, 1985; Biewer et al., 1985.

-2

==555

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2
26- , ,
Brinkmann, 1981, Computational Linguistics 1985 . (vol. 11, N 1 vol. 11, N 2-3); . :
Brinkmann, 1979; Melby, 1981.
==556

V.

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==557

-2 ; , , -
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==558

V.

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==559
,
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: 1) (, . .) , 2)
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( ),
, . ,
, (,
) . ( .: , 1985.)

==560

V.

()
9
INDAPOK

()

Instru- .

The Future of Electronics in mentation.

Advances due in spectroscopy, chromatography, spectrometry and electrochemistry.

In recent years, government regulations, technical demands, microprocessor development and a host of other influences have forced a revolution in
chemical, biochemical and industrial instrumentation.
Thirty five years ago, significant breakthroughs were achieved in chemical analysis instrumentation, and UV and IR spectrometers, mass spectrometers,
and PH meters became available. The search for a synthetic substitute for natural rubber, for example, accelerated during World War Two and spurred the
development of instrumentation that could analyse molecular structure in the laboratory. In the early sixties, chromatography became an analytical tool
(now the most highly used instrumental technique in the chemical laboratory). Nuclear instrumentation, which appeared in the late fifties, dramatically
changed medical diagnosis. Improved detectors and sampling technology have led to more exotic instrumentation methods, such as gas chromatography
mass spectrometry (GCMS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray fluorescence and plasma emission spectroscopy.

, , , .

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, .


, - ** . , ,
,
.

(
). , , .
, ,
(*GCMS*), (HPLC),
.

9
,
.

-2

==561

steering curve for a bucket conveyor. Diffusion bonding of aluminium alloys.

Pendulously suspended bucket with .

11. Hydrocarbon oil based silicone anti- foams. .

12. Static changing device for drive brake operation of variable speed asyn-
- chronous motors fed by a current con- , verter.
.

13. Stripless electrical wire terminal (for distributors of telecommunication in-


, stallations, especially telephone instal- . lations.

14. Conveying apparatus for sheet-or foil- like material, .


15. Planetary gear train for automotive transmission or the like.
.

16. Gas-insulated electrical apparatus. , 17. Flat-card-shaped semiconductor device


with electric contacts on both faces and process for its
manufacture, .

18. Optical phase grid arrangement and cocoupling device having such an ar-
.

rangement.

() , -2 -1033
200 000 / (
). 1520 ,
PL-1.
.

(2530 )
, , 34 .
810 ( 1/3 )
1 . 10.

, -1045 ( 880000 /) 2,5-3 ,


-1046 (1 200 000 /) 3,8-4 , -1061 (2 000 000 /) - 4,5-4,8 .

==562

V.

, -2,
,
. -1033, -,
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-2 .
,
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), (, 1979).
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. . -2
,
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.
, , , (1).
.

, . . .

11
. 1980 .
-1 -1033 -50 (. . )
. -1 15 5
. . . ,
( ).

-2

==563

(6).
.
, ,
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.

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.

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.

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.
.

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. . , .
.


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. ,
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12
, , ,
.
==564

V.

-2 .
, , -, 1% . , ,
.

(-2) Holder

. , ,
. :

(-2) , .

Method of making an elec-

trical synthetic insulator,

and insulator made by the .

method.

Electric rotary machine -

having superconducting ro- - -

tor. , .

Method of manufacturing /- -

stack of laminated plates -

for electric machines and -

devices, , .

, , ,
. , -2, .

Capacitor element. Static changing device for drive-brake operation of variable speed asynchronous motors fed by a current converter.

Solid-state laser scanning system and electrophotographic machine including the same.

. / /
.

/ / .

(-2)

.
, .

, .

-2

==565

, -2,
, .

3. - 213

-2
-1,
, 14.
, -2 -1, ,

-2.

-2 -1.

1. -2 ,
, .
: ) , ) -2
,
, .

2. .
, () .
, , .
,
. ,
( ), ( ).
, -2
. ,
, , .
-2 ,
( , -

-2 , , 1982. 14 -1 .:
., 1978, ., 1981; -1, 1985; -, 1984; -III, 1984; -IV, 1983; -V, 1983; -VI,
1985; -VII, 1985; - .: ., 1977; , 1986; ., 1982.

==566

V.

. .), , . .
,
-

, , . . ,
, .
.
, (
) . -
. , ,

. .

3. -2 . ,
, .

, -
,
.

, ,
, ,
; . ROUND '' (), '' (), ''
(), '' () '' ().

, . ROUNDS '' ''.


, . ROUNDING '' '',
ROUNDED '' ''.
, . ROUNDING '' ''.
,
. : electric device '
' electric devices ' '.

. : claimed he was ill => '


, ', ' ', The man I saw
yesterday => ', ', ' '.
.


,
.
-2

==567


; .

semiconductor device labncation '' '' '' ' ':


overvonage protection circuit '' '' '' ' ':

zero insertion '""- *" "" '' '' '' ''

' '.


, .
, , (, , )
. , ,
. ( , )
. , . -2
, .

4. -2 , .
, -2 ,
.
.

, , , ,
. , , , ,
.

==568

V.

" ",

. ,
, ,
. . , ""
, ,
. : High voltage direct current transmission apparatus
' '
' '.

Ringing signal supply ' '


' '.
-
.

-2 .
.
-2 , -1.

" =>
", -2.
, , , ,
1974, . .
(, , 1975; Mel'uuk, Pertsov, 1987; ,
, , 1975; , , 1975; , 1976; , , ,
1978; , 1979; , 1981; , 1982; , 1980). ,
, 1975 ,
, ,

,
( ) .

- , -
(, 1979).

, " <=> "


. , , -2
, , . .
,
-2

-2

==569

( ) : (i)
; ()
; (iii)
; (iv)
; (v)
; (vi)
; (vii)
. .
(i) (vii)
. ()
() .
(, )
,
, . (iv)-(vi)
,
, ""
.

: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
; 4) ; 5)
(); 6) , ()
,
; 7) ,
, , ;
8) , .

,
.

(iii)-(vi) ,
.
,
,
.

(i)
, .
, -1: ) (
it'll, it's . .); ) ; )
.

==570

V.

-2 . ^a ,
"" "".

, . . , ,
(BY MEANS OF '', WITH REGARD TO '' . .).
"" ,
.

"" , ,
() .
(, , ,
. .) . ,
, , .

, ,
.

" => " , (


)
.

() . ,
- . , NEED, NEEDS
: '' ''
.
(THE ), , NEED, NEEDS
.

,
. ,
, .


. -
-2

==571

( ) .
- ,
,
<1
, ( The train 4 stopped '
'),

1 compi

(to debug the program ' '),


(modern modl{ computers ' ') . .

,
, ,
.
,
- . ,
, . . , ()
.

, ,
,
. ,
. , The firm bought a computer for 1000
dollars ' 1000 '
for a 1000 dollars: bought for a 1000 dollars ' 1000 ' a
computer for a 1000 dollars ' '.
( 2-) ,
.


. , ,

, . 50 ,

, (iii)
. .

-, :
; MAKE, TELL, INFORM
(,
INF -

==572
V.

02); , -ING;

02; , THAT
claimed he was ill (. ); ;
.

-,
.

, :
semiconductor device fabrication

' ', overvoltage protection circuit

' ', zero insertion force connector

' '.

-2 ,
,

compos compos compos

> X, ^ .\

, .
, .
,
. ZERO ''
INSERTION '',
, .
ZERO FORCE ''. , ,
, . ,
,
ZERO FORCE INSERTION.
,

:
wmpos

compos compos y^^ compose. zero insertion force = zero insertion force.


.
-2

==573

(iv)
, , , ,
.
: )
; )
: )
.

,
. ,

romp
DEBUGinf ' ' > PROGRAMpi ,

Inf => (), 1 => ( ),

i-cotnpl ._ 1 -compi ^

DEBUG = , PROGRAM =^ . ,
, -,
.
, , ,
( ) ,
: ) , :
PRESENT, PERFECT, PROGRESSIVE 1 ( ), PAST, PERFECT,
f
PROGRESSIVE )

has been working had been working


; ) , : John
being late we decided to go => , ; They talked me
into accepting their proposal => ; as many as
three years =? ; two inches long => ; five years older =>
.

==574

V.

, ,
, ; ) ,
,
( 1974), , : on Monday =>
, pay attention => , space resonance =>
, controlling field =? , interturn capacitance =>
, iron chute => .

(v)
- .
,
: ) ,
(, - => > -
> , - => > > )
(, , , =>
> , , => ) . .; )
; ,
, ),

> , )
(,
); )
,
(, <- <- ,
was followed,
)

, (iii)-
(v) . ,
, ,
, . . .
; . (iii)-(v)
,
. .

-2

==575

, , (problems discussed => '


'), (, ),
( ,
. .).
. , ferrite-cored anchor '
' ' ',
ferrite-cored,
.
. ,
. ,
. -2 .
(vi) , ,
:
.

,
( , , , )
( , , , ,
. .).
.
.

,
(, 1980):
(., ,
),
(.
). ,
(,
,
, ).
: X,
X' ,
. -2 .

==576

V.

. ,
.
, ,
. -2
"" : , , ,
, , , .
, :
, ,
. . , (
) ,
, (
) .

(vii)

.
, . .
. ,
.

4.

,

. -2
.
, . 1, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , .
-

-2

==577

, , , ,
.


-2, : 1)
, 2) , 3) ,
, 4) , 5)
(. 1985).

1. .

, . ,
. ""
,
.
.

2.1. .

, .

,
, . . 1)
, 2) , .
. , ,
.


. -,
,
( , ,
. .). -, , ,
, () .

2.2. .

.
( )

19 3

==578

V.

(, 1979). ,
, ;
; ,
, ;

. ,
.

2.3. . ,
,
(.
),
.

; . (
), - ( ),
( )

,
, , ,
(. , 1980) .

3.1. .
,
, ,
.

, ,
.
(. ,
, , , ,
).
.

3.2. .
.
, ,
; .
,
- - -
-.
-2

==579

, ,
- .

-,
,
( ),
,
, .

4. .
, -
.
.

,
. , .
. , -
- . ,

,
. , ,
, .
: ,
SILENTLY '' . ,
, :
FOR, (I'd
like for you to come earlier ' , '),
, (
There was no place where he could sleep').

5. . ,
( )
' . ,
, ,
(, ) (,
), .
,
19*


==580

V.

, , , -

, .
()
, .
.

, , ,
. -,
,
. ,
,
, , ; . , , ,
, , .
() . ,
, ,
. . ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .

, 1985: . , :
// . - "-85":
. . . ., 1985.

--, 1978: . ., . ., . .
// ja3HK. 1978. . 29. . 125-171.

., 1978:
/ . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . 3.
: . / , . "" . ., 1978.

., 1981: . ., . ., . . .
-1 // .
: , 1981.

-2

==581

-, 1982: . , . . -2 //
. : , 1982.

, 1979: . . .
// Jyocoec . 1979. . 35. . 19-53.

, 1979: . . : . / - .
. (. . . ) 122. ., 1979.
--, 1975: . ., . ., . .
. 1. // . . 2, . . 1975.
7. . 3043.

-, 1975: . ., . . . 2.
// . 1975. 11. . 22-32.

., 1977: . ., . ., . ., . .
: . - . . . (. .
. ). 91. .,1977.

, 1979: . . . .: , 1979.

., 1982: . ., . ., . . .
//
. .: , 1982. (, . . 2: . 6).

, 1974; .. " <=> ". .: , 1974.

-, 1975: . ., . . : .
- . . . (, . . ) 64/66. ., 1975.

-1, 1985: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. I. //
( ). : -
. -, 1985. . 2039. (. , : . 714).

-, 1984: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. II. .
: . - . . (. . .
) 154. ., 1984.

-, 1984: . . . . . .
- -

==582

V.

-1. III. : . - . . (.
. ) 155. ., 1984.

IV, 1983: . . -
-1.IV. : . - . .
(. . . ) 159. ., 1983.

-V, 1983: . ., . ., . . .
- -l.V. :
. . . . (. . . ) 160. ., 1983.

-VI, 1985: . ., . ., . ., . .
- -l.VI.
: . - . . (. . . )
166. 1985.
-VII, 1985: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. VII.
: . - . . (. . . ) 167. ., 1985.

, 1976: . . .
( ) // . . 2, . . 1976.
1. . 3843.

, 1980: . 3. ( ): . -
. . (. . . ) 137. ., 1980.

, 1981: . . -
// Wiener. Slaw. Almanach. 1981. Bd. 7. S. 155-215.

, 1982: . .
// Bull. Soc. Pol. linguist. 1982. Fasc. 39. .91-107.

, 1986: . .
( " ") // . 1986. 27. . 82-120.

., 1982: . , . , . ., . ., . .
. . -1 //
. : , 1982.

Bennett-Slocum, 1985: Bennett W. S. SlocumJ. The LRC machine translation system // Comput. Linguist. 1985.
Vol. 11, N 2/3. . 111-121.

-2

==583

Biewer et al., 1985: Biewer A Feneyrol Ch., RitzkeJ, Stegentritt E. ASCOF - a modular multilevel system for
French-German translation // Ibid. 1985. Vol. 11, N 2/3. P. 137-154.

Brinkmann, 1979: Brinkmann . . Perspectives d'avenir de la traduction automatique // META.


1979. Vol. 24, N 3. P. 315-325.

Brinkmann, 1981: Brinkmann . . Machine aids to translation // Ibid. 1981. Vol. 26, N 1. P. 67-75.

Isabelle-Bourbeau, 1985: Isabelle P., Bourbeau L. TAUM-AVIATION: its technical features and some
experimental results // Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11,N 1. P. 18-27.

Melby, 1981: Melby A. K. Translators and machines can they cooperate? META. 1981. Vol. 26, N 1. P. 23-34.

Mel'cuk-Pertsov, 1987: Mel'euk I. A., Pertsov N. V. Surface syntax of English. A formal model within the Meaning
<-> Text framework // Linguistic and literary studies in Eastern Europe. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1987. Vol. 13.

Nagao et al., 1985: Nagao M; Tsujii Junichi, Nakamura Junichi. The Japanese government project for machine
translation // Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11, N2/3. P. 91-110.

Slocum, 1985: Slocum J. A survey of machine translation: its history, current status, and future prospects // Ibid.
1985. Vol. 11, N 1. P. 1-17.
Vauquois, 1981: Vauquois . L'informatique au service de la traduction // META. 1981. Vol. 26, N L
P. 8-17.

Vauquois-Boitet, 1985: Vauquois ., Boitet Ch. Automated translation at Grenoble University //


Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11, N 1. P. 28-36.

==584

00.htm - glava31

:
*
,
, , . ,
,
. , , .
, , ,
.
.

: 1)
, ; 2)
; 3) (
); 4) .

1.

, , . . , . .
, . . , . . . 3. 1988
<=> , , 1974.
" <=> " ,
. . ,
(Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987, ).

' "Words are Physicians for an Ailing Mind" Munchen, 1991.

==585

. () ,
, <=> .
. , ,
,
. .

,
.


( +),
- . (1)
(): (1) ( ).

() {, , / , , , } + { (, / , } + {, ,
, , } + {, / , / , , / , , } + { }'.

(
) ,
,
, . (1)
(!"): 1"

, , , / \

, .

/ /

* () ,
; .

==586

V.

(!')=> (I")
, (. ), : 1)
, 2) , 3) .
, ,
.

1)
,
: ) - . , ,
. ,
( ),
.

, , ; .
, .

)
,
.

2) : )
, ,
.

) , , : ;
- , . .
( 300); '', '', '', '' . . (
); , . . ,
, .

) , . ,
...... ,
: (. );
(. ).
, , .

==587

-
.


. (, ,
) , . .
. ,
. ,
.

3) , ,
. ,
.

(2) , ,
, 2
. (
2-) , , .

2- , ,
.
( --. < , ,
, , . . >),
. , ,
: (26) (
).
.

,
, .


. 52.
.

, , ,
. 400
.

==588

V.

2.

(1),
, ,
. ,
, , , . ,
, .

, ,
, .
(. (1)). (
) , ; .

(3) ,
2.

, .
,
: " > =
' , .'

, ,
, .

,
, . .

(4) (), (5) ().

(4) , , (
). , ,
. (5) , (
). -
2

, .
.
:

==589

* , ; .
<> 3.

;
.
.

(6)

, .
. (7): (7) .

, 1985, .
, :
.
, .

-

(76) .

, ,
. .

3. .

: 1)
()
?; 2) ( )
?; 3)
?

,
.

,
, , , 1983,
, 1978.
3
. , 1979: 99 .

==590

V.
3.1.

, :
, , , , . .
, , : , , , , , . .; .

(8) .

, - , ,
, :
(9) <> < >.

(9) ,
.

, ,
, ; . , , ,
( ), , . .

(10) < , >, (106) .

, ; .

(11) .
(10) (11) , .


, . . -
: (12) <, , ,...>. ,
, , : (13) <
, > .

,
, , : (14) <> .
,

, : (15) <> <>


< , >. .

==591

(16) , , , -
. ,
, ; , (17)
, (176) : (17) , (176) *0 .

, , ,
. , ,
. .
.

-,
.

(18) < > , (186)


.

(18) ,
, , - ,
(
). , , ,
, .

-, ,
, - (
, , ..). ,

(19) , (196)

(' '), -
' , - <, ,
..>, '). , ,
- , .

3.2. , ,

, , ( .
).

,
.

==592

V.

, ,
-: , , , , , ,
, . . ( . , 1988). ,
. (20), (20): (20)
< > , (206) * < > .

.
, ,
.

- ,
. .
, ,
. ,
, .
, (.
, 1978).

(21 ) , (216) . .
(. ).

,
. , ,
.

, ,
. (. ).

(. ),
; .

(22) *0 , (226) .

, ,
; , ,
: (23) .


, :

==593

(236) * .

3.3. ,

, , , ,
, . (5),
.
, ,
.

,
.

(24) < , , > .

(24) ,
, .
, 1983. (24) -
, . . . -
, :
. 4.

,
.

(25)
, (24), . , . .
- .
. ,
. .
. - 5.
4

; . < >,
, , . .
.

5
; .
(' ', '', ).

==594

V.

;
. , .
, , ,
.

, .

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
, . . ; . .
: )
; ) ; ) .

(26) <, > ( ^), (266)


<, > ( ); (27)
< , , > ( ), (276)
< , > (
); (28) < > , (286) ,
, ,
( . 1988. N 17).

. .
, ,
<> , .
, -
, . , ,
: <> .
(26)-(28) .

: )
; ) - (, ); )
.

(26) , , .
-
:

==595

, (. . )
; .

(29) * <> .

, , ,
. ,
,
.

(27)
: ,
: () *0 <, > , (306) *
<, > .

(28) , .

. ,
: (31 ) *0 , (316)
.

, ,

(32) <, > , -


.

, ,
(. ), - :
' ,
'.

-
, ,
, . .
() (), ,
,
: () , (336) ?
, () ?? , () * .

==596

V.

() , ()
. .
4.

,
.
: 1) ( ) '',
' ' (, , , , ..), '' (, ..),
'' (, , , , ), '' (, , , ,
,...), '' (, ,,..), '' (, ,...),
'' (, ,...) ; 2)
; 3) (,
. .), (, , , , , . . ).

.

- (' '
' ') , .
, , ,
, , . .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
.


- ,
.
, . . ''
' ',

==597

(. .
).

,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, , , ,
. ,
6.

, 1978: . . // Tekst,Jezyk.
Poetyka. Wroclaw etc., 1978. . 129-152.

, 1988: . .
// . : . 1988. . 57-78.
, 1985: . . . ., 1985.

, 1983: . .
. ., 1983.

, 1974: . . <=? . .,
1974.

Mel'cuk, Pertsou, 1987: Mel'cuk I. A., Pertsov N. V. Surface Syntax of English. A Formal Model within
the Meaning <=> Text Framework. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1987.

Mel'cuk, 1979: Mel'cuk, Igor A. Studies in Dependency Syntax. Ann Arbor, 1979.

6
. . , .

==598

00.htm - glava32

1.

1.1. , ,
. ,
-
.
, ,
,
.

- ,
. ,
, ,
. .

, . .
, . ,
-.

1.2. : ,
, .

1.2.1. . .
<= 1.

"Tekst. Jezyk. Poetyka." Wroclaw. Krak6w, Gdank, 1978.


==599


. (
) (
) : (), -
(), - () ..

,
.
, ,
- , .. ;
, , ,
.

, ,
,
, . . .
( "") ,
, . . .

,
,
(, "), - ,
- , ,
.

, :

,
.

(
),
.

" <=> " -


, -, -

' . . <=> . ., 1974.

==600

VI. Miscellanea

() ,
.

1.2.2. ,
,

'' ' 12.
1.2.3. , ,
3.

,
. .

, . -,
"" ()
. -, ( , -)
- .

, ,
- . ,
-
(. ). ,
- -, -,
.

- .
<> ^ >
( ) (, ,
).

1.3. ,
, .
2
:
.

3
. . , . . .: . . 19. 1967. . . .
. ., 1974.

==601

--

. , ,

( ) ( )
, , , ,
. (
) .

.
.
' , , ,
' (
), :
' , , ,
'. *0
: , - .


( ), ,
( ),
, , . ,
.
, , .

, ,
,
, , .

- ,
- . , , ,
(,
, ,
). ,
- (, ).

==602

VI. Miscellanea

. *
, ,
, (, , , ) ,
, , 4.

. , ,
( ) - ,
(. 7), , .

,
.

,
(.
) (. " , * ).


( , ,
-
4
, (. 4.3),
. ( )
, ^ ( ).
, ; . , .
, , : Seuren P. A. ., Negative's
Travels, : Semantic Syntax, Edited by Pieter A.V.Seuren, Oxford, 1974. . 197; . . .
. ., 1974, . 108-109. . . . ,
" " " " (. 108),
" ". :
( ) .
. , .
"" ( !) (. . . . ., . .296, 331).
( <=> " "), : '
' <=> ( <=> ) <=> ( <^> ).

==603

, ).
, , -, :
( ) .
, ,
, . . , () '' ''
. 06
: = ' ' , , =
' '.

: ,
(. ). , ,

.

, : ,
, () ,
.

2.

2.1. < -> 'X < ->,


Z' ,
; ,
,
:
1- 2- 3- Z

s 1. s,hh 1. 2. 3.
5 4. Sp
2. Sp 3. 4. Conjn,i
5. .

: Dzn: <, , ,
>; Du'- < , ,
, >; D'2,.3- ,
< >; Du ' , < ,
,

==604

VI. Miscellanea

>; D^s. , < ,


>5.
: Dsi: (-.) < , ,
>; Ds2: (-.) < ,
>; : < , >;
Dy 4: () < , >.
( ) Sp,
; , ,
,
S .

, -
. (, MAC),
, , ,
"" : () ' --.', ',
--.' ,
; - ,
; , , ;
() ', --.'
;
; , , ,
. ( , ()
() ),
.

2.2. - 2.1 .
:
< > , ,
, ,
< >.
: <
>, , .
^ , , ,

5
, , ,
: ( ) ( ). .

==605

*0 , , , .

,
- . ,
,
/.

2.3. , , ,
. . ,
, ,
, . . , . , ( ,
). ,
, , . . , . ,
( , ).
-, ,
(, , ). ,
, , ,
, (
) ,
- .

.
,
.

2.3.1. ,
, (,
,
).

) , '',
, : <, > ... < >,
... < * >, < > ... < >.
5, ,
: , , ,
.

==606

VI. Miscellanea

6) ,
(), () ,
: (
) ( ). ,
( ) )
.

) , , :
, , *0
, . , ,
, .

) - 5, :
( 7B
). , -, -
, ; .
6
() VS. ( , ) .

) , : < ?om >


. , ,
: " , , ' . ,
, , .

2.3.2. ,
. ,
, .
6
. . (Continuous) ; . Lakoff G. Instrumental
Adverbs and the Concept of Deep Structure // Foundations of Language. International Journal of Language and Philosophy. 1968. Vol.4. N.I.
: -
: ) , '', " ' (, , ); )
, '', '' ( -., -.,
); ) , '' , '' (, ,
, ), , , ,
, (-) .

==607

) , 2, ,
, : ( ,
) VS. ( , );
( , ) VS.
( , ).

) , , , ,
, , ; <>
, . ,
: *3() ,
.
: , , ,
, , .

2.3.3. , , , 8 ,
, .

) , ''
, 5: ,
, <> , ;
<, , , > -. -.; ,
, , .

) , ''
, : ,
1 .

2.3.4. , Span
; , .
<> ?, -, ,
, .
, .

.

==608

VI. Miscellanea
3.

2.3.1. 2.3.3 2.2 -


. , ?0 ,
- *0 ,
, (
) , , ,
, , , , . ,
: Y-a Z-e -
' Y - Z-e, (X Z-e,
Z-e, , Y - Z-e)'. ,
, (-)
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5.
.

. ,
, . . , " - ".
, , ( ,
), ( )
,
, ).


. . , ,
, ,
: , .
(" ") ;
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, ". ,
.
(
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:
(. ).

==609

. ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
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. , (,
) , ,
,
.

: ,

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4.
, , ,
.

4.1. : '' '


', (. 1.2.2).
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. , , , ,
(. 3). ,
, '' ' ' , . .
, , - 7,
, , ,
, ;

7
, - ,
.

I ^

==610

VI. Miscellanea

.
, 2. .

4.1.1. ( )
, . ,
, -: ,
, , , , , . ,
, ,
, , . *0 , *
, * , *0 8.
-
: ,
, . ,
. ., : .
, , , ?

:
(,
?, ,
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() .
,
.

, , , :
. . . ,
"+": ,
(, ) 9.
8
. . ; . . . ,
. ., 1982.

9
,
: *0 , * . -, ,
, "+". ,

==611

4.1.2. , , , , Accusativus temporis


(, . .) (/ , / . .).
-
Accusativus temporis, :
, / , *
/ , *0 .

' , , ',
' '10.
: )
, . ,
Accusativus temporis, ; )

, , ,
, Accusativus temporis:
VS.
.

, Accusativus temporis
; . has been writing the novel three weeks ( * in three weeks )
VS. He has written the novel in three weeks ( *three weeks ), // e'crivait ce livre une (
*en une annee ) VS. // a ecrit ce livre en une ( *une annee )".

,
: , Accusativus temporis,

, , Accusativus temporis,
.

= ' ', 1 1 *0 - '
'.

10
.: U. . ..

" Accusativus temporis , , ,


, : Wierzbicka A., On the Semantics of the Verbal Aspect in Polish,[B:] To Honor Roman Jakobson.
Essays on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday, The Hague-Paris, 1967.
==612

VI. Miscellanea

, , (*
). , .

4.1.3. , . ,
. 12 ,
()
: <> ,
, , . .
, - .

: ? , .

, , ,
: , ,
, . ,
?- .
,
, , .
- :
<> , .
, .

,
,
. / promise you <swear to you, beg
your pardon, apologize, pardon you>, */ am promising you <swearing to you> ..,
,
Continuous.

,
: - " ", , .

4.1.4. ,
, , .
,
. ,
12
Austin J. L. How to Do Things with Words. N. Y., 1965.

==613

,
: () , *
, () , 3.

,
, , : , , , *,
, (. , ); ,
, , *, ,
(. , ); , ,
*, (. , ).
,
( ) : , , *, , (.
, ); , ,
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); , , ,
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). , , ,
; , S '
, , '; , S
', p)i4

,
, ,
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,
.

(), () .
-
13
, , () . 3. .
.

14
, , , ,
.
: . . : // .
. . . . 1976. 2.

==614

VI. Miscellanea

, , , ; ,
; () .

: " ,
".

, , :
(), () S ' (), ()'.

() ,
( ) .

4.1.5. -, 4.1 . ,
, , ?0 , ?0 ,
, , ,
*0 , *0 . , ,
. ,
, 4.1.1 4.1.4,
, : , , ,
.
4.2. , ,
. ,

, , , ,
15. , '' ' ',
(. 1.2.2),
( ),
. ,
, '' ' ' - ,
, , . ,
-
15
. (Wierzbicka A. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw etc., 1969).
, , ,
, .
. , .

==615


, .
.

4.2.1. "" :
, ,
: <> (. ), * <> (. )
* , <> (. ).

, -, ,
, (. 1.3).

, ,
, (. .
). s ' () X;
,
'; s ' ()
X; ,
'.
, ,
X,
. ()
.
, .

4.2.2. ,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
. - , ?, , -
, (""), , , ,
(-). *0 ,
, ( ,
), .
, , : ,
?. \ (""), ,
( ). "
( ) .

==616

VI. Miscellanea

,
() , () , () (. ,
, ?), () () (. , ?), ()
(. , ?), (.
, , ?, ,
) .

,
16.

,
, , .
.

-, , , ,
, - . -,
,
. ,
, , ,
, "" ,
(. , . 617)
, , .
16
., : Baker . L. Double Negation // Linguistic Inquiry. 1970, 1.2; Pieter M. Seuren. The Comparative // Generative Grammar in Europe/ Ed.
by F. Kiefer and N. Ruwet. Dordrecht, Holland, 1973.
, , : much (He didn't say much VS. *He said much), at all (He wasn't there at
all VS. *He was there at alt); slightest <least> (There's not the slightest <least> doubt about it VS. 'There's the slightest <least> doubt about it); bother
(He won't bother leaving the number VS.*He mil bother leaving the number), care (He didn't care to look VS. ^He cared to look), stand (I couldn't stand it
much longer VS. */ stood it much longer); be all that (He is not all that bright VS. *He is all that bright), lift a finger (He didn't lift a finger VS. * He lifted
a finger), can possibly (You can't possibly refuse him VS. *You can possibly refuse him), can help (I couldn't help it VS. "7 could help it)
. , , , , , ""
, . Do you think he said much?, Was he there at all?. Do you think there's the slightest doubt about it?, I am not sure he will
bother leaving the number <he will care to go there>, He could hardly stand it. Is he all that bright?, Can you possibly refuse him?, How can you help it, I
wonder? , , .

==617

,
. , S ' ;
, , - , ,
'; budge S '; ,
, '. *
*Peter budged ,
' '
' '. , ,
, ""
() : S '
() ; , , - ,
, '; , ?
S ' '
, '; , ,
- , , , '.

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18
Katz J. J. and Postal P. M. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions Cambridge (Mass.), 1964. P. 87-89.

19
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==619

4.3. ,
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==621

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==622

00.htm - glava33

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==623

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==624

VI. Miscellanea
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==625


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==626

VI. Miscellanea

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==628

VI. Miscellanea

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1. . . // Tekst, jezyk, poetyka: Zbi6r studidw


/ Red. M.R. Mayenowa. Wroclaw; Warszawa etc., 1978.

2. . . //
: : . ., 1988.

3. . ., . ., . . . .,
1987.

4. . . . ., 1972.

5. . ., 1981-1984, . 1-4.

6. . .; ., 1948-1965. .1-17.

==629

00.htm - glava34

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==630

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==632

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==633

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6)
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==634

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( ) VS. At the front of the car (there) stood a girl ( ). .
. : C'est soeur a gauche deJean (' ' ) VS . C'est soeur a la
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==636

VI. Miscellanea

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==638

VI. Miscellanea

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==640

VI. Miscellanea

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==642

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==644

VI. Miscellanea

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==645

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==646

VI. Miscellanea

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==647
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==648

VI. Miscellanea

6.


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==649

1. Wierzbicka Anna. Ethno-syntax and the Philosophy of Grammar// Studies in Language. 1979.
Vol. 3. N 3. P. 313-389.

2. Buhler K. Sprachtheorie. Stuttgart, 1965.

3. . . ., 1974.

4. Lyons J. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge, 1968.

5. Lyons J. Semantics. Cambridge, 1977. Vol. 2.

6. Speech, Place and Action / Ed. R. T. Jarvella, W. Klein. N. Y., 1982.

7. Here and There. Cross-linguistic Studies on Deixis and Demonstration / Ed. T. Weissenborn, W. Klein.
Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1982.

8. .., .. : //
. ., 1984. . 25-96.

9. Opalka Hubertus. Representations of Local Ni-Deixis in Swahili in Relation to Buhler's "Origo des Zeigfelds"//
Here and There, 1982. P. 65-79.

10. . .; ., 19481965. . 1-17.

11. Ehlich K. Anaphora and Deixis: Same, Similar or Different// Speech, Place and Action, 1982. P. 43-63.

12. Ehrich V. Da and the System of Spatial Deixis in German// Here and There, 1982. P. 43-63.
13. Reichenbach H. Elements of Symbolic Logic. N. Y., 1947.

14. Leech G. H. Towards a Semantic Description of English. London, 1969.

15. Clark H. Space, Time, Semantics and the Child// Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language / Ed.
T. Moore. N. Y 1973. P. 147-168.

16. . . . . ., 1974.

17. Fillmore Ch. Santa Cruz Lectures on Deixis. Bloomington, 1975.

18. . . //
; . , 1980.

19. Hill Clifford. Up/Down, Front/Back, Left/Right. A Contrastive Study of Hausa and English// Here and There.
1982. P. 13-42.

20. Hottenroth Priska-Monika. The System of Local Deixis in Spanish// Here and There. 1982. P. 133-153.

21. . . // Tekst i zdanie. Warszawa, 1983. S. 313-


339.

22. Fillmore Ch. Lexical Entries for Verbs. Foundations of Language // International Journal of Language and
Philosophy. 1968. Vol. 4. N. 4.

. . , ,
.

==650

VI. Miscellanea

23.Jakobson Roman 0. Shifters, Verbal Categories and the Russian Verb// Selected Writings. Vol.11,
Word and Language. The Hague, 1971.- P. 130-147.

24. Brecht Richard D. Deixis in imbedded Structures.Foundations of Language // International J. of Language and
Philosophy. 1968. Vol. 11, N. 4. P. 489-518.

25. Rappoport Gilbert. Deixis and Detachment on the Adverbial Participles of Russian// Morphosyntax in
Slavic/Ed. Catherine V. Chvany, Richard D. Brecht. Chelseca, 1980. P. 273-300.

26. Comrie Bernard. Tense. Cambridge; London, etc:, 1985.

27. . ., . . - .
- . , 1984.

==651

00.htm - glava35

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==652

VI. Miscellanea

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==653

3. , .

00.htm - glava36

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==654

VI. Miscellanea

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==656

VI. Miscellanea

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1974, Stegner 1966, A book of Things 1974, Rowe 1971, 1974a, 1974b, 1979, 1981, Gregg
1974, Johnson 1974, 1981, 1985, 1981, 1985, Davydov 1982. , ,
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(W.Rowe); Nabokov's Garden: a Guide to Ada (B.A.Mason); A Lolita Crossword Puzzle (K.Ahearn); Invitation to a Decoding. Dostoevski) as Subtext in
Nabokov's Priglashenie na kasn' (P. Tammi).

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==657

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==658

VI. Miscellanea

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==659

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, ,
: ". " , , ,
: " , ",
, , , - ,
".

. , " "
(), "" - . ,
, .
alter ego .
, ,
.
8
, , ", , " ( ),
" " ( ), "" ( ), " "
( ), " " ( ) .
"", . . ( 1990). .
" ", "" "" "" "" . (Davydov 1982: 239).

==660

VI. Miscellanea

, , , .
,
, ,
, : ", , -
, .
, , , .
, , , , , ,
, , , - ".

2.1.3., , , , ,

, , ,
, , ,
.
, , .
.

, , : " , , ,
, , , ".
" ", " !
, , ...
,
".

, , : "
, , ; ...
; , , ;
". ", , , ,
, , -, ,
, , , , ".

, , ,
. , , , ,
, , , (= ) . .

""

==661

. " ,
; , ,
... , -
, (
), , ".
,
(, , ).

, , , ,
, . "
", ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ", , , ,
" . , , ,
, , (, , ).

,
" ".
. , ,
, - 9.


. . "": ", , -
", . " ,
, . ...
. , , ... ,
, : 9
(., , Zimmer 1980). .
,
. , , , ",
, , " (), , , ,
, , . - ,
, .

==662

VI. Miscellanea

, , , ,
, - - ;
, ,
... ,
".

, , , ,
, ,
, ,
. .

2.1.4. , ,

, ,
.
. , ,
, .

, . -
, .
"".
. ,
, , ,
"", , .
, , ,
.
, " ", " ". ,
, "- , ",
, . "8 8",
, " ",
. , . . ,
. ,
. ,
, : ,

, .

""

==663

, , .
. , , .
, . ,
: "
. , ,
..
" ().
.
"",
"" , , ,
.

, , .
, , "", ,
"":
. "-", "-",
10.

"" ,
-. ,
" ", " ".
.

, , ,
: . , ,
, .
, .

: XIX
, - : "! , /
, , / , /
/ -, / - ".
, , -
: " , /
, ? / ? / ?
? / , / -
10
, . . :
(Nabokov 1944).

==664

VI. Miscellanea

/ / ". .

,
,
-. , , ,
: , ,
". .
, .
(" ").
.
.

. , ,
" " , , .
"" ( ) , ,
. , ,
: ,
.
.

, , ,
, .
- . , ,
, . ,
, , . " "
.
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
12.

" . : " " (Davydov 1982: 195).

12
15 "" . . ,
, " " ( 1985: 72).

""

==665


, . , , ,
, "".
2.2.

, -
"". , . .
.
. . , ,
: " " ".
".

,
"". , , . ,
" ",
. ,
, .
.
, , . ,

. ,
, .
, , ,

. "" , , Johnson 1985, ,


) , ) (" "), ) , )
, " " ( ...). .
. (Boyd 1990: 475). , , , . ,
. . :
, , "
" (Johnson 1985: 96). ., , .
, ,
, (Boyd 1990: 462).

==666

VI. Miscellanea

, , -,
. .
.

,
. , , ,
, , , , , , . .

"", "", " " "" -


, -, ( 1990: 527).


" " "". ,
, "
", .

" " , , : " ,


... ". " " ,
, : ", . ...
".
" " " ",
26 "Pale fire" ( 1962 .).
, " " "Solus
Rex", ,
" " 1940 . " "
, ,
, "".

1923 , -, ,
: " , , / /
/ . / , , /
, / / , " ("").
" " : "
, , ,
, ,
, , ". "": " ,
". " " (1943): " ,
, / (, / -, , / ), /
/

""

==667

, / / , ;...
, / , / /
. / , / , , / /
".

"" "
", "", " ", " " . . "
., , , , ,
, ( , ),
, " (" "). "
, , ,
" (""). "
" , , " ": "...
, ,
,
" (" ", . 13; ).

2.1 "" .
( , ) "", "": "
. , . , ,
, , ".

, "" "" "".


: , , ,
, ,
. " , ,
, , ".

"" "", ,
: " , , , , , ,
, , , , " 13
13
, "", , -, "" (13 1930 ): " /
/ , / , , / " . . ,
, " "

==668

VI. Miscellanea

, , ,
" ". " , ,
, - -
,
( , , , ), -
, ".

" " ,
: " - , ,
, :
: , ,
, ; , , -
,
, , , . . ,
, ". " "
, , "" ",
, " "", ", , ".

,
. , . Rowe 1974b
, ,
"Pnin", "Lolita", "Transparent Things" "Pale Fire".


, , .
.

Rowe 1979 (, . 85-123) " " 17


. , ,
, , ,
. , , , ,
, , , . ,
.
( "", . 1990: 94),
, -

( ), Bend Sinister,
.

""

==669

, .
" " (Rowe 1979: 88). "Transparent
Things", , " " (
, . 93).

, ,
. , "", ,
, ,
, , ,
. " ? . ".

"". ,
, .
, , , ,
. ,
, , -
. .
, . ,
, , . ,
- , , ,
, , , ,
-, . ""
,
.

;
, ,
"".

00.htm - glava37

3. ""
3.1. ""

-, 1928 ,
. . . ,
"", .

. . ,
. , , ,

==670

VI. Miscellanea

,
. .

, 14,
,
. . , , -
. . . . .
.

,
,
.
15. , " ,
, " ( . 17 1945 , Boyd 1992: 85), "
, / " ("
"). . . .

. . ,
.

. . .
, , . . 26
1934 ., . . , ,
, , , .
. . ,
, , II
III.

. . : " , ,
, , ,

14
" , / , , / , / / ,
/ " (" "). , , ,
(Boyd 1990: 203).

15
, .,
. , . "
. -,
, , , " ().

""

==671

, , - "; "
, , ".

. . , ,
, , ,
16.

1933-1934
,
"". (Boyd 1990: 397 .)
, ,
. , ""
, * .

,
, "... "", , , , ,
, .
,
, , ,
, . ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
. , , , ,
, ... " ().

, 1934
, ""
16
: " "" , -
, " (Field 1977: 30). , , . .
, . , . , . .

17
"".
, , .

==672

VI. Miscellanea

"", ",
"18.

1934 "" " "


" " (),
1935 . "". 1936
. , "
",
1936 "".

,
, 1938 .
1939 "" (. , 3.3.4)
.

1937 " "


. , , , ,
( ) . ,
,
. . ,
. ,
, , .
XX , , "" .

" " 1938 .


1952 "" ( "", -).

3.2. ""

. . : " ,
( ) ,
,
, , ,
-
18
, , 1936 ., ,
1938 1939 ., . . "" (Boyd 1990: 405). ""
1934 . "".

""

==673

, , , "",
in statu nascendi ,
" ( 1981: 8).

, . , , ,
, ,
. , ,
"", , , , ,
.

"" . .
, - ,
: 1) "" ; 2) "" ; 3) ""
; 4) "" ; 5) ""
. "",
.

1) "" , , ,
, , -, . ,
.
. "" "
", " , ,
" (Field 1967: 214).

. . . . "" " "


"", " " , " ,
, , (sandwiched),
" (Salehar 1974: 70).

"" . , "-
", " " (Davydov 1982: 188),
" , " " . .
" ( , . 211). ,
, . .

2) "" . , "
, ". " .
, ,
, , ,
-

22 3
==674

VI. Miscellanea

, ... "" "


(Boyd 1990: 447).

3) "" ""
. . . , ,
.
"", , .

", , , ,
"", " " ,
, , " ( 1936: 185).

" ,
". "
, , , ,
, : , , , ...
. ,
, " ( 1991: 460461).

"" .
, "" , ,
. 1981. "" .
. , ,
, , ,
19.

. , "" ,
: " ", "" " ". "
, , "",
, , " (Davydov 1982: 184).

19
. ,
, : " , , -
, " " -" (). , ,
, , .
.

""

==675

, ""
" ", ,
. " ....
, , , . .
, , ..." (Davydov 1982: 199).

4) "" , ,
, ,
, , . .
"" . ,
, , " "
, " " (Boyd 1990:
480).

, , Karlinsky 1963, Johnson 1985, 1989,


Boyd 1990, 1990 .,
"". ""
(Karlinsky 1963), -
(Johnson 1985: 100 .),
, " ", ,
" ". " " -
" ",
( 1989: 459-460). .
. : " "", []
,
,
" (Boyd 1990: 93).

. . ""
( , -, . 1930 )
( ) ( " "
. )20.
20
"", . ( . .
), , ", , ,
, ", (
" "). , : "
, ^ " ().

22*

==676

VI. Miscellanea

5) "" .

,
. .
, ,
(Rowe 1981: 9). , ,
, , ,
,
. "" , -,
, , . .
( , . 38).

"" " ".


, "",
Salehar 1974: " ...
" (Salehar 1974: 71). ,
" ". .
: , ,
(pattern) "" (Boyd 1990: 450).

, "" . ..
, , "" . "
. , ,
, , ,
, . ,
" ( 1990: 9).

( , )
, .
, .
,
, , , ,
, , , . .
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
" " ", - ,
, , -

""

==677

- " ()2'.
. "-", , "
, " ( ).
.

3.3. ""

, "", ,
-. , . ,
, , ,
.

""
. ,
, , ,
( , , ), ,
, , 22.

. "",
, . , "":
,
, 23.

, , "", .
,
,
. .
"" , "
", . . -
21
. : "
, ( ,
, )" (Nabokov 1966: 290).

22
" ", , , . (.
1991). ( "") , . ; . .

23
, " " (, Nabokov 1973: 78),
" " ().

==678

VI. Miscellanea

, (. 1985: 22, ""


). "",
. ""
,
. ", , " ,
. , ,
, . " "
,
. ,
, . ""
. , , ,
, . ""
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
. , .
, , .

, .
" ", ,
. ""
, , . ,
. . ""
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . "" , -,
,
.
, , ,
" , "
. " " , ,
, ,

""

==679
. " , ",
, , . , ,
, , ,
. " . . ", "",
: " ,
, , ".

. ""
(1926): ", : / , , / . ...
. / , / / , /
/ ". "": "
, / ; / , / .
... / , / / . /
, , , / : / , , /
". " ",
"": " / / /
. ... / , / ,
, / . ... / - , / , , /
/ ". "",
( ),
: " , / , /
/ ". ,
, " , / , / /
". ", !" (16 1939 .), ,
" ":
" / . , / , /
; / , , / , /
/ , , . / , , , /
, / , / , , / /
, , / , / !"
"": ", / : /
, / . ,
/ , : , /

==680

VI. Miscellanea

/ ( ) / ,
/ , / , /
" (. "" "", . ).

"",
.

,
. ,
, .
. , .

3.3.1. ,

.
. ,
, .
- , ,
. , .
, .
, .
, , ,
, .

, ,
, . ,
, .
. ,
"". ,
, " , ". ,
- , ,
: " , "
, .

. , , ,
; .

""

==681

, " ",
.

, , "".
: " ? -, /
, / /
". ,
. ();
, - ' '24;
, " ".
, ,
: " - , ,
, , ,
, , ,
; ".

, , , , .
.

,
, . "
? , ,
. ... ,
, , - ,
". "
. , ,
, ,
". "
, ( . ..)
, , , ,
. , , ,
, ,
, -
24
. , .
"" . " , " ,
, " " (Salehar 1974: 77; . Johnson 1985: 96 .).

==682

VI. Miscellanea

... ,
, ".

, . ,
, , ,
, , ( "",
), , , , ,
, , , , , -,
( ),
( ),
.
. -, -
, .
,
: , , , .

.
. , ,
. , , .
, : ",
. , , , ,
, ".

,
, , . " , ,
, ... ,
, , ,
, ". "
". " ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
". " , -
, , , - -
... ". , (
, ,

""

==683

, , ) ,
.
3.3.2. ,

, , .
, , ,
, . .

,
. , ,
""25. , .

" , , , ; ,
". ", ,
, -". " ,
, , , ,
, ". " ,
". " ,
, , , , ". "
, : ,
, , , ". "
, , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
... , - ...
, ; ;
,
; ,
". " ; . ,
-, , , ,
". " ,

25
, ,
, " ".

==684

VI. Miscellanea

", , -, . ", ? , ,
, ? ... , ,
? - - ...
...? - ...
, ? ? .
, , ,
, , , , ,
".

, .
.

, ,
. , .
. .
. , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, .
, , , . , .
, , .

.
' '.
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.

. . , .
, , ,
, . ; ;
, ; ,

""

==685

, , , ,
, - .
" ", . . .
, -;
" ", , (
) . , ,
, , .
. "- , ,
, (
, ), ,
, ,
( , ),
, , , ". : "
" ( , ). ,
, , , (

), , , , , , ,
. , ,
. , ,
, - :
, , .
.
, , ,
, ,
.

. . ,
" ( )
( )". , , ,
, , , , , .
, , , , ,
.
, , .
, "
", , , .

==686

VI. Miscellanea

,
. :
, .

3.3.3. ,

, .

.
" " ,
" ", " ", " ",
: ", !" (
Hear, heart ', !').

, -, ,
. " , , , ,
", " " " ,
", " ".
" " " ".
" ,
".

, : " , ",
, . " , ,
, . ,
, , ".

. ,
, , .
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
26
, . , ,
, (,
" "

""
==687

, ,
. "
, , / ! / , , / . /
/ , / - , / - ..."

.
: " - ,
, , "27.

.
, , ,
: " , , ";
", , "; " ,
"; "- "; " ,
"; " , ";
" , - ";
" , " "
".

,
. ,
, ,
,
. "
, , , :
-, - ,
". "
, . , -

"0 " ). . ", , ", "


"" - " ( 1972: 369). ,
:
, .

27
. " " (1924) " " (1928): " / ";
", / / , . / ".

==688

VI. Miscellanea

". ", , , ,
, , -
, - ;
, ; -
... ".

.
- ,
, ,
.
.
, , , . "
? . ,
.
, , ? -, , , ,
, , , -, ,
-, , , , ,
"28. ,
, . : " ,
, , ,
".

, , .
. " . , ... ? , ,
, , . :
. ,
, , , : ".
" , , ,
- , , ...
, ". "... - , ,
, , -
28
. 16 1920 .: " , , , ?
, , , , !" (Boyd 1990: 177),

""

==689

, ".

3.3.4. ,

"" -. ,

. ""
.

, : " . . .
. . ".
, . . . ,
, .
, . , ,
, :
,
.
,
.

,
. .

, , ( ,
, , ): " !
. , .
, ... ,
, : ,
, ".
.

"" ( . ,
) , :
" , ,
" (Nabokov 1963: 11). ,
" ,
", . -:
Good-by, my book! Like mortal eyes / Imagined ones must close some day. / Onegin from his
knees will rise

==690

VI. Miscellanea

/ But his creator strolls away. / And yet the ear cannot right now / Part with the music and allow / The tale to fade;
the clouds of fate / Itself continue to vibrate; / And no obstruction for the sage / Exists where I have put the end. /
The shadows of my world extend / Beyond the skyline of the page, / Blue as tomorrow's morning haze / Nor does
this terminate the phrase.

, ,
.
.

Johnson 1974; .
, , ,
. ,
, 29. ,

, , .
, " " (Nabokov
1975), , ,
, -
. ""
. ,
" ", .

" ", ,
. -, , .
,
, . ", / , /
, / / , / ".
, , . "",
"", , ,
" ". , ,
. -, .
, ,
29
" , ,
" ",
. ,
, " ().

""

==691

. .

,
.

. "
" . , , , .

. ,
: , "
", . .
,
- : , .
, .
. (. 2.2),
. ,
, .

,
.

.
", II", ,
1937 (Boyd 1990: 516). ,
1939 .
30, , -
.

-, ,
31. "", ,
.
30
, , , ,
Solus Rex, " " (1940, N 70), , Ultima Thule, " " (- , 1942,
N 1); . Johnson 1981.

31
- . , "
" (. Nabokov 1975: 16-17).
, , .

==692

VI. Miscellanea
-, .
,
. 32.

, ..
1- . : A (accent), G, ,
( "" "" ), (portrait), x
(extract).

"" -

"" - (- )

"" -

"d" -

"f" -

"g" ,

"G"

,

(, )

"" "L" "" ""

,
,
( , ,
, , , ,
. )

"102"

"" < >


,
, ,
, ,
,

46i, 91L

92, 344d, 350x

*456-457L

310sx, 375rsx, 378rx, 380rx 310sx, 375rsx, 378rx


446s

475, 543, 607vx (.) 104g (.) 104g


104g 366i 250 250

145

344d

213, 362, 375rsx, 549

344d

35Gx, 91x

624ix

35, 36Gi

('') 308sx

( ) lllg, 327-328gs

371L

(.) 56, 137, 191


( ) 459L

( ) 305s, 643x

305s

() 267

91L, 172

('') 267s

110G

544gm

367

367, 370

(.) 137

372, 381

( ) 459L

342

() 106g, 305s

() 106g, 305s

() 106g, 111-112g, 305s

( ) 69vx, 106g

( ) 106g, 109g, 110G

() 305s

() lllg

383

==53

32v, 202x, 204v

201
355, 365

( ) 367L, 373L

('') 475L

640, 641

44, 46i, 315-316s

() 548

36Gx

( ) 542, 547

lllg

171

17 lx, 545v

39

17 lx

42

172, 487d

541 Km

355, 460L

487d

('') 307i

147

378v

378v

173

31, 212

172

146
367

31gx, 67, 149-150, 343, 356, 367, 374isv, 381rx, 382rx, 439x, 546v
342

==713

202, 376ivx, 378ivx, 383rx

168-169ix

() 139-140

108g, 206x, 543K

340s

==202

545v

35Gx, ==469

267

173

(-. ) 550, 551

93

35, 36Gx

79-80msv, 224x, 306s, 355x

('') 29fv

357

305s
80dis

43

542

() 548

548

59G, 93m, 228G

() 265f, 306s

141m

170, 317

('') 267s, 468x

('') 31, 212

(' ') 94vx

(.) 4==411

434m, 488Gmv, 489x, 511-527P, 528gx, 529Km, 530, 531,532-

533

(.) 26-27fmv, 119fv ('') (-.) 27fm, 63v, 64-65mv

('') ( -.) 27fm, 63v ('') 27fm, 38Gx, 63v


('') (//-.)

27fm, 63v ('-') (-., -.) 27fm, 63v, 64v

- () 491 + . (, ) 80-81fi + . (; )
69-70i, 227i

+ . () 55ix

117L

372

372

117L, 127L
117L, 127L

117L, 127L

367

372

367

439

205ix

372

640, 641

640, 641

640, 641

375

640, 641, 643

640, 643

640, 641

('') 355x, 405s, 408iLv, 409x, 410, 417, 419, 420, 421gms, 422Gv, 423-424v,
425Gv, 426Ai, 427L, 428iL, 430cd, 549K 430 137 602L

35Gx, 54dr, 66iLv, 93m 267

224x, 310sx, 377iv 50, 51 , 382 475, 489v


('') 115-116vx, 123v, 355x, 35, 412, 413,414,429, 471 139sx, 335L,
402L (. .) 56, 57i, 93v, 137x, 139sx, 191, 207ix, 618iK 117L,
121gv 95v, 541 Km, 542K 42mx, 43m

42x, 43m ( ), 172 83vx

131v, 184x, 205ix, 372ms 69vx, 481x, 532m 35Gx, 54dr 306s

==714


170 596

161imx, 165dmx, 173x (', ') 165

('') 165 ( ) 594 213


310sx 59G 59G ('') 403d 219G, 225, 233
('') 383 ( )

360sx 108g

( -. <>) 342 615KLs 225


37G, 65g, 91g, 309sx, 325Gs, 327gx, 329v, 332GK 357 ('
') 37G, 62gms, 220G, [221], 309sx, 325Gs, 327gsx, 329v, 330K, 332K, 339i, 357x,
358x, 361r, 365m, 377m, 378iv, 449x, 471x,48Ix ('') 317As, 339i, 489x, 504A
('') 325s, 329v, 334iLv, 335iL, 389s, 392gx, 393Kv, 397x, 398x, 400g, 401 KL,
402L ('') 410s, 420s ( , ) 342, 375rsx, 382rx
342

(.) 55, 93v, 137x 643

() 225, 548 ( ) 316s, 331 , 383-384 379, 383


200 147

(' ') 319-320s 109g ( ) 316s, 331fK, 383-


384rx

91L

344ds

355, 357x,

549

59G

59G

(; -. -.) 342

310sx
*==156

*==156

69vx

640, 641

640, 641

() 265f

189Agm

- 151

145, 173x

145

35Gx

446s

201, 213

( . vs.

) 544 () 265f 360sx


202 151 355 39g, 437g, 438g 403d
35Gx, 66iLv 340s (. .) 57i, 93v, 191
117L, 121gv, 131v, 329i 360sx, 375iv 368r, 379iv, 382rx,
383rx 356, 368r, 370r, 381rx 39g
20 Ix 343 167

350, 352-353Lr, 354Lmr, 355x (.) 186Am, 6151L. , 631, , 636


366i 549

==715
('') 344d (' ') 344d
('') 340s, 343, 344d, 355, 375rsx, 382rx ('
')

344d

188-189Agm - 151 607vx 164,


174 31,212 201, 551 376rsx
103g 103g 103g 360sx, 37 lira, 372iLx, 380rx, 383
(' ')

362r, 376sx, 382rx

(' ') 32 v 201, 213 ('


')

367, 376sx, 382rx (' ')

32v 356, 368, 371, 372, 380rx, 383rx, 546-547V 186Am, 615JL, ,
631, , 636 160iLx 640, 641 117L, 127L, 130L 148, 211
344d, 487d () 548 235m, *457, 530g, ()

590 137

( ) 550 344ds 137, 141 (.) 602L (.) 2261


2041, 2261, 2381 602L, 6031, 624ix

(.) 137

91L

188Ag

(' ') 343

( ) 223, 228-229ivx, 355

542 224 ( ) 224, 233, 373L

( ) 549 149 107g

(-. ) 224, 2281 ( -.) 224, 602L

( ) 590 ('') 310sx, 330K, 382

( ) 119fv 235, - () 491 153, 489,


490L,644,646 ( ) 224 <250>, 251s 224

(-. ) 305s 430d


( ) 378-379v 75 381 ('')
375rsx, 376, 383rx

(-. ) 550 ( ) 316s, 493s ()


224 () lllg 324g 344d 344d
344d 306-307s, 324g, 332v () lllg
(" ') 14cfs, 23 430d

(' ') <265> 219G, 220G1

==716

( ) 201

() 224, 229

17hx, 384rx, 467x, 489x, 490dLv, 491im, 492Lm, 493ms, 494-501P, 512m,
('', .) 316s (-. ) 305s ( ) 552
17hx, 467x 108g 108g 59G 59G

() 267 474 <89> 104g 104g


104g ( ) 625 224, 355 (
) 493s (', ', .)

316s

() 112g (-. ) 550 () 112g, 113


17hx, 467x 17hx, 467x llOg

<89>, (-. ) 551 44, 45rx, 46i, 92m, 343a 83vx, 508-
509iLx, 510mvx, 51 lg, 639

147 342 <89> 59G


622v

( ) 223 81iv

( ) 112g ( ) 112g 104g


104g 104g llOg
llOg

225

225

() 549

('') 220G

( , ) 224, 379vx

640, 641

() 493s

212

105g, 109gx

344d

200, 380

185Agmx,194-195Amx, ==476

14s

(-. ) 552

267s, 268ir, 355x, 403L. 468, 471

267

267

267

508, 510mvx, 51 lg, 639x

44, 45rx

351

146

184

267s
267, 268ir

( ) 399s

35Gx

360sx, 369r, 370r, 371rx, 372x, 460L

() lllg

545v

38Gx

26gm, (. .) 57i, 93m, 107-108g, 200-201, 211, 356, 416, 481,


505,551 211 146 (' ') 160-

161imx, 356x

(' -.') 42 <> -. 1611 42

355x, 365Lm, 146 146 308sx

==717

35Gx, ( ) 380

43

38Gx, 149-151gx, 340s, 342x, 343, 35 lx, 367x, 378rx, 48 lx, 549K, 647

368r, 371r, 455r, 456 111-112g ( ) 331fK4 ( ) 373 L,


549K 355

() 139 342x () 548 () 305s,


541 Km, 544Km () 111-112g () 305s 355
212 143-144 356

367x, 368r, 372s, 542K 131v, 182x. 372m 131v 371iLr, -


==455
('') 376iv, 378iv, 383 164

550

('') 29fv, (.) 66v

340s

200

200, 340s

202

201

() 200, 340s, 376rsx

109g, 542K

510m

48, 50, 51i, 533x, ==617

44, 45, 92r

624ix, 640x, 64 lx

350

267

640x, 64 lx

( vs. ) 544Km, 550

-==476

95v

() 548

172

202

(.) 56, 137, 505-


506 106-107g, 149x, 408i, *476, 482i, (-. ) 551 (
) 69vx 306s, 541 Am 202 235, (
) 590, 596

(-. ) 551 (-. ) 552 () 548


43

( = ', ') 115-116VX. 123-124v, 126v, 322s, 399s


143, 144

45r, 83vx, 508-509x, 5l0vx, 51 lg 44, 45rx, 46i 69vx, 107g, 532m
() 53 lx 59G, 35 lx 59G 382 202
(-. )

551

355, 410, 429 60 539v 60


59G, 324g 59G, 306s, 309sx, 321s, 324g, 326gG, 327gG, 328gs, 332v, 379iv
430d 226d ( ) 61G, 643Gx 59G
59G, 212 200, 551 344ds

204i, 226i, 238i, 590x, 594i, 596x 344d Tims, 191-193Am, 229i

==718

(.) 56, 137, 191

84iv

50, 51s, 145x

146

145x

50, 51s, 146x

351
103g

103g

103g

200

( ) 357, 381

('') 380

(' ') 213, 224

('') 115-116vx, 121-

122gv, 201x 226d

( ) 590, 596 376 344ds 131v, 371L


381

(-. ) 551 551 661 Lv 70, 94


( ) 539v ( vs. ) 544 (-.
-., ) 342 105g, 224x ( ) 69vx 105g
105g 624 224x ( ) 61G, 643Gx
( 40 ) 69vx ( -. '') 355, 380

(-. ) 552 () lllg 306s

225, 538mv, 540mv ( < >)

366L, 368L, 459L, ( -.)

546 () 139

623

394

('') (. .) 57i, 115vx, 122-123gL, 149x, 150g, 322s, 325gG, 328iv, 330K,
334iLv, 335iL, 3371KL, 362r, 384rx, 395s, 392gx, 393x, 394x, 395Kx, 396x, 397K, 398g,
399A, 400gK, 401K, 402 L, 403 , 41 Ox, 429x,476, 481x, 515Lx

( , '') 322s, 399s

(.) 481x

457L
( ) 331

('') 381

364

350, 355, 356

66iLv

117f, 119f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 476 137-138, 184 () 112g, 149x
53, 54dr

186Am, 190Am, 226i, 260-261. 316i, ==638

(' ') 449

355, 365Lm,

38-39Ggx, 311s, 324-325gx, 374-

375iv, 380rx, 382rx, 435s, 437gs, 438r, 439rx, 443x, 444rx, 445rx, 446m, 447g, 449iLx, 480x
224x 184

148, (-. ) 550 212, , 308sx, 320-321s, 322s,


323msv, 340s, 35 Ix, 356x, 374s, 377ivx

460L, 464, (' ') 355 () 112g 146x

(.) 31 () lllg 306-307, 309sx, 317s, 321s, 324g,


326gG, 328gs, 329v, 332-333Kvx, 340s, 343c, 344d, 380rx

==719

346d, 355x, 489dLx

346d

38-39Ggx, <265>, 311s, 317-318s, 324gx, 346dg, 390sx, 435s, 437gs, 439rs, 44 Ig,
442gsx, 443x, 446Km, 447gK, 448K, 449iLx, 450iL, 478x, 480x,481x
202

132v

( ) 643

44, 46i

168, 624

224

172

168

383

172

306s

379

+ (, ) 69-70i, 227i

+ (), 41-42 + () 82f 474 ( , )


543 , 544

( ) 226d 308sx 380 ( ) 223,


355x ( <>) 342 103g, 105g, 488g
103g, 105g, 488g 200

202, ( ) 550 481x 370Lr

103g, 105g, 488g

367, 368 224 (' ')

219G, 222

( ) 367L 103g, 488g 103g, 488g

103v, 488g

42

342
() 542, (- ) 552

() 224

42, 43-44

( - ) 625

350

112g

112g

344d

( ) 367L

471

378

201

() 267

( , ) 543

200

344ds

(' ') 223

168iLx

108g

( ) 542, 543

() 383

() 383

306s, 361sx

('') 224, 236r, 325Gs, 329v

('') 91L

104g
104g

104g

() 475, 607vx

408i, 482i

( ) 91L

108g

108g

366L

108g

355x

212

201, 208ix, 213x, 222, 224, 229i, 343a, 356, 551

315s

==720

226d

( ) 367L, 373L

200

306s

314s, 334iLv, 376rsx

( ) 367L, 373L
( <.>)

342 344ds

( ) 367L , 107-108g 103g, 107-108g 103g

( ) 367L () lllg () lllg


367, 368 (-. )

224

() 265f 105g, 224x 105g 105g

136-137ix, l59x 306s ('') 306s, 361sx


() 223 ( , ) 543 104g 104g
61G 61G

( , ) 543 224x 437g, 447g

('') , 39gx 59G 59G 194-195


136-137ix, 144, l59x 306s 200, 551 37Gx, 223x
*==162

( ) 201

() 616, 625 ( ) 542, 548

() 549

55ix, 205ix, , 631, , ==636

146

147

45mx, 91L

172

( . ) 643

171, 172

267s, 468x

591

368r, 378iv, 379iv, 382rx


370r

371rx, 372x

170

, 430d

38-39Gx, 55v, 149x, 150gv, 220G, 317Asx, 355x, 382rx, 405s, 406m, 408iLv, 409,
410, 411, 412vx, 414x, 415, 416, *417v, 418vx, 419x, 420x, 421gms, 422Gv, 423-424v,
425Gv, 426Ai, 427L, 428iL, 430cd, 449x, 476, 48 Ix, 488x, 505A, 607vx

409

409

( ) 625

267, 468x

267, 355x, 357,

('') 309sx, 325s

402L

107g

(' ') 317s

46i, 91L

35, 36dGi, 149x, 220G, 355x, 469sx, ==491

( ) 308sx ( ) 33 If (.) 641-642 250-


251rs 420s 170 410, 430 430d 200
213, (-. )

552 202

==721
640, 641

- () 641

- () *==476

108g

108g

() lllg

() lllg

() 224

108g

89, 108g

305s

305s

104g

104g

104g

219G

( ) 481

493s

213

77

372iLx, 371irx

439

543, 607vx

344d

512sx

() 119fv
38Gx

(.) 115-116L, 126L, 130L, 335iL, 402L

(.) 151 136i, 159 383, 468


212 355, 430d (-. ) 224 355
200, 212 344d 340s, 342, 343, 344d
91L 420s *454 *454
360s 493s 430d ('') 493s

643 (.) 151 172, 317sx

596

(.) 56, 137

119vx, 342x, 375, 381, 384, 403

(.) 115L, 126L, 185Agx, 188Agm, 335iL

() 188

(.) 188, 307i, 402L, 449-450, 619-620

(.) 137-138

<, ,

(.) 56

(.) 56

(.) 441iK

643

() 335s

185Agx, 194-195Amx, 619-620A

( ) 459L

202

267, 268ir

50, 51

43
() 344d

224, 235, 236

36Gx, ==54

( ) 308sx

35Gx

219-220G, [221], 225, 235, 236

145

145-146

315s

200, 542

44, 46i

('') llGvx, 126v

80msv, 306s, 541 Km

(-. ) 305s

205ix

342x, 35 lx, 378rx, 549K

224, ( / ) 552

148, 211

('') 362

==722


==59

G, ( ) 60G, 64359G, ( ) 60G, 643-

344d

38Gi, 200x

379

172

() 117f, 119f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 204i, 226i, 2381 () 185Amx, 194-
195Amx, 476 355

170, 172-173 172-173 172-173 342

( ) 342 146 225 ( )


<248>rs, 248-249, 355, 378v, ( vs. ) 544, 552

201, 549 647 623 361 42


(.) 56, 137-139, *138, 191, 206-207ix, 618iK 201,
213, 377iv, 377iv 545v (.) 104g,
607vx (.) 104g 104g 379iv, 381rx, 382
29fv, *222

644Gx

644Gx 162 344-345ds 376rsx 108g

340s 44, 45mrx, 46i 109g 248, <250>


( ) 355

( . ) 643

44mx, 45mx, 46-47ir

342

607vx

205ix

212, 35 lx, 375rsx, 376iv, 383rx (',

') 53 45
146 44, 46i 36Gx () 548 (-.
) 551 ( ) 112g ('') 376iv, 378iv, 379rx
('') 315s (.) 151 194-195Amx - *476 43

() 185Amx, 194-195Amx 87g 344d 68-69vx

224, (-. ) 552 108g

172, 317sx

('') 383rx

148, 211, 375

378

171

42, 171, 172, ==639

315s

355

487d

( ) 590, 596

131v, 530g

109g

35Gx, 66iLv

35Gx

( ) 590

59 lx

487d

( ) 108g, 344d, 487d

==723
( ) 344d

369, 371, 372, 381, 383

334iv, 439x, 371r, 374sv, 380rx

( ) 308sx

308sx

378iv

84iv, 355x

336As

() 223

59G

(-. ) 224

( ) 543

() 355x

( ) 224, 228

457L

145

351

38-39Ggx, 356x, 367, 380rx

367, 368

368, 371r, 372, 380rx, 545v

351

351

149

( ) 108g
(' ') 383

306s, 314s. 334iLv. 376rsx, 383rx ( )

616 186

571, 93, 613 6241 172 172


172 310sx 145 145 162

219G, 225 172 643 235 344d


2041, 2261, 2381, 343 (.) 151

44, ==461

378v

108g

() 11 lg

() lllg

343, 381

() 108g

() lllg

*==346

87g

168

() 105g, 109x, lllg, 327gs

235

306s, lllg

31 lx, 324gx, 374-375iv, 380rx, 435s, 438r, 439rx, 443x, 444x, 445x, 446Km, 447g,
448K, 4491L, 480x

342

61G, 541 Km

('') 267s
225, 547

() 590, 596

344d

172

122diL, , 403d

344d

('') 322s, 390s

105-108g, lllg

(.) 105g

(.) 105g

105g

(, ) 276

(.) 56, 137, 191

131v

146

200

145

(-. ) 552

109g

145-146

235

225, 547

191-192, 476, 606im

146

172

355x
==724

(' ') 449

66v

153

(', ')

116vx, 126v,322s, 399s 403d <89> *162 212

55ix

+ . ( ) 475

( ) 358

() 117L, 127L, 130L

( ) 358 59 G 59G ( vs.


)

544 27Lm 375rsx () 137-138 640, 641


224, 375rsx, 380 308sx 104g 104g

344dm, 356, 362, 368, 370 31gx, 308sx, 310sx, 312-313s, 340s, 343a,
344d, 356x, 367x, 376iv, 380rx, 382rx, 439x, 444x 131v

(.) 191 546v 202, 222, 224, (

-.) 550 202 *222, 223i 409, 430 ('') 392g


201 108g 201 319-320s
344ds 108g

108g
(-. ) 224

541 Km

229i

() 607vx

344d

340s

224

('') 200

(' ') 310sx

402L

(, ) 276

(.) <89>, 103g

(.) 103g, 173

103g

202

() 224, 343a

344ds

* 156-==157

201

105g

105g

105g

186, 505-506, 507

(5000 ) 69vx

103g

103g
103g

(-. / -.) 607mv

213

(-. ) 219G, 220G1, 223, 228, 233, 235, 236

(-. ) 551

('') 37G, 115-117vx, 121-122gv, 126v, 128-131Lv, 132v, 150gx, 317Asx,


322s, 325s, 328-329iv, 331x, 334i, 335iL, 384rx, 389s, 392gx, 393x, 395x, 396x, 400gK, 401 ,
402iL, 403L,410x, 489x, 505A

(.) 18h, 512sx

(.) 27f

42

89g

( ) 58G

==725

( ) 61G, 643Gx 29fv, 30, 89g, 123im, 151x, 337iL, 402L

( ) 58G ( ) 61G, 643Gx 68-71, 88f, 94x, 208ix,


490x, 6131 625 625 616, 625
625 53 171, 172 205ix 430d
430d 430d 624 117L 77, 122iL
185gx 315-316s 624ix, 640x, 641 235, ()
590, 596 204, 226i, 238i, 590x, 5941, 596 117L, 131v
306s 131v 430d 361 71,
205ix, 2161 186

38-39Ggx, 356x 368r, 369r, 371ir, 372, 382, 545v

==471
117L, 118g, 131v 117L, 335i, 402iL 77, 122iL
122iL 184 <249> 184
371Lr, 545v 186 <249> 344d

471

187-188Ag

(.) 56, 137, 207ix

35Gx, 54, 55m

*49, 50, 194

117-llSgL

117L

42, 43

44, 45rx, 46i, 91L, 343, 509L

640x, 641

42, 43 ( ), 172

624ix

624ix

*169

146

145

355

35Gx

235, () 594

368r, 380

( ) 355

131v

3291, 335i, 402iL


('') 213, 306s, 322s, 323,383 357, 361

623

201, 379, 383

380

( ) 590x, 596

104g

( ) 551

91L

344d

344d, 379

200, 208, 208, 219, 340s, 342, 344d, 351, 356x, 374s, 376rsx, 377iv,
380rx, 470, ==473

340s

213

647

378iv, 381rx

(-. ) 551

('') 375rsx

344d

59 G

==726


383

59G, 211

( ) 343

308sx

108g

108g

308sx

( ) 223

188

31

() 305s, 544g

372

324g

355, 357,

357, 358

() 549

( ) 61G, 644Gx

344d

(.) 105g

(.) 105g

105g

<89>

(' ')

212
( ) 61G, 644Gx 542, ( vs. ) 544 ()
224 430d 132v, 200x, 202, 356 223
212 71sx

335i, 4021L 379 224

200x, 374s, 379rx, 380 211 *454, 463


('') 306s 475 212 90fv (
< > vs.

) 544 186 *169 201, 208, 273rv

344d 306s, 324g, 328gs, 332Kvx, 343, 379rx ()


355, 382, 409, 430d

( ) 367L, 372L ( ) 224, 409 (., )


493s 90fv

( ) 224 ( ) 224
306s, ( ) 361sx 141 55ix, 531x 267 153, 647
153, 647

( ) 459L ( ) 222, 224 382rx, 546v


455 344d 224, 233G 202
344d 109g 109g 542 44, 46i
212

(.) 105g (.) 105g 105g 344d


344d 212 212 202 310sx

('') 160ix, 171mx, 317sx ('') 160ix ( ) 355, 382rx,


409 (. ) 590 378iv 202 103g,
488g 103g, 488g

==727

103g, 488g 355 201


( -.) 550 ( ) 224 103g
103g 75 103g 546v 306s,
361sx 146 205ix <89>

('') 201, 383 225 355, 357,


358 531

( ) 607vx 202

(' ') 212 () lllg 202

(-. ) 552 369r, 382rx, 460L, 463, 545v 319,


516v ( ...) 226d 39, 355 77di

77di, 1221L 201, 202, 208 224 361


344ds

( ) 223 ('') 200 194

516v, ( -. ) 587v 202 91L


<89>

541 Km, 543 , 607vx (-. ) 551 ( ,


) 481 (-. ) 552

(-.) 224

()202'., 552

() 226d

(/) 104g, () 112g

(/) 104g () 112g <89>


202 77, 1221L 475L 571, 93, 200, 613
342

( ) 551 344ds 60G 306s


"156 60G <89> <89> 202 343
(-. ) 223 188 59G
59G 356 356, *362, 368, 370, 371, 372iLx 172

('') 378iv, 383rx 74-75imv, 76iv, 77-78x, 122iL

('') 530g 306s, 361sx, 366L (.) 56, 137, 207ix, 416
132v 3071, 449, 622-623iL 267s, 468x 267 226g
308sx, 344d 117-119gL, 131v, 329i, 344d, 380rx
==728

344d 117L, 131v, 358 365


357

108g

() 616, 625

('') 173

() 616-617, 625 363 Lx

360sx, 370r, 381 164, 169 109g

357, 358, 549 487d 201, 322s 42

(-. ) 551 ( ) 475 103g


103g 103g (: '') 40-41, 42, 384

(.) 42 42, 43-44 *156 324g

306-307s, 324g, 332v 344ds 475 18h


( ) 475 475 <89> *222, 223i 18h
18h 18h 108g 108g <89>
( ) 475 344ds 29fv, ==30

<89>

18h

223

( ) 151

201
173

107

36Gx, ==469

159, 160, 174-175

==160

==160

164

368

372s

(-. ; ) 552

172mx, 489x

('') 374s, 376iv, 378ivx, 383rx

149, 481 () 306s, 314s, 334iLv, 375rsx, 376rsx, 378v, 383rx


481 170, 317sx 380 35Gx 109g 206ix

213, 308sx, 322s, 377rx, 383 340s ( -.)


550 308sx 109-llOg ('') 469 77, 1221L, 206ix, 3281
44, 46i, 122iL, 168iLx, 475L, ==476

35Gx, 66iLv + . 80-81fi

( ) 362, 367L, 373L 224 544g


() 106g () 11 lg () 106g () 11 lg -
171 596

==729

310sx, 319As, 330K, 331, 335Kr, 379rx, 382rx - (.) 56


55v
( ) 61G, 644Gx - 137

( ) 61G, 644Gx 56 151-152


( ) 367L 315s 91L 539mv
202 ('') 212 ('') 250-251rs
(-.) 224 267, 268 [221] [221]
212 103g 103g 103g 545v
<273>

306s, 317sx, 324g, 379iv, 380rx 344ds 379rx


105g, 106g, 109x, lllg 105g, 106g, 109x, lllg, 327gs ( , .)
355 93G 351 () 305s, 544g
306-307s, 324g, 380rx 115-117vx, 126v ('') 355, 429
379rx 141 37G <89> 344ds
[221] [221], 351 351 488g

488g

488g

<250>s

200

('') 392g, 515Lx

() 223

37G, 544

151, 200

(.) 56, 139

39g,437g

235,

65g, 551

201

184

202

('') 342, 378iv


77, 1221L

55v

226d

59G

() 204i, 226i, 238i

(' ') 378v, 384

( ) 351

(' ') 643

( ) 224, 468

17hx

87g

( ) 367L

543, 607vx

115vx, 121-122v, 128v, 317Asx, 322s, 325s, 328-329iv, 330-331K, 334335iL,


337iKL, 355x, 384rx, 389sx, 393x, 395x, 396x, 400gK, 401K, 402iL, 410x, 489x, 505A

310sx, 312s, 382rx, 379rv

350

596

13 Iv

43

91L

623i

77, 1221L

475L

( ) 223-224
==730

() 607vx

() 607mv

(, ) 224, 379vx, 493s

('', .) 316$. () 493s

( ) 493s

( .) 493s

344d

376iv

39g

108g

61G

340s

< , > -. (.) 56

355

<250>s, 545v

- (.) 56, ==571

351

(. ) 590

38-39Ggx, 149x, 150gv, 224x, 317Asx,322s, 355, 356, 380, 382, 413,414,
471
('') 374s, 376iv, 378iv, 379rx, 39g, 55v, 56x, 615Ls

( ) 224x

( ) 224x

( , .) 342

==324

( ) 226d

81iv

81iv

201, 383

() 266f, 306s

309sx

375rsx

( ) 201

(-. ) 202

36Gx

<250>

( .)

- 165

(-. ) 202

( ) 202

55v

55v

224x, 375rsx, 380

224x

82
*==476

42

235,

('') 327gs, 392g

72-73i, 204i, 226i, 2==381

105g

105g

105g

106g, 108g

(' ') 94vx

344d

('') 39g, 392g

( ) 550

(-. ) 223, 380

355, 365

- (.) 56x

( ) 367L, 373L

361

360sx

4==411

187

186-187

( ) 367L

344d

607vx

(' ') 310sx


310sx

*==476

==23

( ) 368L

81iv

194-195

( ) 373L

81iv

(' ')

==222

('') 322s, 399x 6241

(' ') 378v ('') 37Gx (. .)


56x, ==571

==731

335L, 402L

3==291

42, 161, 171, 172, ==639

201, 213

( 5 ) 69vx

77

() 224
201

91L

201

149, 201, 381

551

(. .) 57i, 115-116vx, 121-122v 355 201


201, 211ikx (, ) 355, 375rsx, 382rx, 429
(., ) 403 ( ) 342, 384
351 149, 201, 356, 381 1211L
546v 545v 201 475L, 624
59G, 249 29fv 59G (.) 105g
(.) 105g 105g 18h 201, 213
() 224 160iLx, 163x 382rx
() 224 37Gix, 223x, 592ix, 610i 52-53rv, 378v
223x 229i, 551 229i, 551 (' ') 14s
202

342 ( )

225 (', ')

308sx, 310sx 37Gimx, 219G, 223x, 592ix, 610i

( ) 266f 37Gix, 219G, 223x, 592ix, 610im

() 223x ('') 310sx, 311, 319As, 330K, 331, 335-


, 382rx, 472m, 516v

('') 310sx, 311 149 , 201 202


37Gix, 223x 219G, 223x, 592ix 2291, 643 310sx

( , ) 276 115vx, 117-118gv, 121-122v, 126-132v


, 201 200 201 229i, 643 149, 201, 213,
310sx, 356

375 378v 53rv 310sx, 375rsx


378v

37Gix, 223x, 592ix, 596, 610i 59G 59G 344d


('') 310sx, 375rsx 376iv 344d
() 11 lg () 11 lg () 225
104g 104g
==732

104g

643

(- -. )

225 ('') 115-116vx, 122v (', ')

322s

310sx, 375rsx, 380rx 37Gix, 219G, 223, 592ix, 610im

() 266f 223 224 () 223


310sx, , 331, 335, 382

223

37Gix, 223, 592ix, 6101 223 () 551


() 225 310sx ( ) 625
310sx, , 335, 382

59G 59G 343 223, 592ix 468

200, 377iv, 379rx 37Gix 375


('') 378 310sx 225 ('') 310sx
310sx, , 331 , 335-

,382 344d 37Gimx, 219G, 220Gi, [221], 2221, 223x, 230G,


235, 236, 592ix, 596, 610im 226g 14s () 266f

() 226g

( ) 106g, 109-110g
( ) 106g, 109-110g

(-. ) 551

() 305s

('') 312s, 375-376rsx, 384rx

( ) 358, 361 141 () 306s 596

( . ) 544 ('') 375rsx ('') 430d


430d

132v, 200x, 202 201, 211ikx *156 68-


69vx 107g 29fv, 30 402L 380rx
69vx, 306s, 324g (2 ) 69vx 430d 409, 430
( ) *222 () 224 383
91fv

( ) *476, 493s ( ) 226d 224, 379v


(' ') 14 (' ') 94vx. 224x, 379vx

( ) 644Gx 31 202 345ds


596 ( ) 108g ( ) 108g 225
378v <89>

==733

( ) 226d

<89>

201

345ds

149, 200, 203, 204, 214, 24lx,356x, 380rx ( ) 109g


( ) 109g, 110G <89> 36lx
383 546v 20lx (- -.)

552
201 ( ) 644Gx () 112g
() 112g 648 31 202, 213,
( vs. )

544, () 552 202 ( ) 225 ( )


362 109g 381, 546v (-. ) 224
( ) 224 (-. ) 551 340s
340s ('') 29fv 309sx, 623i 108g

() 267, 268ir () 549 312s, 375-376rsx, 384rx


() 267, 268ir 145

596

149, 220G, 355. 481. 594

48lx

70

70

367

334iv, 356x, 367, 368, 371 , 374-375iv, 376rsx, 380rx, 439 117L,
131v, 329i, 372, 367, 368r, 369L, 370, 371, 380rx, 381, 383rx, 456
267 59G, ( ) 106g, 228x, 305s, 541 Km () 305s

( ) 224, 228x 59G, ( ) 106g, 305s


() 305s 59G 49, 50, 193-194 306s ()
224 65g 65g llOg llOg 382

() 225 374iv, 378iv, 379rx, 383rx ()


lllg () lllg () 305s 375iv

59G, 374iv, 378iv, 379rx (.) <89>, 103g (.) 103g


103g 149, 201, 208ix, 213x, 224, 229i, 343a, 551
() 224 () 225, 229 345ds 430d
(.) 56, 57i, 93v, 137-

138, 191, 206-207ix 117L, 119gL 374-375iv 81iv, (-.


) 552 184 345ds 342

==734


109g

109-llOgG

374v

201, 213, 310sx, 351x

() 549

546-547v

378iv, 379rx, 383

540, 541

103g

103g

374-375iv

103g

200, 213, 551

('') 115-116vx, 122L, 322s, 325s, 329v, 334iLv, 335iL, 365s, 389s,
392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 400g,401KL

( 100 ) 69vx ('') 310sx, 312s, 382

109-llOgG 374iv, 382rx 108g, llOg ()


360sx llOg 103g 103g 103g 201
344d 59 G

115-116vx, 122L, 126v () 112g () 112g


306s ( 1. ) 551 ==355

70r, 71L, 370, 371L 186 <89>, 172-173, 355, 541, (-.
) 551 342 (-. -.) 201, 203, 324g,
326gG, 377iv, 551 (-. -.) 201, 550 475-4761L
170

() 59G, 60, 220G

(', ') 322s

() 59G, 60

306s, 314s, 334iLv, 355, 375rsx, 376rsx, 378v

340s ( ) 351x, 378iv, 342, 549


( ) 342 87g 306s () 224
306s, 308sx, 322s, 374isv, 377v, 383rx <248>rs, <250>, 355x, 378v, 489x, (-.
) 551 () 107g 202, 273rv, 340s, 356x, 374s, 376ivx, 378ivx, 383rx
549 380 146 344-345ds 624ix

372

372

372

204ix, 238i

372

372, 367

205ix

336Ams

344d

43

344d

201

146

38

109g, 110G

109g

( ) 224

() 106g, 111-112g, 305s


() 549

() 106g, lllg, 305s

() 224

==735

( ) ==224

430

() 173

( ) 367L, 373L

() 542, 549

(-. ) 551

172

*==346

( ) 305s

*==346

( ) 305s

( ) 367L, 372L

() 549

109-llOg

351

==416

200
165

165

165

165

165

161-162, 163mx, 164x, 165d, 172, *174-175 109-llOg 310sx


105g, 106g, 109x, llOg 340s 105g, 106g, 109x, llOg,
(-

. ) 551 () 11 lg 379rx 111-112g lllg


475 202

('', .) 384 68-69vx 59G 59G 106-


107g () lllg 235, (.) 596

205ix,,631, 632, ,636 205ix, 2161 590, 596

==469

378iv

356, 367, 381

160-161imx, 355x, 356

355x, 365

168iLx

212, 306s, 308sx, 320-321s, 322s, 374isv, 375rsx, 377rx, 383rx 146

( ) 459L (-. ) 551 310sx, 375rsx


640, 641 38Gx, 65g, 91g 312s, 384rx 170 375
( ) 367L () 549 27g, 107-108g, 416, 476, 505
108g 109g 337iL, 403L 185gx, 194Amx
108g 108g 455

(.) 137 83vx, 510m 109g 141


() 548 343 ( ) 112g ( )
112g 383rx ('') 306s, 308sx, 322s, 323, 362, 375rsx, 383rx
146 146 202, 213 42, 634 545v

() 224 (.) 71sx 14s (.) 115L,


126L, 130L
==736

109-llOg

109-llOg

38

170

36Gx

172, 317sx

( ) 342

355, 357,

==731

(' ') 94vx, 224x, 379vx

('') 493s (' ') 351, 357,361r, 377m


( ) 109g, HOG () lllg 403

37G, 65g, 91g 37G, 220G, [221], 357, 358, 361r, 365, 377, 449, 471,
481, 607vx

('') 410s 342. 381, 357

( ) 108g HOg 310sx 108g 14ds, 23,


172 369, 373 L ( -.) 351 HOg 62s, 119-
120v, 206ix, 267x, 268ir, 339i, 351x, 357, 361r, 377m ( - '') 115vx, 122L,
325s, 327s, 329v, 335iL, 389s, 392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 399G, 400g, 401
389iv, 381rx, 382rx 615KLs <89>
(-. ) 551 475 () 607vx (
) 202 202 68-69vx

367

173

355

11 lg, 343a

lllg

202

(, ) 276

('')

() 224x

46i, 91L

353Lr, 354r, 355

149, 201, 203, 208ix, 324x, 326gG, 356x, 377iv 46i, 91L, 509L, 623i
(. ) 201 351x lllg

() 112g, 305s () 112g () lllg 225


200 356x 389 87, 343a 321s,
368 145, 162 145 145, ==156

571, 93, 141, 613, 627 117L, 329i 366r

356x, 550, 551 () lllg


() lllg 65gm, 545v 545v 225
(200 ) 69vx <89> 156 39, 481
481 146 109g 109g , 201, 208, ==208

==737
42, 634

335L, 402L

('') 212

149, ==608

69-==701

108g

108g

205ix, 216i

344d

(.) <89>, 103g, 488g

(' ')

212

(.) 103g, 488g 103g, 488g 474

() 107g (-. -.) 551 (-. ) 552


201 312s 172 38

379iv, 382rx, 542K <89>

(-. ) 551 ... () 335s (5 ) 69vx, 481x, 532m


145

( ) 459L ( , ) 623 ( ) 18h,


355x ( ) 331fK 343
<>

343 ('') 306s 117L ('') 449


371r, 380rx, 460L, 464 356, 360sx, *362, 366L, 368-369Lr, 370Lr, 371rx, 372x, 381rx,
382rx, 455r, 456, 458r, 459-460L, 463, 464 546v 184
('') 378v 59G, 80iv, 225x, 489

( ) 344d

355x
596

106g, 108g, (-. ) 551

() 549

<89>, (-. ) 551

308sx

219G, 225x

469sx

361

369, 373L, 382rx

38Gx, 149x, 150-151g, 343a, 367, 379iv, 381rx, 382rx, 481x, 677

372x

131v, 372x

(', ') 115116vx, 122L

84iv, 350x

416

172

200, 213, 351, 374s, 376rsx

340s

173

<273>

38Gx, 94vx, 512sx

109-llOg

109g

109-llOg

109-llOg, 225x
() 224

('') 380rx

38

368, 372x, *==455

39g, 326gG, 392gx, 399G

('') 38-39Ggx, 66v, 114123vx, 126-129iv, 130-132Lv, 133x, 149x, 150g,


220G, 317Asx, 322s , 325gG, 328v, 329iv, 330-331K, 334iLv, 335iL, 337-338iKL, 355x, 362r,
384rx, 389s, 392gx, 393x, 394x, 395Kx, 396x, 397K, 399AG, 400gK, 401 KL, 4021L, 403K,
410x, 411A, 412v, 414x, 429x. 481x, 489x, 505A, 515gx (.) 57i
340s 119v, 408

==738

107g 344d 112g 112g, 113 ,

146

(.) 115-116L, 126L, 335iL, 402L

(.) 307i, 449x

(.) 307i

488

*==476

55ix, , 631, , ==636

() 267, 268ir

35Gx

('') 607vx
35Gx

109-llOg

648

==156

(.)

355, 364

( . ) 643

83vx, 84-85iv

44 li

(-. ) 552

541 Km

() 119-120v, 224x

( ) 625

223

172

308sx

( ) 331fK

161, 163, 168-169ix, 172-173x

146

146

355

- (.) 48, 50, 51i, 533-534x, 615L

, 631, ==637

219-220G, 225

('') 213

146-147
146-147

45rx, 509L

508, 510mv, 51 lg

47-48. 186, 195

44 li

45rx

219G, 225

334iv, 368r, 374-375iv, 376rsx 187 1211L

350, 368r, 370, 371L, 372 316i,,631, , 636 205ix, 216i


() 81iv, 541Km ( ) 112g 403d
() 112g 361

( -.) 224x 267 546-547v 67, 201,


208ix, 214, 356 94vx

( ) 37 li 107g 367 (-. )


552, (-.

) 552

225, ( ) 548 ( ) 545-546v (;


) 540 225 471 131v

381, ( -.) 546v llOg, () 548. (-.

) 553 () 225 ( ) 546v 225 ,


205ix, 216i 205ix 152-153, 308sx, 476, 489, , 631, 644-646
172 131v 648 310sx, ( vs. -.

) 544

==739
( ) lllg, 327-328gs

( ) 11 lg

200, 212

( ) 417

168iLx

59G

59G, 71, 72

38-39Gx

545v

200

( ) 417

*362,

200, 241

327gx, 332K

[221]

(', ') 392g

310sx

('') 607vx

213

378

212

380

222, 224

350

81iv
219G, 225

329i

77, 1221L

117L

39g

356, 369r, 371x, 372x, 461L

(' ')

38-39Ggx, 367x, 439 (' ') 32v 117L, 131v,


370r 200 59G 59G, 643 370r, 371rx, 372iLx ... (-)
(.) 617 260-261, 316i, 4411, 638 44, 461 59G, 228-229ix 59G,
188, 420g, 430d, 603-605lv, 604, 606gm 205, 643 ('') 493s

81iv

383

108g

108g

( )

616, 625 84iv

472, 473-474 356

625 77, 1221L, 205ix 14d 222, 223i


105-108gx, lllg 105-108gx, lllg 200, 241, 362-
() 607vx 643 37G 108g 108g
93 108g 108g 37G 308sx, 310sx, 312-313$,
376iv, 379rv, 381rx, 382rx, 439x (-. -.) 552 202
344d 376iv 549 200 213

202, , 376, 383 (. ) 596 [221]


325s, 329v, 3351L, 389s, 392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 400g, 401K, 402L 392g
70, 224 70, 94 1221L 104g 103g
(-. ) 224

==740

( )

616, 625, 627, 628 (. ) 57i, 200x, 205 344d 344d


235 37G 84iv 355, 471

344d

344d

342

( ) 590, 596 84iv 351 42

109-llOgG 342 343 344d

38Gx, 65g, 91g

143-144r

315s

84iv

273rv, 35 lx, 356x

201, 213, 351, 378iv, 549K

53, 201, 213, 343, 344d, 35 lx, 356x, 375rsx, 378iv, 549K 344d
344d 344d

() 109-llOg ('') 29v, 70x ('') 70x, 94


42 42 344d 344d ('') 306s, 308sx,
322s, 375rsx, 383rx 200x 35, 36Gv, 91x ('') 355,
366L, 460L 146

205ix

168
164mx, 165x, 168-169iLx

44, 46i, 91L, 122iL, 168ix, 475L, 476, ==480

74-75i, 76i, 77-78x, 122iL, 205, 328i

38-39Ggx, <265>, 306s, 311s, 317318s, 324gx, 326gG, 328g, 346g, 355x, 362r, 374iv,
380rx, 382rx, 390sx, 435s, 436x, 437gs, 438rx, 439rs, 440Aix, 441gix, 442sx, 444x, 445x,
446m, 447gK, 448K, 449iLx, 450iL, 476, 476,478,479, *480,481

306s, 390sx, 480, 491

(.) 626

*169

146

383rx

83vx

117-118gL, 131v

91L

31, (-. ) 552

204ix, 226i

(.) 137

376

( ) 459L

45, [91]

235,590, 596

185gx

( ) 69-==701

( . ) 643

35 lx, 383rx

172

171
171

171

(-. ) 551

() 112g

117L, 131v, 3==291

93, 149

() 266f

479

1 () 55v, 56x, 112g

2 ( ) 55v

==741

() H5f, 117f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 150f, 188A (.) 115L, 126L, 188A, 194-

195Amx 336As - *==476

() 117f, 122f, 126f, 130f, 132f *476 342


342, 343, 344d, 381rx 71-72 358 (), 365

344d

468, 472, 473-474

43

('') 267s

145

(' ') 36Gx


80dis

80disv, 306s

95v, 548K

383

( ) 548K

31, 212

==469

( ) 357

45r, 508x, 510vx, 51 lg

45r, 509L

147 93 43

() 548K ( ) 548K (' ') 317sx


342, 378iv, 549K 361

('') 344d

<250>, 360sx

469

75

205ix

(.) 115L, 126L, 476, 615L

3161,,631, , ==636

476, ,==631

351

('') 37Gx, 223x

137

() 355
() 356

137

590, 596

372iLx, 356, 360sx, 369r, 371irx, 381rx, 460L 117L,329i

1. . . "" : // tekst6w. Zbi6r


studi6w. Warzsawa, 1992a.

2. . . "" // In Honour of Professor Victor Levin.


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3. . .
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5. . . . . . . //
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6. . ( ) // . .
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7. . . "" // . N 1. 1936.

8. . // . . . .
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9. . . // . . .
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10. . . 1931 (" ...") //


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12. . . "" // :
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13. . . . ""
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14. . . . . // Russian Literature. 1985. XVIII.

15. . . // Russian
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17. . . . . Ann Arbor, 1983.

18. . . Ann Arbor, 1985.

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. . ,
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"" ==693

19. . . . . , , . .,
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20. . . ., 19896.

21. . . ., 1990.

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23. . . .: 4 . ., 1990.

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26. . . // . . ., 1990.

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44. Nabokov V. Pnin. N. Y., 1965.

45. Nabokov V. Speak, Memory. N. Y., 1966.

46. Nabokov V. Poems and Problems. N. Y., 1971.

==694

VI. Miscellanea

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48. Nabokov V. Eugene Onegin / Trans. with commentary by V. Nabokov. Princeton, 1975. V. 1-
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49. Nabokov V. Lectures on Literature. F. Bowers, ed. N. Y., 1980.

50. Nabokov V. Lectures on Russian Literature. F. Bowers, ed. London, 1983a.

51. Nabokov V. Lectures on Don Quixote. F. Bowers, ed. San Diego, 1983b.
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55. Rowe W. W. Pnin's Uncanny Looking Glass // A Book of Things about Vladimir Nabokov.
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57. Rowe W. W. Nabokov's Spectral Dimension. Ann Arbor, 1981.

58. Salehar A. M. Nabokov's Gift: An Apprenticeship in Creativity // A Book of Things about


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. .: Ideen und Methoden der modernen strukturellen Linguistik. Kurzer Abriss.


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22. // .
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58. [ . ., . .] //
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63. // ,
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73. [ . ., . ., . .} -
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74. [ . ., . ., . .} -
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93. - " <=>


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97. : //
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98.
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107. [ . ., . ., . . .]
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