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Technicaltraining.

Productinformation.
G12ChassisandSuspension

BMWService
Generalinformation

Symbolsused

Thefollowingsymbolisusedinthisdocumenttofacilitatebettercomprehensionortodrawattention
toveryimportantinformation:

Containsimportantsafetyinformationandinformationthatneedstobeobservedstrictlyinorderto
guaranteethesmoothoperationofthesystem.

Informationstatusandnational-marketversions

BMWGroupvehiclesmeettherequirementsofthehighestsafetyandqualitystandards.Changes
inrequirementsforenvironmentalprotection,customerbenefitsanddesignrendernecessary
continuousdevelopmentofsystemsandcomponents.Consequently,theremaybediscrepancies
betweenthecontentsofthisdocumentandthevehiclesavailableinthetrainingcourse.

Thisdocumentbasicallyrelatestolefthanddrivevehicles.Furtherdifferencesmayariseastheresult
oftheequipmentspecificationinspecificmarketsorcountries.

Additionalsourcesofinformation

Furtherinformationontheindividualtopicscanbefoundinthefollowing:

Owner'sHandbook
IntegratedServiceTechnicalApplication.

Contact:conceptinfo@bmw.de

2015BMWAG,Munich

ReprintsofthispublicationoritspartsrequirethewrittenapprovalofBMWAG,Munich

Theinformationcontainedinthisdocumentformsanintegralpartofthetechnicaltrainingofthe
BMWGroupandisintendedforthetrainerandparticipantsintheseminar.Refertothelatestrelevant
informationsystemsoftheBMWGroupforanychanges/additionstothetechnicaldata.

Contact:
SebastianRiedel
Tel.:+49(0)8938265044
E-mail:sebastian.rs.riedel@bmw.de

Informationstatus:June2015
BV-72/TechnicalTraining
G12ChassisandSuspension
Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. Developmentcode...............................................................................................................................................................................................1
1.2. Chassisandsuspensioncomparison.................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3. Overviewofchassisandsuspension..................................................................................................................................... 2
1.3.1. Highlights.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

2. Axles..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1. Front axle............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
2.1.1. Versionsofthefrontaxlesupport..............................................................................................................8
2.1.2. NotesforService.................................................................................................................................................................. 8
2.2. Rearaxle...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................11
2.2.1. NotesforService............................................................................................................................................................. 12

3. AirSuspension............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16
3.1. Airsupplysystem............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19
3.1.1. Technicaldata........................................................................................................................................................................23
3.1.2. Solenoidvalveblock................................................................................................................................................... 24
3.2. Airsuspensionstrut...................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
3.3. Rideheightsensor.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.4. Operatingstrategy........................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
3.4.1. Highlevel.......................................................................................................................................................................................33
3.4.2. Normallevel.............................................................................................................................................................................. 34
3.4.3. Sportlevel.................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
3.5. NotesforService............................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
3.5.1. Liftingthevehicle............................................................................................................................................................ 36
3.5.2. Transportmode...................................................................................................................................................................37
3.5.3. Bleedingtheairsuspension........................................................................................................................... 37
3.5.4. Fillingtheairsuspension.................................................................................................................................... 37
3.6. Systemwiringdiagram............................................................................................................................................................................. 38

4. Brakes............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 40
4.1. Servicebrakes........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 42
4.1.1. Brakedesign............................................................................................................................................................................ 42
4.1.2. Pedalmechanismmounting........................................................................................................................... 43
4.2. Parkingbrake............................................................................................................................................................................................................44
4.2.1. Functions.......................................................................................................................................................................................47
4.2.2. Braketeststand................................................................................................................................................................. 48
4.3. Serviceinformation.........................................................................................................................................................................................49
4.3.1. Servicebrakes.......................................................................................................................................................................49
4.3.2. Parkingbrake.......................................................................................................................................................................... 50
G12ChassisandSuspension
Contents
5. Wheels/Tires................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
5.1. Puncturedetectionsystems............................................................................................................................................................ 52
5.2. TirePressureMonitorRDCi............................................................................................................................................................. 52
5.2.1. Wheelelectronics............................................................................................................................................................ 54

6. DrivingStabilityControl............................................................................................................................................................................................. 56
6.1. DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)...............................................................................................................................................59
6.1.1. Hydrauliccircuitdiagram..................................................................................................................................... 61
6.1.2. Functions.......................................................................................................................................................................................62
6.1.3. Systemwiringdiagram............................................................................................................................................64
6.2. Steering............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 66
6.2.1. Steeringwheel..................................................................................................................................................................... 67
6.2.2. Steeringcolumnadjustment......................................................................................................................... 68
6.2.3. Versionoverview................................................................................................................................................................69
6.2.4. IntegralActiveSteering.......................................................................................................................................... 71
6.2.5. Serviceinformation....................................................................................................................................................... 78
6.2.6. Systemwiringdiagram............................................................................................................................................80
6.3. ElectronicDamperControl(EDC)........................................................................................................................................... 85
6.3.1. Shockabsorberdesign.......................................................................................................................................... 85
6.3.2. Systemoverview............................................................................................................................................................... 87
6.3.3. Electricalshockabsorbercontrol...........................................................................................................89
6.4. Anti-rollbar.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92
6.5. Standardsuspension...................................................................................................................................................................................94
6.5.1. Chassisandsuspensionsetup.................................................................................................................. 94
6.6. ActiveComfortDrive....................................................................................................................................................................................95
6.6.1. Predictivecontrol............................................................................................................................................................. 98
6.6.2. Electricactiverollstabilization(EARSV)................................................................................. 102
6.6.3. Controlstrategy..............................................................................................................................................................109
6.6.4. Systemwiringdiagramofelectricactiverollstabilization
EARSV...........................................................................................................................................................................................112
G12ChassisandSuspension
1.Introduction
1.1.Developmentcode
ThenewBMW7SeriesG12willbelaunchedonthemarketfromOctober2015.

Intermsofthechassisandsuspension,thenewBMW7Seriesoffersincreasedcomfortwithoutany
compromisesindrivingdynamics.

1.2.Chassisandsuspensioncomparison
Component F01/F02 G12
Frontaxle Double-wishbonefrontaxle Double-wishbonefrontaxle
Frontsuspension Steelsprings Airsuspension
Frontdamping ElectronicDamperControl ElectronicDamperControl
(EDC) (EDC)
Anti-rollbar,front Conventionalorhydraulic Conventionalorelectrical
activestabilizer(ARS) activestabilizer(EARSV)
Rearaxle Five-linkrearsuspension Five-linkrearsuspension
Rearsuspension Steelspringsorrearair Airsuspension2axle
suspension(optional
equipmentintheF01)
Reardamping ElectronicDamperControl ElectronicDamperControl
(EDC) (EDC)
Rearanti-rollbar Conventionalorhydraulic Conventionalorelectrical
activestabilizerARS activestabilizerEARSV
Frontbrake Brakediscsuptodia.348mm Brakediscsuptodia.395mm
Rearbrakes Brakediscsuptodia.345mm Brakediscsuptodia.370mm
Parkingbrake Drumbrakeswith Discbrakeswithcombined
electromechanicalparking brakecaliperfortheelectric
brakeEMF parkingbrake
Wheels/tires Run-flattires(RSC) Normaltires
TirePressureMonitor(RDC) RDC RDCi
Steering ElectronicPowerSteeringor ElectronicPowerSteeringor
IntegralActiveSteering IntegralActiveSteering

1
G12ChassisandSuspension
1.Introduction
1.3.Overviewofchassisandsuspension

OverviewofchassisandsuspensionintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Airsuspensionstrut,frontaxle
2 12Vbattery(forEARSV)
3 Brakeservo
4 Steeringcolumnadjustment
5 Steeringwheel
6 Airsuspensionstrut,rearaxle
7 Five-linkrearaxle(HA5)
8 Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)(optionalequipment)
9 ElectricactiverollstabilizationrearEARSV(optionalequipment)
10 Pressureaccumulator2liters
11 Airsupplysystemoftwo-axleridelevelcontrol
12 Pressureaccumulator4liters
13 Discbrakewithintegratedparkingbrakefortherearaxle

2
G12ChassisandSuspension
1.Introduction
Index Explanation
14 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
15 Discbrakeforfrontaxle
16 Double-wishbonefrontaxle
17 ElectricactiverollstabilizationfrontEARSV(optionalequipment)
18 ElectronicPowerSteering(electromechanicalpowersteering)(EPS)

ThefollowingtableshowsacomparisonofthechassisandsuspensionontheG12.

G12
Rear-wheeldrive Four-wheeldrive
Wheelbase 3210mm 3210mm

Turningcircle
* 12.8m 12,9m

Groundclearance 135mm 135mm


Maximumvehicleheight 1505mm 1505mm
Minimumvehicleheight 1475mm 1475mm
Vehicleheightatnormallevel 1485mm 1485mm
Vehicleheightathighlevel 1505mm 1505mm
Vehicleheightatsportlevel 1475mm 1475mm

*
Theturningcirclevaluesrefertovehicleswithbasicsteering.

1.3.1.Highlights
Thefollowingtableshowsthedifferentequipmentspecificationsintheareaofthechassisand
suspensionfortheG12.

Systems Basicchassis IntegralActive Active


andsuspension Steering ComfortDrive
ElectronicPowerSteering(EPS) X
EPSwithvariablerackgeometry X
Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR) X
Two-axleridelevelcontrol X
ElectronicDamperControl(EDC) X
Frontaxleanti-rollbar X
Rearaxleanti-rollbar X
Electricactiverollstabilization X
front(EARSV)
Electricactiverollstabilization X
rear(EARSV)

3
G12ChassisandSuspension
1.Introduction
Systems Basicchassis IntegralActive Active
andsuspension Steering ComfortDrive
Wheel X
accelerationsensors
StereoKAFAScamera X
Auxiliarybattery(12V) X

Thefollowingoptionalequipmentisavailableinadditiontothebasicchassisandsuspension:

IntegralActiveSteering
ActiveComfortDrive

Bothequipmentoptionscanbecombinedwitheachotherandareavailableforalldrivevariants(also
xDrive).Itwaspossibletoreducethecarbondioxideemissionsandincreasethecontroldynamics
throughcompleteelectrificationofthetwooptionalequipmentsystems.Inthecustomer'sperception,
thisisexpressedinalowerfuelconsumptionwithincreasedcomfortaswellasasportierdriving
feeling.

Thedrivercaninfluencethecontrolcharacteristicsofthedifferentsuspensioncontrolsystems
bymeansofthedrivingexperienceswitch.FurtherinformationonthisisprovidedintheTechnical
TrainingManualG12DriverAssistanceSystems.

4
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
2.1.Frontaxle
Thedouble-wishbonefrontaxleoffersoptimumalignmentofthecamberofthefrontwheelsinrelation
totheroadwayineverydrivingsituation.Duringthecompressionandreboundmovements,awheel
thereforealwayshasexactlythecambervaluethatguaranteesoptimumtransferofcorneringforcesin
relationtotheroadway.Thisensuresexcellenttirecontactwiththeroadandthetireisabletotransfer
highlateralforces.Theattainablehighlateralaccelerationforcesarethuspossiblewithout
theotherwisenecessaryfirmchassisandsuspensionsetup.

Withthedouble-wishbonefrontaxle,theshockabsorberdoesnotperformanywheelcontroltasks.
Thismeansthattheshockabsorberarepracticallyfreeoflateralforcesandcanreactsensitivelyto
roadbumps.

Sincethedouble-wishbonefrontaxlehasasmallkinematicleverarm,disturbancevariablessuch
asroadjointsorpotholesgenerateonlyasmalltorqueaboutthesteeringaxis.

Thesumofalladvantagesmeansthatthedouble-wishbonefrontaxlemakesitpossibletoresolve
theconflictofgoalsbetweencomfortandsportiness.

5
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles

OverviewoffrontaxleonG12withxDrive

Index Explanation
1 Supportbearingonairsuspensionstrut
2 ActuatorforElectronicDamperControl(EDC)
3 Wishbone,bottom
4 Steeringbox
5 Crossmember
6 Universaljointofsteeringshafttosteeringgear
7 Castsidesection
8 Strut

6
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Index Explanation
9 Serviceopening
10 Rearstiffeningplate
11 Steeringshaft
12 Universaljointofsteeringshafttosteeringcolumn
13 Trianglewishbone,top
14 Sidemember
15 Swivelbearing
16 Wheelbearingunit
17 Trackrodhead
18 Trailinglink
19 Transversetube
20 Frontserviceflap
21 Lever
22 Castcorner
23 Castcornerconnection
24 Springstrutholder

Inordertoachievethelowestpossiblevehicleweight,thefrontaxlecomponentsaremadealmost
completelyfromaluminium.

Thedesignofthedouble-wishbonefrontaxleoffersthefollowingadvantages:

Highagilityduetoabsorptionofhighlateralaccelerationforces.
Outstandingrollstabilizationwhencorneringwithoutanyreductioninridecomfort.
Comfortable,goodspringresponseoftheaxleandgooddirectionalstability.
Highcomfortduetominimuminfluenceofdisturbancevariables.

Inadditiontoensuringdrivingdynamicsandridecomfort,thedouble-wishbonefrontaxlealso
performsvariouscrashfunctions.Thefrontaxlesupportispartofthecrashstructureofthebody
andformsanadditionalloadpath.Thisensuresthattheincreasedrequirementsrelatingto
pedestrianprotectionaremet.

Drivingwithoutastiffeningplateisnotpermittedduetotheresultantlackofvehiclestability.

7
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
2.1.1.Versionsofthefrontaxlesupport
Twodifferentfrontaxlesupportsareuseddependingonthevehicleequipment.

VersionsofthefrontaxlesupportintheG12

Index Explanation
A Rear-wheeldrivesDrive
B All-wheeldrivexDrive

2.1.2.NotesforService
TwodifferentwishbonesareavailabletoServiceforcambercorrection.

CambercorrectionbyupperwishboneintheG12

8
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Index Explanation
A Cambercorrectionbyupperwishbone+30min
B Cambercorrectionbyupperwishbone-30min

Inordertoavoiddamagetotheballbearingontheupperwishbone,itmustbeensuredwhen
performingdisassemblyorassemblyworkthatthedeflectionangleoftheballjointdoesnot
exceedavalueof55.

Thefollowingtableshowswhenwheelalignmentisnecessaryonthefrontaxlewhenacomponent
isreplaced.

Replacementofacomponent Wheelalignmentrequired
onthefrontaxle
Frontaxlesupport YES
Steeringbox YES
Wishbone,bottom YES
Rubbermountforwishbone,bottom YES
Trailinglink NO
Rubbermountfortrailinglink NO
Trianglewishbone,top NO
Rubbermountforupperwishbone NO
Trackrod YES
Swivelbearing YES
Wheelbearing NO
Airsuspensionstrut NO
Supportbearing NO

Thefollowingtableshowswhenwheelalignmentisnecessaryonthefrontaxlewhenacomponent
isundone.

Undoingthescrewconnection Wheelalignmentrequired
atthefrontaxle
Frontaxlesupporttobody NO
Steeringboxtofrontaxlesupport YES
Bottomwishbonetofrontaxlesupport YES
Bottomwishbonetoswivelbearing NO
Trailinglinktofrontaxlesupport NO
Trailinglinktoswivelbearing NO
Upperwishbonetobody NO

9
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Undoingthescrewconnection Wheelalignmentrequired
atthefrontaxle
Upperwishbonetoswivelbearing NO
Trackrodtosteeringbox NO
Trackrodendtotrackrod YES
Trackrodendtoswivelbearing NO
Springstruttobottomwishbone NO
Supportbearingtobody NO
Bottomsteeringshafttosteeringbox NO
Uppersteeringshafttosteeringcolumn NO

10
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
2.2.Rearaxle

OverviewofrearaxleintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Supportbearing
2 Airsuspensionstrut
3 Frontrubbermount
4 Rearrubbermount
5 Airdeflector

11
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Index Explanation
6 Cambercontrolarm
7 Wishbone
8 Camberlink
9 Wheelbearingunit
10 Wheelcarrier
11 Trailingarm
12 Controlarm
13 Compressionstrut
14 Axlesupport

Thefive-linkrearaxleoftheG12ischaracterizedbyprecisewheelguidance,whichcomesintoitsown
invariousdrivingsituations,suchasduringloadreversalsorthetransitionfromcorneringtostraight-
aheaddriving.Inaddition,thefive-linkrearaxleoffersveryhighcomfortincombinationwithsporty
drivingdynamics.

Itwaspossibletoresolvethisconflictofgoalsbymeansofthefollowingmeasures:

Doubleflexiblerear-axlerubbermounts
Highstructuralrigidityoftherearaxlesupport
Largesupportareaoftherearaxlesupport

Itwaspossibletokeeptheunsprungmassesofthefive-linkrearaxlelowthroughtheuseofan
aluminiumwheelcarrieraswellasvariousforgedaluminiumandsheetsteelcontrolarms.

Cleverdefinitionofthekinematicpointsaswellasprecisedesignoftheballjointsandrubbermounts
resultinalargespringtravelrangeincombinationwithoptimumwheelguidance.Thesmallacting
leverarmsensureparticularlygoodinsensitivitytobumpsintheroad.Theextremelyrigidcontrolarms
aswellasthetorsion-freerearaxlesupportandbodyconnectionsrealizedbymeansofcompression
strutsresultinextremelyprecisewheelguidance.

Theairdeflectorsunderthecontrolarmsminimiseswirlandthusincreasetheefficiencyofthevehicle.

2.2.1.NotesforService
Thefollowingtableshowswhenwheelalignmentisnecessaryontherearaxlewhenacomponent
isreplaced.

Replacementofacomponent Wheelalignmentrequired
ontherearaxle
Rearaxlesupport YES
Rubbermountforrearaxlesupport YES
Cambercontrolarm YES
Camberlink YES
Trailingarm YES

12
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Replacementofacomponent Wheelalignmentrequired
ontherearaxle
Wishbone YES
Balljointinthewheelcarrier YES
Controlarm YES
Wheelcarrier YES
Wheelbearing NO
Airsuspensionstrut NO
Supportbearing NO

Thefollowingtableshowswhenwheelalignmentisnecessaryontherearaxlewhenacomponentis
undone.

Undoingacomponentontherearaxle Wheelalignmentrequired
Rearaxlesupporttobody YES
Frontcompressionstruttobody NO
Camberlinktorearaxlesupport YES
Cambercontrolarmtowheelcarrier YES
Camberlinktorearaxlesupport YES
Camberlinktowheelcarrier NO
Trailingarmtorearaxlesupport YES
Trailingarmtowheelcarrier YES
Controlarmtorearsuspensionsubframe YES
Controlarmtohubcarrier NO
Wishbonetorearaxlesupport NO
Wishbonetowheelcarrier NO
Airsuspensionstruttowheelcarrier NO
Supportbearingtobody NO

13
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles
Rearaxlepositioning

ComparisonofrearaxleontheF01/F02withtheG12

Index Explanation
A RearaxleoftheF01/F02
B RearaxleoftheG12
1 Body
2 Centeringmountingforrearaxlesupport
3 Mountingforrearaxlesupport
4 Rearaxlesupport
5 Rubbermountoftherearaxlesupport

OntheG12,nocenteringmountingsareusedonthebodyforalignmentoftherearaxle.Thismakes
itpossibletoensureduringassemblythattherubbermountsoftherearaxlearescrewedtothebody
completelywithoutanytension.Bumpsintheroadareisolatedandarenottransmittedtothebody
duetodirectcontactoftherubbermounts.

Newspecialtoolsareusedforremovalandassemblyoftherearaxlesupport.Therearaxlesupportis
heldinthecorrectpositionforinstallationbymeansof2guidepins.Forthedetailedprocedure,refer
tothecurrentrepairinstructions.

14
G12ChassisandSuspension
2.Axles

CenteringtoolforremovingandinstallingtherearaxleintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Centeringpinforlongitudinalandtransversedirections(x-andyaxes)
2 Centeringpinforlongitudinaldirection(y-axis)

Basicalignmentoftherearaxlesupportisensuringbythecentringpinforlongitudinalandtransverse
directions.Duetothepermittedproductiontolerancesoftherearaxlesupport,thesupportis
positionedonlyinlongitudinaldirectionbythesecondcentringpin.

Anincorrectprocedureforpositioningtherearaxlesupportcanleadtoproblemsduringwheel
alignment.

15
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Inordertoguaranteeuniformridecomfortindependentlyoftheloadstatus,theG12isequippedas
standardwithairsuspensiononthefrontandrearaxles.Thetwo-axleridelevelcontroloftheG12is
offeredonlyincombinationwithelectricallycontrolledshockabsorbers.

Theairsuspensionincreasestheridecomfort.Thesystemperformsadjustmentmainlyatstandstill,
e.g.inordertocompensateforachangeinheightduetothevehicleload.Theinertiaofthesystem
meansthatitcannotreacttodrivingdynamicsdisturbancevariables,whichmayoccurwhenthe
vehicleisdrivenquicklyontwistingroads.Dynamiccontrolwhendrivingservesonlytocompensate
forchangesinheightduetoafallingfueltankvolumeaswellastemperaturechangesoftheairinthe
airsuspensionstruts.

Theairsuspensionoffersthefollowingadvantages:

Increaseindrivingsafety,sincetheself-levellingsuspensionautomaticallykeepstheheightof
thevehiclebodyatapredefinednominalride-levelinallloadstates.
Highridecomfortduetoautomaticadaptationoftheoscillationbehaviortothevehicleweight.
Increasedcustomerbenefitthroughmanualleveladjustmentbymeansoftherideheight
selectionswitch.

16
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension

Systemoverviewoftwo-axleridelevelcontrolintheG12

Index Explanation
A Compressedairline,frontright(colorcodeblack)
B Compressedairline,rearright(colorcodeblue)
C Compressedairline,rearleft(colorcodered)
D Compressedairline,frontleft(colorcodegreen)
E Compressedairlineforpressureaccumulator(colorcodeyellow)
1 Airsuspensionstrut,frontright
2 EDCvalve,frontright(ElectronicDamperControl)
3 Rideheightsensor,frontright
4 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
5 Relayforairsupplysystem

17
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
6 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)(centralcontrolunit)
7 Airsuspensionstrut,rearright
8 Positivebatteryterminaldistributor
9 Airsuspensionstrut,rearleft
10 Pressureaccumulator2liter
11 Pressureaccumulator4liter
12 Airsupplysystem
13 Rideheightselectionswitch
14 Airsuspensionstrut,frontleft

ThecentralcontrolunitforcontrollingtheairsuspensionistheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP).
TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunitreadsinthecurrentrideheightvaluesbymeansof
the4rideheightsensors.TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)activatesthesolenoidvalvesofthe
solenoidvalveblockinordertoperformcontrolactions.

Controlactionsatstandstillandatlowvehiclespeeds(020km/h/012mph)areachievedbyusing
thestoragevolumeofthetwopressureaccumulators.Forcontrolactionswhendriving(>20km/h/
>12mph),therequiredcompressedairisnottakenfromthepressureaccumulator,butisgenerated
bythecompressorandforwardeddirectlytothecorrespondingairsuspensionstruts.Inexceptional
situations,thecompressorcanalsobeswitchedonwhenthevehicleisatstandstill.

Theincreaseinvolumeintheairsuspensionstrutliftsthevehiclebody.Achievementofthenominal
ride-levelheightisdetectedbythe4rideheightsensorsandactivationofthecorrespondingsolenoid
valvesisinterrupted.Three-pointcontrolisusedforprocessinginordertoavoidfrequentre-
adjustment.Therearaxleiscontrolledindividuallybymeansofbothrideheightsensors.Inthecase
ofthefrontaxle,thecorrespondingrideheightisadjustedonthebasisofameanvalue.

Thecompressedairlineshavedifferentcolorsinordertoavoidconfusionduringservicingworkonthe
solenoidvalveblock.Thefollowingtablecontainsanoverviewofthecolorcodes.

Colorcode Component
Yellow Pressureaccumulator
Black Airsuspensionstrut,frontright
Green Airsuspensionstrut,frontleft
Blue Airsuspensionstrut,rearright
Red Airsuspensionstrut,rearleft

18
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
3.1.Airsupplysystem
Theairsupplysystemismadeupofthefollowingcomponents:

Electricalcompressor
Solenoidvalveblock
Holderwithvibrationdamper

Theairsupplysystemhasthetaskofgeneratingtherequiredcompressedairandcoordinatingthe
airflowsbetweentheelectricalcompressor,pressureaccumulatorsandthe4airsuspensionstruts
correspondingtotherequirements.ThecalculationsrequiredforthisareperformedbytheVertical
DynamicsPlatform(VDP).

Forpackagereasons,thesystemcomprisestwoseparatepressureaccumulatorswithatotalvolume
of6litersandamaximumstoragepressureof17.5bar.Atotalvolumeof105litersisavailabletothe
systematmaximumpressure.

AirsupplysystemoftheG12

19
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
1 Pressureaccumulator2liters
2 Airintakehose
3 Electricalcompressor
4 Holderwithvibrationdamper
5 Solenoidvalveblock
6 Pressureaccumulator4liters
7 Compressedairlineforpressureaccumulator2liters
8 Compressedairlineforpressureaccumulator4liters
9 Compressedairlineforairsupplytosolenoidvalveblock
10 Ventilationtoatmosphere
11 Connectionforairintakehose
12 Housingcoverforaircleaner
61 Plug-incontactforelectricalaircompressor
62 Plug-incontactforelectricaldrainsolenoidvalve
63 Plug-incontactforsolenoidvalveblock
64 Plug-incontactoftemperaturesensor

Theelectricalcompressorisswitchedviaarelay.TherelayisactivatedbytheVerticalDynamics
Platform(VDP).Inordertopreventvibrationsfrombeingtransmittedintothevehicleinteriorwhenthe
compressorisrunning,theairsupplysystemissecuredtothevehiclebodybymeansofaholderwith
vibrationdampers.

Topreventthedriverfrombeingirritatedbythestart-upnoisesofthecompressor,thisisswitchedon
almostexclusivelywhiledriving.Thecompressorcanalsobeswitchedonatvehiclestandstillifthe
followingpreconditionsareallmet:

VehicleconditionResiding/Awake
Sufficientvehiclevoltage
Rideheight40mmoftheinitializesvalue
Insufficientpressureinthepressureaccumulatorforcontrol

Theintakeairiscleanedbytheaircleanerupstreamofthecompressoranddriedbytheairdrier
downstreamofthecompressor.Cleaningisnecessarysothatthevalvesareprotectedagainst
soiling.Thewaterisextractedfromtheairinordertoprotectthevalvesagainsticingatlowambient
temperatures.Ifthevalvesweretofreezeduetoexcessivelyhighairhumidityintheairsupplysystem,
thiswouldmeanthatlevelcontrolbytheairsuspensionwouldnolongerbepossible.Toavoidthis,
theairdrierispermanentlycleanedordried.

Thegranulateintheairdrierabsorbsmoistureathighpressureandgivesthisoffagainatlow
pressure.Themoistureisextractedfromtheairwhenairflowsthroughthegranulatewhenfillingthe
system.Whenthevehicleheightislowered,theexcessairwithlowpressureisroutedthroughtheair
drier.Thestoredmoistureisthengiveofftotheairagainasitflowspast.Thispermanentregeneration
oftheairdrierensuresfault-freeoperationofthesystemwithouttheneedformaintenancework.

20
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Pneumaticconnectionsincompressedairsystemsareusuallyprovidedwithstandardisednumbers.
Thisservesthepurposeofdifferentiationandisintendedtoexcludethepossibilityoftheconnections
beingmixedup.Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthestandardizednumbercodes.

Numbercode Meaning
0 Intakeairconnection
1 Energysupply
2 Energyoutlet
3 Atmosphere

21
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Thefollowinggraphicshowsaschematicillustrationoftheairsupplysystem.

SchematicillustrationoftheairsupplysystemintheG12

Index Explanation
A Aircompressor
B Solenoidvalveblock
C Filling
D Draining

22
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
1 Airfilter
2 Electricmotor
2.1 Energyoutlet,output1(airsuspensionstrut,frontleft)
2.2 Energyoutlet,output2(airsuspensionstrut,frontright)
2.3 Energyoutlet,output3(airsuspensionstrut,rearleft)
2.4 Energyoutlet,output4(airsuspensionstrut,rearright)
2.5.1 Energyoutlet,pressureaccumulator1
2.5.2 Energyoutlet,pressureaccumulator2
3 Pneumaticdischargevalvewithpressurerelieffunction
4 Airdrier
5 Non-returnvalve
6 Electricaldrainsolenoidvalve
7 Temperaturesensor
8 Electricalsolenoidvalveofpressureaccumulators
9 Electricalsolenoidvalveforrearleftairsuspensionstrut
10 Electricalsolenoidvalveforrearrightairsuspensionstrut
11 Electricalsolenoidvalveforfrontrightairsuspensionstrut
12 Electricalsolenoidvalveforfrontleftairsuspensionstrut
13 Pressuresensor

3.1.1.Technicaldata

Compressor Drain Temperature Solenoid


solenoidvalve sensor valveblock
Supply 12V 12V 5V 12V
voltage
Pickupcurrent 0.82A6 0.8-1.0A
pervalve
Holdingcurrent 0.55A6 0.55A6
pervalve
Maximum 110A6
startingcurrent

23
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Compressor Drain Temperature Solenoid
solenoidvalve sensor valveblock
Maximum 35A6 2.5A6 3.1A6
continuous
current
Dynamic 22.5bar
pressurecontrol
Resistance 9 5kat25 6.8k
C/77F

3.1.2.Solenoidvalveblock

SolenoidvalveblockoftheairsupplyintheG12

Index Explanation
2.1 Energyoutlet,output1(airsuspensionstrut,frontleft)
2.2 Energyoutlet,output2(airsuspensionstrut,frontright)
2.3 Energyoutlet,output3(airsuspensionstrut,rearleft)
2.4 Energyoutlet,output4(airsuspensionstrut,rearright)
2.5.1 Energyoutlet,pressureaccumulator2l
2.5.2 Energyoutlet,pressureaccumulator4l
63.1 Activationofsolenoidvalveforfrontleftairsuspensionstrut
63.2 Activationofsolenoidvalveofpressureaccumulators
63.3 Activationofsolenoidvalveforrearleftairsuspensionstrut
63.4 Activationofsolenoidvalveforfrontrightairsuspensionstrut
63.5 Ground

24
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
63.6 Ground
63.7 Sensorground(pressuresensor)
63.8 Activationofsolenoidvalveforrearrightairsuspensionstrut
63.9 Sensorvoltagesupply(pressuresensor)
63.10 Sensorsignaloutput(pressuresensor)

Thedifferentelectricalsolenoidvalvesarelocatedinthesolenoidvalveblock.Theseareused
toforwardthecompressedairtothedifferentcomponentsoftheairsuspension.Therequired
calculationsforcontroloftheelectricalsolenoidvalvestakeplaceintheVerticalDynamicsPlatform
(VDP)controlunit.

Thefollowingcontrolspeedscanbeachievedforaxle-basedchangesintherideheight
bythesystem:

Controlviathepressureaccumulators~10mm/s
Controlviatheelectricalcompressor~2mm/s

Anadvantageoftheinstallationpositionofthepressuresensoristhatthefillingpressuresofthe
pressureaccumulatorsandairsuspensionstrutscanbereadinwithonlyonesensordepending
onactivation.

Whentheelectricalsolenoidvalveofthepressureaccumulatorsisactivated,apressuresensor
suppliesinformationaboutthecurrentfillingpressureofthesystemtotheVerticalDynamicsPlatform
(VDP)controlunit.Ifthestoredpressureisnotsufficientforapendingchangeinrideheight,the
VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunitswitchesonthecompressorforpressurebuild-up.
However,thecompressorisswitchedononlysubjecttocertainpreconditionswhenthevehicleisat
standstillsothatcomfortisnotimpaired(seeAirsupplysystem).

Intheeventofactivationofthesolenoidvalvesforoperationoftheairsuspensionstruts,thepressure
sensorsuppliesthefillingpressuresofthecorrespondingairsuspensionstruts.

3.2.Airsuspensionstrut
Theheightofthevehiclebodyisautomaticallycontrolledviathepressureintheairsuspensionstrutin
allloadstates.Thispreventsthevehiclebodyfromsinkingwhenthevehicleisloaded.Theairsupply
fortheairsuspensionstrutsisprovidedbyanelectricallydrivencompressorand2airaccumulators.
Theairsuspensionthusfunctionsindependentlyoftheoperatingconditionofthecombustionengine
andcanalsocompensateunevenloading(e.g.slopingload)byindividualwheelcontrolontherear
axle.

25
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension

AirsuspensionstrutsonfrontandrearaxlesintheG12

Index Explanation
A Airsuspensionstrutonthefrontaxle(illustrationfromall-wheeldrive)
B Airsuspensionstrutonrearaxle
1 Pot,upperpart
2 Pot,lowerpart
3 Gaiter
4 Dustboot
5 ControlvalveoftheElectronicDamperControl(EDC)
6 Dampertube
7 Electricalconnectionfordamperadjustment
8 Pneumaticconnectionwithintegratedresidualpressureholdingvalve

Ontheairsuspensionstrut,thecoilspringisreplacedbyaU-typebellows.Theairispressedintothe
airsuspensionstrutviaacompressedairconnection.TheU-typebellowsoftheairsuspensionstrut
unrollsasaresultofthepressureincreaseandraisesthevehiclebody.Whentheairsuspensionstrut
isvented,thepressurefallsandtheU-typebellowsrollsupagainsothatthevehiclebodyislowered.

26
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Thereisaresidualpressureholdingvalveinsidethepneumaticconnectionstopreventcomplete
pressurereductionintheairsuspensionstrut.Aresidualpressureof1.82.7barisheldwhenthe
compressedairlinesareremoved.

Thepneumaticconnectionswithintegratedresidualholdingvalveontheairsuspensionstrutcannot
bereplacedseparately.Theairsuspensionstrutwillbedamagedifitisattemptedtoremovedthe
pneumaticconnectionswithintegratedresidualpressureholdingvalve.

Airsuspension Airsuspension
strut,frontaxle strut,rearaxle
Airvolumeinnormalposition 2.87L 2.85L
Compressiontravel 65mm 86mm
Reboundtravel 76mm 106.4mm
Fillingpressureondelivery 1.8-2.7bar 1.8-2.7bar

3.3.Rideheightsensor

RideheightsensorintheG12

27
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
1 Holder
2 Articulatedrodwithballsocket
3 Deflectionlever
4 Rideheightsensor

TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunitreadsinthecurrentrideheightvaluesofthevehicle
bodybymeansofthe4rideheightsensors.Themaximummeasuringrangeoftherideheightsensor
is70.Theoutputisananaloguevoltagesignalbetween0.5Vand4.5V.

Therideheightsensorhasthefollowingelectricalconnections:

Voltagesupply(5V)
Groundconnection
Signaloutput(0.54.5V)

RideheightsignaloftherideheightsensorsintheG12

Index Explanation
V VoltageinV
W Angle

Afterrenewalofoneormorerideheightsensors,theservicefunctionforrideheightadjustmentmust
beperformedusingtheBMWdiagnosissystemISTA.

TherideheightvaluesarestoredintheBodyDomainController.Theyarealsousedforlevel
adjustmentoftheheadlights.

28
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
3.4.Operatingstrategy

InputandoutputdiagramoftheairsuspensionintheG12

Index Explanation
1 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
2 Compressor
3 Solenoidvalveblock
4 Drivingexperienceswitch
5 Doorcontactswitch
6 Rideheightselectionswitch
7 Temperaturesensor(insidethecompressor)

29
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
8 Pressuresensor(insidethesolenoidvalveblock)
9 Rideheightsensor
10 Vehicleelectricalsystemvoltage
11 Vehiclespeed

ConfigurationoptionsoftheairsuspensionintheG12

Index Explanation
A NormallevelorSportlevelactivated
B Highlevelactivated
1 SPORTbuttononthedrivingexperienceswitch
2 Rideheightselectionswitch

Therideheightcanbeadjustedmanuallybymeansoftherideheightselectionswitchandthedriving
experienceswitch.Threedifferentrideheightsareavailable.

30
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension

RideheightsoftheG12

Index Explanation
A Sportlevel(-10mm)
B Normallevel(+/-0mm)
C Highlevel(+20mm)

Situation Highlevel Normallevel Sportlevel


Rideheight +20mm +/0mm -10mm
Rideheight Rideheight 1)Drivingexperienceswitch
activation selectionswitch 2)Drivingspeed>~140km/h/
>~87mph
Speed 040km/h/025 0~140km/h/0 1)0km/hfinalspeed
mph ~87mph 2)~140km/h/~87mphfinal
speed

Thefollowingprerequisitesmustbemetinordertoperformmanualadjustmentintherideheightby
meansoftherideheightselectionswitch:

DrivingreadinessResiding/Awakeordrivingbetween040km/h/025mph
Sufficientvehiclevoltage
Doorsclosed
Pressureaccumulatorwithsufficientfillingpressure
(onlyrelevantfordrivingreadinessResiding/Awake)

31
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
ThefollowinggraphicshowstheoperatingstrategyoftheairsuspensionintheG12.

OperatingstrategyoftheairsuspensionintheG12

Index Explanation
A Highlevel(+20mm)
B Normallevel(+/-0mm)
C Sportlevel(-10mm)
H Rideheightofthevehiclebody
v Vehiclespeed
1 RideheightselectionswitchsettoHighlevel
2 DrivingexperienceswitchinComfortposition
3 DrivingexperienceswitchinSportposition

32
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
3.4.1.Highlevel

OperatingstrategyoftheairsuspensionintheG12atHighlevel

Index Explanation
A Highlevel(+20mm)
B Normallevel(+/-0mm)
C Sportlevel(-10mm)
H Rideheightofthevehiclebody
v Vehiclespeed
1 RideheightselectionswitchsettoHighlevel
2 DrivingexperienceswitchinComfortposition
3 DrivingexperienceswitchinSportposition

Inthespeedrangebetween040km/h/025mph,theHighlevel(+20mm)canbeactivated
manuallyviatherideheightselectionswitch.Thisrideheightsettingisintendedtoallowthedriver
todriveovershouldersorrampswithalargegradientanglewithoutdamagingthevehicleduetothe
increasedgroundclearance.Thefollowingrideheightsaresetautomaticallyifthisspeedrangeis
exceeded.

1 IfthedrivingexperienceswitchisinComfortposition,therideheightislowered
toNormallevel(+/-0mm).
2 IfthedrivingexperienceswitchisinSportposition,therideheightislowered
toSportlevel(-10mm).

33
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Whenadrivingspeedof~140km/h/~87mphisexceeded,thevehiclebodyisautomaticallylowered
fromNormalleveltoSportlevel(-10mm)independentlyoftherespectiveswitchsettings.Loweringto
Sportleveloffersthefollowingadvantages:

Lowvehiclecenterofgravityandthusincreaseddrivingdynamics.
Improvedaerodynamicsandthuslowerfuelconsumption.

3.4.2.Normallevel

OperatingstrategyoftheairsuspensionintheG12atNormallevel

Index Explanation
A Highlevel(+20mm)
B Normallevel(+/-0mm)
C Sportlevel(-10mm)
H Rideheightofthevehiclebody
v Vehiclespeed
1 RideheightselectionswitchatNormallevel
2 DrivingexperienceswitchinComfortsetting

Normallevel(+/-0mm)canbesetbymeansofthefollowingswitchpositions.

RideheightselectionswitchinNormalposition.
DrivingexperienceswitchnotinSportposition.

34
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Whenadrivingspeedof~140km/h/~87mphisexceeded,thevehiclebodyisautomaticallylowered
fromNormalleveltoSportlevel(-10mm)independentlyoftherespectiveswitchsettings.Loweringto
Sportleveloffersthefollowingadvantages:

Lowvehiclecenterofgravityandthusincreaseddrivingdynamics.
Improvedaerodynamicsandthuslowerfuelconsumption.

3.4.3.Sportlevel

OperatingstrategyoftheairsuspensionintheG12atSportlevel

Index Explanation
A Highlevel(+20mm)
B Normallevel(+/-0mm)
C Sportlevel(-10mm)
H Rideheightofthevehiclebody
v Vehiclespeed
1 RideheightselectionswitchatNormallevel
2 DrivingexperienceswitchinSportsetting

Sportlevel(-10mm)canbesetbymeansofthefollowingswitchpositions.

RideheightselectionswitchinNormalposition.
DrivingexperienceswitchinSportposition.

35
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Sportlevel(-10mm)offersthehighestdrivingdynamicsofallrideheightsduetothelowvehicle
centerofgravity.Thefuelconsumptionalsofallsduetotheimprovedaerodynamics.

3.5.NotesforService
Complete(100%)tightnessoftheairsuspensioncannotbeguaranteedduetothenumerousflexible
compressedairlineswiththecorrespondingcompressedairconnections.Adefinedlowlossof
compressedairisthereforepermissible.IfthevehicleisparkedatNormallevel,therideheightmaybe
loweredbyuptoamaximumof2mmafter24hours.Thismeansthattherideheightmaybelowered
byupto-60mmforavehiclethathasbeenparkedfor30dayswithouttherebeingafaultcausedbya
leak.

SideviewoftheG12withairsuspensionloweredtomaximumextent

Sincecomponentsdonotallleaktothesameextentfortolerancereasons,itisalsopossiblethatthe
vehiclewillbeslopingatanangleafteraprolongedstandstilltime.

Lowandslopingvehiclepositionsareautomaticallycompensatedbytheairsuspensionafter
detectionofthevehicleconditionResiding/Awake.Forthispurpose,themissingcompressedairis
forwardedtothecorrespondingspringstrutsbythepressureaccumulator.Ifthefillingpressureof
thepressureaccumulatorsistoolow,thelackofairiscompensatedbyswitchingontheelectrical
compressor.

Thefollowingscenariosforactivationoftheelectricalcompressorarepossible:

1 Iftherideheightislessthan40mm,thecompressorwillbeswitchedononlywhen
theengineisrunning.
2 Iftherideheightismorethan40mmandthevehicleelectricalsystemhassufficient
voltage,thecompressorwillalreadybeswitchedonwhenthevehiclecondition
Residing/Awakeisdetected.

3.5.1.Liftingthevehicle
Theairsuspensionhasajackdetectionfunction.Thispreventscontrolactionoftheairsuspension
whenthevehicleislifted.

36
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
3.5.2.Transportmode
Theairsuspensionisintransportmodewhennewvehiclesaredelivered.Achangeintherideheight
isnotpossible.TransportmodemustbedeletedusingtheBMWdiagnosissystemISTAduring
thepre-deliverycheck.Thedifferentrideheightsoftheairsuspensioncanbeselectedonlyafter
successfulstart-upoftheairsuspension(transportmodedeleted).

3.5.3.Bleedingtheairsuspension
Whenworkingoncomponentsoftheairsuspensionsystem,itisnecessarytodepressurizethe
systembeforeundoingthevariouscompressedairlines.ThiscanbedoneusingtheBMWdiagnosis
systemISTAbymeansofableedingroutine.Here,thevarioussolenoidvalvesoftheairsuspension
strutsandtheelectricaldrainsolenoidvalveareactivatedsimultaneously.Inordertoprotectthevalves
againstoverheating,thebleedingroutinecannotbeperformedanarbitrarynumberoftimes
insuccession.However,thefunctionisavailableagainafteradefinedwaitingperiod.

Inordertoavoiddamagetotheairsuspensionstruts,thevehicleshouldberaisedslightlyusing
avehiclehoistduringthebleedingroutine.

However,itisnotrecommendedtocompletelyliftthevehicleduringthebleedingroutineasthis
hamperscompleteemptyingofthecompressedairfromtheairsuspensionstruts.

3.5.4.Fillingtheairsuspension
Thesystemisfilledautomaticallyviathevehicle'selectricalcompressorassoonasthemarginal
conditionsforthisaremet.InordertoperformaleakagetestoftheairsuspensioninService,the
electricalcompressorcanbeswitchedonmanuallytofillthesystemusingtheBMWdiagnosis
systemISTA.Iftheairsuspensionisfilledseveraltimes,theelectricalcompressormaybe
switchedofftopreventthecompressorfrombeingdamaged.

37
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
3.6.Systemwiringdiagram

Systemwiringdiagramofthetwo-axleridelevelcontrolintheG12

38
G12ChassisandSuspension
3.AirSuspension
Index Explanation
1 Rideheightsensor,frontleft
2 EDCvalve,frontleft(ElectronicDamperControl)
3 EDCvalve,frontright(ElectronicDamperControl)
4 DSCrideheightsensor,frontright
5 Powerdistributionbox,frontright
6 BodyDomainController(BDC)
7 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
8 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
9 Rideheightsensor,rearright
10 EDCvalve,rearright(ElectronicDamperControl)
11 Relayforairsupplysystem
12 Positivebatteryterminaldistributor
13 Compressor
14 Solenoidvalveblock
15 Airsupplysystem
16 EDCvalve,rearleft(ElectronicDamperControl)
17 Ride-heightsensor,rearleft
18 CrashSafetyModule(ACSM)
19 Rideheightselectionswitch
20 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

39
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
ThefollowinggraphicprovidesanoverviewofthebrakesystemoftheG12.

OverviewofbrakesystemintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Plug-incontact,wheel-speedsensor,frontright
2 EMFactuator(electromechanicalparkingbrake)
3 Plug-incontact,wheelspeedsensor,rearright
4 Plug-incontact,brakepadwearsensor,rearright
5 Plug-incontact,wheelspeedsensor,rearleft
6 Brakedisc,rearaxle
7 Brakecaliper,rearaxle
8 Auto-Holdbutton
9 Parkingbrakebutton
10 DSCbutton
11 Bearingsupport,pedalmechanism
12 Brakeservo
13 Brakefluidexpansiontank
14 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

40
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
Index Explanation
15 Brakecaliper,frontaxle
16 Brakedisc,frontaxle
17 Plug-incontact,wheel-speedsensor,frontleft
18 Plug-incontact,brakepadwearsensor,frontleft

41
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
4.1.Servicebrakes

4.1.1.Brakedesign
Inordertoenhancethevisualappearanceofthebrakes,Blackpaintedcalipersareoptionalinthe
AutobahanPackage(ZAN).

Versions Frontaxle Rearaxle


Standardcaliper

AutobahnPackagewithBMW
logoprint

MSport

42
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
4.1.2.Pedalmechanismmounting

MountingofthepedalmechanismonthebrakeservolinkageintheG12

Index Explanation
A Brakeservolinkage
B Pedalmechanism
1 Ballhead
2 Plasticclip

AmodifiedmountingisusedintheG12betweenthepedalmechanismandthebrakeservolinkage.
Here,theballheadofthebrakeservolinkageisengagedinaplasticcliponthepedalmechanism.

Anewspecialtoolisneededtoreleasethisconnection.

Partnumber83302409646

Specialtoolforremovingthepedalmechanism

43
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
Whenremovingthepedalmechanism,alwaysobservetheinstructionsinthecurrentrepair
instructions.

4.2.Parkingbrake
TheBMWE65/E66(BMW7Seriesfrom20012008)wasthefirstproductionvehicleintheworld
withanelectromechanicalparkingbrakeEMF.ThiswasfollowedbymanyotherBMWmodelswith
differentelectricalparkingbrakesystems.

Thefollowingadvantagesresultfromtheuseofsuchasystem:

MorestoragespaceduetoomissionofaparkingbrakeleverandparkingbrakeBowdencable.
Contactpressureofbrakepadscorrectlyadjustedatalltimes.
Variousadditionalfunctionstoassistthedriver(e.g.automaticreleasewhendrivingoff).
Higherbrakingpowerofauxiliarybrakesystem.

Thefollowing2differentelectricalsystemsarecurrentlyusedatBMW:

Electromechanicalparkingbrake=Cablepullsystemviaduo-servoparking
brake(Kstersystem).
Electricparkingbrake=Combinedbrakecaliper(TRW/Continentalsystem).

44
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
Thefollowinggraphicshowsacomparisonofthetwosystems.

SystemcomparisonoftheelectromechanicalparkingbrakeintheF01/F02withtheelectricparkingbrakeoftheG12

Index Explanation
A F01/F02(BMW7Seriesfrom20082015)
B G12(BMW7Seriesfrom2015)
1a DSCcontrolunit(DynamicStabilityControl)
1b DSCcontrolunitwithintegratedparkingbrakefunction
(DynamicStabilityControl)
2 Instrumentpanel(KOMBI)
3 Parkingbrakebutton
4 Electricparkingbrakeviaactuatoratcombinedbrakecaliper

45
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
Index Explanation
5 Electromechanicalparkingbrakeviaduo-servoparkingbrake
6 Electromechanicalparkingbrakeactuatorunitwithintegrated
controlunit(electromechanicalparkingbrake)
BDC BodyDomainController
ZGM Centralgatewaymodule

IncontrasttothecablepullsystemintheF01/F02,theelectricparkingbrakesystemwithacombined
brakecaliperfamiliarfromthesmallerseriesisusedintheG12.

Previously,theparkingbrakewasrealizedbymeansofaduo-servoparkingbrakeintheheavyupper
classvehicles.Theadvantageofthissystemisthehighself-lockingforceofthebrakepadswhenthe
parkingbrakeisapplied.

Duetotheincreaseinthepreloadforcesofthecombinedbrakecaliperwithelectricparkingbrake,
itwaspossibletodispensewiththepreviouslyusedcablepullsystemintheG12.Omissionofthe
associatedcomponentsisbeneficialforweightreductionandalsofortherepairfriendlinessofthe
G12.

TheelectricparkingbrakeoftheG12isdifferentiatedaboveallbythefactthatthereisnoseparate
controlunit.TheelectricparkingbrakeisactivatedviathecontrolunitoftheDynamicStabilityControl
(DSC).Thereisaparkingbrakebuttononthecenterconsoleforactivatingordeactivatingtheelectric
parkingbrake.Thedriverisinformedaboutthecurrentsystemstatusviatheinstrumentcluster
KOMBI.

Thebrakepadisappliedwithapreciselycalculatedpreloadforceviatwoactuatorsscrewedonto
thebrakecalipers.AtemperaturemodelisstoredintheDSCcontrolunitwhichmakesitpossibleto
drawconclusionsaboutthebrakedisctemperatures.Asthecontactpressuredecreaseswhenthe
brakediscscooldown,thesystemmustadjustthebrakepadsasappropriate,particularlyifthebrake
discsarehot.Thetimeandfrequencyoftheadjustmentvariesdependingontheinitialtemperature
calculated.

Whentheelectricparkingbrakeisopened,theactuatorsaremovedbackonlyuntilthebrakepads
havereachedtheircorrectlysetclearance.Duetothisreadjustmentfunction,theactuatorsmustbe
movedbackbeforeexchangingthebrakepadsinService.Forthedetailedprocedure,refertothe
currentrepairinstructions.

46
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes

ActuatorforelectricparkingbrakeintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Beltdrive
2 Planetarygears
3 Spindlenut
4 Brakecaliper
5 Electricmotor(DC)

Thereisanelectricmotorwithbeltdriveandplanetarygearonthehousingofthecombinedbrake
caliperwithelectricparkingbrake.Whentheelectricmotorisactivated,theforceistransmittedviathe
beltdriveandplanetarygeartothespindlenut.Thespindlenutgeneratestherequiredstroketoapply
thebrakepad.ThecontrolunitoftheDynamicStabilityControlcandeterminethepreloadforceonthe
basisoftheriseincurrentoftheelectricmotor.

Whencarryingoutservicingwork,anextendedspindlenutcanbetravelledbacktoitsinitialposition
asfollows:

Specialtoolformechanicallyturningback
ServicefunctionWorkshopmodeintheBMWdiagnosissystemISTA

4.2.1.Functions

Dynamicemergencybraking

Iftheparkingbrakebuttonisoperatedduringthejourneyaboveadefineddrivingspeed,theDSCunit
initiatesadynamicemergencybrakingoperation.Apressurebuild-upoccursinall4wheelbrakes
duetoactivationofthe6-pistonpumpandthechangeovervalvesintheDSCunit.Thesliplimitsofall
wheelsaremonitoredwiththeassistanceofthefourwheelspeedsensorstoensureastablebraking

47
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
operationuntilthevehiclecomestoastandstill.Thetwoactuatorsoftheelectricparkingbrakeare
activatedassoonasthevehiclecomestoastandstill.Thevehicleisthensecuredtopreventitfrom
rollingawayonlybymeansoftheparkingbrake.

Automaticreleaseoftheparkingbrake

Thisfunctionallowsthedrivertodriveoffwhentheparkingbrakeisactivatedwithoutoperatingthe
parkingbrakebuttontoreleasethebrake.

Prerequisitesforreleasingtheelectricparkingbrake:

Driver'sdoorisclosed
VehicleconditionDRIVING
Electricparkingbrakeactuated
Drivepositionengaged
Acceleratorpedaloperated

4.2.2.Braketeststand
TheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)hasarollermodesothatthebrakingpoweroftheelectric
parkingbrakecanbecheckedonabraketeststand.Whenrollermodeisactivated,thevehicleis
brakedviatheactuatorsoftheelectricparkingbrakewhentheparkingbrakebuttonispressed.ADSC
pressurebuild-upinthe4wheelbrakesdoesnottakeplace.Thismakesitpossibletodeterminethe
brakeforcesoftheelectricparkingbrake.

IntheG12,rollermodeisautomaticallydetectedonthebasisofaplausibilitycheck(wheelspeed
comparison).Thedetectiontakesamaximumof5seconds(canberecognizedbyslowflashingofthe
redparkingbrakeindicatorlight).

Afteractivationofteststandmodethesystemisinteststandmode.Thisconditionisacknowledged
bytheindicatorlightoftheparkingbrakestartingtoflashatafrequencyof1Hz.Theparkingbrake
canbeappliedin5stagesusingtheparkingbrakebutton.Inthiscase,thebrakingvariesbetween
theminimumbrakingpowerinthefirststageandthemaximumbrakingpoweroncetheparkingbrake
buttonhasbeenpressedfivetimes.Ifthebuttonisoperatedcontinuously,thesystemincreasesthe
brakingpowerautomaticallyincrementallyuptothemaximumbrakingpower.Theflashingfrequency
oftheparkingbrakeindicatorlightchangesfrom1Hzto3Hzwhentheparkingbrakebuttonis
pressedinteststandmode.

Thefollowingpointsmustbeobservedduringthetest:

Donotpresstheaccelerator
DrivepositionN(neutral)
Donotpressthefootbrake

48
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
4.3.Serviceinformation

4.3.1.Servicebrakes
ThestatusofthebrakepadscannotbereadoutpermanentlyviatheCentralInformationDisplay(CID).

Thefollowinggraphicshowsthevehiclestatuswithoutandwithinformationaboutthestatusofthe
brakepadsontheCentralInformationDisplay(CID).

CIDmessageonvehiclestatusintheG12

Index Explanation
A Brakepadwearsensorwithinlimits
B Brakepadwearsensoroutsidelimits
1 Vehiclestatus
2 OKEngineoil
3 OKBrakefluid
4 OKvehicleinspection
5 OKVehiclecheck
6 Brakepadsrear(padwearshortlybeforethewearlimit)

TheG12isequippedwithaone-stagebrakepadwearsensor.Novehiclestatusaboutthecurrent
statusofthebrakepadsisoutputaslongasthissensorhasnotbeengroundbythebrakedisc.

49
G12ChassisandSuspension
4.Brakes
Beforethewearlimitofthebrakepadisreached,thesensorwireoftheone-stagebrakepadwear
sensoriscutthroughbytherotatingbrakediscwhiledriving.Asfromthispoint,thevehiclestatusof
thebrakepadscanbecheckedontheCentralInformationDisplay(CID).Theremainingdistanceuntil
thewearlimitofthebrakepadisreachedis4000-5000km/2500-3100miles,dependingondriving
style.

Inaddition,thedriverisinformedabouttheconditionofthebrakepadsbymeansofthefollowing
warnings.

Remainingdistance YellowCheck RedCheckControlmessage


Controlmessage
<2000km/<1200miles X
0km/0miles X

Thecurrentrepairinstructionsmustalwaysbeobservedinordertoavoidinterferencenoisesafter
brakepadreplacement.

4.3.2.Parkingbrake

Replacingbrakepads

Inordertoreplacethebrakepadsoftherearparkingbrakecalipers,itisfirstnecessarytoturnback
thedrivespindleinthebrakecaliper.Thiscanbedoneeithermanuallyusingaspecialtoolorusingthe
BMWdiagnosissystemISTA.Theparkingbrakebuttonisblockedtopreventuseafteractivationof
workshopmodeviatheBMWdiagnosissystemISTA.Thispreventsinjuryduringthebrakeservice.
Theparkingbrakebuttonisenabledagainatthestartofdrivingorafterexitingworkshopmode.

Afterenablingviathespeedthresholdof3km/h/1.8mph,theparkingbrakemustbere-initializedby
buttonoperation(apply/releasebrake).

Emergencyrelease

Itispossibletomechanicallyturnbackthedrivespindletoreleasetheparkingbrakeafterremoving
theactuatorhousingfromthebrakecaliper.Topreventaccidents,thevehiclemustfirstbesecuredto
preventitfromrollingaway.

Emergencyreleaseoftheelectricparkingbrakeispermittedonlybycorrespondinglytrained
personnel.

50
G12ChassisandSuspension
5.Wheels/Tires
TheG12willbeequippedinthestandardequipmentconfigurationwithrun-flattires.Asparewheelis
availableasoptionalequipment.

Components Standardequipment Optionalequipment


Run-flattires X
Sparewheel(OE300) X

TiresoftheG12

Index Explanation
A Tireswithoutemergencyrunningproperties(NotforUS)
B Run-flattires

Intheeventoftirepressurelossinarun-flattire,thecustomercanstilldriveatarestrictedspeed(max.
80km/h/50mph)foraremainingdistancethatisdependentonthevehicleload.Onvehicleswiththe
optionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDrive,thevehicleweightisautomatically
distributedviatheactiveelectricstabilizerswhendrivingwithanunpressurisedrun-flattiresothat
theunpressurisedwheel(<0.5bar)isrelievedtothemaximumpossibleextentandtheintactwheels
loadedcorrespondingly.Thisensuresthatthemaximumpossibleremainingdistancecanbedriven.
Themaximumpermittedremainingdistancewithmediumloadis80kilometres/50miles.

Furtherinformationonthefunctionoftheactiveelectricstabilizerisprovidedinthesection
AutobahanPackage.

Adamagedrun-flattirecanalsobereplacedbyatirewithoutemergencyrunningpropertiesinthe
eventoftirefailure.However,thetirewithoutemergencyrunningpropertiesmustbereplacedatthe
earliestopportunitybyarun-flattire.

51
G12ChassisandSuspension
5.Wheels/Tires
5.1.Puncturedetectionsystems
Dependingoncountry,theG12isequippedwiththefollowingsystemsforpuncturedetection:

Tirepressurecontrol(RDC)

5.2.TirePressureMonitorRDCi

SystemoverviewoftirepressurecontrolRDCiintheG12

52
G12ChassisandSuspension
5.Wheels/Tires
Index Explanation
1 Wheelelectronics,frontright
2 CentralInformationDisplay(CID)(displayoftirepressurespossible)
3 Wheelelectronics,rearright
4 Remotecontrolreceiver(FBD)
5 Wheelelectronics,rearleft
6 Instrumentpanel(KOMBI)
7 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
8 Wheelelectronics,frontleft

TheG12isequippedwiththeRDCialreadyfamiliarfromtheF15.TheRDCiisasystemwhich
performsdirectmeasurementandwhichdeterminestherealtirepressuresbymeansofwheel
electronicsineachwheel.UnlikewiththeRDClow,aseparateRDCcontrolunitisnotrequiredforthe
RDCi.ThefunctionsoftheRDCiareintegratedintotheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)controlunit.
Theremotecontrolreceiver(FBD)actsasareceiverforthesentreportsofallwheelelectronics.Itthen
forwardsthisinformationviabustotheDSCcontrolunit.

ThepreviousRDCisystemsweresuppliedbyContinental.ThesystemsupplieroftheRDCiintheG12
isthecompanySchrader.Inordertoensurefault-freeoperationofthesystem,itisessentialthatonly
Schraderwheelelectronicsareused.Itisnotpossibletoassumeanyliabilityformalfunctionswith
third-partywheelelectronics.

OntheG12,theresttimesrequiredbythesystembeforethenewwheelelectronicscanbetaught,
havechanged.Previously,avehiclewithRDCihadtobestationaryforanuninterruptedperiodofat
least8minutesindependentlyoftheterminalstatusbeforetheDSCcontrolunitacceptedtheIDs
ofthenewwheelelectronics.

OntheG12,thevehicleconditionisdecisiveforthetimesrequiredbythesystembeforetheIDs
ofnewwheelelectronicsareacceptedandtaught.Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthe
differentconditions.

Vehiclecondition 5minutes 17minutes


Residing/Awake X
Driving X

SothatnewwheelelectronicscanbetaughtbytheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC),astanding
timeofatleast5minutes(Residing/Awake)or17minutes(driving)mustbeobservedafterawheel
exchange.

Ifthestandingtimeofatleast5minutes(Residing/Awake)or17minutes(driving)wasnotreached
beforestartingajourneywithnewwheelelectronics,aCheckControlmessagewillbedisplayedto
thedriverafteracertaintime.Inthiscase,thevehiclemustonlyremainstationaryforanuninterrupted
periodoflongerthan5minutesinResiding/Awakemodeor17minutesinDrivingmode.Thenew
wheelelectronicswillthenbeautomaticallytaughtbythecontrolunitoftheDynamicStabilityControl
(DSC).

53
G12ChassisandSuspension
5.Wheels/Tires

ThevehiclecanalsobeinthevehicleconditionDrivingwhentheenginehasbeenswitchedoffbythe
automaticenginestart-stopfunctionMSA.

Thesystemmustbere-initializedintheeventofchangesinthetirepressuresaswellasafterwheel
exchange.InitializationofthenewtirepressurescanbeperformedusingthecontrollerontheCentral
InformationDisplay(CID).

5.2.1.Wheelelectronics

WheelelectronicsfromSchraderintheG12

Thewheelelectronicsareinthefollowingmodes,dependingonthesystemstatus:

Sleepmode
Teach-inmode
Readinessmode

TherearealsochangesinthetransmissionmodesoftheSchraderwheelelectronicsincomparison
withthetransmissionmodesofthewheelelectronicsfromContinental.Inordertoguaranteethe
longestpossiblebatterycapacity,thewheelelectronicsrequirelongerstandingtimesbeforethey
switchtoteach-inmode.

After15minutesinrestmode(wheelstandstill),thewheelelectronicsstarttotransmitinteach-in
modeassoonastheyareacceleratedtoaspeedfasterthanaround20km/h.Inteach-inmode,the
reportsaresenttotheDSCcontrolunitevery15secondsforapproximately9minutes(40reports).
Transmissioninteach-inmodeallowstheDSCcontrolunittocalculatetheinstallationpositionofthe
respectivewheelelectronics.Thewheelelectronicswillstarttotransmitinreadinessmodeifawheel

54
G12ChassisandSuspension
5.Wheels/Tires
setwaschangedfromonevehicletoanotherwithoutthewheelsethavingbeeninrestmode(wheel
standstill)foranuninterruptedperiodofmorethan15minutes.Teachingofthewheelelectronicsis
notpossibleinreadinessmode.

Balancingofthewheelsetshortlybeforefittingonthevehicleisnotaproblem.Sinceonlyasmall
numberofreportsaretransmittedinteach-inmodeduringbalancing,theremainingreportsare
sufficienttoreliablyteachthewheelelectronics.

ThebatterystatusofthewheelelectronicscanbereadoutviatheBMWdiagnosissystemISTA.
Theremainingbatterylifeisspecifiedinpercent.

DetailedinformationontheoperatingprincipleoftheRDCiisprovidedintheTrainingReference
ManualI01CompleteVehicle.

55
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl

BusoverviewG12

56
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
ACC Activecruisecontrol
ACSM CrashSafetyModule
AHM Trailermodule(NotforUS)
AMPT AmplifierTop(tophighfidelityamplifier)
ASD ActiveSoundDesign
BDC BodyDomainController
CON Controller
DDE DigitalDieselElectronics(NotforUS)
DME DigitalMotorElectronics
DME2 DigitalEngineElectronics2
DSC DynamicStabilityControl
EARSVH Electricactiverollstabilizationrear
EARSVV Electricactiverollstabilizationfront
EGS Electronictransmissioncontrol
EPS ElectromechanicalPowerSteering
FLA High-beamassistant
FLER FrontalLightElectronicsRight
FLEL FrontalLightElectronicsLeft
FZD Rooffunctioncenter
GWS Gearselector
HEADUNIT Headunit
HKARear Automaticrearair-conditioningandheating
climatecontrol
HKFM Tailgatefunctionmodule
HSR Rearaxleslipanglecontrol
IHKA Integratedautomaticheating/airconditioning
KAFAS Camera-baseddriversupportsystems
KOMBI Instrumentpanel
LEM LightEffectManager
NFC NearFieldCommunication
NVE NightVisionElectronics
PCU PowerControlUnit
PMA Parkingmanoeuvringassistant
RFK Reversingcamera
RSE RearSeatEntertainment

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
RSL RadarSensorLeft(avoidanceassistant)
RSR RadarSensorRight(avoidanceassistant)
SAS Optionalequipmentsystem
SCR SelectiveCatalyticReductioncontrolunit(NotforUS)
SMBF Seatmodule,passenger
SMBFH Seatmodule,passenger,rear
SMFA Seatmodule,driver
SMFAH Seatmodule,driver,rear
SPNMHL Seatpneumaticsmodulebackleft
SPNMHR Seatpneumaticsmodulebackright
SWW Lanechangewarning(main)
SWW2 Lanechangewarning(secondary)
TCB TelematicCommunicationBox
TRSVC ControlunitforrearviewcameraandSideView
VDP VerticalDynamicPlatform
VM VideoModule(NotforUS)
VTG VTGcontrolunit
WCA Wirelesschargingtray
ZGM Centralgatewaymodule

ThecontrolunitsthatarerelevanttodrivingdynamicsareinterconnectedviatheFlexRaybus.
Thisbusischaracterizedaboveallbyitshighdatatransferrateof10MBit/s.

Themostimportantsystemsandtheirfunctionsaredescribedinmoredetailbelow.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.1.DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
AlongsidetheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunit,theDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
representsthecoreelementofthedrivingdynamicscontrolsystemsusedtoincreaseactivesafety.It
optimizesdrivingstabilityinalldrivingconditionsandalsotractionwhendrivingoffandaccelerating.
Italsoidentifiesunstabledrivingconditionssuchasundersteeringoroversteeringandhelpsmaintain
thevehicleonasteadycourse.

InstallationpositionofDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)intheG12

Index Explanation
A DSCunit
1 DSCcontrolunit
2 BrakelineconnectionsattheDSChydrauliccontrolunit
3 Returnpump
4 Bracket

TheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)islocatedinthefrontlowerareaofthevehicle.Themanufacturer
designationisTRWDSC-EBC460.Duetothedifferentconnectiondiametersofthebrakelines,
channelconfusionofthevarioushydrauliclinesisnotpossible.

59
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl

DSCunitintheG12

Index Explanation
A DSChydraulicunit
B DSCcontrolunit
1 Pressuresensors
2 Hydraulicdampingelements
3 Returnpumpactivation
4 Solenoidvalves(12x)
5 Controlunitconnector
6 Solenoidvalvecoils(12x)

TheDSCcontrolunitandtheDSChydrauliccontrolunitarescrewedtogether.TheDSCcontrolunit
canbereplacedindividuallytoreduceservicingcosts.

Inolderseries,thedifferentdrivingdynamicssystemsareconnectedviatheIntegratedChassis
Management(ICM)controlunit.ThecontrolunitoftheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)intheG12
hasanadditionalstorageelement(blackbox)inwhichsomeofthefunctionsoftheIntegratedChassis
Management(ICM)arestored.Thedifferentdrivingdynamicscontrolsystemsarecoordinated
perfectlybymeansofthealgorithmsstoredintheblackbox.

Thefunctionsofthetirepressurecontrol(RDC)andelectricparkingbrake(EPB)wereintegratedinthe
DSCcontrolunit.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.1.1.Hydrauliccircuitdiagram

HydrauliccircuitdiagramofTRWDSC-EBC460

Index Explanation
A Installedonlyonhybridversion
B OnlyforoptionalequipmentactivecruisecontrolwithStop&Gofunction
1 Hydraulicdampingelements
2 6-pistonpump
3 DSCpressuresensor
4 Brakemastercylinder
5 Brakefluidexpansiontank
6 Brakeservo
7 Brakepedaltravelsensor
AV Exhaustvalves

61
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
EV Intakevalves
HL Rearaxleonleft
HR Rearaxleonright
TV Separatorvalves
UPS Changeovervalves
VL Frontaxleonleft
VR Frontaxleonright

DifferentDSCversionsareuseddependingonthedrivetypeandequipmentrange.Inthehybrid
version,thereisanadditionalbrakepedaltravelsensoronthefootbrakelever.

IfthevehicleisequippedwiththeoptionalequipmentActivecruisecontrolwithStop&Gofunction,
thereare2additionalpressuresensorsinthehydraulicunit.

6.1.2.Functions
ThefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthedifferentfunctionsoftheDSCunit.

Function Explanation
AntilockBrakeSystem Preventsblockingofindividualwheelswhenbrakingthroughtargeted
(ABS) modulationofthebrakepressures.Vehiclesteerabilityismaintained.
DynamicStability Ifthevehiclestartstoundersteeroroversteer,itisstabilizedbytargeted
Control(DSC) brakeinterventionsatindividualwheels.
DynamicTraction ThisisaspecialmodeoftheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC).
Control(DTC) IninteractionwithASCandDSC,thismodefeaturesextended
interventionthresholdsandpermitsanevensportierdrivingstyle
withoutinterventionsonnormalsurfacesaswellasmaximum
propulsiononloosegroundsuchassnow,sandorcoarsegravel.
CorneringBrake Preventsthevehiclefromturninginwhenitisbrakedlightlyunderhigh
Control(CBC) lateralaccelerationforcesbymeansofasymmetricalcontrolofthebrake
pressure.Thecorneringstabilityisimproved.
AutomaticStability Preventsthedrivewheelsfromspinningbytargetedbrakingofthese
Control(ASC) wheelsandadaptationofthedrivetorquedeliveredbytheengine.
Vehiclepropulsionisoptimizedasaresultanddrivingstabilityis
maintained.
DynamicBrake Intheeventofpanicbrakinginitiatedbythedriver,thesystemsupports
Control(DBC) thedriverbyautomaticallyimmediatelyapplyingthemaximumbrake
pressuretoensurethebestpossibledeceleration.
AutomaticDifferential Replicatesthefunctionofadifferentiallock.Ifawheeldisplaysa
Brake(ADB-X) tendencytospin,thiswheelisautomaticallybrakedsothatpropulsion
canstillbeachievedviatheotherwheelofthedrivenaxle.
Trailerstabilization Automaticallydetectswhenavehiclewithtrailerisstartingtosnake,
control stabilizestheoutfitbytargetedbrakeinterventionsandsimultaneously
deceleratesittoanuncriticalspeedforsnaking.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Function Explanation
Brakestandby Buildsupamoderatebrakepressureinthesystemwhenthedrivertakes
hisfootofftheacceleratorpedalveryquickly.Thebrakepadsareapplied
slightlyasaresult.Thebrakingeffectthenactsmorequicklyifthedriver
thenperformspanicbraking.
Drybyapplyingbrake Dependingonoperationofthewiper,appliesthebrakepadsgentlyat
intervalsinordertodrythebrakediscs.Thebrakingeffectissignificantly
improvedbythiswhenthevehicleisbraked.
Fadingsupport Supportsthedriverwhenbrakingifthebraketemperaturehasbecome
veryhighduetoanextremedrivingstyleandthedesireddeceleration
canbeachievedonlybyapplyingahigherbrakeforce.
Drive-offassistant Holdsthevehicleforapproximately1.5sonuphillgradientswhenthe
driverreleasesthebraketodriveoff.Thisallowsthedrivertodriveoff
comfortablywithoutthevehiclerollingawayonitsown.
AutomaticHold Automaticallyholdsthevehicleafterithascometoastandstillwithout
itbeingnecessarytostillpressthebrakewhenthedrivepositionis
selected.Thebrakeisautomaticallyreleasedwhentheacceleratorpedal
ispressedandthevehicledrivesawaynormally.Thefunctioncanbe
switchedonandoffbymeansofabutton.

Ifatrailertowhitchisretrofitted,thefunctiontrailerstabilizationlogicmustbeencodedintheDSC
controlunit.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.1.3.Systemwiringdiagram

SystemwiringdiagramfortheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)intheG12

64
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
1 Brakepadwearsensor,frontleft
2 Wheel-speedsensor,frontleft
3 Powerdistributionbox,enginecompartment
4 Wheel-speedsensor,frontright
5 Powerdistributionbox,frontright
6 BodyDomainController(BDC)
7 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
8 Wheelspeedsensor,rearright
9 Brakepadwearsensor,rearright
10 Actuator,electricparkingbrakerearright
11 Actuator,electricparkingbrakerearleft
12 Wheelspeedsensor,rearleft
13 CrashSafetyModule(ACSM)
14 ButtonforelectricparkingbrakeandforAutomaticHoldfunction
15 DSCbutton
16 Brakelightswitch
17 Steeringcolumnswitchcluster
18 Instrumentpanel(KOMBI)
19 Brakefluidlevelswitch
20 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

65
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.2.Steering

OverviewofsteeringintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Steeringwheel
2 Uppersteeringcolumnwithsteeringcolumnadjustment
3 Controlunitforsteeringcolumnadjustment
4 Lowersteeringcolumnwithslidingpiece
5 Trackrodend
6 Trackrod
7 Steering-torquesensor
8 EPScontrolunit(ElectronicPowerSteering)
9 ElectricmotorforEPS(ElectronicPowerSteering)

Inelectricsteeringsystems,thesupporttorqueisgeneratedbymeansofanelectricmotor.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Inadditiontothepuresupportfunction,thefrontwheelscaninprinciplebemadetoperformany
steeringmovementindependentlyofthemanualtorqueappliedatthesteeringwheel.Thissystemis
thereforeaprerequisiteforrealizationofalargenumberofassistancefunctionssuchastheParking
ManoeuvringAssistant(PMA).

TheElectronicPowerSteering(EPS)permitsareductionintheaveragefuelconsumptionof
approximately0.3lper100km/62miles.Afurtheradvantageisthatnooilisneededforsteering
assistance.

6.2.1.Steeringwheel
Itispossibletochoosebetween3differentsteeringwheeldesigns.

SteeringwheelversionsintheG12

Index Explanation
A Sportssteeringwheelwithshiftpaddles
B Luxurysteeringwheel
C Standardsteeringwheel(NotforUS)

Intheluxuryversion,theleatherrimfeaturesawoodinlayleathersteeringwheel.Thedrivercan
operatethevariousassistanceanddriverinformationsystemsbymeansofthemultifunctionswitches.

Steeringwheeldiameterofthedifferentversions:

Sportssteeringwheel=382mm
Luxurysteeringwheel=384mm(NotforUS)
Standardsteeringwheel=385mm(NotforUS)

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Additionalfunctionsareoptionallypossible:

Heatedleatherrim.
Transmissionofhapticvibrations(steeringwheelvibration)
Forassistancesystemssuchaslanedepartureorlanechangewarning.
Hands-Offdetection
Forthetrafficjamassistantfunction.
Shiftpaddles
ForthemanualshiftfunctionwiththeautomaticSporttransmission(SA2TB).

6.2.2.Steeringcolumnadjustment

SteeringcolumnadjustmentintheG12

68
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
1 Electricmotor
2 Spindle
3 Controlunitforsteeringcolumnadjustment
4 Steeringshaft

Thesteeringcolumnwithelectricallongitudinalandheightadjustmentallowsthedrivertoassumean
optimumsittinganddrivingpositionthroughseamlessadjustmentofthesteeringwheelposition.

Adjustmentrange:

Heightadjustment=+/-20mm
Forward/backadjustment=-20mm/+40mm

6.2.3.Versionoverview
TheG12isequippedwiththefollowingdifferentsteeringsystems:

Standardsteering12V
IntegralActiveSteering12V
IntegralActiveSteering24V

Components Standard IntegralActive IntegralActive


steering12V Steering12V Steering24V
ElectronicPowerSteeringwith X
normalrackgeometry
ElectronicPowerSteeringwith X X
variablerackgeometry
12Vbattery X X X
12Vauxiliarybattery X
PowerControlUnit(PCU) X
(DC/DCconverter150W)
Rearaxleslipanglecontrol X X
(HSR)

69
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Thefollowinggraphicshowstheinstallationpositionsofthedifferentsystemcomponents.

OverviewofthesteeringsystemsoftheG12

Index Explanation
1 ElectromechanicalPowerSteering
1a Conventionalrackgeometry(standardsteering)
1b Variablerackgeometry(IntegralActiveSteering)
2 PowerControlUnit(PCU)(onlyfor24Vsteering)
3 Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)(IntegralActiveSteering)
4 12Vauxiliarybattery(onlyfor24Vsteering)
5 Separatingelement(onlyfor24Vsteering)
6 12Vbattery
7 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

Withthestandardsteering,theG12isequippedwithconventionalelectromechanicalpowersteering
(12V)withnormalrackgeometry.

70
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
TheoptionalequipmentIntegralActiveSteeringnownolongerconsistsofanactivesteeringsystem
withvariableratiotransmission,buthasbeenreplacedbyanelectromechanicalpowersteeringsystem
withvariablerack(sportsteering)aswellasrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR).Dependingontheaxle
loadsofthefrontvehicleend,a12Vor24Vsteeringsystemisused.Therearaxleslipanglecontrol
(HSR)alwaysoperateswitha12Vvoltage.

Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthedifferentvoltagelevelsoftheelectricsteeringinthe
optionalequipmentIntegralActiveSteering.

Model Engine Rear-wheeldrivewith All-wheeldrivewith


IntegralActiveSteering IntegralActiveSteering
740i B58 12V
750(x)I N63 24V 24V

6.2.4.IntegralActiveSteering

Frontaxle

Ratioofthevariablerackgeometry(OEIntegralActiveSteering)intheG12

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
A Moreindirectsteeringgearratiointhecenterpositionof
thevariablerack(0-45)
B Transitionalrange(45-130)
C Directsteeringgearratiooutsidethecenterpositionof
thevariablerack(>130)
X Steeringanglein
y Steeringgearratioinmm/steeringwheelturn
1 Variablerackgeometry(IntegralActiveSteering)

ThevariablesteeringgearratiointheoptionalequipmentIntegralActiveSteeringisaccomplishedby
thegeometry/pitchofthetoothedgearoftherack.Aroundthecenterpositionofthesteeringgear,the
steeringsystembehavesaccuratelywithsteadydirectionalstability.Asthesteeringanglemovesaway
fromthecenterposition,theratiobecomesincreasinglymoredirect.

SteeringangleoftheIntegralActiveSteeringonthefrontaxleoftheG12

Index Explanation
A Moreindirectsteeringgearratio(variablerackgeometry)
B Directsteeringgearratio(variablerackgeometry)

72
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Rearaxle

Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)intheG12

Index Explanation
1 Trackcontrolarmmounts
2 Electricmotor
3 HSRcontrolunit(rearaxleslipanglecontrol)
4 Spindlepositionsensor(PLCDsensor)
5 Permanentmagnet
6 Carrierplate

Therearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)mountedontherearanglepermitsamaximumsteeringangleof
therearwheelsof+/-3.Asaresult,itwaspossibletoreducetheturningcirclebyapproximately1m
incomparisonwithvehicleswithoutrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR).Therearaxleslipanglecontrolis
availablefromaspeedofapproximately5km/h/3mphuptothemaximumspeed.

TherequesttoadjustthesteeringangleattherearaxleisissuedbytheDynamicStabilityControl
(DSC).Aspindledriveinsidethecomponentisrotatedviatheelectricmotor.Thisproducesalinear
movementatthetwotrackcontrolarms.Usingthepositionsensor,thecontrolunitoftherearaxle
slipanglecontrol(HSR)candeterminethelineardisplacementandthuscalculatethesteeringangle
ofthetworearaxlewheels.

Thespindledriveoftherearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)isself-inhibiting.Thismeansthatthevehicle
hastheidenticaldrivabilitytoavehiclewithoutrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)intheeventofsystem
failure.

73
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Aspecialfixtureisrequiredforalignmentinordertoassemblethecarrierplates.Thisisnotavailable
inService.Forthisreason,thecarrierplatesontherearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)mustnotbe
undone.Ifthisisnotobserved,thewheelalignmentontherearaxlewillbecomeincorrectlyadjusted.

Thecarrierplatesoftherearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)mustnotbeundoneinService

Operatingstrategy

InputandoutputdiagramoftheIntegralActiveSteeringintheG12

Index Explanation
1 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
2 Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)
3 Yawrateandlateralacceleration(ACSM)
4 Wheelspeeds
5 Steeringangle(EPS)

74
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl

OperatingstrategyoftheIntegralActiveSteeringintheG12

Index Explanation
A Oppositesteering
B Parallelsteering

Inthespeedrangeuptoapproximately60km/h/37mph,therearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)steers
intheoppositedirectiontothesteeringanglesofthefrontaxlesteering.Thispermitsincreased
vehiclemanoeuvrability.

Asfromthespeedrangeofapproximately60km/h/37mph,therearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)
steersinthesamedirection.Thisimprovesthedirectionalstabilityofthevehicle.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Drivingdynamicscontrolinterventionswhencornering

Whenchanginglanesquickly,allvehicleshaveatendencytoproduceasignificantyawresponseand
cansometimesstarttooversteer.IftheDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)detectsadeviationbetween
thedriverwishandvehicleresponse,thevehicleisstabilizedbymeansofasteeringinterventionat
therearaxle.Thespeedofthestabilizinginterventionissuchthatitishardlydiscerniblebythedriver.
ItispossibletolargelydowithoutdeceleratingDSCbrakeinterventions.Asaresult,thevehicleis
morestableandthedrivingdynamicsarepreserved.

PossibledrivingdynamicsinterventionsoftheDSCandIntegralActiveSteeringwhencornering

Index Explanation
A Preventionofundersteerbybrakeinterventionsatindividualwheels(DSC)
B Preventionofundersteerbysteeringinterventionsattherearaxle(HSR)
M Yawmomentactingonthevehicleduetoaninterventionbythedriving
dynamicscontrol
1 Courseofanundersteeringvehicle
2 Courseofavehiclewithneutraldrivability
3 Individualbrakemodulation(DSC)
4 Steeringinterventionattherearaxle(HSR)

Ifthedriverunderestimatesabendwhendrivingrapidly,hemaybesurprisedbysuddenundersteer.
Therearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)canalsoperformacorrectiveinterventioninundersteer
situationsandthusadditionalincreasesactivesafety.

76
G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Drivingdynamicscontrolondifferentsurfaces

Hardbrakingmanoeuvresonroadwaysthatareslipperyononesidemakethevehicleyawtothe
vehiclesidewithmoregrip.Intheeventofemergencybraking,thedriverofaconventionalvehicle
musttakecorrectiveaction.Withthisso-called-splitbraking,theDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
providesastabilizingyawmomentviaasteeringinterventionattherearaxle.

-splitbrakingmanoeuvreswithdifferentdrivingdynamicssystems

Index Explanation
A VehiclewithoutDSC
B VehiclewithDSC
C VehiclewithDSCandrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)
(optionalequipmentIntegralActiveSteeringSA2VH)

FurthertoA)WithoutDSC

WhenbrakingwithavehiclewithoutDSC,maximumbrakeforceissupportedonthedrysideofthe
roadandonlylowbrakeforceonthewetoricyside.Ananti-clockwiseyawmomentisproducedwhich
canleadtothevehicleskiddingtotheright.

FurthertoB)WithDSC

WhenbrakingwithavehicleequippedwithDSC,thebrakeforcesatthewheelsaremeteredso
thattheyawmomentactingonthevehicleisreduced.Thevehiclethereforeremainscontrollable.
Thestoppingdistancemaybeincreasedslightly.

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
FurthertoC)WithDSCandrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)

WhenbrakingwithavehicleequippedwithDSCandrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)(optional
equipmentIntegralActiveSteeringSA2VH),theDSCcontrolunitcalculatesthesteeringanglefor
therearwheels.Theactuatorsoftherearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)convertthecalculatedsteering
angleintoanactivesteeringangleatbothrearwheels.Theresultantstabilizingyawmomentallows
themaximumbrakeforcestobeappliedinordertoachievetheshortestpossiblestoppingdistance.
Theperfectinteractionofsteeringandbrakeinterventionthereforeincreasesactivesafetyand
enhancesthedrivingdynamicsofthevehicle.

6.2.5.Serviceinformation
Intheeventofarepair,thesteeringgearcanbefullylowered.Thiseliminatestheneedforcomplex
axledisassemblyandrepaircostsarereducedsignificantly.

Steeringangle

Thesteeringangleiscalculatedbythecontrolunitoftheelectromechanicalpowersteeringusing
therotoranglesensor.Intheeventofalossofthevoltagesupply,thisstoredvalueislostandmust
betaughtagain.Thiscanbedonestaticallybyturningthewheelstotherightandleftwiththeengine
runningordynamicallywhendrivingslowly.

Drivingwithsnowchains

SettingmenufordrivingwithsnowchainsintheG12

Index Explanation
A Snowchainmodedeactivated
B Snowchainmodeactivated

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Inordertoavoiddamagetothewheelarcheswhendrivingwithsnowchains,therearaxleslip
anglecontrol(HSR)mustbefixedinstraight-aheadposition.Thedrivercandothismanuallyusing
thecontrollerontheCentralInformationDisplay(CID).Themaximumpermittedspeedis50km/h(31
mph)hisspeedisexceeded,therearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)switchesonagainautomatically.

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6.2.6.Systemwiringdiagram

24Vsteering

Systemwiringdiagramfor24VsteeringintheG12
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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
1 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
2 Wheel-speedsensor,frontleft
3 Enginecontrolunit(DME)
4 ElectronicPowerSteering(electromechanicalpowersteering)(EPS)
5 Steering-torquesensor1
6 Steering-torquesensor2
7 Wheel-speedsensor,frontright
8 Powerdistributionbox,frontright
9 BodyDomainController
10 Wheelspeedsensor,rearright
11 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
12 PowerControlUnitPCU(DC/DC150W)
13 Separator
14 12Vauxiliarybatteryfor24Vsteering
15 Positivebatteryterminaldistributor
16 Wheelspeedsensor,rearleft
17 CrashSafetyModule(ACSM)
18 Brakelightswitch
19 Steeringcolumnswitchcluster(SZL)
20 Instrumentpanel(KOMBI)

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Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)

Systemwiringdiagramforrearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)intheG12

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Index Explanation
1 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
2 CrashSafetyModule(ACSM)
3 BodyDomainController(BDC)
4 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
5 Positivebatteryterminaldistributor
6 Rearaxleslipanglecontrol(HSR)

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Electricallyadjustablesteeringcolumn

SystemwiringdiagramforelectricallyadjustablesteeringcolumnintheG12

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Index Explanation
1 Powerdistributionbox,frontright
2 BodyDomainController(BDC)
3 Steeringcolumnswitchcluster(SZL)
4 Buttonforsteeringcolumnadjustment
5 Memoryswitch
6 Controlunitforsteeringcolumnadjustment
7 Electricmotor(DC)
8 Electricmotor(DC)

6.3.ElectronicDamperControl(EDC)
Inordertomeetthehighcustomerdemandswithrespecttocomfortanddrivingdynamics,theG12
isequippedasstandardwithElectronicDamperControl(EDC).Theelectronicallycontrolledshock
absorbersformaunitwiththerespectiveairsuspensionstrutandcannotbereplacedseparately.
Thereare2electriccontrolvalvesoneachshockabsorberwhichallowthecompressionandrebound
stagesoftheregulatedshockabsorberstobeadjustedseparatelyfromeachother.Thismakesit
possibletoperfectlycounteractthevibrationsofthebodyandwheels.Thisincreasessafety,comfort
anddrivingdynamics.

6.3.1.Shockabsorberdesign
Theshockabsorbersaresingle-tubegas-filledshockabsorbers.Thegascushionconsistsofnitrogen
atapressureof16.5bar.Thisispressedtogetherandthuscompressedfurtherbytheoildisplaced
whenthepistonrodisretracted.Thehighgaspressurepreventsfoamingoftheoilunderalloperating
conditionsandthusguaranteesoptimumshockabsorberoperation.Inaddition,thehighgaspressure
ensuresthatthepistonrodispressedoutwithaforceofapproximately400N(~40kg).Compression
oftheshockabsorberbyhandisthereforehardlypossible.

Thefollowinggraphicshowstheinternaldesignofanelectricallyregulatedshockabsorber.

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6.DrivingStabilityControl

DesignofEDCshockabsorberintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Pistonrod
2 Workingchamber
3 Overflowduct
4 Controlvalve,compressionstage
5 Comfortvalve,compressionstage
6 Comfortvalve,reboundstage
7 Controlvalve,reboundstage
8 Gaspressurechamber

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Index Explanation
9 Dividingpiston
10 Balancingchamber
11 Bottomvalve
12 Workingchamber
13 Workingpiston

Inordertopermitasportydrivingstyleongoodroadswhilestillabsorbingbumpsonroughroad
surfacesascomfortablyaspossible,theoilflowinsidetheshockabsorbercanbevariablyadjusted.
Thechangesintheoilflowchangetheforcesactingontheshockabsorber.

Theshockabsorberhas2controlvalves,whichallowseparateadjustmentofthedampingforcefor
rebound(reboundstage)andcompression(compressionstage).

Thecontrolvalvesadjustthedampingforcebychangingarestrictorcross-sectionthroughwhichan
oilflowispressed.Thefollowingrelationshipexistsbetweentherestrictorcross-sectionanddamping
force:

Largerestrictorcross-section=lowdampingforce.
Smallrestrictorcross-section=highdampingforce.

Therestrictorcross-sectionandthusthedampingforcecanbeadjustedseamlessfewmilliseconds.

Compressionstage

Duringcompression,theshockabsorberispushedtogethertelescopicallyandoperatedinthe
so-calledcompressionstage.

Rebound

Duringrebound,theshockabsorberisextendedtelescopicallyandoperatedintheso-calledrebound
stage.

6.3.2.Systemoverview
Thedrivingexperienceswitchisusedtoconfiguretheshockabsorberadjustmentsetting.
Itispossibletochoosebetweenasportilyfirmorcomfortablysoftchassisandsuspensionsetup.
Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthesettingoptions.

Drivingmode Characteristics
COMFORTPLUS Comfortable
Comfort/ECOPRO Balanced
Sport Sports

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SystemoverviewoftheElectronicDamperControl(EDC)

Index Explanation
1 ElectronicPowerSteering(electromechanicalpowersteering)(EPS)
2 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,frontright
3 Rideheightsensor,frontright
4 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,frontleft
5 Rideheightsensor,frontleft
6 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
7 BodyDomainController(BDC)
8 AdvancedCrashSafetyModule(ACSM-High)
9 Drivingexperienceswitch
10 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
11 Rideheightsensor,rearright
12 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,rearright
13 Ride-heightsensor,rearleft
14 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,rearleft

TheElectronicDamperControl(EDC)comprisesthefollowingcomponents:

4electricallycontrolledshockabsorberswith2controlvalveseach
VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunit
4rideheightsensorsfordeterminationofwheelmovement
Sensorclusterfordeterminationofbodymovement(lift,pitchandroll)

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunitusesvariousdatasuchasbodymovement,
transverseandlongitudinalacceleration,steeringangleandtheroadconditiontocalculatewheel-
individualcontrolcommandsfortheelectricalcontrolvalvesintheshockabsorbers.Inthisway,the
dampingforceoftheindividualshockabsorbersiscontinuouslychangedapproximately100times
persecond.Thismeansthatdemand-basedadjustmentofthedampingforceisalwayspossible
corresponding
tothedrivingsituation.

Fewervehiclebodymovementsarepermittedifasportierdrivingmodeisselected.Theshock
absorbersareadjustedtoahardsettingmorequicklyandmoreoften.Thisautomaticallyresults
inalossofcomfort.

Inthestandardequipmentconfiguration,informationabouttheverticalbodymovements(pitch,roll
andlift)ismadeavailablebytheCrashSafetyModuleACSM-High.Theretractionandextension
speedsoftheshockabsorbersaredeterminedbymeansoftherideheightsensors.

IfthevehicleisequippedwiththeoptionalequipmentActiveComfortDrive(SA2VS),thereare
additionalwheelaccelerationsensors.Theseareusedamongotherthingsformorepreciseregulation
oftheElectronicDamperControl(EDC).

Thefollowingtableshowsthedifferentcomponentsuseddependingonthechassisandsuspension
package.

Component Basicchassis ActiveComfortDrive


andsuspension
Wheelaccelerationsensors X
ACSM-High X
ACSM-Low X

AmoredetaileddescriptionoftheoptionalequipmentActiveComfortDrive(SA2VS)isprovided
inalaterchapter.

6.3.3.Electricalshockabsorbercontrol
Thecontrolvalvesofthereboundandcompressionstagesareactivatedviapulse-widthmodulated
signalsfromtheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunit.Thecontrolvalvesareopeninde-
energizedcondition.Theshockabsorberisinthemaximumsoftsettinginthiscondition.

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Controlofthecompressionstage

ControlofcompressionstageontheshockabsorberoftheG12

Index Explanation
A Shockabsorbermovement
B Oilflow
1 Mainvalve,compressionstage
2 Workingpiston
3 Mainvalve,reboundstage
4 Bottomvalve
5 Gaspressurechamber
6 Controlvalve,reboundstage
7 Comfortvalve,reboundstage
8 Comfortvalve,compressionstage
9 Controlvalve,compressionstage

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Whenthepistonrodisretracted,theoilvolumedisplacedbytheretractingpistonispressedthrough
thebottomvalveintothecompensatingreservoirandgeneratesadampingforceatthebottomvalve
intheprocess.Theoilvolumedisplacedbytheworkingpistonispressedthroughthecomfortand
controlvalveofthecompressionstageandthuspassesfromtheworkingchamberbelowtheworking
pistonintotheworkingchamberabovethepiston.Therestrictorcross-sectioninthecontrolvalve
adjuststhedampingforce.Theoilflowisforcedthroughthemainvalvewhenthecontrolvalveis
closed.Themaximumpossibledampingforceisthenset.

Controlofthereboundstage

ControlofreboundstageontheshockabsorberoftheG12

Index Explanation
A Shockabsorbermovement
B Oilflow
1 Mainvalve,compressionstage
2 Workingpiston
3 Mainvalve,reboundstage

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Index Explanation
4 Bottomvalve
5 Gaspressurechamber
6 Controlvalve,reboundstage
7 Comfortvalve,reboundstage
8 Comfortvalve,compressionstage
9 Controlvalve,compressionstage

Whenthepistonrodisextended,thegaspressureforcesthenecessarycompensationvolumeout
ofthecompensatingchamberthroughthebottomvalveintotheworkingchamberbelowtheworking
piston.Theoilvolumedisplacedbytheworkingpistonispressedthroughthecomfortandcontrol
valveofthereboundstageandthuspassesfromtheworkingchamberabovetheworkingpistoninto
theworkingchamberbelowthepiston.Therestrictorcross-sectioninthecontrolvalveadjuststhe
dampingforce.Theoilisforcedthroughthemainvalveofthereboundstagewhenthecontrolvalve
isclosed.Themaximumpossibledampingforceisthenset.

6.4.Anti-rollbar
Thefollowinganti-rollbarsareusedontheG12dependingonthevehicleequipment:

Standardequipment
Conventionalanti-rollbaronfrontandrearaxles.
Optionalequipment(ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
ElectricactiverollstabilizationonfrontandrearaxleEARSVV/EARSVH.

ComparisonofconventionalandactiverollstabilizationinstationaryconditionoftheG12

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
A Conventionalpassiverollstabilization
B Activerollstabilization
aq Lateralacceleration
Fq Transverseforce
h Distancebetweenrollaxisandcenterofgravity(leverarm)
Ma Momentofactivestabilizer
Mw Rollmoment
RA Rollaxis
SP centerofgravity
Rollangle

Whencornering,thelateralacceleration(aq)actsatthevehiclecenterofgravity(SP).Thebodyrolls
abouttherollaxis(RA),whichisdefinedbythekinematicsofthefrontandrearaxles.Thisresultsin
therollangle().

OnvehicleswiththeoptionalequipmentActiveComfortDrive(SA2VS),therollmoment(Mw)can
becompensatedsolelybytheactivestabilizersuptoacertainlateralacceleration.Arollangle()
buildsuponlywhentherollmoment(Mw)exceedsthecounter-torque(Ma)setbytheactivestabilizer.

Thefollowingdiagramshowsacomparisonofthedifferentrollanglesofbothanti-rollbarsasa
functionofthelateralacceleration.

Rollanglediagramoftheconventionalanti-rollbarandactivestabilizer

Index Explanation
A Conventionalrollstabilization
B Activerollstabilization
aqin[m/s] Lateralaccelerationinmetrespersecondsquared
in[] Rollangleinangulardegrees

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6.5.Standardsuspension

Conventionalanti-rollbarintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Rearaxleanti-rollbar
2 Frontaxleanti-rollbar

Asstandard,conventionalanti-rollbarsonthefrontandrearaxlesreducetherolltendencyofthe
bodyduringfastcorneringorfastavoidancemanoeuvres.However,therearealsocomfortlossesin
thecaseofone-sidedroadbumpsduetothetorsionspringcharacteristicsofaconventionalanti-
rollbar.Ifaconventionalanti-rollbarisexcitedbyapulseatawheelononeside,thisleadstospring
oscillationsoftheanti-rollbarsothatthewheelattheotherendoftheanti-rollbaralsoperformsor
"copies"theseoscillations.Sincetheanti-rollbarispivot-mountedonthebody,thedriveralsofeels
therolloscillationscausedbythisso-called"copying".

6.5.1.Chassisandsuspensionsetup
Vehicledrivabilitywhencorneringcanbegreatlyinfluencedbyanti-rollbarsonthefrontandrearaxles.
Adecisivefactorhereistherollmomentratiobetweenthefrontandrearvehicleaxles.
Thisratiodependsontherespectiveanti-rollbarmomentsofthetwoaxles.

Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthepossiblerollmomentratiosandtheresultanthandling
ofthevehicle.

Anti-rollbar Rollmomentratio Understeer Oversteer


Frontaxlesoft/ <50% X
rearaxlehard
Frontaxlehard/ >50% X
rearaxlesoft

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Thefollowinggraphicshowsthepercentagedistributionoftheanti-rollbarmoments(rollmoment
ratio)ofthefrontandrearaxleswhenconventionalanti-rollbarsareused.

Percentagedistributionoftheanti-rollbarmomentsonavehiclewithconventionalanti-rollbars

Index Explanation
A Understeeringrollmomentratio
Mkin[%] Momentdistributionofconventionalanti-rollbarsinpercent
vin[km/h] Drivingspeedinkilometersperhour
1 Conventionalanti-rollbaronthefrontaxle
2 Conventionalanti-rollbarontherearaxle

Withaconventionalanti-rollbar,therollmomentratioisoptimallyadaptedtotherespectivevehicle.
Itisaimedtoachievehandlingwithslightundersteer.Fornormaldrivers,anoversteeringvehicleis
moredifficulttocontrolthananundersteeringvehicle.

6.6.ActiveComfortDrive
ThepreviouslyknownoptionalequipmentAdaptiveDriveisreplacedintheG12bytheenhanced
suspensioncontrolsystemActiveComfortDrive.

Thevariousdrivingdynamicscontrolsystemsarenetworkedtogetherintheoptionalchassisand
suspensionpackageActiveComfortDriveinordertoachieveperfectdrivingdynamicscombined
withhighridecomfort.InformationisreadinfromalargenumberofsensorsbytheVerticalDynamics
Platform(VDP)controlunitandthecorrespondingcontrolcommandsareoutputtothedifferent
actuators.Theaimistoabovealldetectroadbumpsandobstaclesaheadasearlyaspossibleand
toderiveappropriatecounter-measures.

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Thefollowinggraphicprovidesanoverviewoftheoverallsystem.

SystemoverviewoftheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDriveintheG12

Index Explanation
1 ElectricactiverollstabilizationfrontEARSVV(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
2 ElectronicPowerSteering(electromechanicalpowersteering)(EPS)
3 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontright(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
4 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,frontright
5 Rideheightsensor,frontright
6 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontleft(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
7 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,frontleft
8 Rideheightsensor,frontleft
9 12Vbattery(optionalequipmentActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
10 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)
11 BodyDomainController(BDC)
12 Stereocamera(optionalequipmentActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
13 AdvancedCrashSafetyModule(ACSM-Low)
14 Drivingexperienceswitch
15 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
16 Rideheightsensor,rearright
17 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,rearright

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Index Explanation
18 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearright(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
19 Ride-heightsensor,rearleft
20 Controlvalvesforshockabsorberadjustment,rearleft
21 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearleft(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
22 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)
23 PowerControlUnit(PCU)(optionalequipment
ActiveComfortDriveSA2VS)

TheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDrivehasthefollowingadditional
components:

Wheelaccelerationsensorsonall4wheelcarriers
Electricactivestabilizersonthefrontandrearaxles
Anadditional12VbatteryaswellasaDC/DCconverter
Astereocamerainthewindscreen

WheelaccelerationsensorsareusedintheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfort
Driveforthefollowingreasons:

Moreprecisedisturbancevariablecontroloftheelectricactivestabilizers(EARSV)possible.
Avoidanceofso-calledcopyingfromonewheeltotheotherintheeventofroadbumps.
PreciseregulationoftheElectronicDamperControl(EDC)ispossiblethroughdetection
ofthewheelmovementviathewheelaccelerationsensorsandthebodymovementviathe
rideheightsensors.
Processingofthetwoinformationsourcesallowsuseofasimplifiedcontrolunitversion
oftheCrashSafetyModule(ACSM-Low).

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.6.1.Predictivecontrol

PredictivecontroloftheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDriveintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Satellite
2 Navigationdata
3 Stereocamera(KAFAScamera3)
4 Controllableshockabsorber,frontleft
5 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
6 Controllableshockabsorber,frontright
7 DynamicStabilityControl(DSC)

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
8 Controllableshockabsorber,rearright
9 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunit
10 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)
11 Controllableshockabsorber,rearleft

Inordertopreparethechassisandsuspensionforthedifferentroadconditionsasearlyaspossible,
thefollowingdataisreadinfromvariouscontrolunitsandprocessedtoallowpredictivecontrol:

IfADAPTIVEdrivingmodehasbeenactivatedviathedrivingexperienceswitch,theDynamic
StabilityControlcontrolunitprocessesthenavigationdatatoanalysestherouteand
influencesthedrivingprogramtobeactivatedifnecessary.Ifthevehicleisapproachinga
sharpbendathighspeed,forexample,theDynamicStabilityControl(DSC)activatesSport
modewithoutanyactiononthepartofthedriver.TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)reads
inthisinformationandactivatesthecorrespondingchassiscomponentsforSportmode.
Conversely,anautomaticchangeindrivingprogramfromSporttoComfortisalsopossible.
Ifthevehicleexitsatwistingsectionofroadthroughwhichithasbeendrivenatspeedand
thendrivesatconstantspeedonastraightsection,thisresultsinautomaticchangeovertothe
Comfortdrivingprogram.Thismeansthattheoptimumdrivingmodewithrespecttocomfort
(Comfort)anddrivingdynamics(Sport)isautomaticallysetwithoutmanualoperationofthe
drivingexperienceswitchdependingonthedrivingstyleandprobableroute.
Routeguidanceneednotbeactivatedforthis.
TheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)readsintheinformationofthestereocamerainthe
windscreenindependentlyoftheselecteddrivingmodeandprocessesthis.

Inaddition,alargequantityofadditionalinformationsuchasthedrivingstyleanalysisisreadinbythe
VerticalDynamicPlatform(VDP)controlunitandusedforpredictivecontrolofthestandardElectronic
DamperControl(EDC)aswellastheelectricactivestabilizers(EARSV).

Obstaclescanthereforebeovercomepredictivelyandwithevenmorecomfort.Thedriverisevenless
awareofbumps.Thebodyofthevehicledoesnothavetomoveverticallytothesameextentsincethe
chassisandsuspensionreactintelligentlyandpredictivelytoroadbumps.

TheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDrivethereforeoffersthefollowing
advantages:

Reducedcompressionandrebound(EDC).
Reducedpitchmovement(EDC).
Fasterdecayofvehiclebodyreverberations(EDC).
Highdrivingdynamicswhencorneringthankstoactiverollstabilization(EARSV).
Highcomfortforstraight-aheaddrivingduetodecouplingofanti-rollbarhalves
andthusavoidanceofroadbump"copying"(EARSV).

Thefunctionsofthechassisandsuspensionpackage"ActiveComfortDriveareavailableindifferent
formsinthefollowingpositionsofthedrivingexperienceswitch.

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Drivingexperienceswitch Electricactiveroll ElectronicDamper
position stabilizationEARSV Control(EDC)
COMFORTPLUS Balanced Comfortable
Comfort/ECOPRO Balanced Balanced
Sport Sporty Sporty

Asaresultofintelligentnetworkingofthesystems,failureofonesensorsystem,e.g.thestereo
cameraduetopoorvisibility,canbesufficientlycompensatedbytheotheravailablesensors.
Theridecomfortanddrivingdynamicsthusremainataveryhighlevelunderallconditions.

Thefollowinggraphicshowsaninputandoutputdiagramofthevariouscomponentsforcontrol
oftheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDriveintheG12.

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6.DrivingStabilityControl

InputandoutputdiagramoftheoptionalchassisandsuspensionpackageActiveComfortDriveintheG12

Index Explanation
1 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
2 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
3 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)
4 ElectronicDamperControl(EDC)(4x)
5 Steeringangle(EPS)
6 Navigationdata
7 Wheelspeeds(DSC)

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Index Explanation
8 Wheelaccelerations
9 Rideheights
10 Drivingmode
11 Roadprofile(stereocamera)
12 Lateralandlongitudinalaccelerationandyawrate(ACSM-Low)
13 Vehiclespeed

6.6.2.Electricactiverollstabilization(EARSV)
Asthefirstvehiclemanufacturerworldwide,BMWuseselectricactivestabilizersinsteadofthe
previouslyusedhydraulicactivestabilizers.Theelectricactivestabilizersintheoptionalequipment
ActiveComfortDrive(SA2VS)reducetherolltendencyofthebodyinbendsbytargetedapplication
ofmechanicalmomentsonthestabilizerhalvesbymeansofanelectricmotor.

Thefollowinggraphicshowsaschematicsystemcomparisonbetweentheactivehydraulicstabilizer
andtheactiveelectricstabilizer.

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Schematiccomparisonofhydraulicactivestabilizerandelectricactivestabilizer

Index Explanation
A HydraulicactivestabilizerARS(F01/F02)
B ElectricactivestabilizerEARSV(G12)
1 Engineoilcooler
2 Hydraulicactivestabilizerfront(ARS)
3 Expansiontank
4 Hydraulicpump
5 Valveblock
6 VerticalDynamicsManagementcontrolunit(VDM)
7 Hydraulicactivestabilizerrear(ARS)
8 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
9 12Vbattery(vehicleelectricalsystemsupport)

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Index Explanation
10 Vehicleelectricalsystem
11 PowerControlUnitPCU(DC/DCconverter500W)
12 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)controlunit
13 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)

Electrificationoftheactivestabilizeroffersthefollowingadvantages:

Simpleintegrationinfullhybriddrivesystems
Activerollstabilizationispossibleduringpurelyelectricdriving.
Simpledecouplingofthestabilizerhalvesduringstraight-aheaddriving
Improvedridecomfortduetopreventionofroadbump"copying"
Increasedefficiency
Energyisrequiredexclusivelyduringthecontrolactionsanddoesnotneedtobe
keptpermanentlyavailablelikeinahydraulicsystem.
Self-aligningforceswhichactontheelectricmotorinthestabilizercanbepartially
convertedintoelectriccurrentandfedbackintothevehicleelectricalsystem.

SystemoverviewofelectricactiverollstabilizationEARSV

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Index Explanation
1 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
2 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontright
3 12Vbatteryinenginecompartment(vehicleelectricalsystemsupport)
4 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearright
5 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
6 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
7 PowerControlUnit(PCU)(DC/DCconverter500W)
8 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)
9 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearleft
10 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontleft

Aparticularadvantagewhichcontributesabovealltoincreasingridecomfortisthepreventionof
so-called"copying".Whenthevehicleisdrivingstraight-aheadanddrivesoverroadbumps,electric
activerollstabilizationEARSVpermitspracticallyfulldecouplingoftheleftandrightsidestothat
copyvibrationsarealmostexcluded.Theelectricactivestabilizersthereforecompensateforthe
disadvantagesofconventionalanti-rollbars.

Thefollowingvariablesaremainlyusedforcalculationoftherequiredactivationoftheelectricactive
stabilizers.

Currentlateralandlongitudinalacceleration
Vehiclespeed
Steeringangle
Wheelacceleration
Rideheights

Theincipientrollmoment(Mw)israpidlycounteractedbyfastprocessingofthedataandactivation
ofelectricactiverollstabilization(EARSV).

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SectionalviewofanelectricactivestabilizerintheG12

Index Explanation
1 Groundconnection
2 Electricalconnection
3 Controlunit(EARSVV/EARSVH)
4 Electricmotor
5 Planetarygear(three-stage)
6 Decouplingelement
7 Anti-rollbarlink
8 Torquesensor

TheactivestabilizersreceivethecontrolrequestfromtheVerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)control
unit.Thebustelegramsarereadinandprocessedbythecontrolunitsofthetwoactivestabilizers
(EARSVV/EARSVH).Thetwostabilizerhalvesaretwistedwithrespecttoeachotherbyactivationof
theelectricmotor.Centralenergyconversiontakesplaceinthepermanentlyexcitedsynchronous
motor,whosedirectionofrotation,torqueandspeedarecontrolledviathesetrotatingfield.

Powertransmissiontakesplaceviathethree-stageplanetarygear,whichconvertsthetorqueof
theelectricmotortotherequiredstabilizeroutputtorsiontorquewitharatioof1:158.Amaximum
stabilizertorsiontorqueof750NmiscurrentlyimplementedintheG12.Thesystemisdesignedfor
significantlyhighertorsiontorquesinordertoalsopermitcompensationofsuperpositioneffects
duetoroadbumps.

Theelastomerdecouplingelementbetweentheplanetarygearandstabilizertorsionspringhasthe
taskofdecouplinghighlydynamic,low-amplitudeexcitationsfromtheroad.Thisthusmakesafurther
contributiontomeetingthehighcomfortgoals.

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Atorquesensorinsidethecomponentprovidesfeedbackonthecurrentcontroltorquestothecontrol
unit.Aplausibilitycheckofthedataallowsvariousfaultstobedetectedandthenstoredintheformof
afaultcodeentry.However,repairofthecomponentisnotpossible.Theactiveelectricstabilizermust
bereplacedasacompleteunitintheeventofamechanicalcomponentdefect.

Sincetheelectricactivestabilizerwillbeavailableinothervehiclemodelsinfuture,thecontrolunit
mustbetaughtfortherespectivevehiclebymeansofversionencodingafterinstallation.Thisensures
thattheelectricactivestabilizerprovidesthecorrectcontroltorquesforthevehicleinquestion.

Technicaldata

Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthetechnicaldataoftheelectricactivestabilizer.

ElectricactiverollstabilizationEARSV Technicaldata
Weight 14kg/30lbs
Maximumcontrolunittemperature 120C/248F
Maximumelectricmotortemperature 160C/320F
Maximumelectricmotortorque 7.5Nm/5.5ft-lbs
Maximumstabilizertorque 750Nm/553ft-lbs
Maximumcurrentconsumption 120A
Maximumcurrentoutput -100A

Thevaluesformaximumcurrentconsumptionandmaximumcurrentoutputarethevaluesthatare
possibleforshort-timeoperation.

CurrentconsumptionandcurrentoutputoftheelectricactivestabilizerintheG12

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Theabovegraphicshowsthecurrentconsumptionandoutputoftheelectricactivestabilizerfora
drivingmanoeuvrewithapproximately30%energyrecovery.Itmustbenotedthatthisdiagramisjust
asnapshotrepresentation.Dependingonthedrivingmanoeuvre,theactivationpowerandenergy
recoveryoftheelectricactivestabilizermaydifferconsiderably.

FunctiondiagramoftheDC/DCconverterintheG12

Index Explanation
A 12Vvehicleelectricalsystem
B Consumesofelectricactivestabilizers
1 Startermotor
2 Alternator
3 12Vbattery
4 Consumersofthe12Vvehicleelectricalsystem
5 PowerControlUnit(PCU)(DC/DCconverter500W)
6 12Vbatteryinenginecompartment(vehicleelectricalsystemsupport)
7 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
8 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)

Inordertoensurethattheconsumersofthe12VvehicleelectricalsystemintheG12arenot
influencedbythehighloadcurrentsofthetwoelectricactivestabilizers,thestabilizershavebeen
isolatedfromthebasisvehicleelectricalsystembymeansofaDC/DCconverter(500W).

Therequireenergyforactivationisprovidedbyanadditional12Vbatterylocatedintheengine
compartment.Thismeansthatotherconsumersarenotaffectedbythehighenergyconsumption.

Thebatteryisanauxiliarybatterwhichsuppliesthevehicleelectricalsystemwithpowerdepending
onthevehicleequipment.Forthisreason,thebatterymayalsobepresentevenifthevehicleisnot
equippedwithelectricactivestabilizers.

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.6.3.Controlstrategy
Vehicledrivabilitywhencorneringcanbegreatlyinfluencedbyanti-rollbarsonthefrontandrear
axles.Adecisivefactorhereistherollmomentratiobetweenthefrontandrearvehicleaxles.Thisratio
dependsontherespectiveanti-rollbarmomentsofthetwoaxles.

Thefollowingtableprovidesanoverviewofthepossiblerollmomentratiosandtheresultanthandling
ofthevehicle.

Anti-rollbar Rollmomentratio Understeer Oversteer


Frontaxlesoft/ <50% X
rearaxlehard
Frontaxlehard/ >50% X
rearaxlesoft

Thefollowinggraphicshowsthepercentagedistributionofthestabilizermoments(rollmomentratio)
oftheactivestabilizersonthetwovehicleaxles.

Characteristiccurveofactivestabilizeronfrontandrearaxles

Index Explanation
A Understeeringrollmomentratio
B Neutralrollmomentratio
Main[%] Momentdistributionofactivestabilizersinpercent
vin[km/h] Drivingspeedinkilometersperhour
1 Activestabilizeronthefrontaxle
2 Activestabilizerontherearaxle

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Theactivestabilizerallowstherollmomentratiotobeadaptedtotherespectivedrivingsituationin
ordertoincreasethedrivingdynamics.Therollmomentratiois50:50(neutral)inthelowerspeed
range(0~50km/h).Therollmomentratioisadjustedtowardsundersteerwithincreasingspeed.

Applicationofrollmomentsviatheactivestabilizerinfluencesthecorneringforcesthatcanbe
transferredbythetires.

Thefollowinggraphicshowsthemaximumcorneringforcesthatcanbetransferredwhencornering
asafunctionoftheappliedstabilizermoments.

Diagramofapositiverollmomentratiothroughcontrolvia2activestabilizers

Index Explanation
A Largemomentoftheactivestabilizeronthefrontaxle
B Lowmomentoftheactivestabilizerontherearaxle
C Increaseintransferablecorneringforceatthewheel
D Reductionintransferablecorneringforceatthewheel
E Resultanttransferablecorneringforceatthewheelsofanaxle
FS Transferablecorneringforceatthewheel
FN Verticalwheelforce
HL Forceofactivestabilizeratrearleftwheel

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G12ChassisandSuspension
6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
HR Forceofactivestabilizeratrearrightwheel
Ma Activestabilizermoment
VL Forceofactivestabilizeratfrontleftwheel
VR Forceofactivestabilizeratfrontrightwheel

Whencornering,acounter-torque(Ma)isappliedbytheactivestabilizerstocounteracttheacting
rollmoment(Mw).Themoments(Ma)applieddependingontheactionoftheactivestabilizerseither
increaseorreducethetirecontactforcesofthedifferentwheels.

Ifawheelisloadedwithaparticularlyhighforcebytheactivestabilizer,itstransferablecorneringforce
increasesduetothehighertirecontactforce.Incontrast,theloadontheoppositewheelisrelieved,
anditscorneringforceisthusreducedduetothelowertirecontactforce.Theresultanttirecontact
forcescharacterisethetransferablecorneringforcesofthewheelsonanaxle.

Sincethereductioninthetransferablecorneringforcesoftherelievedwheelisproportionatelyhigher
thantheincreaseinthetransferablecorneringforcesoftheloadedwheelasaresultofincreasing
activestabilizerforce,thismeansthatthereisareductionintheresultantcorneringforceofthewheels
onthisaxle.

Inthedirectcomparisonofthetwoaxlesintheabovediagram,itcanbeseenthattherearaxlecan
transferahigherresultanttransferablecorneringforcethanthefrontaxle.Inthelimitrange,thevehicle
wouldthereforepushoverthefrontwheels,i.e.understeer.

Itiseasierforaninexperienceddrivertoregaincontroloverthevehicleagaininthissituationthanif
thevehicleweretooversteer(vehicleskidsattherearaxle).

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
6.6.4.SystemwiringdiagramofelectricactiverollstabilizationEARSV

SystemwiringdiagramofelectricactiverollstabilizationEARSVintheG12

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6.DrivingStabilityControl
Index Explanation
1 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontleft
2 Electricactiverollstabilizationfront(EARSVV)
3 Powerdistributionbox,enginecompartment
4 Wheelaccelerationsensor,frontright
5 12Vbatteryinenginecompartment(vehicleelectricalsystemsupport)
6 BodyDomainController(BDC)
7 Powerdistributionbox,frontright
8 VerticalDynamicsPlatform(VDP)
9 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearright
10 Rearrightpowerdistributionbox
11 Electricactiverollstabilizationrear(EARSVH)
12 Wheelaccelerationsensor,rearleft
13 KAFAScameracontrolunit
14 Stereocamera

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