Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

2

.
, . N ,
N .
. ,
. N , N
.
.
N . ,
N.
.
.
.


. :
2

.
.
.
.
2



i1 i i+1

x i1 xi x i+1
x
x i3/2 x i1/2 x i+1/2 x i+3/2

xi+1/2 
1 1 1
Z Z
ui = u(x) dx = ui + u0i (x xi) + u00i (x xi)2 + . . . dx
h h 2
i xi1/2

1 00
3 xi+1/2 h2 00
ui + ui (x xi) xi1/2 = ui + ui
6h 24
2


du
= Lu, L .
dt
un+1 = T(t, x)un (T , un u(nt)).
( ),

T(t, x) I
lim lim =L (t/x ).
t0 x0 t
ue(x,t) .

LT E un+1
e Lune = O(t t p xq).
p,q0, p+q=l
l + 1, l.
. ut +aux = 0.

uin+1 uni uni uni1


+a = 0, (Lune) j = une, j + (une, j1 une, j ), = at/x.
t x

LT E = un+1
e Lune = ( ue/ t + a ue/ x)t + O(xt + t 2) = t O(x + t)
2


, n- , n = un une.
G n+1 = G n.
G T.
un+1

G= (Tu), G = .
u u
, || n+1|| = ||un+1 uen+1|| || n||,
, un, une:

|| n+1|| (1 + Kt) || n||.


,
, .. K = 0.
n+1 = g n ,
,
,
q
|g | = g g 1 .
2


, ||un une|| 0 t 0, nt T .

. +

||un une|| ||Lun1 Luen1|| + ||Luen1 une|| ||un1 uen1|| + t( x pt q)


p+q=l

||u0 u0e || + nt( x p t q)


p+q=l

t 0, nt T .
.
2


T(t, x) .
- unj = unkeikx j
. g (
g ) ,
|g| 1 -.
uin+1 uni uni uni1
1. ut + aux = 0, +a = 0 uin+1 = uni
t x
(uni uni1), = at/x

kx
ukn+1 = unk (unk eikx unk) g = 1 + eikx gg = 1 4 (1 ) sin2
2
--: = at/x 1.
2

uin+1 uni uni+1 uni


2. ut + aux = 0, +a =0
t x
kx
g = 1 + eikx gg = (1 + )2 + 2 4 (1 + ) cos2 >1
2
.
uin+1 uni uni+1 uni1
3. ut + aux = 0, +a =0
t 2x
g = 1 i sin kx gg = 1 + 2 sin2 kx > 1
.
2

(shock-fitting schemes).
.
,
-.
.
,
, ,
.
.
(shock-capturing schemes).
.
.
2



1, x < 0
. ut + (u2/2)x = 0, < x < , t > 0, u(x, 0) =
0, x > 0

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

-0.5 -0.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100


v dx h j V j ,
R
L1: ||v|| =
, .
, , ,
" " O(t 1/2), "
O(t 2/3).
2

U jn+1 U jn U jn U j1
n
ut + aux = 0, +a =0
t x

t x
 
ax at
Ut + Utt + aUx a Uxx = 0, utt = auxt = a2uxx, Ut + aUx = 1 Uxx = 0
2 2 2 x

U jn+1 U jn1 n
U j+1 n
U j1
ut + aux = 0, +a =0
2t 2x

t 2 x2 ax2 a2t 2
 
Ut + Uttt +aUx a Uxxx = 0, uttt = auxxt = a3uxxx , Ut +aUx = 1 Uxxx = 0
6 6 6 x2
2



1, x < 0
. ut + (u2/2)x = 0, < x < , t > 0, u(x, 0) =
1, x > 0

1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

,
, .
2



1, x < 0
. ut + uux = 0, < x < , t > 0, u(x, 0) =
0, x > 0
t n n

1, j < 0
U jn+1 = U jn n
U j0 =

U U j U j1 ,
x j 0, j 0

, U jn = U j0 j n !
,
.

,
:
,
;
, ;
,
.
2


.
.
:
t 
U jn+1 = U jn n n n

ut + f (u)x = 0 F(U jp , . . . ,U j+q ) F(U jp1 , . . . ,U j+q1 ) ,
x
F p + q + 1 .
t 
U jn+1 = U jn

p = 0, q = 1 F(U jn,U j+1
n n
) F(U j1 ,U j ) .
x
tn+1 Z tn+1
Z 
1
un+1 = u n
f (u(x j+1/2,t)) dt f (u(x j1/2,t)) dt
j j
x tn tn
1
Z tn+1
F(U j ,U j+1) f (u(x j+1/2,t)) dt
t tn
2


Z b Z b Z t
2
Z t2 
u(x,t2) dx = u(x,t1) dx f (u(b,t) dt f (u(a,t) dt
a a t1 t1

K K K
x U jn+1 = x t
 
: U jn F(U jn) F(U j1
n
) =
j=J j=J j=J
K
x U jn t [F(UKn ) F(UJn)]
j=J

, f (u) =
F(u, u, . . ., u).
2

-
U j . U(x) -
, U(x) = U j [x j1/2 , x j+1/2].

-. {Gl },
x, t 0, l . Ul (x,t) ,
Gl . ,
l Ul u(x,t) (.. ).
u(x,t) .

1. = [a, b] [0, T ]
Z T Z b
|Ul (x,t) u(x,t)| dxdt 0, l 0
0 a
.
2. T R > 0,

TV (Ul (x,t)) < R, 0 t T, l = 1, 2, . . .


N
TV (v) = sup |v( j )| v( j1)|, sup
j=1
= 0 < 1 < . . . < N = . TV (v) =
R 0
|v (x)| dx.
2


-.
1 n t
U jn+1 = (U j1 n
+U j+1 ) n
( f (U j+1 n
) f (U j1 )).
2 2x
1 x
F(U j ,U j+1) = ( f (U j ) + f (U j+1)) (U j+1 U j )
2 2t
-.
n+1/2 1 t
U j+1/2 = (U jn +U j+1
n
) n
( f (U j+1 ) f (U jn)).
2 2x
t n+1/2 n+1/2
U jn+1 = U jn ( f (U j+1/2 ) f (U j1/2 )).
x
.
t n+1/2 n+1/2
U j = U jn ( f (U j+1 ) f (U j )).
x
1 t
U jn+1 = (U jn +U j) ( f (U j) f (U j1

)).
2 2x
2

E(un+1 n
j ) E(u j ) H(unjq+1 ), . . ., u j+p+1 )n) H(unjq, . . . , unj+p)
+ 0
t x
H,
F

H(u, . . ., u) = F(u), F 0 (u) = E 0 (u) f 0(u)

unj ,

E(u)t + F(u)x 0

Оценить