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Networking Basic Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers

Question: Define Network?

Ans. A network is a connection of two or more computers or other devices or nodes at


different location in way to share information and data using different communication
channels.

Question: Difference between Communication and transmission?

Ans. Exchanging of information using any medium is called communication and Physical
movement of information and concerning about bit priority, synchronization, clock etc. is
referred as transmission.

Question: What is a node and links?

Ans. In a network the devices at different end point located at different location are called
nodes and the physical communication medium they using is called links.

Question: How long is an IPv6 address?

Ans. It is of about 128 bits long.

Question: What are two main types of access control lists (ACLs)?

Ans. There are Standard and Extended ACLs (Access Control lists).

Question: Where do we use cross cables and where we use standard cables?

Ans. We use Cross cable in computer to computer connection or hub to hub or switch to
switch. Standard cables are used between hubs/ switch to computer connection.

Question: Differentiate between Static IP addressing and dynamic IP addressing?

Ans. Static IP addressing means a computer configured with an IP address will use the
same IP address always. Whereas, in Dynamic IP addressing computer IP addresses are
changed periodically and it is managed by the centralized device.

Question: What is DHCP scope

Ans. - A scope is a range, or pool, of IP addresses that can be leased to DHCP clients on a
given subnet.
Question: Difference between ARP and RARP?

Ans. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for mapping IP network address to the
hardware addresses that are working on the data link layer. Whereas, RARP (Reverse ARP)
maps the IP address from the ARP table that was requested by physical machine in a LAN.

Question: What is LAN?

Ans. Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that existsin a small area either a building
upto few kilometers. Its response time is less as distance has to cover less. For making
WAN (Wide area network) two or more LANs worldwide are connected.

Question: Can you explain Protocol?

Ans. Protocols is basically a set of rules that is required to be followed by a network for
communication. It provides the standards that a network should have to follow while
communicating to another network.

Question: Define FTP?

Ans. File Transfer protocol (FTP) is special protocol used to exchange the files from a
computer to internet. It is most commonly used to upload a file or image, and also applied
while downloading the pdf and other files or images from internet.

Question: Differentiate between POP3 and IMAP Mail server?

Ans. POP3 is before using mail server in which all mail should be downloaded first if
signed in with different PC. Whereas IMAP eliminates this problem and there is no need to
download all the emails in IMAP. Hence identification of new mails is easy in IMAP then
POP3.

Question: What is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)?

Ans. This focuses on sending and receiving the messages to increment interoperability,
flexibility, and performance of application. It reduces the development complexity which
spans multiple OS and network protocols.

Question: List out the 7 OSI layers?

Ans. Seven OSI layers are:


Physical Layer
Data link Layer
Network Layer
Transport Layer
Session Layer
Presentation Layer
Application Layer
Question: Give some components name that is used in Physical Layer?

Ans. All physical components of network are work at Physical layer such like Hub, Router,
Switch, Communication Cables, etc.

Question: What is multicasting?

Ans. Multicasting gives the facility to send single message different recipients such like
email, teleconferencing. In this some standards are used and network infrastructure.

Question: What is the functionality of PING?

Ans. ping is just only used to check whether the system in network. By PING service we
also get some other information like packets lost information, sent packets or received.

Question: Which layers are network and user support layer?

Ans. Physical layer, Data link layer, network layer are the network support layer and
Session layer, presentation layer and application layer are the User support layers.

Question: What is Pipelining?

Ans. In networking pipelining is defined as the process in which a task starts before the
previous task ends.

These above questions will help the fresher candidates and give them a good knowledge of
networking basic questioning that can be asked in their Interviews.

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CCNA Interview Questions and Answers


Ques 1: Which layer of OSI model I responsible for reliable connections?
Ans. The transport layer is responsible for reliable connection.

Ques 2: What is the main difference between acknowledgement and handshaking?


Ans. Acknowledgement is just a message which convey the sender that receiver received the data
successfully. Handshaking is used to convey the properties of the connection that is being
established.

Ques 3: When does the congestion occur?


Ans. Network congestion is occurred due to accessing of same bandwidth by many users at the same
time and there is no alternative to network segmentation.

Ques 4: What is routing?


Ans. Routing is process of finding the shortest path for communicating from source to destination.
This process is accomplished by the routers on network.

Ques 5: What is window in networking terms?


Ans. A window is sets of segment that is allowed to be sent from source to destination before the
acknowledgement is sent back to it.

Ques 6: What is VLAN?


Ans. Virtual LAN or VLAN is a logical groupor segment network connected to administratively
defined ports on a switch, they Broadcast control, Flexibility and security.

Ques 7: What is sub-Netting? Why it is used?


Ans. It is used to break the larger network into smaller sub-networks, used in IP Networks. Basically
used for minimizing the network traffic, optimizing the performance, and managing the network.

Ques 8: What is communication and how it is differ to transmission?


Ans. Communication means exchanging of data between source and destination. Whereas,
transmission refers to only transferring of data from source to receiver.

Ques 9: Two interface of the router is configured with IP addresses 192.168.1.1; subnet mask
255.255.255.0 and IP address 192.168.2.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.0. Would the routing table of
the router contain any information? Provide explanations
Ans. The router would have to perform AND operation with IP address and subnet mask when the
interface has configured. This is ultimately yield a network address and after it configured to
interface, two entries will available in the routing tables which are 192.168.1.0 and 192.168.2.0
which are network address of 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.2.1 respectively.

Ques 10: Does bridge divide a network into smaller segments?


Ans. No, it not, it only filters the large networks without changing their size.

Ques 11: What is the role of LLC sub layer?


Ans. Logical Link Control sub layer provides the controlled or optional services to the Network layer
with start and stop codes. It also does the error correction.

Ques 12: What is RAID in CCNA?


Ans. A method to standardize and categorize fault tolerance disk systems. Some servers use the three
RAID: RAID Level 0 (stripping), RAID Level 1 (mirroring) and RADI Level 5 (stripping and
parity).

Ques 13: List the two types of transmission technology?


Ans. Point-to-point and broadcast transmission technologies are available in the CCNA.

Ques 14: What is point-to-point transmission protocol?


Ans. It is an industry standard in which the exchange of multiport datagrams is done use of protocol
that is providing point-to-point link.

Ques 15: What are the possible ways of data exchange?


Ans. There are only three types of possible ways to exchange data i.e. Simplex, Half-duplex and full-
duplex.

Ques 16: What is the difference between Baseband and Broadband?


Ans. If the transmission is on baseband, the entire of the cable is consumed by the single signal.
Whereas, in in broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple
signals to be sent simultaneously.

Ques 17: What is difference between TCP and UDP?


Ans. TCP is connection oriented Protocol whereas UDP is connectionless protocol. In TCP protocol
reliable transmission is done. UDP is less reliable then TCP.

Ques 18: Difference between public IP and private IP?


Ans. Public IP should be unique address that is assigned to a company. Private address can be used
by anyone on private network because it is not recognized by the internet.

Ques 19: What is latency?


Ans. Latency is the time duration that is measured from the point of time which a device receives a
data frame to the time it sends out again towards another network segment.

Ques 20: What is frame relay?


Ans. Frame Relay is a WAN protocol that delivers connection-oriented communication by
implementing and retaining virtual circuits. It has a high performance rating and operates at the Data
Link and Physical Layers.

Ques 21: Explain difference between Router, Switch and Hub?


Hub: A hub is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its
job is very simple anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. Hub has single collision
domain and single broadcast domain
Switch: Switch is a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches
operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI
Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. Switches have multiple collision
domains and have a single broadcast domain

Ques 22: Explain broadcast and collision domain?


Ans:
A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each
other by broadcast at the data link layer.
A collision domain is a section of a network where data packets can collide with one another when
being sent on a shared medium or through repeaters

Ques.23: What is the range of class A address?


Ans: Class A Range from 1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254 and Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127
networks.

Ques 24: What is the range of class B address?


Ans: Class B range from 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254 and Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000
networks.

Ques 25: What is the range of class C address?


Ans: Class C range is from 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254 and Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million
networks.

Ques 26: What is a peer-peer process?


Ans: A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a type of decentralized and distributed network architecture in
which individual nodes in the network (called "peers") act as both suppliers and consumers of
resources. There will be no centralized system we usually seen like Client server model. Simply in
p2p, network devices act as both client and server

Ques 27: What is Round Trip Time?


Ans: Round-trip time (RTT), also called round-trip delay, is the time required for a packet to travel
from a specific source to a specific destination and back again.Source is the computer sending the
packet and the destination is a remote computer or system that receives the packet and retransmits it.
A user can determine the RTT to and from an IP address by pinging that address.

Ques 28: What is DHCP scope?


Ans: A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) scope is the consecutive range of possible IP
addresses that the DHCP server can lease to clients on a subnet.

Ques 29: What is Checksum?


Ans: A simple error-detection scheme in which each transmitted message is accompanied by a
numerical value based on the number of set bits in the message. The receiving station then applies
the same formula to the message and checks to make sure the accompanying numerical value is the
same. If not, the receiver can assume that the message has been garbled.

Ques 30: What is Redundancy?


Ans: Network redundancy is a method which provide a back up for the primary device or route and
thereby ensuring network will be available even the primary device or route become failed or
unavailable

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