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II

. . , . . , . .


.
,
. .



-
1978
32.841
05
538.3


20407179
100-79 -
1978

S 1. 7
2. -
10
3.
16
4. 21
5. 26
6. -
27
7. 33
44

II

8. 58
9. 62
10. 71
S 11. 87
12. 102
113

13. 123
14. 127
$ 15.
130
16. 13S
17. 139
18. 145
J 19. 153
| 20. 158
21. . 164
1*
4

22. 16
23. 172
18S

IV

24. lOi.
25. 197
26. . -
208
27.
215
28. 220
29. 229
30. 233
31. 241
251

V

.

32. 256
33. 261
34. ,
271
35. 279
36. . . . . 286
37. 290
292

VI

38. 297
39. -
306
40. 308
41. 316
42. . -
330
336

VII



43. 342
44. -
349
5

45. . . . . 355
46. -
364
47.
372
379

VIII

48.
385
49. --
401
50. .
413
426

IX

51. . ,-_._. . . . 429


52. . 442
53. . 451
455
456

, ,
,
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,
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. I,
.
I ( 7), II, IV, V IX . . -
, I I I . , 7 I VI VIII
. . .
. .
I

1.
I , ,
g(a),
"; ^-
I.
, (, , . . . ) , -
( , , . . . ) .
, :
t = (, , ). , , -
(t, r) , -
-
( t) (,, ).
,
N \U)(t, ), = 1,2, . . . . N,
//- , //- -
| 1 " (t), 1 = 1,2, .. ., N.
I'1'1 (t, ) -
. ,
, , v
. -
, , , -
| (t, )
-
, , , . . -
- . -

(, ) (v).
, ' '-
. I , -
,
8 1. 1

, , --
, , , z, t. ( -
) ,
.
Q = ((, ) -
. | (Q)
, -, , -
, - (^-1,2, . . . ) , , . .
Qv

{Ei, . . . . U i <.=
= P{Sv<5C?v)<?v+4v (v = i , 2 , . . . , )}, (l.i)
{ ^ I (Q) < l + dfy , -
1
l(Q) , (1,% + dg) ).
, , () JV--

| (Q) - -

WN(1?\ , . VN>)diidU1' . . . < =


= ^ { g i < & " ) ( < 3 v ) < i i i ) + ^ ) . v - 1 , 2 , . . . . , i = l , 2
ft
N\.
(1.2)
, , -
, ,
(. I, 14).

. -
| ( ), . . ')
/ , , z, - -
wn -
Q - + Q ] 8Q:
I 4v, v = i , 2 , . . . , } -
i(Qv)<^v + dlv, v - l , 2 , . . . , n } . (1.3)
'- | ' ; ' -
6Q
iV- wnN, -
( (-) ( (I 1 , 2 , . . .
. . . , .V).
-
( wn no -

) -

2
, 7.
) .
1J
9
> + 6)

(. I, 16). , , , t
, :
, .
, , Q-,
, -
, , -
. ,
,
.
,
| .
: Qv=(tv, r v ). -
-
( ), -
. -
, .
g (Q) ( -
) -
0> ()'):
<? ()> = $ 5 ^ ( 1 ) 4 - (1.4)
| , . . | < | > ,
- :
i^g-<> = S-I. (1.5)
| -
ffia(|j, 5):
. Bt(Qlt Q 1 ) - < 1 ( Q 1 ) | ( Q , ) > = S S E I E , , ( 5 I , E,)*6idE,. (1-6)
(,
):

- JJ (,-<*<.-<..(Ei. dEi, =
ej-<E?i)><S ?)>. 0-7)

Bt(Qi, Qa) = <i(Q,)E(Q 2 )> t&(Qi, Q.) .
*)
, , , ,
. I, , <|> = | .
10 (. I

>[], . . ,
/)[E] = o i ( Q ) - < i ' ( C ) > = <[E?)-<E)>]*> = *e(Q. Q)- d-8)
51, (" (Q)
<"' (Q)>

(1,2) = <">(1 )6*>(2)> (1.9)
, ,

<2j Qa
1 2. -
^ w ( l , 2 ) , a
|1,(1,2)

g<ft>_
1(Q), -
, -

C(Q) = 6W) + 4(Q). (I.")
= ) = 1 Q-.

(<?) 2- -
1 (llt ,.., ; ) ( = 1,2, . . . ) ,

(, v = l , 2 . ...,/t)}
(1.1). ai sn
, , -
. -
, -
.

2. [

,
, . . .
, , 6.
,
:
2]

()
%

= < (,) (r s )>-< (1)> < ()>. (2.1)


, = 2 = , :
* ( 1 ). (2.2)

*Mri> ) (. I,
14, 17, 18 38). .
^ ( ^ 2) :
%(<-!, ) = ( r i). (2-3)
(2.1). -
(? = ) -
:
%(i\, r s ) = i|>t(ra, r x ). (2.4)
, iji^r,, ) -
^) |( 2 ):
|(1. ",) | 2 <<|(rjerf (r2) = ^(,, r , ) ^ ( r 2 , r 2 ). (2.5)
(2.5) , ,
( ),

-( ) = ( " ) ^(.)
( /
' " " OE(ri)(rj;(r2) /ifttrx, ,)^( 2 , ,) ' -)

:
(2.7)

(| J |() ()< ,
ij'jfo, )
, . .

J S % ( r i, )()"' (,)*M/- S > 0, (2.8)


v
() , aV-
, (2.8) -
.
|2 [. I


( () v(r)
Wrj)>. (2.9)

4>v oj,
,:
KO-,), (2.)

(2.5). ,

: | K^v I ^ 1 , ,
,
i|5,n, (2.3),
(2.8), i| v 'r,, r2)
= ( ,).
iff (rlt ,) -
:
* t ( r 1 , r 1 ) = <E(rOt(f,)>. (2-12)
(. I, 38)
. ^ ( I - J , r 2 ), . . -
, (2.1),
(2) (2.12) .
-
, ijij (r2, )"1) = ifj(r1, 2),
, , ^ ( ^ ,).
T))J (r^ rs)
x[)j{rj, 2) -
= |-i-ii\:
| ( ,) = < (,) (2)>,
1>

:
% (1. ,) - <1 (rj (,)> = 5 ( ,).
, , , -
%,,, , .

1
!, ), '
S 2] 13


() \ ():
(14, ,) - V, Re *; fa, ,) + \ fa, ,)],
r2) ijjgfa, )],
(Jl 4)
E fa, r a ) - f y f a , r 2 )],
, r 2 )].
(38.3) . I (2.14)
, t f -
- , 2.
( )
>-r-f6r
-
. ,
<()> = < (+ )>, (2.15)
fa .-.) = *s fa + , r 2 + 8r). (2.16)
(2.15) , <J> = const, . . -
. (2.16) 8 = 2,
, ^jfa, i"2) = %fa , 0), . . -
-ij-g -
r t 2, 1 .
|^(,2, 0) i)ij(r):
4;(r)=<efa)e-fa-r)>. (2.17)
( )
ij^(r).
:
| = < | ( ) | ' > = +(0), (2.18)
(2.3), (2.5) (2.8)

,
:
* : () = ^S (-). (29)
1*6 () | < of, (2.20)

(2.19)
(r) = Ret|>;(r), 1 : () =
14 [. I

. . \f>j , .
tyj (r) -
.
,
, : TJJJ () =
= (^(). , ,
, (2.14) -

) = V, F*h () + Re % ()],
()] |>
| () = V,
V [ () - Re
Re ^^ (r)J,
(r)J
W ^ ( r ) VInnji(r)
, '
^ = + i r |
, , .
, % ( ) ipg ()
( we ) =
= , 2, 2,
*;(>) = +;('). * () = *;(). (2-23)
= | | = Y% + i/a + z a , -
. -
.
,
: 1()() = ( | | ) .

, , . (2.22)
, , g = R e J n T] = Im
.
-


\pt(r)=ale-r'"l> (2.24)

1|>{() = |-''/'. (2.25)
/ , . .
== [Fj 2 |, tyi(r)
| .
( )

'.*4=-rj"i>s ( ' ) * =
*
S2] J5

1
(2.24) 1,^= /11, -
(2.25) / = /.
, -
,
-
(2.26). , ,

, ^ < 1/2.
( -
) ,
, -
, .
, ,
, ,
, -
, .
,
,
= 1 ,, , , :

(2.28)

, ,
. , -
, -
. ,

(2.28), -
, -
, . /
(2.27) , -
+ ^ + = ,
( )
.
-
.
,

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.
16 (. I

,
. -
( + ( (m-fn)-ro
) :
>. (2.30)
, -
* . ,
/, , ()
( ) . .
:
(1,2) = 1(1,2), ( 1 , 2 ) = ,,,(1,2).. (2.31)
] -
. , , ,(1, ...,;
, . . . , 1 ) ^ 0 . (1, ...,)
( + 1, ..., + ) B m , n -
, -
:
> . . . . 1). (2.32)

.

3,


\ () :

()= I ^&. (3.1)


-

() (,
k-) , " ()
:

= (-2Sjr J Ur)e-'"d>& (3.2)


CD

() .
(3.1) -
, ,
| ( ) ,
3] 17

() . -
,
, ,
V,
, V
, -
. , ,
(
-
), , (3.!) (3.2)
, -
(. I, 40).
(3.1)
i|.'E ( r i )

(i-i-*) = [ S < (') ' (")> e i ( k ' r '- k " r '> d'k' d*k". (3.3)
-

(') *(") -
. , (3.2)

(,) I* (2)> -' ( ' - " ''dV t dY2.

r = r t 2,
R = (, + )/2, darLdsr2 = d3rd3R. ,

R
<? (') (")> = (') S ('-"), (3.4)

() = ^ ) J %()-^*. (3.5)
(3.4) (3.3),


\ '*/. (3.6)
^()
1
(-) , ,
() -
(-) g ()
. (3.5) -
(. I, 41) . -
,
18 [. 1


(. 24 ). -
, ;()
.
() (2.19), -
.
^()
1
)-' <1*, (3.7)

. %iV () -
() v (),
.
t|)t ( ) = ijjj (r), -

, , ( ) = ().
|); () {() - :

fcW= \ *<k)coskr*fc, (3.8)


CD

= jk? I * ( ) k r d'r-
00
(3 9}
-
,
i|'j(r) = i)5j('')) -
.
, (3.5) (, 9, )
, . = &r cos9

1 d(p I s i n ede I ^(r)e~""cse 'dr=


0

2^k]
^ ] (3.10)

{ k (3.6) (3.8)
,
k.
( ), -

(3.11)
$3] 19


<Dj () -
(2.24):
() = (2)-'/.|/-'/.*1'1, (3.12)
(2.25):

( )


(3.5), (3.9) , , (3.10).
, ()
-
: Aft~l//. I
() ,
^ ; ~ / . -

(. . )
AfeAr>l, (3.14)
! -
(. I, 44). (3.14) -
( I )
( ), -
.
( -
) ,
(.14) :
Afe^Ar^l, AkvHru7s\, Skzhr2^\. (3.15)
-
,
(2.29):
;()= - ^ ^ { - 1 ( # + + *} (3.16)

kx, ky, hz -
, & , -
(2.29)
, .
4'()> - .
(3.8) (3.11), , ,
k ^() -
'. , k>-0 ^()
fe~a < 3.
20 [. 1


, -
. ,
(. I, 19), -
, (-
, ) -
, v(r)>
<XZ () V* (r2)> = |> (i\r s ). (3.17)
(3.6) -
r 1 = r2 = r,

<J VS (> |> = 1>? (0) = \ 2 (k) <Pk<oo. (3.18)

ft>0
j(k)-~ft~a ,
i|Jj(r): (3.18) , < 5,
(3.6) < 3.
(3.18)
^() k. ,
^ () , ft" > 5 (
\J)j () , > 3). -
, ,
(2.25), 4 (3.13)
( fe~ ). -
, .
k >-
{,() -
. <| V"? () |2> < , -

[ &2" (k) d*k < , (3.19)
k ^() ,
fc-- , ;()
fe-^-oo
, , . , -
, (2.24).
, ( -
), \jkm,
? (ft) = { (In ft)2} = Ck~^ x,

&! (ft) dk = Vn exp


$.(] 21

4.
()
(2.1),
,
()
?():
Dt ( 2) = <\\ (,) -\ (,) |> >. (4.1)
, r t = r2 ,
r
D 5 ( i> ,) = 0.
D^^ 2)
fc(r1} r2) = <S(r1)> <J(r2)>

D t (r,, r J - D t h - r , ) , /t(r I t r.J^/tfr,.), (4.2)


.
. . [3, 4], -
. . . -

(), . .
, 2,
() ?( 2 ). -
()
(. I, 56)
,
.
/vfo, 2) = <(,)> <(,)>
, -
: <(r)> = <a>r + const, ,
. , -
<)>
1
. "2) = < > ( 1 - 2 ) - / ( 1 - ) .
ipi(rlt r2) =
= < ( (,)>, , (4.1),
Dz(,, 2) = i|)E ( ,) + i|>t( ,)- (14, i g - i f t ( r j . (4.3)
, () (4.3)
(4.4)
,
,
.
, ( -
22 [. I


). ,
.
, Dj(r) /;()
= 2 :
>;() = >5(), / t ( r ) - f t ( r ) . (4.5)
, <> = 0, . .
.
, , -
.
, -
: <> = const. -
(4.4)
(4.6)
>(/) i]Jj(r) . i|'t(r) > -
, > () = 2 (0), tfc (r) Z>j (r):
4() '/[r>()l-D:(r)]. (4.7)
,

, . . l^> r=
= | , |.
2, (,) (2)
, , D^(r). -

. ,
-
,
.
, . ,

, .

[1, 2], . .
, -
I.
, -
( Lo,
),

.
1<^LO A. H.
-
54 23

>g, -
.
, , -
)j, , . . -
(
) , (-
).

. -
-
(. I, 56)

Dt () = 2 J ; (k) (I cos ) dsk. (4.8)

(4.8) , k>-0 {(/)


k~a < 5, -
i)i[(r) < 3.
(4.8) ^ -
.[ ,
^ , ^ -
(4.8) -
. ,

(4.9)

, (4.8) (4.9)
, kV-Dj () = kr D' ()/ ( -
),

()t(A)ft>dft, (4.10)
09

= - ~ (sm kr-kr cos kr)Di(r) dr. (4.11)


0
-

. -

. () <| 5 (rj i (.) |>

[1]:
Oe(r)C|rV., r>/0> (4.12)
24 (. 1

, ^-
1). , , . . <^/ 0 ,
:
.().-' r^t,. (4.13)
1 (4.12) (4.13) ,

I
. 1.

r IQ. . 1 -
,
>8().
,
De(r), . -

*, 0 < | < 2 , (4.14)
[1]
(4.15)

(| = /8)
, () =

(
' C\k-"i> = 0,033C|fe-"/.. (4.16)
Ds (r)
<^1, (4.16)
1
) /
. / < /0 .
41 25

/^>1//. -
- ,
l/fc (l/fe<^f0). -
(4.16) k , ,
e~k'lv'm, . .
/e- 6V 'u. (4.17)
De{r)
(4.12), (4.13), -
,92//0. -
-
Lo.
r^>L0 (. . 1)
,

De(oc) = ClLl>\ (4.18)
Lo , (4.12) -
De De(<x>) r=La. (4.6)
(4.18) 2|
: C|Z/0/' = 2o|.
, -
Dc(r)
:

=2el (r/L0)''. /0<-g/-<gLg, (4.19)

> -
(4.17), ft-"/ (ft'+ <$)-".',
xo 2nlLo , -
. , . . -

(ft) = 0,033C| (ft2 + xj)- "/<*!/, (4.20)


(4.8) (4.10) .
,
, -
. (4.20)
-
.
, -
, [1, 2].
26 1. 1

5.

, -
,
. -

. , ', , -

, , , , .
, . .

, . . , -

, . I, 57,
(2.6) -
,%
rl, r t ),
= 1 2 R = (r1 + r2)/2
2)c c (R-r/2)/C E (r, R). (5.1)
1% ( Kj(r, R)
= 1 ,), L
<\, <> -
/< R,

(5.2)
(5.2) (5.1)
U;(R +/2) <T^(R/2) |. -
^.1^,
, /Cj -
, ^(, R)>-0 ^>/ . , -
-
:
R). (5.3)

, - -
) ,
- -
(. I, 57).
' (. I,
57), , ,
-
S 61 - 2?

g(<a, t),
i]) (, t)
x = tt 1 2 . To -
.
= ! :

;(, R ) = $ (, R)e i k r *fe, (5.4)

(, R) - $ J ^ (r- ) "'"
R e rd v
; <5-5)
, -
R ( -
L>/^).
,
, . .
.
, , -
. -
( )
[1] ()
.

6. -

-
, ,

.
,
-
-
J (t, r) ( t,
-
), 1.
(-) -
t, (t, )
-
. -
,
.
28 [. 1

(/, )
:

) =
(>, )- (, ) ,
^. . I,
'^', -

~,
-
1, e~ikr.
. I
.
-
(<&', ') (", ") -
, :
<(<', ')*(\ k)> = G t (w', ')('w")fi(k' "). (6.2)
GE(G>, ) - (
wk-), . -
G[(w, ) = ||2, ,
-.
- ^ (, )
- Gj(<o, ) :

(, ) =
( kl 3
= 5 5 ( . k)e ( -')dcod fe (6.3)
( ). :

G;(eo, k)=L-fCY^T, ) -1 '-<) dtd'r. (6.4)

, *F( , ) = '(, ),
cos (<).
wk- Gj(oa, ) -
^(), () gf(oJ)
:

{()= J G:(ft), k)Ae= J VE(0, r)e- (kr dV, (6.5)


oo cc
CO

5 )d<>fc= J ^ ( ( , O)e(UTdT. (6.6)


61 - 29


, . . ,
,(t,t)
() V.
v ()
1|\(), -
1 ) (/, r) = v(r \t),
;(, ) = -). (67)
(6.7) (6.4), -
Gj(w, ) 1,(1,) -
<t>v (k) v ():
Gc(o), k)=(l\,(k)8(w kv). (6.8)
(6.5) (6.8) ,
;()=\,(), (6.9)
. . (/, ) v () .
t ( ^ , r ) , .
(6.6) (6.8)

= j dkn

k\\ k^ ( -
v) .
(6.10) v(r),
<DV (, kx) = v (V A ft|| + fe'i). (6.10) -
fej_
x = ]/(co/t')2 + fe^,

J Wxdn (6.11)
I I/O

(6.11) ,
() = 7 (fe)
()
(6.12)

. 7.
30 1. 1

(6.11) (6.12)
, -
.
-
"'*(/, )
( i = l , 2 , . . ., ).
( ) -
Q = (t, ).
t,U) -
"$
- ,
. . .

,
810.
t,U)(t,r) -
, (6.1); -

<,(', k')S/K> k")> = G(,5'(>', k')6(w' (o")8(k' k"), (6.13)

- :

"# (, ) = f Gft (, ) '<-" dm d'k (6.14)


(, ) = J L - J J Y # ( T , r)e-*-">dx#r. (6.15)
Tjp -
. , -
(ok- :
G'Jj'fffl, )!> 0.
.
. -

, (6.3) (6.14),
, . , -
-
( , ) -
, (. .
), , -
:
(, ) = 0. (6.16)
j6} - 31

, -
exp (tkrHot) , . .
.
,
(, ) -
,
(, ).
cok- , ,
(6.3) (6.14).
, t (1) (u), k) $'(, ) --
6[(, )] , , -
: , -
( ), . . ,
.
.
, (t, ) ,
t, (. I, 20),
( -
) , . . ,
,


r)]>= ^^^^^ J f[t,(t, )] , (6.17)


-
,
~-
7>W (6-18)
,
- .
, -
-
. ,
_ / -

V , -
. V-* - -
V, [ L
lz, . .
32 [. 1

, (6.18):
~ V'/./ . (6.20)
-
,
>-, V, -
(6.17) (6.19).
, (t, ) -
,
(, ) .
, -
,
,
. ,
, -
L;
( , . .). (6.19),

Lj,
- (6.20). -
,
, V,

Ll>V'/-$>lt. (6.21)
V
. ,
, ,
( -

V ), ,
V -
.
/j
,
, , . .
( ),
/j ~ .-'/, '^-/; ^>1,

V.

V. ,
-
,
.
$ 7] 33

7.
,
() =
= < (iti%f>,
| , , -
.
W- = {| . - - . 5} -
<p$() = <exp(fu$)>, =
N

= 2 /
1, (. I, 9).
,
, "
, -
, ' , , , t -
= {^ ). \ (* . . . , ) =
= |()
( , = 1 , ,
, , t).
, ,

-
. ,
|()

]( {*$!(*) (*)*<}). dx = dXl...dxn. (7.1)


() , (7.1)
S (). ()
= {1? . . . , ^},
jV-
! = { i i , . . - , ? , /-
\] ().
\\,
| ( = 1 (), . . . . =
= |( .). ()
[]
fy(*) = i8*(x,) + . . . + Uffi (xxN).

2 , . . 1. II
34 [. 1

[\ -
^- {^ %N}, . .
() N xt, . . . , ^:

(,, ...,UN) ,
, ^- a>yv(En > 5)
, , [] -
wN(,,, . . . , |^) N
xt, ..., -, . . -
().
[],
( , )
|(). -
[] -
(). -
, -
.
^ .
, , ,
,
, , -
. -

FN\u] = \ ,( . . . , ,) (2) . . . (,) dx,... dxN,


[] = {\/2 \ I i|j (,, .) (,) (,) dx, dx.) .
FJu] , FN[u] -
, [] ( ,
[] -
). ,
() (. . ),
F \\
. , -
,
: F[u(%)]. ,
F ( -
xkuk
k ).
F
,
j 35

() () + (). , 6 ()
.
( )
F [] 0
+ WFM

, ,
6 (),
j Ax|, ,
(). .
-
Ft [] = J (') (') dx' .
FJu +6\ = \ (') [ (')+6 (')] dx',

xt - .
||>-0,
(x')U(x')dxl = A(xa). (7.3)
j
(. 13).
6 () () = (0) (
, 6(,) = 6 ( * , * ) . . . 6 ( * ) - j 8 (') d x ' =
, (7.2),

(7)
(. 1

(7.4)
.
-
, .
At % ,

/() . []
= f{F[uj) ( ).

f ' = i - 4 " l f -
. (7.5)(7.7) (7.4).
, (7.3) i4(x') = 6(x'xj,
.). (7.8)

(7.5)(7.8) ,
(7.2) -
, ,
. ,
(7.5) ,
.
-
:

(7.7)

(7.5) , -
(7.6) (7.8):

+ u (xj 6 (,)
j 1 1 (. ') + * (', )] (') ix'.
37

, ^(,, ,) = (, ,),
ty ( ) -
, .
(xt) (xs) . -
:

F\u-\-v\
v(ic) (., , [1J, I):

(7.9)

f (+)= i^-g^
, (7.9)
:

,

\ ^ } [ u ] . (7.10)
(7.1) -
' ^ -
,

, 6 , , [],
('). , -
*
1 6 1 6 ~, 1

x'}). (7.12)
38

= 0,
(7.13)

, (7.13) () -
-
-
.
(7.1) k-
ft- ,

(7.14)

-
[] .
[] = 1[], [] =
= {0[]}. [] -
( ) :

["] = 5L "" f >* (x l xk)u{xl)...u{xk)dx1...dxk. (7.15)


- (=1, 2, .. .)

, 1 ^]_ ( 7 ] 6 )
T
*W1 ' " /* &{^...(
}' .
(7.13) (7.16) -
(. 16). ,


.
.
1) %{) . 3

0{]
7 ] 39

{
,
( 3'-

4 , 1 ' =
=<{3J?)'> = <(.?)"> -
:

= 5 5 % (, 2) (xj () cfxjdxa.
< (t'J?)>, :

3? 2
[] = | i j f(x) () dx
-jjj%(*,. ^ ^ ^ } . . (7.18)
,

= I 5 () d x - V , 5 5 >8 (1. 2) (,) (.) dx,ix a . (7.19)


(7.19) (7.15) ,
-
.

(. I, 6 . II):
<!,-- !,*+,> = , h^i(Xi),
( 7 2 ? )
<!- !,*>= S <L,U>- d h . - t i , ^ .
. . 2 , -
1, 2, ...,2k
. , , -
(7.20), (2k 1)11 = 1 -3-5.. ,(2fe1). ,
fe=2
40 (. 1

^-
. (7.18) (7.20)
(. 17).
2) .
V -
x={xlt . . . , \. . , -

() = () - \\,
. V xlt ..., ,
,
1
V' x f t gV V -
. , ,
, . . . , , -
w(A), ,
%(). g(x)
.

*). (7.21)

(7.21)
: ,
. --
, . I
, . .
'(., , . I, . II).
(7.21)
(. 18)
[] = exp {v J [ ( Jg(-') () dx)-l] dx'}, (7.22)
v m/V . V
(7.22) (V>-, m>-<
v = m/V = const).
(7.22) -
(. 19).

x)...g(x ( k -x)dx. (7.23)


,
v, -
(. 20).
-
<|(x)i?[|]>, R [?] -
I (). , -
[5], , .
$ 7]

) = ^'() .
(7.10) ,
R[1-J-I\]B

( (7.24) ),

Q, () ,
:

1 7 26
01*. ] rV TV - <- )

(7.25)

R [\] -
.
(7.10),

, ,
42 [. ]

R + ,
) -
. ,


t\ . ,
. . [5]:
[|][|]). (7.27)
[, ] , (7.26), (7.11) (7.1),

() :
1 61[1 1 2 8 ,
{) - ; () i fiH(x) V-Z>
6

(7.15) 0
. (7.15),
13

S (k-[)] f ' M * 'XX. . X *-l

(,) - . . . (7.27),

<! () R [|]> = X -jjrijr J * (*

(),
= 4 = 0 , , (7.29)
i|\(x) = (x) i))2(x, ') = |3|(, '):

< i w 1]>-
(7.30) - [6J, . .
[7] . . [8].
j7j 43

, ,
N (Af-
) i(x)> ,5(). -

...,w]-(exp|<|jJ(x)6Wix|). (7.31)

(7.5)(7.7) ,
/() 6/6tty(x). (7.8)

^gL (7.32)
(7.30)

-

. g (x) (
) , (, +0) . . . g ( + ,)> = <| ( : ) . . . | ()>.
, (7.14)

J
1

, / + = ;)

<SW)... i(xi)>x
X (xj) . . . u (xi) d x l . . . dxj5.
, ,
[( 0 )]. ,
[()] = [ - , ) ] , (7.34)
. . ,
.
, /? = ' -
,
44 1. I

()
[()] = [(-)]. (7.35)
,
JC,, . . . , , -
, . .
. []
( (7.34)) -
( R (7.35)), -
.

, 1 = 0.

[]={ /, Jjfsfax,)(x1)(x,)(ix1dxi,} . (7.36)
, (7.34) .
, (7.36)
[] = { - V, J $ 1* (| , |) (.) (xs) rfx, dxa} . (7.37)
,
-
. -

. 22 -
. I
(36.15) -

- .


1.

% ()*=| | / 2[aijxix/ \

Xi=x, xty, Xs Det||a;/|! 0.


.

|| Ay!! = flay -1, ]| ct,-y- {). ,


(2.29),
(3.16).
4S

2.
[ + 1) ():

,(1,.--.2)| <
<,(! ; 1),(+1 2;2, . . . . + 1). (1)
. ,


. = [ , ( 1 2)],
, (I) -
. (1) = 1

| < l , 2 ) | a < B ( l , !)S(2,2),


(2.20).
3. - -
' () -
,
, . .
if()
:

\{z)^ J T;(k) cos kzdk,

f*{k) , i|^(z)
:

(1)

, . (k) -
Z, () . (k)

. (IJ'no
(3.10).
(2)
, (1) (*) ,
(3.10) (). '
(2.24) (2.25).
(2)
V; (*)
^ ( ) .
4. , , ,
- ,
() = const. = const -
= (, ), = (, ),
46 [. I

()

()

kL = (kx, ky). f. (k^, Zxza)


() .
, -
/>(*j_, z,) *()

(2)

(3)

. (2) (1)
(3.5), ()
. (2),

13) hz^0. , {( |+^)


kz k^_. (2) ,
Fr(k,, Si z2)
(4)
5. ,
z const, .
. 4>(*' )~$()
F,(-xx, ) F* ()
:
(1)

^ ( p ) = itj(p) f j ( x ) = f^(x).
(1) ( - --
)
:

(2)

- .
47

6. .() (,),
v () -

i|>v(r) = ffj exp {*/2( }.
.

7. , -, -
(/, ) -
, i|>v(r)
( 3>v(k)) v(r).
. v , -

;(, ) = ^ 1

, v () ,
(f, ) . *
8. () ()
. < (r^*g ()>
.
.

= | 1 | , /
6 .

_
(,) /
(1)

' (1)
F G , ()
F()'_>
. ,
--
<. ri 9
, ,. . , (,)*^
t o (. 2, )

. 2.

( ). : = ].
(. 2,6)

( ).
18 1. 1

F () 0 () ,

<(1)(, = {/() ( | + ^ - . (2)

(1) (2) ,

.
9. ,
() (rota = 0) F(p) 0(),
, (. . )
)
(diva = 0) (. )

^ (2)

. = >< , a if()-
().

. . (2) = 0 , V = -. ,
(3) F ( ) = V G=V", (1).
, div a ( r j = 0 () -
, (2) 8. .
\?( + ) = 0, , -
U, U + =0. , ,

(3) 8

/ = - V V\ G = V,

(2).
10. ,
() < ()
(A.M. ) b ( r ) = V 9 ( r ) -
. -
<9 (,) * (,)> , :

<V ( r i) * <Xt)> () ~
() >

(ft) . diva = 0,

V (ri) * (,)> = di v p () = ,
. . (
). = 0,
49

-
.
:

< (ri) (,)> = - ~ (,) <& (,)> = - ^ ^ - .

U. (2.24) (2.25)
, ,
if () I (-
, , ,
k^.l/1).
(
). -
, . - -
[9]

5

, , / ()

() = ~1''^11*
/ ( ) = 6 ( a / 2 i ) .
/(), :
) er'll;
)
;
(4.19)

< (0 > ,
~ 1-~ /0<;<0.

12. . I, 47 -
d (/) (t) -
, t i = ?2 = 0- ,
((, ) .
. !m = \im\2, lm = l.(tm, ), ~\, 2, -

if, (1, 2) = </,/j>7,7j = <717S>,

50 [, I

2 . VI . I,

><1,2)>6(1.2)1 + (1.2)1 + 1=;0. 22 + * U . 2 ) SJ + K.c].
i = j = 0

a
$ = 0 /(1, 2) = | i|>j(l,2)| .
13. FN\U\ N-& :

,
) fjv[u]
;

. . . + A(\i,Xi,...,,!,)1 (xj...u(XJV-Jdxi...dxjv-i:
)

( r=NxN
. :
(7.2), () (7.5)(7.8).
14. -

. ,

_&5 hm __ /< 8(
(0~"2*()1 ) Sx(t)
(7.7)
6 /<fa(T)\' .2dJc(T) 6 ()
6 ( V dx J dx 6x (0 rfx "
dx(%)ldx ' ~ .
(7.5)
djdx, (7.8):

S [], (7.7) (7.8),


' = 0 :=V'(x).
6Sf]
15. ,

. .
.
(7.5)
(7.8), .
16. i|>i(xi, , ), (7.17)
(,, 2 ).
. _
, X,) = <1 (X,) 1 (X,) | ( , ) > - | (Xj) <| (X) 1 (,)> | (X,) < | ( X l ) |_()>-
,) | (2) f ().
17. (7.20) -
\ (), -
1().
. (7.14)

J\ J - !
, (7.20), &=2

] = 1+ fei
(7.20),

m=l
SS 1. 1

(2) -
, -
.

, 1,
(21)11 , []

= 1
, (2)1 = (2)!!(2 1)!! = 2/!(2I)!!,

,
| [] = [-1/2 J J (!, ) () (.) dxjdx,} .
, (7.18), -
, ^ |,
< | > = 0 .
(7.20) -
(7.18).
18.
(7.21).
.

\ dx


. ,

[] = ((( exp [lAk \g (x-x,) () }) ) ; } .


. <{(.>.}>^=(), (-
,

(((^
&.
x s V~l V:

J
[] =(v-i J Q g (- u(x) dx)
7 1
<&L ..

I - U ( f (-) (x) dx) dxm)m


53

_.__. * . -
( )
05

"^ -^^ /!
=0 -0
,
[] = (-1((-'

,
l = / - > f 1-dx',

v=m/V ,
(7.22).
19. (7.22), -
.
.

k- -
(1 = 1,2 ):

2 "k'S ("i- x ') 8 ( x * - x ' ) |

(7.15), ,
J g(xjx').. .g (x*x') dx'.
54 1. I

_ 20. ,
= , v , *<<) vA% const
. , -
, , >()~{2%)~1
{ | \/], . . -
.
. (7.23) -
.
21. (7.27), -
|()
Rill
. (7.22)

, . . ,

[, ] = Vdx'x' ( Vg(x*x')u(x")dx"Jg(xx').

X (,) = ' () dA, 4- X' (>.) = "" 4 ! () dA.

\ \ d x * g ( x * X ' ) ^ F 7 ^

(7.27),
(7.10),

22. ;(, 0 , /;(, )


( n + l ) (, ),
x, x', 06 (:-!') (1)
| ( 0
^ = XiH(i), t) + f;(l ( 0 , 0 (2)
^,(0) = J;.
(, t)sm
^ < ( | ( ) > (2).
. (, t :

dltV)fdf (2):
).1)
55

^ [ *
, , , -
.
6 (% ( 0 - ) F (I (/))=6 (5 ( 0 - ) F (),

* ^ ^ < ( 1 ( 0 - * ) ( * . I/(. 01> =

Xj(x, t).
<6 ( | ( 0 ) > = (, 0 .

Q/(x. 0=-</. 0 * ( - * ) > . (4)


(3) , to
Q,-. ,
Qj . . -
(7.33), (1)

OR 1/]>=

Qi (x, 0 . , (4), R [/] =


= S ( | ( 0 ) . , \(,1), -
(2), //.
<6//:>, (2). -
t,
(
it to=+\ ^ , )+/,-

, ;(
OaSteS/.

= 0 , ' < 0 /' > U (7)

(7) , (2)
. (6)

lt(t) = li+ J ^ ^ (I ()-) [Xi(, ) + /, (, )]


56 [. I

// (', ')> * 0 < / ' < < :

.
, , (7.32),

-.

, .

, (7), 67 t')= 0
< '' 0
<':

/'>t -



(2).
()

() Qi-
() > / (7)
Qi-
(-WO,
( V (5) (0, /). -

/' , \ ( t - t ' ) i t ' 1/.


- -
.

(^)^ (9)

R [/] = 6 (1 (*) ),

J!I/LJL_ '. "


57

, (8),
\ ,

STO ,

(9)

'
- * > * (, ', <)~ , 0 (-')
06d-i

Ql (x, () = - J^ J F(x, x', 0 w (x, 0 8 (x-x') dx'


-L I J I w (x, i

, Q,(x, t)
(, t), (3) :
dw(x, t) , ((, t)w _d*F;k(,x, x, t)w
+ tluJ
dt ,

II

8.
,
, -
.
( )
').

.
-
(, , . .) -
- L
( , -),
^
= 9, (8.1)
q(t, r) . q
( , ),
L ( , ). -
,
, 5 0 , -

')
.
[1] [2]. -
, -
, [3, 4J,
[4, 5], . .
[45].
,
,
[6-10].
S8J 59

(9=-0), . ,
. (8.1) :
= 0, (8.2)
S o ( -
), :
)\rtS.. (8.3)
( , Sa -
.)
, . . .
So
( S)
.
S o -
, , -
, ,
(
-
).
-
-
,
, . -
),
(
), . -
w , Jj:
w=w(u, %), (8.4)
) .
, . I, 33 -
, , -
, -
.
, ,
, . .
/
. , ,
( ) ,
, .

1
) -
, ' -
. .
60 1. II

-
- (
) ,
.
-

1) ( ,
q
v);
2) ( , , -
L);
3) S ( !
);
4) (
w | ) .
,
, -
.
, , -
- [11],
( -
[12]).

, -

u = Gq, (8.5)
1
Gq= L~ q (8.1), -
, , , -
,
[ (1)(2) . . . ( ) -
-
, -
, , . .
, , -
, -
.
,
,
, -
-
. -
.

( - ) , -
8] g|

, , , , ;
, , , ,
. . -
-
, -
.
, ,
, -
( ) -

( ).
-
, -
-
.

-
, , -
.
.
1), ,
(8.1),
q. -
. , ,
. , ,

.
,
, (-
) 1), (8.2)
,
.
(
, .), -
( , -
), .
I) ,
, -
, -
() .
2)
- ( L).

')
.
62 [. '

,
, , , !
. ., .
3)

. , , :
('
). '
^
. IX.
,
, 1
,
(, , . .). ]
, ,
.
( 31).
, 4) ;

, % w,
, , , (8.4),
;
.
^
( -
) , . .
w. :
!
, !
, , ,
. . ]

, ,
. , . I, :
, ;
, .

[1320].

9.

(
),
1),
, ,
jgj

, . ,

, , , .
(8.5)
-
u(l)u(2) . . . (.)
q. ,
<> = <<?>, <UjUa*> = 6* <9t(7*> (9.1)
,
(8.3) v ( -
) S o ,
v S*'-
u = &v, (9.2)
v -
, (9.1):
<> = 5 4 > , <u1uZ> = P1S>l<v1v'2>, ... (9.3)
(9.1) (9.3), ,
1), -

-
.
.

-

G 5>. -
,
.

'
,

? .
-
.
,
, 1).
-

=(jirgTrW.r)-.^. ), (9.4)
64 [. 1!

, a q
. (9.4), -
, , ,
.O ^ f " ' - ^ ^ ' , (9.5)
/J = | r r ' | . , (8.5)
.
-
(t, ),

(9.6)

, (9.4),
4(,)+(),) = 9 ) , k = a>/c, (9.7)
g (, ) q(t, ).
(9.5)
> (9 8)
'

(9.8)
.
, -
,
() ,
(9.6) (9.8) , -
.
, .
r^ka1 R = | r ' | (9.9)
(')
, -
. (9.8)
ik r
(<,)^-J<?(, r')e- " 'd>r', r^>ka\ (9.10)
n = r/r -
.
I 9] 65

,
. -
,
(, ) , So, -
v(<a, r'):

/? = |'|
', So, -
, /dN -
N S o . (, ') dv(a>, r')jdN,
, -
. (9.11)
, -
( -
) v -
dv/dN.
, S o
, .
, , -
(9.11) .
. =0 v (, )(>,)| 1 > _ | | ,
{, ) ,
, -
>

) = ^ J t((D,p')|-(^

= 0
dv(a>, )/ = (, )/3 | = 0 ,

(9.13,

, = 0
Sa , -
/.
> 0 -
-
. v(e>, p)
3 . . . .
66 1. 11

(, ) = 5 v(w, JC) exp (ixp) <Px, (9.14)


00

=() , (<, )-
, v(a>, ) -
:

i J >, ) {ip)dap.

> 0 -
v (, ) () -
(, ) (txp -f-ifz) (,
mt
e~ ),
,
+ /? = / = /.
,
(. 6) -
(, )
< . -
-
>
,
z- :
=0/,
(9.15)

< k
. "&>k, 2/%
\ = 2n/k, , -
. -
= 0. -
> .
(, ) = (<*, , ), -
(, ) | = | 1 = (), ),
:

(>, , ) = J v (, ) (txp lripz)d*K. (9.16)


33

\
, 0 -
[.
jj] 67

(9.12) (9.16),
, .
, -
.
(>, ) (<, ).

-
. .
.. , (9.12)

| ' [ < ^ fc|p'[4<^3


, -
R = V z2 + (p ') 2 + ( ')/2 -
;
(9.12)

(, . ) = ^ J (. ') (ft =>!) <'. (9.17)


, , z^>kaa, ,
(, ) ,

-ik<f]dy. (9.18)

-
-
' ,
-
(. I, 47 48). -
, ,
-
, , -
.
,
,
.

, .
(t, ) -\-
( / + ) -
(2.30) _ ,? . -

68 [. 11

: <>
( .,==1<>) _ -
,
:

(1, 2) = < (1) (2)> = (1, 2< (1 )> < (2)>

( , <>)

)

u(t,T) = iu{fa,T)e-""d<a, (9.21)


(<, )
, w ^ O -
ur(t>r)=

(t, ) t
, <>
(. I, 38).
-

, -
() = 0. -
,
= , , . .
, . , ,

(~' '),
, , .
(, ,
) ,

(. 1, 47 1).
J
) , t
~1(0*, eiat, . I.
I ,
t.
0) 69



,,, (1, 2, 3, 4) = <(]) (2) (3) * (4)>, (9.22)
, , -
/ = | | 2 :
(>/(1,2) = <7(1)7(2)> = 1 , , ( 1 ! 2 ; 2, 1)-7(1)(2), (9.23)
/ (1) = <| (1) | > = (1, 1). ,
()
( ) .
( ) 12
. I.
, -
. ,
-
, . -
-
, (8.1)
L
,
(8.1),
- . , -
(1,2) = <(1) * (2)>
U l \ 2 ) > , (9.24)
, -
.
1),
, (9.24)
, (9.1) (9.3).
,
, , -
, ,

, 1).
,
S o
, S o ,
.
1
) , -
, , ,
(. VIVIII).
70 [. II

6, -
-
* = / = ft2
| | = . G((o, )
.
(6.3) 6(|*1ft):
G(, ) = /(., n)6(|M|-fc). (9.25)
/(, n) = / .
- -
"*:
G (, ) = (, ) "?8 (). (9.26)
1 (, )

(. VIII).
, (9.26) (6.3) d?u = dv, do (n)
(do(n) ). ,
( = 1 4> t = tx12):
V(t,r) = [[3 (, n) fc-a6 (xk) exp [i (xr ] * 2 dxdo (n)da =

= I da(f 3 (at, n)exp[/(/snr att)\do(n). (9.27)



0 / ^ 0
OD

\ = <| . | 2 >=W (0, 0) = \ da <f (>, n) do (n). (9.28)


,
(, ) ()
, . . -
. ,
, (
2). ,
-
:

F (; , ) = J > (; . ) exp ( /xp) d?p, xx = (, ).

(9.29)
4,
F (; , )
( = 0 k~2).
j 10] 71

(9.27) -
/ . ,^-
, (<*, ).
(9.27) 1
kmax (, ) 251,

U *2 W


,
,
. ,
,
. -
,
, 3.
-
,
.

,
(9.1) (9.3). , -
-
. I, 49.
-

(. [13, 14, 211 [22]).
, -
6, 5

.

10.


- (-
), -
,
. -
-
. ,
. -
, -
S, ( 9), , ,
.
, .
72 [. 1

-
1
, [23] ).
1. .
(, )~ , -
z 0. -

f (p) , -
, . (),
. . 2 = 0,
() = /()(-). (10.1)
~,
.
-
, (, z) = elfc!,
(.2)

2 = 0
, , , v(p) -
, f(p). (9.12) (9.16)
* () = (, )
(. . > 0)
(). () -
,

</ ()> . ft = const, ? = < | f |2> = < | / - / , |> = const,

-
:
>, ('.) = </(') (")> = >, ( ' - * ) .

(10.2)
<.v> = vo=fe, oj = oj, 0 ('") =*/(?'").
(9.12)

2
) -
[2426],
- . -
127].
|.ll] 73

2(!). -
,
k
u=vee' *, (10.3)
v0 / 0 .
-
(9.16), ,
r
1> (Pi. - ) = <* < i) " * ( )> =
5J plix"pl + ip'z1 ip"z^), (10.4)

' " (9.15) = '


= ".
<5(*')*(*> = ->,(6-('"), (10.5)
./%,(*) ,
:

. (.6)

(10.5) (10.4),

4>. = N'(PiP.. Zj, ,)= J ^(x)exp[j(p 1 p,) + (pZip*zz)\d?K,


(10.7)
, (, ) -
= const, v (p)
= 0. (10.7) -

(1. *!, z s )= ^ ^ ( , ZL )[(1 p,)]d'x (10.8)

,
F. (; , ,) = F v (x>exp [i (,* 2 )] =

c > J (
() )
z > 0 , -
. ;
74 [. II

z2, (

22)], *'<**

(10.9) (10.8),

(10)

= ,-2, ^ = 1 2. (10.10) , z l i 2 |>A.


(, )
= const,
.
(10.10), -

v ().
, -
lv -
X, . . &/<; 1, , -
Fv(x,) ^ ^ -
F B (0) = F c . (10.10)
* . ( . ) = ' 7 . \ (/+ ipS)d*, klv<^\. (10.11)

, . .
= const, -
, (10.11) = = 0:

i t .
/ ()/
fep = 3,83, . . 0,61. , -
X
/j_ , . .
lv = 0: lx ~ , ^> /.

, /
: /,I~JI^>/J,. , -
, -
J101 75

-
^> .
,
.. . , (10.11)

-*-0 ( )
,

( ) .

(klv^>l). -
, '.
.

Fv(x) -
* ~ 1//<^/.
p = J/fea? (10.10)
:

, ,
(10.10) ,

t(P-)e'* c $ Fp(x)exp(/xpix5/2fe)d'x (ft/ B >I). (10.12)


OB

,
(, )
(9.17).
(10.12) ? = 0, -
:

* i () ^ ^ (. 0) = \FV (.) exp (ixp) dsx = ifc, (p) (10.13)

(. (10.6)). ,

76 [. 1!

. -
, :

,
[24], (df,=a$),
. ,
(10.3), , -
,

1 = ()- (10.14)
p = p t , = 0 -
:
7 () = <| 1!> = (0) = <| v |> = const.
, \|>, T /
= 0 -
,
-
.
1^(4) (10.12)
= 0:

|>()
(0) = g 2A/c|,

^ , , ~ \/lv,
Fv(n). /:

. . / klv^>l l~lv.
,
, | , | =
= V 4 | | g | = | za | -
: V , ~1
-
,
.
: %() = \\{ */2.
10] 77

(10.12)
* (. = 2?'*: [ - 7/2/ = y^v () {(1 - ) /2},

-=[1 +'/&'~'- |i|) n |


/~4> B |~>>^ -
. | ] |
, .
2.
.
/(p) = exp[t'S(p)J, S
, . . ,
(, , -
) . > 0 -
- , -
. , ,
-
(, ) ,
.

, .
,
.

-.
( )
, -

.

= ',
z = 0
v () = [IS ()] | = 0 == [iS ()].
,

i>5 () = <S(P.) S(p s )> = o2sKs (),
|, a Ks(p) .
, S
0, (5 = 0) -
.
78 1. II

_ ,
= <eta> = exp (/2),

[S(p 1 )-S(p 2 )]}> =


= exp|--i<[S( Pl )-S(p 2 )] 2 >}.
5 = 0
Ds(p),
t|>s(p) (4.6).
() = [-V a 0s(p)] = exp [ij>s (p)-ij>s (0)] = \a%

(10.3) (10.14):
= * = {
() = () = exp [ - 7 , 0 s (p)],

l]}-e-^. (10,15)
(%<^. 1), (10.15)

. . -
> 0 i|>s(p).
(|> 1) -
va = e~"sl* -
, exp {a% \KS () 1]}
. , (10.15) -
e'"s Ks(p) Tejuiopa.
-
,
+..., (10.17)

(
(10.17) ,
5() , ^()=). -

* > S (10.18)
101 }

, u Z(J(O)
>s (0) = osKs ( ) .
(10.18) , p^\osf(s(0) \~'flf&
ils/as, / s | /Cs (0) |~l/P* .

, ass>l as
ts. -
, 1 ls.

ls S AS ~ as, -
. -
[ v () = e' s ~ ls
< os/n , , l ~ /j/n~
<1
<*
, ,
-
[2326],
} .
, ()
.
<% . ,

, (. 16),
^ ( ) ' -
. , |<^1

, ,
.

ojSg>l.
il>j_(p) |)5 () (10.18),
| ^ (0) | ~ |//|. -
as ls -
(. ),
-
.
,
, ( -
) 100 400 -
. ,
(or 1^.1 X ^ 500 ),
" ~ -
( ) . .

0 [. 11

: -
, (, -
, ), -
, -
() [28, 29].
3. -
. ,
,
-
.
_|_ () = < (1 ) * ( )>, -
-
,
ip_[_ () = <u (p t , ) (3, )>.
/-
^
(9.17), -' -
. (9.17)
,
(. *) =

- *> ('-") {(1-')'+(2-'?]} *'*\


(10.19)
\\fv () = < (pj v (pj)>
. =
= ' ~ " | = (' + ")/2. ,
+ (10.19)
p t 2 . -
| ' Pi ,

(10.20)

,
, : (9.17)
, (10.20) 2.
, -
;
a=;ue~ikz, e = 0, -
.
,
81

{10.13) (10.20):
(10.21)

(10.22)
*.(.*) = 5 5
(10.20), (10.22) eiik*.
,
() :
<|y|*>=.a? + l i ' 0 | * = l . (10.23)

,
1~\11\
:
,.

, ,
.
-
S
+1,
.
(. ) = (, ) exp [ikz + iS (,)1=
. 3.

va
. (') (") ,
,
Aets = i\ + a = ( + ') -f ia",

/ 2
A =l 'K-fa') +a"'> S = arctg^-~i- (10.24)
. 3
U = Aels.
(10.24)
S -
:
, \'\ \"\ ,
, ' "
. .

. j e ' | 3 |"|,
82 (.

2 2
, (10.23) v\ + (a') + (") = 1,
(10.24) S:
" = 1 V a <a">, S = <a'a">, (10.25)
:
(p = Pj )
<, z ) = < A ( P l i z ) ( , ) > = ^ ( , ),
(, z) = <S( P l ) z)S(p 2 , )> = 1|& (, ), (10.26)
(. )=< (pj, z)S(p 2 , z)>=i|&(p, ?),
ijjfj (p, ), i, / = 1, 2
. -

(,) (. ) (2.14). ,
^(. 2) ,
(2.22):
1
/( + ) i& = V M > R e 4 > ) ( 1 0 2 7 )

, (10.25) (10.26)

.
-
(10.21) (10.22), [23].
5, -
,

^ - V p ' j , (10.28)

kj
(. ) =S5 J ) irXdV- (10.29)

!() = .
'
iH(p)=a| o e-P'/'i (10.30)
, , =

= >() = 2z/kl%. D , .
[43] .
101 S3

/

^/ /, . . .

z ( ): -
(D<-gl), ( D ~ l ) (D^>1)
( ).
.
(D<|;1) , ,
: <\ <^| : | 0 .
, , -
D ( )
:
O4.sb-=Vsa|,. (10.32)
S
D ~1.
(D^>\)
( )
. D^>1 -
V%z,
(9.17), .

' "
.
-
,

(. I, 50). ,
(9.17) -
, -
(9.17),

~ |/&/~ ()-*/.
^> (. .
, D^> 1)
v.v~ \/lo. -
(, ).
, ' "
, -
.
,
+

S (, ) = ' ' * = (+ )"",
i\eikz
u = ae'kz.
84 [.



. a'=cf = ,
?!, ijft ^

(10.27).
, D^> 1 -
(, ) . -
D ^> 1
4(, ) = )?(, Z) = ' M U P ) . 4>?(P,Z) = 0, (10.33)
. . ' " ,
-
V .
, ijifi -
-
: z
, ^.

() ' "
, . I, 25 44 (. [30, 31]).
4. -
.

(P = Pi)
/" ) /( 2 ,)> = < / ( 1 , ) / ( ! 1 ) > - 7 (10.34)
(5:

y(t)=
<J'(yC) = ^ |
.
(10 )

.
, , / = 1 ,
(, *) = </ ( P l , ) / ( ) > - 1 , (10.34')
* () = </ ()>-1 = ? (). (10.35')
, -
,
4
> . >
. 3, ,

, )=41|) (, ),
85

, -
, a .
D^l ( ) (S (z)

pl = 2cj o> 0 | < 1 , (10.36)

.
, (D^>\) -
12 . I, ,
. D^z>\
^ / ^ 0 (1,2) = (1)(2)
)()|-||*=|()|2-4- (10.37)

, (0) = / = 1,
(><)
~ - ! . = 1>/(0)=1-|.1*- (10.38)
/
J32 D^>1 . .

, vo e""^2, 1|>) (10.15), -

1V(f>) = e~2<l|<4exp[2i|>s(p)l-l}, P*=-1 -'^\ (10.39)

|< 1 ,
, (10.36).
(va 0) (10.37) (10.38)
:

-
.
-
,
, -
(9.17),

4
-1. (10.40)
86

;2'2) (1,2, 3, 4) = <v (pj (.) () V ( Pl )>

.
>2) (1, 2, 3,4) (10.40)
.
[32] .
-
,
3
* > (1, 2, 3,4) = < {/ [S ( Pl ) + 5 ( p J - 5 ( p , ) - S (Pl)]}> =

TJ3/ft = |5 (,- 4) 5
= ( , | 0 . . 4 -
[32] -
D = 2z/kl%

(10.30) -
1 0,1 5.

:
(>> 1) = =
= 1 e" 2 s , -
3 (|0<^1) =
^2al 0 D /(l +D*)-
' | 0 > 1
(
^
. 4.
2 -
(| 0 ^>1) [32],
[33], -
, pLax^ 1| 0 .
, [34, 35] -
il's(p) ,
^ 0 ^>1:

, -5 ; , ^ =
=--1 K's (0) |"1/ .
(10.30) = 7 2 , l\-=h-


|.
^[l] 87

, [3235],
,
*-= ('41)
(10.41), ,
:
,
. ,
z m ~ 1/v -
, v . -
\'~' ~ \~fov) ( = 0)
d2S cSa
- 71" , zm ~ 1/v ~ Ws/O"50,
(10.41). , |,
.

, , ,
.
, -
, , ,
, . . -
. 7 8.

, ,
[32].

1 1 .


-

. -
-
.
, -
.
1. -
. - .
v (, ) = (, ) | = 0 , -
= 0.
S,
,
(>, ),
88 [.

1 )
( v (, ) S,
('>=\ 0 S.
:

,
S,
1
5.
( )
v(u>, p)
(9.17), -
(11.1)


('> v <> ') f l 7 ( - ') 2 ] * ' - (' - 3 )

v(a>, p) ,

<(, )> = 0. (11.4)

, . . const. -
(.)
( 2 , ) = < (, ) ' (, 2 , )> =

(0
= (si)' $ W (") " ( - ' ~
^'^", (.5)

(, '") -
v (>, ), -
. -
u(t, ) v{t, ) (, 13 2 , ) (>, '") -
, :
OD


( > Pi. . ) = ^ r-L(>. Pi. . )-*"dm. (11.6)

') , , ,
, >.
|('j] 89

(11-4) -
.
()
, (11.5)
-
/ (
)
a<^lv ( ) -

Fv (, 0) =7().
1)
^ ( P j . P s , )=7 , 1 ( 1 , )" ( 8 1 ), (11.7)
(. )

r ( P i , Ps, z) ayii(pi.z)uj,(p a , z)
, ) = ^ _ ^ (pj
( p i ]pi ) pj )
= Y~UM (PI_ ) |,UM (p>i ) | >
| /Cx<J = 1 , , -
), -
.
(
) -
.
,
.
a^>lv (
). ,
, ,
.
, .
Fv(n) v -
v.v~\lls , , 8~./~/11. -
, r t 2

1
) (11.7), ( ,
.
90 1. 11

(. 5),
.
-
, :
. (Pi. . ) = (! ,).
,
-
, 1 )
~-| ~-f 2 -~fe<. (.9)
a^>lv
-
lv,
. 5. 2

:


a ^*
, , ,

.
(11.5) 2^> .
| = ' " ] = (' + ")/2
(, + ,)/2 + , pjp a .
(11.5)
(, + , ) =
_/Js_V

\ g <
<!/<^, | < / Tv (|)
. ^,, \\>
(t)+|/2) (1/2)#1 () = (\). -
-
fe|r|/2 =S/2UZJ,/Z ~ 2np/z. ^>

') lv^a, ~ ,
6 /2.
I til 91

, ]

j *|<5)(--!*l-). ()


-
(9.18)
:
>
- ' LL \ (
(11.11)
(11.11)
2s>fta\ a (11.10)
^ > ~ kalv. , -
(11.10)
.
(11.10)
p = Pi 2 p+ = (pt + p2)/2 -
.
exp {ifepp+/z} = exp {ik (? pi)/2z} , exp {ik (^ 2 )}
- , , -
,
z = const, .
= const,
.
\ (11.10), =
= p t 2 > -
1(|).
-
h/a,
= const ~ Xz/a.
,

^-/ .
,
? = 0.

1. it

, -
( X)
.
(11.10) -
. -
(11.10) = 0 , \ = 0
S,

J ,(8)(_2^1. (11.13)

lv
. -
7 2 = const, -
+ -~ // ( p+/z~X/lv~l/ktv),

. 6.

lL:

, -
( = const) . -

/j_ -
1() (. 6.).
(11.10)
, -
93

(JF (0) = 1) -
() -

. ,
1() = 1 < ,

,() .
, lv
, \ -
+ :

J (1) ( -

Sv
:

[ [ v
(l)d4, (.15)

1%.
^<^ (11.10) --
:

.(, + . Z ) = ^-exp (i*MLL) J ^(') (-.)^'. (11.16)


(')=^-/1(') (11.17)

.
-
= , 2
94 . II

, ,
, -
J ('). -
(11.16) . -, -
Tj_ -
( ) . -,
(11.10) , -
, ^> | , -
lv^a ,
-
z^>ka?^5=>znv~a.
- (11.16)
- -
, (11.5) (11.10)

(11.16)
IVM (') -
/ (').
.

, -
. ,
- ,
( 9) lv
X1). -
( )
lv0 , , , -
-
(11.18) . (11.16)
,
,
12. -
, , , (11.17).
, -
, -
. ,

1
) , (11.17)
Iv (p) .
* ! 6 ' / 4 = 1, , 5 = X2,
(11.18) -, -
sv il<g)f.
jll) 95

(11-6)

( = , P l , , ) =

: #]/()( - ^ - ) . (11.19)

(, 1) -
.
(k0 = ajc)
( = 0, p l t p 2 , )

( ^ ^ ( ^ ) , (11.20)

,
AW .
(11.19) (11.20) -

|^-(pp+-lP+-ilp)| = 4f|(p1-p')3-(pJ-P")3Kl, (11-21)

,

tk = ~ /.
, (11.21) -
(AoxSjCcoJ
+=, , -
+ = V 2 (Pi"l"Pj H e -
.
2. .
-
,
96 [. II

-
.

F.
,
2
(11.3)
{ ikp' /2F):


( %) (^)
(11.22)
z F
(, F)
M(p')v(p'):
-g.)] f M(p)u(p')exp ,
(11.23)
(11.11)
( ) (11.23) F,
-
. 1. , a<S; Jj, ( )

,
. a^>tv ( )
(11.13):

!)(


XF/lv, . . a/lv , -
(p 4 ~ XF/a).

;-(+=0,

S/Sv ~ (a/lvY ,
( ). , ,
/ = F,

7vs.
*tll 97

, -
-
, .
, , ,
> , z = F
-
.
oj -
,
[21, 36].
3.
| -
. , -
(. 7).

ZZ,

, ,
f{9i),
=
l w = " i n ( P . )

"i(Pi) = / ( P i W P i ) . (PI) = M ( P , )|2=- (11.24)


pt - .
z = 0, ,
U
M ( P I ) ( 2 = 0),
(9.17)

J (11.25)

a (Pi) = ", (,) ( - 4 J


' 2 6 )

* . . , . ,
98 . II

( ),
, ,
{ ikpl/2F} -
F.
, (11.26) -
z = z,
:

(.27)

(11.24)(11.27) ()
f(Pj), -
, v (p,),
.
, -


.
, -
-
, . . 1/, + 1/2= 1/F. (11.26),
(11.25) (11.24) (11.27),

S , () -
(dFM(O) = l) ()
(. (11.14)).
() =

fl ] *
. (11.28)
99

(11.28)

5
5 1
) < (11.29)
(9.2) -
-
v (pj -
f(p,}. ?(, ,)
.
(. . )
, ,
. <? 4
,
' . ,
.



f? ( )=. I'7' ( ' ' + ** + 2 / 2 ~ '/2')1 2J
i () ()

M = ft|p/za + Pl/Zi|. (11.30) , -


1 0 ,
18/1. / -
,
. J^xa)
= 3,83, -

,
^2 0,61 , ,
(
) 6 = 0,61 .
-
(11.29), (11.28)
.
(11.29)

= $ (', ")')1* (")^(, ')^*(, p")d*p'd?p\ (11.31)

.
( / )

4
IUO [. II

/
( ),
(
p t ) -
| . p m i n 6
.
,
, /. . . -
.
4^>Pmiu. /^- &<
-
.
(/^> , ) , ,
(11.31) ( &({>,'}
S?* (, ") , | ' " | ^ 6 ) ,
('") (
| ' "| =^= <*S/).
/, / = (0) ,

(11.32)

, , -
(11.31), v (,)
. ,
:
(11.32) , ()
6.
(/<?5
<^S, pmin) (11.32)

| ' " | *S lv. f* (p") * (, ")
/* (') ?* (, '),

JVSV, , (11.15),
Sv,
Kv = Tvllv.
, -
-

! (11.33)
101

(11.31), ,
JK (11.18), -.
(11.32) (11.33)
. , (
, .. /^-6, Pmin) -
/(Pi) ( -
7^i?(p, p,)), -
(/B<^6, p min )
2
] /"(> | 2 ( -
!vSv\f?{(>, Pi)| ). , -
,
/, -
/
|/[ = const. ,
, a | / | = const, ,
(11.32),
() /()
. , ( 8)
, . .
1 ^>,
, -
/() |f(p,)| 2 .

-
. -,
/ -
, ,
,
' . -,
:
.
( 30%),
. , -
(11.33) |,?(, pjl"
1 , ,
,?(, [) (11.32). -
pi
Pi -
,
[ ", . -
,
[ pi (
, , 2i, (x)/x,
,
).
,
, (
102 . II

) .
[21].
, ,
. -
,
,
,
. .
[1322].
1 , , -
[37].

12.
, ,
.
-
D
.
1. , -
. , , -

, .
, -
,
. .
- -
. -
.
-
, (~ ~)
, /,, ,

z = 0, , -
,

& + *= \.

, (, q \
(9.7),
(9.8).

z = 0, . . (9.8)
.

q,
(p')-V-dy, R= !r-r'|, (12.1)

, -
S.
(-
) ^>, .
, . .
(9.10), ( -
, )

(. *)=^ J
= (, )
= const. -
,
, , -
.

[38].
, (),
S S (. (11.2)):

(12.2)
:

(12.3)

{p>z ex fc z
" > = T E r P [ ' ( + -e-)]J ?(')1(')(^l)dV,
00


)](^). (12.4,
104 !. II

<7> ,
() (FA(0) = \) -
:

I (12.5)

(, )
2 = cortst H = kp/z (kx/z, ky/z). ,
=J-[M((>')q(p')dy
J

, -
(SA = S q = const).
= const (-
)
i, 2> ) = < {1 ) * (2, )> =

(')(")%(',")

y d?p", (12.6)

^(', P") = <q(p')q* (p")> . -


, -
, :


. ,
lq,
,

(/,<?.)
, 11
(11.5).
P = Pi 2 . P+ = (Pi + P4)/2, (12.6)

(12.7)
a]j =--<| </12> , ,,
,
|Q5

(12.7) SHrM(-~j, S
, (11.14). -
(12.5),
a"=const 3~M = WA- ( g)
:

J (^) (*) (12.8)


' , a <F9()-
(q(Q) \)
.
TJJJ_

, . . ) =
-
[
. - &rq=l,
(12.9) (11.16) .
,
(
*>' Vfl) Wq.

-
~ix:

~ /, ,
A/J Wv a^>lq. -
1 , (11.12),
it e. lx ~ /.
/
1 (12.4) (12.10):
/ , ( + ) ) = | ( + , )|>-|- ( + , ) =
106 [.

, -
. . 8 -
1 + -
, ,
, , . .
I q I = const =< (12.12)
, oQ = 0 \qm\ = Q,

-
$. ,
, / ( 1 . 8).

&w

, -
Wa(kp+lz)
+ ~ Xg/lq^Xz/a. -
( ) (-
2 . 8) , . .
. -
,
, , \qm\*
Qa: |<?m|a = <22\-
=const

3 . 8.
107

(12.11) | u | " = oj aJ = Q a ( 1
\qm\1 = Qi^

Q2, .. |9| 2 r-Q^^Q*- -


-
.

(12.11) -

(12.13):

Xz/lq,
Sq/S , .
-
-
(. . .), ,

, , -
. . . . <>
. , G o . ..
,

<G> = G,-/=**-.

<Gy/Gt (12.12)

(o e <^Q)
. .. Cf0: <C)C,(1oJ/Q a ) (-
, 5,<^S). . . . -
3
, % ~ VjQ -
, aq>Q, -
\Qa,\ = VQl% ,
<G> S9S Sa
108 [. II

, ...
, N S/S^ :
<.G> = G0/JV. , G0~S/X*, (12.15)
;
<G>~-jr.
, lq
, 5,/, 2 ~-?. <G>~1. , -
(oq^>\qm\) (/,~ -
.

. ,
, -
, . .
[38]. ,

, -,
, ,

. , -
.
-
, , -
, -
. -
, ,
: -
(-
,
. .), ,
, .
2. , -
. -
, -. ;- -
= 7- (V), -
( , ) Qt (t),
N
(9.4)

(9.5)

- ) (12.16)
|-/(|
109

| (| /-
.
, -
, -
- , -
(iy = const). (12.16)

( '; . ) = <(/', ') (<". ")> =

(12.17)

fflfe -
, -
-

(12.17) -

|
.
\1


( - 9-
1| Qj (t) -
])(.) ( -
), (12.17)
JSfjfMMy N :

n - RR| || | r , R | / '

= ^ t i t 8 = 1 ^ R | | R | -
, R , 3
#. 9).

%; u>(R),
#1 --
* R:
,.

, (R)=Miy(R),
[.

, V
, n = N/V = const.

(12.18), 1 = 2 = . s = 0

,
: KU(T)=KQ(I), . . -
, -
. ,
Qy- (t).
,
.

, L ~ Vl/a<^.^0,
s/c (12.18) ,
sjc=(\r,
j ( , Roo|| |r
| 2 R |)/c = ((r11
0 | 0)
)/, Ro 0
) ,


V.
V.
, r s ,
V,

( ) , 3
, J n (R) d?R = N. = 0

:
^ ^ (129)
(12.19)
, -
. , 1
.
( ) -
V.
(; ^ 2), -
(; ,, rj1). ] -
(12.18) [44J

) -
, (; ;, 3 ),
.
1

/ = /,

Q ( )
(12.20) ,
L
X, 1 2 ,
i\ 2 -
,
e'*s. ,
(L^>X) -
1):
la ~ %.
, -
,
- ,
.
-
,
- 1 -
( 11). -
-
, ,
, .
.
2 = const, r l l 8 = (p 1 , 2 , ). -
R (') (') -
: R (', '), d?R = dzp'dz'.
? (^>1), -
( <^),
(12.20)
.; , +. ) =

Z ! ( 1 ) ' ' . (.2.21)


) :
. , -
-
,
.
2 1.

, 2 , + ={Pi + Pi)l^-
(11.16), ( ' 0)

, -
= 0.
-
, g o M . -
(12.22),
(12.20) (12.21),
, -
- . , -
(12.20)(12.22)
-, (12.23)

1,
=(m, v), ( R)/|rR |.
(12.23) , -
16 (. . ,
, ,
)
| R| : / ( , ^
<^|R |.
.
-
gQ(a>) , . I
( 11 . VI) ,
-
.
,
.
( (1) )

,
-
Q (t) = { (v+''w0) t + },
1, (5 ,
513

(0, 2), <0 -


, . -
(12.24),

, + ="(/^,
( ^^^+), (
O e ^ ^ i + V) .
-
. (12.24) -
,
.
,
;
, ,
. . -
, J () -
, :
J () = 1 () = 47* ""' (>-


&f\ ,
'"".
\ ()
,
V. ,
, ,
(R) -
ns(p) (., , [39]).

1. W '/8 +
ViPP 2 ( ) ~ pv
.
. v

* ^()"1'2 , , fl
*. u(t, ) (
<?), y(t, ): <^1?#, W $*
114 [. ti

(1)

2i-1 1> i"j, r 2 >-ri, -


-
. , divf + dW/dt~O,

<IF> <5 >,
(1)
.
, , = 0,

, Va (I, 2)
(9.27), <?> <&> -
:

, , <()> 0. -
( ()

&wii/c2.
2. ,
.
. J (>, )
: 3 (, ti) ^ 5 (),
(9.27) :

U5

3.
, 3 (>, )
9 < ^ 1 .
. ,
.

<
1 ^ 1 = \~nj_ = 1 , (nr) ss z VsIz +
1 > n 0
+ ("j. &) ' ( ) ~ 3 ( > ' ' ' (9.27) -

(1)

p^(jc, ). (!^) ^ ) -
[ n . p | ^ C J , |i$rc_LZ[^Cf, , ,

(2)

4. -
(9.29) [40].
. 1 , |s^6<g;l
do (n) , D
do(n) k~' dxxdxy = k~zdsx^,
^ ^ (, ). (1)
:

(9.29), ,

5.
,
(9.26):

, (9.27),

(1
116 [. II

G^' , -
-

V $ ( < . ) = <(<!, ,)(/.. ,)>.
. -


,
/ | | * .

= 0 (1)
<| |> = 2 Tkf (0, 0)=\ika&3 (, n) do (n),
=1 6


((,)=2
( > , ). (2)

I / *(<>n)do(n)-

< r >

, -
= [ 1 ] :
GB

<^> = ~ Re ( (' ifte* J f *' do>"x

X^E-^^E^J^eipli^'-K'ir-<('-')]. (3)
'="/". , -

<...>-'<,.^.>-<^(',,)>.
- * -
'='/', (' . .)=0.
, (2),

<...>= 2 '( '- *')8(('-4>')8(*'--*) =
' (, )*-6(' ")6('*')8(' ).
(3),

*> ^(, n)do(n). (4)


117

, <?> <.df>
(- I) 1/8
*'/2.
(4) , jr- (<, )
-
. . ()
[41, 42].
. 1 , -
.
. (1) 3af

, -
Sa^

', <? = ?,

g(f, )-

s = 4 sin krjkr, .
3 = 2 ' a a 2ff5(<i>) , ,
; , 5,


7. -

.
. e x + l S ! , S %
, v . -
, S 0 <5> = 0. (10.23) " x = o j . -

,
118 [. 1\

(os = 0)

(1^ 1 , p 2 ~j} 0 =^
= J. , {$ > 1 > , . .
.
8. -
. ,
, .
. , (10.38), $L~ 1 |t 0 1 4 .

<['*> 3 <2> = 2 .
, ^ + t-'-^ 1,

. . pt>= 1/- < fV v


, -
, , .
9. (9.17) (10.13),

i|3j_ (p)
) .
.

p = p L 2 , -^(1 + )/2. = (' *). ^ ( ' ")/2,



TJ \) 8 ( 1 )> -
1|^ (, ) ^\, ().
10.
, -
.
. z 0,
, ,
exp {ik\r r o | } / | r r | ,
0 (0, 0 ) (. 10). /()
, z = 0
119

(9.12) ,
= (, ), -
8 = ' ' =
= /( + 0 ), , -
. , ! (), -
, . . ' = .

ke"
(, ) ~ (I)

(1)

/, -
const:


, (Pi.

p = pip2, P + = ( P i + p>)/2.
.
10 ,
, , .
,

z = const 7
-
-
lu = lf^Y^, //

/. -
D C j,
= 2L/ktj, >
. 10.
&mtx =2z o /(f. ,
> ^ 1 , YXzz0/(z-{-z0)
z If,
.
. -
.
. (11.11),
v () = / ( ) " . -
= ' *
/(). -
(11.11) , 12 (12.3), -
. ,
(12.3) (11.11) q>-2ito, -
120 1.

(12.11)

(1)

Sv ffv (12.8).
, ( z>F)
,
-
.
(Oj, <g v)
(Oj,^>u) -
-
, . 8.
12. -
-

.
!
. z = p /2f
-

, /2.+() -
-
5(). , -
(.
11), -
. . , -

. ( I)
exp (i'S(p)]-^
exp [2i*(p)] {2kt, , -
). -
() = [2|()].
() ,

I? , 4ft ! aj ,
| .
. . . (12.14), , -
, Sq, ffj, {q\2 <22 = <rf-f | q I 2
Sv, ol, |"o| 2 --|| = 1,
121

(, , , 5 ^ 5 const).

(1)

(2)

. . . . /
> . 12. -
- ,
(I). (2). - ^/"
,
. . . to, 1,
. . *3/& /2, -
-
"^ < /8.
-
<jj.
.
!< ^ < ^/8
;]^


.
: ! 3 . ,
.
. ri 2 : 14 (, , z-}-),
|f.=(0, 0, ). (12.20) s

(1)
' ' V, -
: | p ' | s g , | | ^ .
.
,; (z^L) / L,
(1) t -
:
(2)
' ' .
exp(ifts) (12.20)
& ^>1. ,
fe 1, . .

(3)

{L-^z^kL?) z'jz '/z


g , (2)
122 (. II

"(-) <4>
(4)
:

,
2
|'*^| = 1. '/2 .
k^Lfjz 1
(5)

(2) 3 -
~ /2.
, -
Ljz-
(z^-kL*) ks ' ' &
. '** : ",
:
/,=, (z^>kL*), (6)
-
.
III

13.
-
(-
, . .), .
, -
,

. -

,
, , ,
.
, -
- -
. -

,
,
. .
-
, -
, . . .

, , . . -
, /
: /<^ 1 ).

, . . -
--
() . I, 54 -
-
. ,

') -
*>M .
124 [. III

,
, . . /-^.
,

, ,
I :
/^>^. ,
. , . -
. 1900 .
. , -
,
: 1^>.
(, ) -
-
, .
,

.
-
, (,
, ), , ,
, -
/ . ,

(/ <^ X)
(1^>), 1~, -
.
[1],
.
-
.
, -
,
.
:
,
, . . ?
,

,
. , ,
R 2
, , 1/R, I//? \IRS,
X. ,
.
, -
||] 125

-
(.</),
.
, , ,
.
-
(/<=) -
. ,
.
, -

, , -
. . .
-
, .
( )
,
. -
, X, /^>
, I>-0 -
. , , ,
-
-
.

,
, , -
(. 21).
-
,
,
,
.
, -
/ ~ , . . , -
.

,
. , ,
() ,
-

. -
, -
, , ,
( )
126 1.

, . .
. (, -
, . .)
().

,
.
, ,

. -
, ,
. ,

, ,

( 17).
, , , -
. -
,
. . .
,
: . , -
, -
-
, , ,
. , ,
:

(, ). -
( )
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
. -
(,
), -

. ,
-
(
).
j,4] 127

14.

rotE
+ J =
, , -
, D -
.
.

(
) -
, -
, . . -
.
(. I, 54),
. -
, , -
.
,
, -
, .

,
( -
). -
(. . 173)
+

D(t, ) - $ ( / - , ) ( , ) ' ,
~ (14.2)
B(f, ) = J ( < - < ' . ) ( , ) ' ,

.
, -
(14.1)
, -
-
.
,
. . . -
(. I, 54).
-
, (jf)
128 [. Ill

(jM) 1).

!# ~ l . - L . (14.3,
-
,

, ,
. \ ] ("
, ) .
(14.3) -
( ), -
). (14.1) ,
; V, -
2,

dUi'dt V -
, a Q .

( ) 2,
. dUldt^Q
,
. j ,
), ,
diUyidtQ,

f dr. (14.5)

') , ,
, (., , |2]).
') , ,
. -
-
,
( 5 MOJKCT ).
j,(4] 129

-
, . . -

(, r) = -L J E(/, r).e"'dt,

, D, , j , )r j m . -
(14.3)

rotH = - -ikD + ^- j , , rot E = ifeB - ^ - j m , (14.6)

k = a>lc, (14.2)
D(c, J-.C, r)EK D
(ID, r) = |i (, ) (, ),

e (, ) 1 (, ) 1
k
u.(co, ) = ;' U'dt. (14.8)

, (14.6) ikO.
,
, e"(e=e' + ie"). [.( = '+/")
.
(14.G), (14.7) -

-
( ) , ,
-, j , (, ) \ (, ).
, ( 1
;) , 8),
. ,
(-)
(n-) . -
,
, (
.; ) --
(),
().
-
.
130 1. II]

IS.

. I, 54 -
,
- qf {t).
-
, , -
, 1, -
,
, ,
.

[3], . 13.

,
. ,

,
( - , -
), . .,
[4].
,
V, | (/, ).
( ).
| " (t, ) (i = 1, 2, ...)
, .
f(t, r) , -

I (/, ), (, ) / (, ) -
-
~1:
6(, ) - / ( , ), / ) = -6(,). (15.1)
1
~ , . .
(A A ~l A-1A = ) , -
(/() = /()).
'1, -
.
, ,
^ . ).
1
) | .
Jjj] 131

, ,

(ft /)
( + *)(>, ) = - 4 / ( ( 0 , ),
/(, r ' ) - ^ - d V .
,

, -
ipy(r),
V:
\b(r)4k(r)d>r = 8/k. (15.2)
v
%(t,r) l(t,r) ffy(r):
), (15.3, )

:
i(.r)-*2S/()4>/M. /(.) = 2//()/(). (15.4,)

/ (to). , (15.2) (15.3)


, V
f(t, r),

5/ (0 , -
,

I/ (<>) \j (w). ,
, ,
\/{t).
, -
(>, ) f(a>,T).
5
(32 (. Ill

|(<)
fj ()? (15.3, ) (15.1),

()
V. (15.2), '

I/ - 2 h \ / W ^* W * ' - 2/* () /* () (15-6)



(15.7)

, , ,
<() (), . .

. (15.1) -
(15.6) :
/() = 2 < * ' * . (15 66)

1 () = j () ^ " ' * () d*r, (15.76)

. . ^1 () ~>():
~*^ () .^^ (). (15.86)

(15.7, ),
(15.6, ), ,(<) /(), , ,
-
{1} {*}.
-
|({) ft(t)
(. I, (54.18) (54.22); ,
,
1"1',
~*"'):

() ()> (,.-W, (15.9)


<// () ( = - 2 ^ 2 (/*- a7i), (15.96)
JJ1 133

(, ) :

(15.9, ) .
(15.4) (15.9)
<>, ) ? (>, ')> = ^ <6/ () 8 ()> / () <* (')=

(15.8)
~<i(, ) I- (, ')> =- -

, *
'.
, -
' :


<l(),r)?Kr')>=-^- ) (/i-i')6(r-r'). (15.11)

(15.46), (15.96)
(15.86)
/ (, ):

- = ' ,
* .
" 1
" 1 * ( ?, \') -
V P =V = V.
(15.11, ),
V, -
i(t,r)
j(t, ).
, . .

* l{/>(t,T), . (15.1)
134 1. III


|^(<,) = /*/*(,),
* (15.12)
/ v > (>. ) = 2 ^S 1 *'(<>.').

1 / -
, (15.5) ,
/<" (t, ),

(15.13)

, (15.11, ) -
^ ' ( . )
/>(,):
<V)(), ) ij1*1*(, ')> = g -(1/)6(), (15.14)

</vl(<. )/'*(, ')>-= ' 8 2 ( ^ ) (*/*Aji)6(), (15.146)

- = '.
, , ,
() -1)
. -
AJk Aj, . . -
.
, (15.14)
-
( ),
.
, , ,
(15.14)
,
[5J
. . :

,
, .
, . . -

') -, - -
(. 6).
16] ]35

,
, , -
, . , (
), ,
, ,
. (15.11) (15.14)
,
. ,
- ,
.. . . -
, ,
,
.

16.

(14.6),
(14.7)
D :

rotH = - ( f c e E + - ^ - j e , rotE = i/sjiH^-j,,. (16.1)

-
6-
|</>={, }. 6- gv
f'^7
(15.13)
<Q> ( )
. (15.13)
(14.5), , [ >j ,
| ==
={, }.
- SB (14.5) (14.4),
<Q> (15.13):

, | V ) = {E, H} -
/' = {/4, 89/4} (15.14, ),
, |'/> /v>.
, -
SB,

136 [. III

, , (14.4),
(16.2)

(16.2) (16.1), (16.1) -


:

fe = o)/c, -
1, 2, 3.
(15.12), , ,
$</> = {, }, /"> = {/4, /4} (/ = 1, . . . , 6),

^^(V):

! ^ -V, 0 Vi
4
'*\ v, - v .
V.

(, = 1,2,3).
, -
v',

(, 6 = 1,2, 3).
, ' \ (
'),
8 '
4
(, 6 = 1 , 2,3).
.191 137

, (15.146),
, -
D SB:
<De(co, )0|(<, ')> = - ? ^ ^ - ) ( - ) ( - ' ) ,

i^0i-|i')e e ,e(r-r'), (16.3)

,
ea(J .
(16.3),
Sfiaj | i 6 a S , 8*5 [. 8 ^ ^ .
(16.2) (16.3), -
.
'):

(16.4)

2.
, -
,

(- (')). -
, ,
1> . ,

ill. (,
, ), -
, ,
. , -

t, , . . (14.2) , -
t, ').

1
) (16.4) . . . . | 3 |
.
(16.4) [4]. ,
" [4] , (16.4) -
(., , [23, 5562) [6]).
') (14.7) ,
.
-.
138 [. Ill

-
, ,
(. [6J,
4).
- , . . -
, (16.3) (16.4) -
(- -) .

: , ,
, -
(
' , ')
, .
, (15.146), -

, (15.146) $
.
, . . / -
. -
, , (15.14),
<#, . . ,
j , j n ( SB). ,
, -
jj j n ,
, -
.
,
( ,
, \, )
) -
(15.14). : -
-
. ,
, -
] ] ,
(16.4).
, -
[I,
7,8].
-
,
. ,
, -
, -
.
I 17) ]39

17.

.
.
j0, , -
( = )
1:
Ue = )b(T-rA). (17.1)

j o t , . .
1
=1/ ). , . .
,
(17.1), , (, ^, 1),
(, , I) -
. 0(, -
.
,
, -
) },
0(, . -
,
1 2
.

j , , , j l e j a e , | M , -
E l t H, 2 , 2 .
( -
)
1 2
(., , [6]). ,

S (E.J-HJ)*r = J (E.Jn-H.UdV, (17.2)

V . (17.2)
, -
.

*) dP/dt, -
. (^),
= ?6(/), ] = top 6 (^).
= 1/;< (17.1).
140 1. Ill

(17.2) -
1:
i = J.. 1., = ] . . Ei = E. H1 = H. (17.3)
2:
) = -), J.. = 0. . - . . , , = ;
(17.2)
S () 1 ( - ) -=,(!-,,) =
v

= S {.. (, , 1) J. ()-, (, , 1) J. ()} d?r, (17.4)

.. , : 1

-
, -
, 1
.
-
, , (17.3),
(17.2) 2,
, 1 0( .,

, , =1/,
:

(17.2)
. . ( r . r i l ,l)-J.(r)-H 0 - (r 1 rAll)]K(r)\d'r. (17.5)

j , ] (17.4) (17.5)
-
,
\ j n . ,
,
(16.4).
, , ;,(rJHi,(,).
(17.4) 1-=1 = 1 -
(sb = Oabai -
|jf] ]41

1 3),

= $<oz(r, \1)jla(r)Hllm(r, \l)jma{T)}d'r. (17.G)


(17.5) 1^1 2 , = ,
/,(.) =
= - J { o m ( r ' , 1,))(')- (', 3, l s )/ m B (r')}dV. (17.7)
l t E Of , H o e
2, 12 , 0 | . (17.6) ,
(17.7), -
j , ] ,
>.)> =
= J 5 { () (') </ () /*(')> +
+ () ^ (') </V.ra () / (')>
() //Jn:p (') < / () / (')>
, () * (') </ () U ('
(16.4)
-
;
('), -
'.

<,, (,) '1 (,)> =


1.()= - ^ {-^ + ^-)} (17.9)
,
(+ -
) 1 ). qem* ()

) ,
, ['-|- ]
= (*'6' ' V- ,
. (17.9)

* (r)
. .)
142 1. Ill

(
, , . . $ 0 ()
')
Q,,n. (1 ; I.) = $ q,m. () ?. (17.10)
, q,m Qem' -
, -
pll/im
r t m = 12/MD 2.
(17.8)(17.10) ,
< 6 1 ( r I ) ; . W > = | ( , 7) . ( , . I,; 1). (17.11)
(17.4), (17.5)
(16.4) -
:
<,, (,) ,', (,)> - | - ) Qet. (,. 1,; 1), (17.12)

; | -('i. >; 1,). (17.13)


(17.12)
( = \jirn ,
, = la/i(o ,), (17.13)
(m,= lji<o , , = 1,//> ,). , -
-
-
. , -
(17.12) rt~ra = r 1,-1, = !,
< I , () 1*> = # (. ) Qec. (, 1; , 1), (17.14)

,
. ,
.
,
q(l, ) ()'(1, ). (/, ) = >/,[(>, r)W>'-(-
+ *(<, )'<>>'] 2/

<?(, ) = */,| |". ?2 2 .(, ) = V 0 1 |* ]


Ej , a ?ia.(w, ) = VjfEiEj, qmifit, r) = a/'ElEj
( ,.
JI7J |43

. . , -
=l/ieo, -
.
(17.11)(17.13) -
, -
.
, ,
-
-
( , -
).
.
-, -
, ,
( -
) , -
.
-, -
, (r t = ,),
,

[ )
D-, , (17.11)
(17.13) -
X / (
, ,
. .). ,
, -
, -
:
( ),
() , /.
,

. , -
( ) -
-
. ,
. (17.11)
CJ7.13) ,
,
,
j , \.
,
, . . -
(, .
144 (. III

,
).
, -
. (17.11)(17.13)
, , ,
. -
-
. , ,
( -),
, , , -
X ( ,
).

-
. -
.
-
(17.11)(17.13) .
, 9 = 0 ()
,
, , ,
, () -
. QQt (17.11)
(17.13)
j 6 d Q , , dQt = qtd*r
dr .
.
-
-
6(>, 7"), </2
(. (15.10)). (15.10),
0,
.
, ,
. . ,
.
(17.11) .
?
, (17.11)(17.13)
,
. -
-
, ,
(7* = 0). ,
-
146

, . . -
, ,
J).
,
( ]),
9(0), ), ,
,
.

18.
-
< 0, -
,, ( > 0)
, -
( )
(. 13). ,

-
, H o , >,
- -
1,/io
=1,/, (l t
>, ). -
. 13.

^ ., , [9, 10]).
. = 4- , = H, f -f- ,
< 0
0 :
2

'1
0 (18.1)
f <, h
0. , Q, h , -
, I, !,.
Q 01 -
I, I,, (17.11)(17.14)
-
. , , \
') , , . . -
. ,
.
14 |. Ill

m , <| .| 2 >; lL ,
| 3 , <? <> . .
1):

< | f > = < | | >, <;> - - <'>,

h -
.
(18.2),
( > 0)
( ,
, . . ) --
:

=-^ <,' + ')>.

(18.2), (18.3) -
0 ,
h 2 = 0 -

[(<7 + <7*)'1]> q=V * , a k -
(k = k,,VtyL, ko = w]c). , ,
(18.3),
. 1) 0 k.
q , <?-<7* = 0, (18.3)
h. .
2) k , q
; ua(/i) Umo(/i) -
z = 0, fa2
, -
<5" qq*, -
q . -
, .
, -
9
z 0, p = Jfesin9, (18.3)

1
) [6], G.
147


/
[l-3t(9)]sin9d9, (18.4)

n/2
= 2 n\\ [1- .'A (6)] cos 9 sin 9 dQ. (18.5)

=~ ,
~-- -
, (9)
( )
9 -
, -
:
) = Vi [5?(9) -f j. (9)J, (18.6)
!
cose V~N sin
() = II 5 i V~N sin

2

) / *sin e

COS 1 1 ^

fW = ]/1,/[1 ). (18.6)
54 5?. -
.
(18.5) -
<SFz -
/(9, ):

5 0, <p)cos9do-= J d<f , <p)cosGsin8dO,

</2 , . . -
,
, -
, ( tp
( )
(18.7)
,
,
5i = 0. ,
148 !.

54=0 , (18.4),

. . u^n3
, , -
( -
z > 0).
, -
,, , -
.
kh VN* 1 \/ N1 1

. .
( ft) l/h*. h,

^ ^ ) (18.8)


-
> 0 (18.4).
, h -
, ,
(18.8) ,
.
kh I/(ftft) -

. - ")"' , p . ( El = \ I
( 1 8 9 )

)}
,
(iH 1 ! = 0)
h, 1/\ % 1/
( , Ej=Ime 1 = 0,). =
= uja + umu 0 , -
, . 16,
|)J |49

jro - -
.
, , ,
,. -
, " h>() , -
um/(ka)3.

, -
. -
, , ,
.

(18.7), -

. , h
,
( -
). -
, -
,
. -
-
-
1/, I (
). , ,
| .
:
) = lL/i<o m
I2/('w, -
( ), ,
^ : | -
(

)
. Qo

( 1). ,
, , (-
) , -
| , -
JfDCTH, .

1
*) . [6j, 7, -
.
150 [. Ill

. . 14 ,
,
, (. . -
, )
a=ft o a = <a/c = 2na/X. /0 ( >)
,
.
. 14 /.
,
,
>
5

-


, -
1,0 ,
-
0,5 -
') ( ~ 1) -
t
-, 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 .
. . , -
(<^>1). -
/ ,
.
, ,
= 42 , , -
. -
.
, 1/R'. (
).
R=a . ,

.
,
m
( -).

, . . -
. -
-
, -
( ,
- -
).

!) , -
. -
.
|18J 151

-
. dS -

! / ^ . (18-10)
' , , (
)
.
Q, -
, , -,
( -
)
, -, -
,
.
.
, , , -
,
, -
.'
*. , -
-
,
,
, (

). , ,
, ,
, Qo

, -
.

[ Qo (. . -
) -
[6J.
, , -
( ),
^ , . . -
R^l'/h, / . m
taa , , ,
, .
(. . I, 1) -
IWarn R (. 15),

152 1. Ill

:
--,-,. =-^, (18.11)
. . ( IJ, -
( p = l/i(o) \Et\ = 2n/ci.R.
(18.11)
mi (17.4) (17.5) -

R
i " f f . = S(E.J.-H,JJ<Pr,
V
(18.12)
, 1 2
l t 1,. (17.11)(17.13)
,
<|\|>=<|,> = <,//;> = | )<?.
( )
( \ R)
a>, T)Q,, (18.13)

do, . . R*do, -
R ,
dPm = SrKR%do=~e{(o, T)Q,R'do. (18.14)

, ,
>^0.
Qo
:

, ,
, -
Qo ( 1,).
| 0 | ,
153

, <?0 (18.14) -
( ),
(18.15)


do .
R -
, X, . = 2,
2 , .

(18.16)

19.



, . . , -
(>, < + ).
,
[- ,
, ), , , . .
-
. ,
(-
) ,
.
.' (17.11)(17.13)
, ,
- -
,
(, - -
I to. ,
([1], 17),
, -
* ([6], 9). ,
,
.
. I, 54 , ,
(, ) -
>' ( 0 ^ 0 , (, +dai)
154 [.

J
)

(-)
,
, . . ,
,

+
^ rtm
11 *=- (19.1)
~.-*
= ^ ^ . -
~*

" " ,
. 16. . 16, -

( , , -
).
n- * -
(*) (RtJ
(D^),
- -
.

(19.2)

,
- ,
().

, . . , ,
, ( ) -
. Pffl
, n- (.16).
,
( ,

') , (, 7")
(17). ^ ,
(, ) = - .
jig] 15

):
~2^ = Pan ~t" ^ 2.4 ( "b^m/i/i

" , <19-3>

(19.2) 9/2 -
(19.3),

^lAi+^'i^-^DU-D-J. 9-4)
.
R D -
:

(19.4)

. . , (),
n-
{).
, R
D , (19.4)

- _
=
(19-6)

' a n 2 \ ] ^ L/n}'

(D*=D~) -
(DJ = 0) (19.5).
, /3^ ,
4J9.6) ,

$. . ,
ijM , , ,
.
156 1. 11!

, -
, ,
, ,
(, ),
:

= : T)dQtn
(19.5) :
.JL * (). (19.7)
() , , -
, -
, -
1 (. 4).
(19.5) -
/
-
,

i ,
:
/s i
i
(19.8)

. 17. -
,
. . 17 -
(19.8) -
.
( )
= 2 , -
. g ( )
- //- -
- , -
, - -
-
: - ( -
), - ,
.
, -
.
(5),
| . -
.
I J9] 157

, , -
(,
), -
(19.8), . . -
. ,
(19-8) , -
. ,

( ) -
,
-
-
(19.8) ,
( -
).


- . 18.
, " ,
( )
-. , ,
, ()
* * (=1, 2, . . . ) (.18). -
,
, -
, . . -
,
-
( Z . 18). , -
- -
, (19.7):
P&.=-^Se.^(). (19.9)
(,
, , ).
, ^() -
- , ! 2, . .
.
. -
, ,
|';(19.9). , , , -
" , ,
, .
, , -
, -
158 [. III

. , -
(19.9) , Aj,
-
, . . - , -
.

20.
, , :
() , -
,
, -
, .
-

.
,
( , ) -
.
')

, , -

. , -
, -
, -
. ,
,
- .
,
.

, . . . -
-
.
(17.2):
$]*=$.].*, (20.1)
j , j 0 , ()
() -
') , -
, (6). <> 10 11 , 12
. 13
, -
.
20] ]59

- -
j , = /4, = , = ' +
^ (' , ),

(20.2)

],,,
. , -
j j 0 ,

(20.2) (20.3) , 1 ] = E o j , - K j o ,
(20.1) )
X (') j (') d'r' = J () J. (r) d?r. (20.4)


(
), (
).
(20.4)
().
(20.2)
(16.4),
, S
() (')> = -
| (J|) (20.5)
, , , -
, -
, - ^ .

< () 1 (')> = - ^ ^ ( - ' ) . (20.6)


/
- , -

*)
* , ; '.
160 1. Ill

. 2 (, -
) , ,
s, , , -
, % -
. s,
, - ,
l
. , d r' d'p'ds'.
/() , ,
(') -
s's,
( s):
,(', s') = <os6 (s'-s). (20.7)
, # . . , -
s:
$K.s ds'=gt.
(20.7), (20.4)

$ ' . OJ(P'.

t: (20.4)
*,/()= U(r)J,(r)*r. (20.8)
-
/(s). (20.8)
,

I * . < | / () > - $ S < * () (')> /. ( Jk (') * *>.


(20.6) -
,
1*.1'<1/()/*>= I J (, T)dQ,, (20.9)

| ' = - ^ - ^ (20.10)
, -
s . . . 0. , (20.9)
J20] ]61

-
(17.14).
,
< | / (s) |*> ,
--
, . . , . . . # , ,
s.
Z M (s) . . ,
s, gt = Z M (s) / 0 (s),

/.()-$/(P. sW'P
.
. . . (s)
s, ZBX (s) -
:
(20.11)

, #(s)=S a l (s)/It(s), . ., (20.8),

(r)it(T)dT. (20.12)

. . . s
, ()
.
(20.9) &(s)

T)dQ
'- <2)

, &(s) -
. . , .
(20.11) ( , ) s
. . . <$(s), -
,
.
,
/ Z -
s, . . . s, . .
.
(6=const), -
. . . -
, -
. ( -
4 . : ID. .
162 (. III

) (20.13) :

< I ()!> = 4 -fc = 1 *. , (20.14)


R3 () :

Q R \ i r
(20.13) -
.
1. .
, -

(0=const).
- s
. . . <0 ,
-
. ,
, Q,
, ,
. ,
( ) , ,
, . . . , -
, ,
,
.
, -
, ,
, <20
.
= /? (s) | / , (s) /2, Rz -
, , , ,
s . . . 0. ,

W- (20.15)
= const (20.13)
= 2<20/ | / , (s) I1. (20.15),

. . . -
:
& (s) = 2 < | (s) |> = - (s). (20.16)
$20] 163

,
,
Rz ' .
2. , -
. R
, ,
, -
, , -

. , 18, -
-
, -
Qa <#0. < -
. &
0 = /?2 |/ 0 |'/2i , -

G , -
-
( G -
: -^Gdo=\). ,

(20.13) . . ,
s ,
( > 0)

'^?*. 120.17)
, -
( = const).
-
,
4 ! ^p 2 f e - (20.18)

(, = , , -
X) , , a^tJR* =
= //?* = , ,
. (20.18)
164 .

( , )^>!/*)- -
,


( )
(20.16).

21. .
-
, -
1), (
-
), ,
.
,
, . .
. , ,
, , -
, ,
-
, ,
.
(17.11) (17.13) -

, , -
, --
. (17.11)(17.13)

fi'(r 2 )>= f (>, WQUB (21-1)


) ,
.
,,,] . 165


,
; QOAB* , -
-
, , ,.
(21.1) , ,
, QOAB. -
-
.
QOAB>, -
. , -
, ,
-
.
, (17.2),
(16.1)-- -
1, 2, -
HJ EJ,
, E t
.

-(D 1 E;-E 1 DJ+B,HJ-H 1 B;).


V -
div -
:

= - J (LA* + UHJ + j^E + j^H,) d'r.


l (21.2)

, (21.2), ,
CiCt = eap1p, DiftlaEla ( , ,), -
, Q,,.
1 2 (. (17.9), (17.10)), , ,
fir. (21.3)


, -
.
]6 (. III

, (21.1) -
.
j . = j = l . 8 ( r - r l ) , !, = ] = 1,6 ( - , ) , j m i = L = O
(21.3)
Q.(rt, I,; 1,) = -/.{1,1(1) + 111(,) (21.4)
(17.2) ,

1.( 1 )-,. 1 (,).
(21.4) 1,
, QKt :
C - f a , I,; l,) = -V,Re{l 1 E, 1 (r 1 )} = -V.Re{l s E, l (r 1 )}.
(17.12)
<,,(!,) ,, (,)> = - 1 (, ) Re { ^ ( r , ) } =
= - ( , ^Re^E^r,)}. (21.5)
(21.3) -
-
Qmm. , (17.13), :
</. ( ?. (,)> = - 1 8 (, ) Re {1, (,)} -

= _ ( . T)Re{l a H,i(r s )}- (21.6)


, , ,
, Qm, (17.11) ,
<,,(1)',,(,)> -= - i e ( , ) Im {l.E,,(rj> =

= ^ ( , rjImil.H.^rjf. (21.7)
. . -
.
(21.5) (21.7) , -
/ -

.
. -

.
.
-
fglj . 167


-
( ) -
, . . -
.

, ,
, -
,
. , -
,
, . . ()
, . -
,
(21.1), -
,
(21.5) (21.6).
[6] -
, .
,

(
). ,
, ,
, . .
7" ( , 7 = 0). -
, -
,
.
, , -

,

, %/2 (, ) (. . )
.

, ,
, .
, , -

.
,
. -
168 [. 111

, .
, , -
(. 19),
. -
, = 0 -
( ) .
=,
<^ (; -
,
-
).
9i
, -
- ' , -
.
,
() ,
, -
( )
. -
. . , -
17] (. [11], [12] 18 [6]).

--
,
. -
, -
, . , -
,


. ,
, ,
, -
-
.

22.
(, ), -
( ) , -
1)- , , -
!
) , -
-
. -
.
jj2j ]$)

-
( )
, . .
. , -
, , -
, , -
-
-
,
.
-
:
) = (), ),
V-a (>. ) = ),

, , -
:
, ,) = (,, .),
((, , ) = (>. , ) .

,
(17.2) . ,
1 , -
B 0 ( j n , ],, HJ,
2 , -
.
, 2 ,
(j e a , ],, ,, ). (17.2) -

J1L-HjJ*r. (22.1)
(16.4)
, , , -
(21.1), -
, ,

(17.2).
,
(22.1), ,
(21.1) :

< (,) * (,)> = | (), ) Q.AB., (22.2)


170 [. III

< (,) * (,)> = | j ( , , ) $.. (22.3)

, -
,
, (), -
, . .
-
( 0 (),,^)) 1 )- (22.2), (22.3) -
,
,
, , -
( ) -
.
(22.2), (22.3)
,
(21.1) . ,
-
, , -
, . ,



, . -
( , -
,
). , . .
,
, ,
, -
. -
.
, , -
, -
, (22.2). ,
,
do
(18.15)

') , -
. (22.3)
. . 50- , , -
[].
|j2] J71

**,
, .
(19.5)
. = . (22.5)
(22.2)(22.5) . [61,
2 1 - 2 3 .
( 21),
.
(21.5)(21.7)
(21.1) , . .
(21.4).
, (21.1)
(22.2). , ,
(. (21.5))
</.(,) \. (,)> = - (<, ) {1.EJ, (,) + \ (,)}

<,;,(- - 5 ( . ) {1,6;, W + U ^ W } , (22.6)
.
(22.1), . .
, ,

.0,(1) = 1,01(,). (22.7)
(22.6),
, (,),
<,,( 1 );,(,)>= - ^ ( , ; , (,) +01(,)}. (22.8)
,
, -
. , = 0
( , (22.8)) -
( , (21.5)).
, (22.7), (22.6) -
(
,),
<Bj,(rJ ',. (,)> = - ^ (<. ) {1,;, (,) + IJ-., (,)}. (22.9)
(22.8) (22.9)
, -
.
172 [. Ill

,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
, -
-
,
. , , -
,
,
, -
. , ( )
( )
( = <)-
, (18.15),

, (22.4),

= ,
fo,IM)d*>=<i,to)do- (22.10)
, -
,

, . .
= - (19.4) -
,

.
, ~ -
.

^ , (22.10):
2' . (22.11)
JJ3] 173

23.


(14.2), ( , )
,': D
(
), ( )
. -
( & )
, (-
),
:
+ + 80
D ( i ! , r ) = \dt' \n(t V, , r ' ) E ( < \ t')d'r',
-" (23 1)
+ o + \<"s.i/
(/,)= $ it' $n(fV, , ')(, r')d?r'.
00 D

e . tt' -
, . . -
(
, . t V ). -
'
. -
= '.
,
(*-/', ,')-*(<-<', )(-'),
. (23.1)
(14.2)).
(23.1), (14.2), -
.
D -

') t -
,
(I, ). , , -
/ ,
( ). ,
7 (23.1) (23.2)
, ,
. -,
-
.
([3], 62), -
[13].
174 (. III

(, "=1, 2, 3), -
(23.1)
+ +
Da(t, ) - \ df \ Kafi(t-t', , ')(/', T')dT'. (23.2)

(23.1), -
, fi aS -
. , D = + 4 = + 4
-
,
( -
,
, ).
D ,

= , (23.26)
D (23.2). ,
D (. . -
) , (23.1), -
(23.2, )
(23.1).
-
(23.2, ) ,
|1 = 0 ( . [8, 14J). ,
, , -
eap (tf, , ') (23.2) ,
:

^ , (, ), (23.3)

x = t/', ^ ' , . . -
, , ( -
) . ,

(23.1),
(, )

-(> )- ,, , , (i
.
, (23.3)
Cap , . . ,
.
e a(J = ',
-
. , -
fill 175


.
, . .
( )
,
.
, ,
,
(17.11)(17.13), (21.5)
(21.7) .

, ,
(, )
(23.3), (, ), (, ).
, :

(23.4)

(, ).
9 (, )

,), (23.5)

, (, ) ,(, .) ( -
) , , -
, (, ) ,(, ) (23.3).
(, ) (, ) 4 (, ) ,(>, )
[8]:
(<, x) = e,(co, ) , (23.6)

, (, ) -
.

- (-)

, , -
-
-. ,
(14.6),

(<, ) = J J (, ) [I (~xr)]d(od'x (23.7)


176 |. III

, D, j O r j n , -
- (
):
i[xH] = -ik.D+*^-},,
te (23.8)
i[xEj = ife B B-^j,
- -, (23.1)
(23.4) (23.7) ( !), -

D(co, )=(, ) (, ), (, ) = (, ) (to, x). (23.9)


,
(
= 1|).
.
V ) | ^ ' ( / , )
/ (t, )
(15.12) -
-

Ev> (, ) = 2 1 ( - io), ix) /'*> (, ),


* (23.10)
(to, ) = 2 -4/* ( -ia- ) V" (m. * ) .

- g1'1 f^> (. 6)
(to, ) I" (, ')> ^ Gj| (to, ) 6 ( - ' ) =
7$\- )-'1{-, )}6(-'), (23.11)
1
, ) Z* * (, ')> = Gft (, ) 6 (') =
=
- 1 * " ( - ' ' ix)-A]?l-ta. x)}S(x-x'). (23.12)
GyS(co, )cox-. -
, , . ,
g # (, ) = <</> (, ) (, ')> =
-t-CD

= J J <g'/> (, ) '*> (, ')> [(xV)] d>x d'x' =


) fi (*') [(')]^<**'

G$ (ta, ) (top) d'x (p = - ' ) . (23.13)
JJ3] 1 17?

(23.11) (23.8).
(23.9)
D ,
i V E + f[*H] = i ^ j . , .11-1j... (23.14)

(23.11), -
. -
(23.14) > = #,
(23.15)
. , (<, )
, < = 0 :
(), ) = 0 ( ), (, ) = 0 (-
). (23.14)

= {-


! * -_ 9 171

"" V 1*0'
I


( , = 1), (23.16) -
, , . ,
(23.15)

x's^Ax''
(23.17)
:
178 [. Ill

16 /4 j,/ia /4 = \Ji<a -
, -
(23.16) AJk,
(23.11). ,
- G'Jrj (ft), ) > < (<, ) | (, )>
. . :

^)*& } (23.18)

(23.18) , , \,
], ,
, -^ = 0 = \
(23.18, ), ,
( ) ,
. . = Hj. H , ,
= ()/*, -
. -
( G = GL+Gl{).
-
, , -
,
.
,
( ) ,
.
h
= B = h (
) -
:

rotB'-i-g+^i,, rotE = Ll. (23.19)


j,, ,
,
, -
, (14.3), -
. -
, , -

^ O. (23.20)
J33I 179

,
, .
' ) ,

. (23.19) (23.20) -:
ft,B\ (23.21)

(23.22)
(23.21) (23.8) ,

' = *~"^ ' (23.21) -

(23.8),

' ^ ^ ^ - H ) j . (23.23)

,
( ), -
( , , ,
) ,
( )
( , ).
-
. (23.23)
(23.8) J, ] .

, - j ,

(23.18) 1 -
6,
180 [. Ill

_ )_ ,_
| . ( 2 3 2 4 )

- .
, (23.22)
(23.24),

, ) = %> (, ) = - ! (-L-J,) . (23.25)


(23.24) -
, , -
(23.25)
: 0<>
(, ), (>, ) . 1 (23.25)
. - ,
= | | ,
(23.13), , -

** ( ) = & ? ( i x p ) (4?) ***=


(P = | r r ' | ) - (23.26)

7 (23.24) (23.25)
, -

.

.
20 , , -
, -
1), . . ,
.
,
, .
,
, -
, . ,
() .
, -
. -
( 15).
}33J 181


,
-
, ,
-
.

.
, ,
( 15).

( 17, 18), ( 19),
( 21), , -

, .
,
, -
(15.14).
,
, -
(17.2) (22.1)
(21.2). , -
( ) , -
,
.
, [15], -
.
, , , -
(18.15) .
-
. , ,
, , . .
.
(, -
),
, ( ). (18.15), -
, , = ,
, -
do, ,
. -
( ,
, ) ,
,
,
,
.
182 [.


1.
I r | <^

-^-!=1(0=(0, (1)

, , 0 -
. (0
. (1), -
( ),
. . ( )

. (I)
r(Q) = a(ci))f (),

Ex(t) fx(t)le
> 0
(m)= g (B) <| <1>>l >
4 '?" '"ir M ' ' (3)
< |/* (>) |*> fx(t) + .
< | fx () |> -
() :

( (15.96) ). (2) (4)


,

, Re(l/a(o>)} ,
( =0).
-
, ,
,

. . .
183

2. (16.4)
, $ 16,
.
, 1 2 <2. -
I 2, < -
<3, 2 1. , -
(16.4)
(. 20). , -
Y\R (. .
-
). '
- .^SSSb
X, -<<<|3 R.

-
.
.

- - *"
<3 Qn,
.
2

&"t^- . fft
(18.13),
4<||*>- (18.12)
, -
(1),

^ JJ
() tfj, ( </ ()4 (f)> - () ' (') </, () /* (-)>-
. () /7e (f)>} d>r<Pr\ (2)

Q,, -
. X, -
do, ,
(18.16).
(18.16) ,
do (
p = !/iu), ):

,
<1 _ 29 . _

. , .
QT Qo>
184 . III

Qa , ,

^ " J {^() 1 ()( - e j j + () * () ((1 -1*



1< ( , 7 " ) " I _ . . _ .
o a ( r )
Jr *
-nS) I *'- (3)
(2) () . -
(16.4). -
,
, (, -
. 7 ? ^ 2 > 2 ) .
, (16.4)
6(111, ) ,
. /'2 ,
( 17).
3. 70
.
- ,
.
. , ,
( P j n )
[ -g-i- V" Rmn \ / -- ^\
\ m I \ m }
(/211):

(19.3)
Pjn = -

ta/2 0 , . . -
7V
, ,
/2 (, ) ,
() .

185

4. , -
,
, -
/ (. 21).
, . .
,
-
-
() (d). i*+<P+al,
-
.
0 . 21.
. = -^ ,
1 S i ( ), ^ -
. -<*, -

-
,

,
_ d
=
"[ !+/2rcos2Af j
Or / ,
=2/, ,
.
(d*0) . -
* ] ( d*0, ), <).
. . . . (I)
Z ()

<\()> = (>, r)ReZ(o>).

ReZ R.
?
( >-0 R,. )
. . . . 1,
64, , ReZ
R ,
. ,
* 0 .
<|(>)|*> .
. (20.9) <|/(s)|*>, ,
(20.13) < l # ( s ) | ' > -
, . . (20.6)
, (20.9)
(20.13), , (20.10),

4 0
2 1 +(>/4)
, (/, s)
(=const) , ,
186 (. III

(20.15),

(I)


- ( '
). / , = / 0 / 2 1
(1)

R = l/aX , = '2/4/-
. , #

- (. 22) R R, 0.
R, R ()1 g 1.
. (15.11, ),
- | ( , ) /(<, ) , . .

. --
f(t, r):

(15.116)

(1)

- :

v * r ' - f p / p r , ~ 1 ( ) ''1'
187

l
A~ {ip) , V'
1 1
- ( ) . ),

-(?')6(-')- J A-"(iV)e* <<-'"><,


(1)

X JJ {> [()(x')r']}dVdV.

1
' (2) 6 ( ) 8 ( ' ) , -
:

(2)

(<>. ) (-
(15.11)), ,
((!>, ) = (/, i'x)/(co, x). ' =
6 ( ' ) ,

/ w (IX) (IX) ^ (IX)

' { [i*)-A> (*)} 6 ( - - ) . (3)

(15.1) (
- 1 |) -
5(, ) = {/, ( ) / ( , ), /(, ) = -1( to, ()(, ).
(3),
,
-\ , / ) - 0 (4)

]
)
.
, . . I (
let, I'x, ip . . [6] (
) : *
, . . I n n , > -
, , /> + ( . [6]
- 1 ' ( ' ) 6 ( ' ) ~'{ip).
, / .
, , , .
188 [.

. (3) ,
", <5 (, )*(, ')>,
(- 8 ( ')),
(it, ix), . .
1
- (, ix), , , X, -
(4).
, (2)
(3), '" (t, ) /1 (t, ), -
(15.14, ).
(23.11) (23.12) <-.
7. , -
a(ka<^\), , ,
,
.
, -
() , . . -
1
).
()

m , , ff
, :
(2)
( ,
, N ). (1)
(v). -
( ) -
iNev,
= Ne ( ,
. . ). -

-^-fJVdivv=O. (3)

-
.
. (23.25) - -
(, ).
- (N, p, v, ~ e x p [ i(at )]), (1) (3)
, v = j//,
j ( ):

, () :

') , , (-
), ( -
), . [14, 16].
189

( -
, . [16]). J

(1 + iZ YY) j a -<? Xjl / = - ^ - ,

. 1 ^

'" 4 (1 +
-f iz
iZ)
YX) \\ 1+iZ VX-xWX J'
DaBa^E^ ] -
D = E 4nj/ici)1),

D = - / =

1 1 + iZVxJ aP
[\+lZVX-x*a>X] I P


(, ).

V 1 + LZ >- 1 ) -1 '

:
Y
,(, ) = 1
x ...
X
(, )8(), ) = 1 ==
1+iZ / - :
, ( -
( ). , -
- (1), . .
.
(4)

(1 X x
*) (23.21),
i[xB] = i* 0 D.
190 [. Ill

(23.25) (23.26), , - -
N= /

33 sin
J (l-X-x

(6) . -
. sin xp
[elKp e~iKp)l2i, ~ ' .
( eiKp)

- .
= *, 4 -
(, ) - 0, :
* = *' | (ft*^-

(7)
:

(6), g ( J V | (<n, 0 ) ~ . = 0,
(8), 1/& 1/*
. -
<^ 1, . . .V
2/ = : > . ^ .
-
, -
, . -
,
([14], 2). , , -
, F , ^ = 5-10* ~ 3 , 300 = 3 1 ),

(.>,, = 4 10' , a a 0,3 .


> ,,( < 1) Z<^ 1- (7) -

)
([14], 2).
|91

. . * ' ^ > * \ (8) sinifp.


(8) -
. , < < <,( > I) Z<^Xl
:

, 2/*'.
, . . X 1 | I X\-^Z,

, ,
v. p R,
= .
IV

24.

, - , ..
8 2).
-
, ,
.
,
() ,

.
-
.

, , .
,
( ,
), .
,
, ,
,
1). -
. , ,

,
, ( ,
) . .
') , -
, -
.
5 24] [93

2)

.

,
, . ,
,
, -
.

( ,
) -, -
. . , . .
. ,
( ) -

.
-
() -
-
()
().
. VVII.

-
( ,
). ,
, ,
. ,
.
. VIII.
:
(t, )

{ (t, ) =
()-' ), -
1).
, -
, , . -

30.


()+-()() = , (24.1)
1
) [1].

[2|.
7 . . . . II
194 [. IV

ko u>lc -
. (), -
, ()
, .
- ()

()=()+5(), (24.2)
( ) ,
. -
1)
() .|-ftj[e(r) + 8(r)] () - 0 . (24.3)

. -
:
, ()
(), , <<^.
, -
(24.3)
.
, () , -
, . . (24.3)
0:
Att o (r)+ft;i(r)u o (r)-O. (24.4)
(, ') , -

AG(r, r')-r-*!e(r)G(r, ') = 6(, '). (24.5)
, G -
. -

e
:
\ (24.6)

)
, (24.3), -

. -

. -
[1J.
20

(24.3)
^ kfeu = F(r) (24.7)
(24.6),
:
() = , (r)-kl $ G (, > (') u (r')i(V', (24.8)

, , V,
(). (24.8)
(24.3),
( G) .
-
(24.8). ,
':

('). - , ( ' ) - k l I G (', ") (") (")d*r",


(24.8).
() _ 0 () -kl\G (, >- (') , (') d V +
+ * J $ G ( r , r')e(r')dV j G ( r ' , r")i(r")w(r")dV". (24.9)
() = "
(24.9), .
, :
() = () -kl ] (, > . (') 0 (') d V +
+ ki J J (, ') G (', ") (') (") 0

>
/-"dr'"-f... (24.10)
-
1
(24.8), ).
(24.10) ().
,

() = - * J I G (, ') ('), (r')dV', (24.11)

') . -
. , . -

. ,
.
196 . IV

. -
() -
(). (24.10)
, (24.11):
tt,(r) = -*sJG(r, r')i(r'K(r')dV. (24.12)
, ,
.
us . .
, (24.10) -
us u -
:
uss=uull = u1 + u2 + u,+ ... (24.I3)
, -
, - ,
- ( 1 )...(). ,

8 <s(rj).. .()> . -
-
, (,
, ),

. -
. VIII. , ,

(
, , ).
-
, (24.13)
. 12
.
q(t)
(24.7) 0 : <7() ftje () 0 ().
,
- (
2)) 1) -
..
(24.11) ^,
. ,
.
, ,
, <()> = 0,
= r
^( 1 ) <"i ( i) " i ( )>
J 2
5] ]97

^(', '")'
G f
, ,) = *. ( i- ' ) * < *-
Xi|' e (r', r*)dV'dV. (24.14)
(24.14)
1 -
-
.
D .

25.
-
, , ,
, -
. .
) , . . const.
) ()
0:

ft- : k koy e = | / .
) G(r, ')
:

-^
) , . .
( 5)
if, (p, R), (25.3)
p r'", R (r'+r")/2 (p, R) R -
, . . Lt if,, R -
, 1 ( -
) .
,
, R)exp( ixp)d3p, (25.4)
R, . . -
I, .
) , ,

|9 [. IV

V~/,>/!, L~W'^>U, (25.5)

L , .

,
(25.5) .
-

( 1 V,
()^{ . ,, (25.6)
( V.
(24.11),
.
(25.1) (25.2)
(24.11)

-
( , -
.).
(
, . .).
, (25.7),
, , -
[.
(25.7)

*('(||-'| -|2-"|-|'-|-|*-!)} ,.,,,, ,,- .

(24.14) ,

.
(25.8) ' ",
R = (r' + r")/2, '--R + p/2, r" = R /2, d3r'd3r" =
=tf>p d'R.
26] |99

(25.8)

(25.9)

(25.10)

(25.9) ,
if>e (p, R) -
^> U .
( |
/:
^ ^ ) , (25.11)

= /, -
: ^ = ().
(25.11) , -
, V,. Tj

(25.12)

s = |r,-R|-|r.-R| (25.13)
1
R ) -
Tj 3; ,
r t 2 (. 23):

1 1 n s l n J 2 -
.
') , , . . ,
' ", fi^lB .
200 [. IV

, (25.12)
.

. 23.

^ / - -
(25.12)
~ 1,

, <, (25.15)
,
:

,
, 2
U '

|r,,2R|>-^~-y-. (25.16)
, , (25.16)
, -
(25.15)
, .
(1 = ), (25.15) -
(25.12) .
(25.15) (
) , :

| r , i 2 R |
(25.17)
$ 25! 201

(lt^>X) (25.17) -
(25.16), -

( ~ 1). , / < -
(25.17) (25.16). , -
, (25.16)
(25.17) .
^,
.
(25.17)
IR |7?:, (25.18)
,


R (. 23).
, * [s-V 2 (n tl + nj j n,p] . (2520)
(259) -
/ (R | /2) (R /2) .
, -
, | 0 -
R , / . (-\/2)
XM(R /2) M^R) , , (R)
V,
/ .
L4S
V~L*, . . U;L<^.\ (. (25.5)).
(25.9)



Q (R) = * { V, [ (+ (R)] -n,. (R) J . (25.22)
(25.4) -
:

I 1|>, (p, R) exp (-Qp) dp = 8> (Q, R), (25.23)


202 [. IV

27,
-

) = <|1()|>->.0-, ). (25.25)
(^ - ? , 4TOS = 0)
Q (25.22)
(25.26)

, ,
d*R, , . .
: (, -
, (25.27) - ) -
dl1 , -
d'R.
(25.27), '
(25.1), .
/ 0 (R) = | |'/| R 0 1 !
R. (25.27)

* * * * , (25.28)

,
, -
/
. , -
RKf
, RKt -
(25.18), . . R^^VWT.
, (25.28)

[--<1"". (25.29)
25] 203

/ l/lol 2 ^ coast ( (25.19),


; , -
, ), -

/-^/.(n.)g|r_r<| (25.30)

(/o(nf) ),

(25.27) (25.28)
,
. 6 -
(,-) (V.s) , .
,
q-^k\nsn;| = 2/jsinVj9. (25.32)

q -
1
(25.33)

q, . .
(, ,-) (. 24). , (25.33)
, -

, -
0.
,
()

( -
)
. -
,
,
, - . 24.
-
(25.33) -
( R) .

(q), (25.27) (25.28).
204 [. IV

, k s ,,
! q - 2k,, a 9 , -
, = \;2, . . . , -
.
, - ,
.


-
-
.

9 ? -
. Aq
X
9^= /3.
9 -

, ).
. 25. (90)
q
, . , -

? ^>.
(25.28)
, 0 e ( q , R), / 0 (R) I/|rR| a
. -
, , ,
(R 0),
* '^^ . (25 .34)
q0 q (()) ft (, /0 ) ,
, a nst=r/r ,^-/0-
, (. 25).
1/|R |* 1 /'
, , -
L :
(25.35)
, -
/0 (R) = \ |*/| R 0 1"
/ (0) = | A |VS -
: ,^>1.
(q, R) 8 (q 0 ,0),
, -,
f 25] 205

V ( /. -
L) , -, ( V)
q
(q, 0), 1/1:
(25.36)
Aq ~ kAn, k , (Ans ,
V). -
, 4 ~ JL/r, (25.36)
LU/l. (25.37)
0 -
,
, -
.
(/ <^ .)
(25.35) (25.37) , ,
, (1^>)
-,,
(25.37). r m i n ^ L LIJX, /
/(23^5 (25.37)
> r r a i n - = L, ). (25.38)
(25.34) -
,
V. (25.7) ( -
)
| ' | '
kr\/2r
(25.2).

f e-^M(t')l(r')dHl. (25.39)

,
(25.39), , , -
(25.34).


(25.39), -
, (25.38), -
(25.34).
-
), .
206 [. IV

,
, ( + ),
2 (),
:
v^ui(T)^\ I(r+p)6(p)*p. (25.41)

( ), ,
.
(25.41) (25.7),
u o (r):

[ ( - ' | :

r'| = | r - r ' | + ni i 91 _--'.., (25.43)
n , s /_^|- , -
' (. 26).
d ,
i>*id,
ftd!<|r'| ( ' -
^ , -
).
(25.42)
-
(25.43),
^.
. -
,

- M(r'KCTe(r'HV',
(25.44)

20. Mn,-)-$&(p)exp(iftn;p)<Ip (25.45)

.
|/, (,)| .
() = 0, -
|/, (nj)| njp = O, . . -
| .
i 25] 1 207

(25.7) (25.44)
, /t (n,).

(ftd<^l) '
(25.7).

(25.30), v

I* ( | - |
W ( r-rMlr'-r I '' (2546>

4
(25.47)
- I

= \ 5> (') 1'*'-'1^-1 '-' 1) (') dr'. (25.48)

, ,
, -
(25.46)
(25.48)
,
8 () -
, . . (')
. -


, -
-
-
-

() . 27.
(. 27).
(25.46), ^
/<|'|>. -
(25.27),
1/(/
(25.49)
208 [. IV

-
-
.
q 0 fe(nI0,,),- -
, -
, (25.49) ,
(25.34) (/, = | \1):

iP '** (.)

< < J ?
[;t]'eM ' ' (25-51)
(25.49) (25.34),
.
,^, (25.51),
: ,
(, R)-
,
,
M(R) rrj\R,||R| -
,

** = j I /. ("/) /. (" I1 ^ * . (25.52)


00


, [1J.

26. .


(), -
(24.1),
, .. (), -

'&' , div(u*vuV*) 0, (26.1)


(24.1). (26.1) ,

") (26-2)
I 26] 209


0, (26.3)

*).
-

(25.7),

;SCV'l d'r'-
(26.5)
nis=(r')/|'|,
' , -
(25.11)

^ ^ ^ i ' ( ' ) (26.6)

- n i 0 = r/r. ,
( ^> L),
| | ^ ^,,,. , r^>L
^>\'|". (26.5)
:
! () ifensou, (r),
(26.4)
^ I a n J O < | 1 | 4 > = an j 0 / I . (26.7)
#v ()
-
n s z ) .

J
) , ,
('/2 ( , ),
/, , -
.
*) -
.
210 [. IV

dPl , do
, V , \^\ -
. < -
,
, (. 28).

dPl = \&1\rtdo=aIlr*do, (26.9)
, (25.38) -
/j (25.34),

(26.10)
, -
, , -
(26.2), ( )
'"), (26.8)
(6, <)-=' ). (26.11)

J3
-
(25.23)
q, -
i|>e(p)
(>S lt<^X.
-
:
/ 28.
(, <p)ttconsi^ll,nk'oG>t(Q)- (26.12)
, ( ^ )
() q,
. . 8,
. 9, -
, gU^\ 6 ^ 1 / .
-
.
(26.8)

^ ^ ( 9 , <p)do^V a jiA;/0 ) s(q)*'. (26.13)

-
Pl = rJ <j> ^i do
5 26] 211

pt 9 | . 1^ (26.14)

, , ,
V, aV,
.
(26.8) (26.9) -
(?! Ii
<*\-7?Ko|Va(e, ,(>), =-^/,(, ). (26.15)

(0, ) , ,
/(9, )
(, ),
,, 0:

/(, ) ^ . (26.16)

0
( -
).
k,=fen / .
dV dza"S., dS -
, a dz . ,
, = <$"01 dS,
P-\-dP, dP = dPlt a dPv --
, dV, , (26.14),
Potdz. (26.17)
,

.. -
-~- '"'.
:
|^0|~-. (26.18)
d B = 1/0, -
(0
). x aaz, ,
,
(*= 1 z = da).
212 . IV

,
, . ,
<0 -
. (26.18) , -
113,
L~V , :
(26.19)
(26.19)
(26.20)
. . 2 0 ^ o 0 V
V,
V .
-
(9, ).
1.
:
) = 1-"'2'1- (26.21)
-
(. (3.12))

( < ? ) = S i r (~

(26.11)
() - -^^exp[-2ft/isln 1 (V,e)]. (26.23)

0
(i(6) (do smOdQdip)
_ -=). (26.24)

(26.19)
(26.21) ( -
7 = 1 , k = ka)

(25.25)
Vellexp(2*0J,)J

I 26] 213

\ kaL. \
L (26.25) .
^.
r ( // >0 , | / (kje)-',
, 2 |/ 2/0/. , -
/, oik0L. -

. -
L
.
. VVII.

. 29.

2. (-
) -
:

() = . 2 ) - ^ ) . (26.26)


(3.1$). , > , . . -
.
,- -
\, ) ty (. 29),
k( = (fecosi|), 0, fesinif). q 2k, ,
,

=4*4.(-2,.) =
[ 2k' (a* cosif +b* sin* if)]. (26.27)
214 [. IV

aa6v
i|:, . >| =0
( ) -
/ .

/ <) - g j g = exp <-2* (ft'-a*) sin*}. (26.28)
$ = 0 (. 30) if = /2
(,- ).
scjKJieKT ( )
-
, kVb2aa^> 1. (26.28)

2ft2(6)|}, (26.29)

. .
Ai|i~l/fc/ 1 6 i ^a 5 <^l. (26.30)

3.
.
2n/L0<^q<^2//0, 2/3
{ 4), -

(?) = | </-"/, 7-0,033. (26.31)

-
( = 1 )
() = 2-'\' (sin V2e)-"/. = 0,016"*'/' (sin4fi)~"''- (26.32)

8. ,
(26.31),
2n/La<^q<^.2n/lt,
q 2ft sin J/36.
(4.20), q~*0 -
, 2.
% 27] 215

27.

(25.24) -
,
(12.20),
-
. -
r t ,
(iks)/\ R | |, R |,
s = |r 1 -R|-|r a -R|. (27.1)
. ( 24),
,
2), . . --
, 1), -
. (24.11)
V. ,
1 , -

( vfl\) .
(25.24) (12.20).
,

. , , -
, (. . ^
1 X, -
{1<^), 1, l^X. -

1~'. (27.2)
, .
, ,
, ,
1 ~ / '",. _
(~/1),
, .
* , ~ A,/v~J.
-
, -
. r^>L

L/r<^. 1,
( -
,) r/L :
/. - Xr/L. (27.3)
216 |. IV

, r~W.', -
-
, / ~ , r^>kL* L.
1,
13 . II:
(r<^.kL')
'-- {r <kU), (27.4)
, r~kL},
:
. (27.5)

(25.24) ,
2
, r^>kL ,

. ks

kszzkr, kr.z f fcAn^R, (27.6)
, r-Jr1rtirl,
(25.9) , Af(R) eihlui>*:

*.(-!. ,) = \'* *1 c- f .) f M(R)etk*>*d>>JR. (27.7)


-
!> |, R j [ra R | ' = (TX+TJW,

| , |

.
(27.7) -
.

(27.8)
00

(27.7)

fkir'-r^*ns). (27.9)
6V (>t) V,'8n' 0 , -
,
X2;2n/L, L V. V -
().
$ 27] . 217

(27.9) -
(25.34),

*.( . ) - - ^ =^y^!ar(fcAB,)- (27.)


l'(r)/(f)
6v(kAnt)
fe| Aiij|sg2jt/L, , , -
An,^;2n/kL kfL.
|,| 9 -
nsl ns. (. 23),

9~^-. (27.11)

0 ~ li_/r,
(27.11) (27.3).
,
, ,=0,

. . , 2,
. , (27.5),
i 4 1 ^ | u I | -
, ( , ,
, ,
k{rl r2).
, (27.10)
/.,
,
. , -

-
.
, -
/. , 9 (.
(25.33)) 0~..
-
,
,
(25.33),
, -

9 ~ //.. ,
AB~X/L,
218 [. IV

. ,
AQ-^XlL , n,i = r1/rl
n s , = r a /r 2 , ( -
),
.
-
. uL(r)
(24.11) -
('). -
L -
) / -
, ,
-
.
,
:
Ul(r)-U(r) + iV(r). (27.12)
/, = (/ (,) Vk = V(Tk)
, -
,
, , ,
</> <> . -
<JJjVty -

.(. r) = <M<f(r)>.

25
. , tya
$.
<\()> ^(, ) . (25.39),

1 4R (27
' - -14)

(R -p/2)Af(R/2) Af(R),
<"?> = - ^ ~ ( 2 ) - ( 0 ) ( 2 ) , (27.15)
8v-(x) (27.8).
I j7] 219

(q = 0) <i;J>

2 J
/1 = <|1| >, 6y(0) = V/8n . | 2 | ^ 2 ,
6 v (2q)
(0), . .
|<?(r)>K7,-<|!(r)|>, q^mL. (27.16)
q 2fcsin \.fi, q^njL
9~X/2L, ,
(6^)./2/,)
|*.1*.1- (27-17)
,
:
* (,. r t ) 0. (27.18)


(^>), (r<^kl.2)
. ,
, -
/.,
, -
,
<5> ,
(27.15), -
. , , -
'",
<u'i> / ] = <|,|2>
9 ~ X/2L.
,
<.UjVky (2.14),

<,> - <> - >/2 Re ( ),
(
<K1l/,> = - < I / I V , > = V , I m * . ( ' ! . .)-
(27.19) ,-= 2 , , ,
/ V(r)>-0. (27.20)

, . I, 25 44.
220 [. IV

28.
1. . , -
, (t, ), ,
, (25.48):
' . (28.1)

(25.48), ~""',
. ,
', -
< | '|/ ( ,
= 1 ) . -
/, /'- t At. 5* (')
- (25.47).

, -
, - -
-
( ) :
%(, '; , ") = <(*', ')"(, " ) > - | , ( - , ' - " ) . (28.2)
(28.1) , -

i t' t":
so

y v ( ) = e - f I " J J 9 (') " (r") eiV <" ( , ' ") d'r'&r",


(28.3)

,
v(t), ul{t),
.
(28.3)
=(|'-|-|"-!)/
,
' ". ,

|'"|^/ >
h/,
$28] 221

).
:
*~//<. (28.4)

-
(28.3) = 0,

3
yv() ^e-'<<"l $ 9 (') .? (")"' ">|)(, ' ") d'r'd'r'. (28.5)

(28.5) -
, ,
, -
, i|>e -
(28.5).

: )
- ) --
, -
v, .
2. -
. , ,
25, . .
R (,-| )/2, = , 8 -
^ ( ' , ") :

ilv(T, p)exp(tqp) =


R I ^ (R) I' ( . ), (28.6)

(, ) - g^ j *e (T, P) exp ( - I xp) dp (28.7)

-
$ (, ), a q = q(R) , R.
(28.6) ,
, .
,
222 [. IV

v(t):

(28.8)

, -

v (t)
(28.9)
G e (Q, )
Q ; 0, gP(fi)
<>>.
(28.9), -
-
GefQ to, q(R)]


q ( (25.38)
r^>rmin m\n(L, Lljl)), GfQ, q(R)]
q -q 0 ,
q0 ft(ni0/0) , -
. -
Ge(Q to, q0):

g,{Q) = 8j*G.(Q-u, q.) ] d>R\S>(R)\>-

" G . ( Q - e , q.)^^-**. (28.10)

Vett . ,
r ^ > r m i n -
#., (.).
, . gv(\i)
Ge (28.9), -
Ge(Q) gv{Q) .
i 28] 223

31 (/) (/) = (/)-' '
, g*(Q) =
= g,,(fi4-io). , ^> 1 , gv(Q)
(28.10),

'-

3. .
, -
, , v = 0.
. . -
[36], , -
[1].
i|)np(T, )
, . . , -
v.
, ,
, ,
t . P) = ' VT), (28.11)
(28.5)
R ',
R = V,( r ' + r "). ' = "VT-'"vx. (28.12)
v{t)

x, p')X

Xexp|W ( , l)]*P (28.13)

' 1 vu
2 )
P'-I'VT P' + VT _
2
R 2

I ' VT
2

tylp(i, p') -
' ^ / . '
:
'(, ', )-=(, R) q'(T, R ) p ' + . .. (28.14)
224 [. I

(, R) - V (, , R) - k (| - R VT/2 | -| _
- I R + VT/2r e |-|r R-bvT/2|-|R vt/2-rJ),
'/ _ / Rvt/2 R | /2
4 1
' ; 2 \ | R/2| |R-fvt/2-r o |
R-l vt/2 . R/2 \
|R-l-vr/21 |R-vr/2-r,,| ) '

(28.13) (28.14),
(25.18), -
'

1|!(*)=8"'< \ * ^ ^ + 5 : ' ( ' > ( , q'), (28.15)

5>.| = ^ ( R v t / 2 ) ,

, (, >) - 8^5 j > (, ) exp (tup) Jp (28.16)


-
-
.
(28.15) , (28.5). -,

'('*>. -, q' -
a
5*+5**, | ^ ( R ) | , .
, -
,
(r1p>L ra^>L), (28.15) .
, -
.
/.
R $; L &+&*_ . -
, R^J., (28.15),
Rir<g. 1 r^>L.
(28.15) \t^.L.
, (, R) -
R/r^.L/r-^.\ in/r^.L/r<^1:

(, R ) - -q0VT+*vRT + fto[(4)S^] 0 [ ^ ] (28.17)


J ] 225

v, -
v:

v = [,.]] + [vn,o]I- (28-18)


q' , -
:
q'(T, R) = q(R) |-feO[(^-)*], q(R) = ft(n,-n,) (28.19)
(, , ).
, r^>L ,
(28.17) , (28.19)
. , (28.15) -

^ ( ) = 8-"+;'> J &+?'_ (1')1,(, q)d?R. (28.20)
, v ()
(28.5), .
(28.20)
. -, 5*+$*",
vx-^L. -, -
' exp (ifevRr)
. -,
(1, q),

+<>.
vx~L kvRx^koLx/r ~ 1 -
,

*,-..
. \_ _ (28-21)
' *~ kvL ~ vL '

, (. q), . . -
-
, . ,
. -
, ,
:
, = min { ,\). (28.22)
V>0 ( ) , ., ,
= ,.
226 [. IV

(28.20) -
, -
( = ).
4. -
. , ,

v, e(t, )

(/,) = (* , VT), (28.23)


. . t (, '),
/' = /
' = vx v .
, , -
: = .
,

> V (28.24)
(, q) (28.20)
(0, q) , (q),
(28.20) ,
(, q). , -

^() = 8<"<-.7^ [ .f>^:exp(ikvRr)Ot(q)d'R. (28.25)



, 2. (28.21) 1
~kl}. , r^kL -
, , 5>>/., <*,.
, :
4 (Lf^kL). (28.26)

, () , r^>W.',
, :
- ., ~ L/o (/>/.'). (28.27)
, -
(28.17) (28.19) -
. , , -^.kL1 1 = .,, -
(28.17)
f 38) 227

. . .
, r^>kL? t l t

, (28.24),
. . ,; , ^ , ,
, 3 , .
,
(28.20) r^>L.

(28.25) .
(28.25) ,
, ~vxt^.vxa ~ rjkL<^.L, vx<^.L +.
| ^ ( R ) | 2 . ,

1|)(() = - | ( . ij | ^ (R) | a exp (I/SVRT) , (q) d3/?. (28.28)

, ,
(q) 13> (R) |*. -
(28.28) -
.
(28.28),
v(t):

g,(2)=8n J |^(R)|O (q)6(Qa>-q o v-fevR)<W?. (28.29)
-

(28.29) d'R
2 co + q o v+ftvR -
8 |^ 5 (R)| 3 ff' e (q)- -
gv{i). il ^
= w-j-q,v-t-ftvR > -
.

,
,
1 q (R) -
).
*) : = vq(R). -
, , -
R.
8
228 1. IV

AQ , , -

R~L:
AQ , ~ k\L ~ kvLjr, (28.30)
, ,
~ 1/ ~ 1/. ' (28.26)
. 27, r/kL -
-
/> - -
, -
. -

, -
lJv~r/kvL = ,.
(28.26) , , r^>L\
, , ~ L,
,
, , ~ 1 /ftu A./t>.
. ~ Ijv, l ~ X
(. 27).
, -
, _ (28.27), .
, ~ L/v
. (28.25)
, a tDs(q) (|). -

00

, (28.28), -
S* (R).
, 3s (R) =.?', = const L
, v -
,

^ ) |T|<L/|^|,

| | > Lj\ v|.



,
v v, . .
j 29] 229

v = v + v . [1]
[3-6].
5. . 27
, -
.


(. 12 . I):
i = l*.WI'. (28-32)
, -
( 1,52 ,
1|>()), v{l). -

*'( Q ) = inr J 1*. !'""* = J &(fli).(fli-a)<i (28.)


, gv(Q).

29.
-
. ,
, -
, , . -

( , ) 1(<) -""'(
), ,
(25.46), -
,
(I b'jc)
(6' = | ' | + | ' | ) . -
~ , (25.46),

(29.1)

( 0 = (0/ , = >|(0|. > (')
, -
230 (. IV

(25.47) %.
(29.1)

S>(t')a(t ~^e"^'i(r')d^', (29.2)


<1, U) =

5 1 (') 5>* (") /, - j* (< - ) " <*'-*">X


-

X*e(t, 'T")dr'cPr", (29.3)


=<!f,. -
,
tyt. v(t), ,
, ife tl /,.
(0 (
5).
(0 ( (01
|< | ^ 7 \ ' 2 | / | > 7 1 / 2 ) . , ,
, -
v (0 .
7"<^ ,
(^6'/)*(/,"/)
l ' i ~ ' i l > ^ ' ".
(29.3) -
,
1.
-
= ' ",
.
'.. <.) =
( ^ | - ) * ( / - | - ) ( , q)dR, (29.4)

fl = | r R | + | R - r o | .
^ ,
2
/ = <|| > :

= .('. / ) i = 8 " ' J IJ(/?)![(< f-) [* (0. q ) # * . (29.5)


I J9l 231

/ ,
,
| | ' ^ 1 .
,
| / 5 / | < / 2 ,
(29.6)
(. 31)
() (), -
.
(29.6) -
. , /

-
(29.6)

V^, -
-
7.

6 . 31.

, 0 (29.6) -
. (29.6), /2, . . -

. ,
(<<?||) 6
[1J:
6 = c r/2sin(e/2), (29.7)
9 (. 31). (9 )
(29.7) 6 = /2. ,
11 / | = const
= /2 sin (9/2).
Iv{t)
-
L. ( 6 ^ L
^ (2L/c) sin (9/2) Iv(t),

(29.6). Iv(t) -
/ Ljvn = (Ljc) 2sin (9/2). -
Jv (l)
-
. -
232 [. IV

Iv(t) -
.

^ 5 (29.8)

. . -
,
.
(29.8) ,


, . -
,
L -
, -

(/ = /2~ 10 ).
6<^L
T<^(2L/c)sin(6/2) ( )
,
: 6lvn ~ . ',
^
, Ljvn?a (2L/c)sin(0/2).
-
, . .

(iLlcT) sin (8/2) , 2L/cT .
, ,
,
- .
,

( ^ ) - * ( = *1-*,), (29.10)

, (29.4),

/
I 36] 233

(29.11)

(29.10) ,

/(<)
()~1. /() -
> , , -
.

30.
(
) , -
. -,
, -,
, -
.
-
,
, -
.
1. -

. .

rotH--~, rotE = --!--^L (30.1)

-

D = eE. (30.2)

(30.2)
(
., , [7]),
(
). , -
, - ,
(. [8] [9]).
234 6 1. IV


-
:
= - " - (), "= const, <> = 0. (30.3)
(/;, = <;)
rot ik,EE - ifeoeE, rot E ift.H = 0, (30.4)


< ( ) < ^ ( )

rotH 0 ' ife0eE0 = 0, r o t E 0 ifc0Ho = 0, (30.6)



rot Hi-t-i&oeEi = iftoeEo, rot E, i'fe0Hl = 0. (30.7)
(30.7)
E M t l , - > + 1 .
, , ,
, . . -
j , 1,6 ( ' ) .
.- . R ^\' \^>^,

30 8)
,,')41^* < -
^= ( r')/|rr'|^=R,'# ,
' .
(30.8), (30.7)

I-JL f Ml '"'"** '< ' T F



- (30.9)


,
; 301 235

, 1
( r ^ W . ) ,
:
E0(r)--AfXlk'T, k^fav-Jfe.yTn,. (30.10)
,
.
*1. , -
,
,-. -
(25.11)
, ,

, () = - ^ , [en,J] j (') (') -


(30.11)
, (D =^ [,] j (') ')-*:
-

,^= / ,
, a qo = (n, o /0 ) -
, .
0 10, /0 q0.
,

, () = - ^ - J* (') (r')e-* # * ' , (30.12)


30

, :

EiM-forenJKtr), H1(r)=/F[nfe]ul(r). (30.13)


, -

, ,
-
1|>,( r a ) = <u,(r 1 )uj(r 2 )>. -
,
-
. ,

Ej , /,.
.
236 [. IV

2.
. ,
, ,,

, Hj = y [n,Ej], (25.34)
/ t <|ttj| s >,

(30.15)

, (30.11), -
r*^>kL%,
r%>rmi. = min{L, LlJ\\
(. (25.38)).
, 26,
-= \F1 \ *11 &1V,
|| 0 | = g | |*/8 -
. (30.15)
' ^ = V !(), (30.16)

(26.12).
V = |[n,[en,]]|' = | e - n , ( e n s ) r - l - ( n , e ) * (30.17)

-
. .

. % ns (. 32),
Y=sin3x- ,

= 0^ sin'- (30.18)
sin'x , -
, -
.
-
, ,
, /2. -
301 237

e t ,
,. , , -
,., ,, , ,- .

(30.19)
, , , ,
* = 1 , * 4 = 1 .

. 33.

7 -

7 = 1 ? ( ) 1 - / * (")' = 1 - ! cos'xiP3 **.. (30.20)
Xi Xt ^ , 2 (. 33).
(30.20) (30.16) , ! + | = 1 , -

= ( sin xi + Pi sin'x,) (30.21)


,
(30.21) ,
sin'xi sinsx, .
(30.13) , n, = e i ^ =
-
.
.
(30.13),
(30.19).
_ ,
, = 1/V2, , = 1/1^2 ( ,
), (30.20)
1 - V, [ ,,)'] = 1 - V , (cosX j + cosXl).
238 [. IV

^, , ,
COS 1 X 1 4-COS'XJ+ C OS*9= 1,
,
= 1 4 , ( 1 cose) = / 2 (l+cose). (30.22)
, ,
. . .
-
- ,
, , -
(30.15) , , -
.
,
EN=(,), N , ,
, ,: (Nn,) 0.
N

. (30.13) ,
, = (NEI) = (N [, [,]])

* = / (N [, [en,]]) | * = | ( N e ) - ( N n J (en,) [= | (Ne) [


, yv y,

, . . (30.13).
. < .
3. (-
) . -
(. I, 49),
.
, , -
. -
, .
-
, ,:

, , -
, -
:
>, (30.23)
2
I - E D I ' ^ - ^ J I M - I ,'| .
I 30) 239


.
, , (30.21),
aa1^oBtsiti'y[il -
1. ,
<j = aj=scrci(sin2x2.

,
2:
ai = 7, (, +,) = 7, (sin2 , + sin X f ) <*
, -
2 , , ,
(l+cos 6)/2 (. (30.22)). ,
rT-i^-ae. (30.24)
g (9) (1 - cos2 9)/2
. g(0) V, = /2 -
,
, . .
.
(9)
(49.18) . I:

=/'-S- < 30 - 25 >
Jo = <1> -
, . -

(30.26) , 0 0 0 , . . ,
'
. (0 /2) -
,
(0 < < 1).
4. . -

. ,
, -

a
I (n s e) . , ,
240 [. IV

^> ]

^ 1 (30.27)
-
(28.10) :

^ G . f o - a , q), (30.28)

Ge((o, x)- -
.
(30.28) '
.
, -
, , -
, -
, (
). , ,

'). -
, ,
(. III).
31
.

(<^>,)

, N , -
. ,
- _4^ ;= _ =
_*!, .29)
(

(ox- N:

) -
. . 1958 ., -
- . (. [10]). -
(., -
, [11]).
81] 241

G8 (30.28),
- a ) , q), (30.31)

*/ . -
GN, -
7 . III, -
N. ,
gE /VE =NV, -
V.
(30.31) , gE -
,
GN{s>, ).
gF(Q)
.

, (
).
31.
1. , . -
, -

(, . .),
() . -
,
.
,
3) ( 8). -
-
,
, -
,
, .
-
, -
, 1), . . -
.
,
( ) . , -
-
; ( -
, . .) .
1
, -
ito -
242 [. IV

,
,
V, .

.
,
:
p = iE, (31.1)
. ,
, ,
. -
, , [12], -
.
,
, -
, , :
^. (31.2)
(31.2)
,
, -
.
( ) -
,
' ''.
- 0 = "" '-' ', (31.3)
' - , -
.
,
(31.3),

(30.8),
/ \ ( ~ , ,
):
l k R t k }
' ' (31.4)
R = \r '|, n's ( ')/| '| , -
' .

H^KE.bKeJfe^""^'1'^. (31.5)
2.
. V /V -
' rm ( m = l , 2 N). -
f 31] 243

-
, :

* ^ , (31.6)

Rm^\r \, a n m =-(r )/|| , -


- .
-
(31.6) . .
, -
-
, , . .
~< 0 /|'\" , -
.
<^ /<^1,
' 1 , ,
<1. (31.7)
> , ~< )..
, (31.7), -
(, ),
, na.'S'X.

V ~ L', .
2
, -
V (r^>kL ), -
(25.11):

(31.6),
N

= 8 , X, -""-"1, (31.8)
= 1

q = fciij kl k(ns n;) ,


^^^ (31.8)

, , -
, . . V.
-
-
= ( , , ), ,
244 [. IV

= (v,,x, vmy, vKZ). -


-
(>,) (,) -
. ,
, . . 01,(0 >(, ,)
,.
(31.8) ,
, N :
N
e iVm =
,0 -=&i( L ' ) 8 ^ Ce-'"?l(r)dr= 8^/), (31.9)
m =l

^ ' 4 r a ' i ()*1 (31-10)

-
tt.'j(r). _
| , | , . . -
,
/.r = |EJ = |8 1 |W|/,(q)l > - (31.11)
l| e i | J -
, , N*\fl(q)\ , . .
/ . N \ fL (q) |

:

(6 = 0, 9 = 0), f1 (q) = /t (0) = 1, -


(NXOI = N)
1
(!,) = (8. = Nklta^-e' ". (31.13)

() , -
/\ (q)
q^.2n/L , , ,
^//.<^1 ( ^
7).
3. . (31.8)
7 t = <|E i | 1 >

^-=16, 2 -"'-">). (31.14)


I Si] 245

, " , Af -
c m /, ,
N'N 1 -
,.
]. (31-15)

Mfli- qs) .
f,(q) -
. , (31.16)
, (', ") dr' d'r' W% (p, R) d'pd'R, = ' ", R = (' + ")/2,
R,

(31.15)
(31.11),

3 = - / = < \.f>-\Es | =
?)-|/1(q)|i]J. (31.17)
, . .
tti,(r', r") = K)j(r')Wi(r"), / 3 ()lfi(4)l' = 0 -
(31.17), '"^,
. , , N*N,
, -
,
:
) ! ] . (31-18)
(31.17) -
:
(31-19)
^ (0) = f, (0) = 1, (9 = 0) -
(31.17) , (0)=*0.
. -
, 7atKIH(0) 0.
, . .
9^:-> (31.19)
246 1. IV

| () | <^~ 1 ( - 7),
/IS.PJV, (31.20)
. . ,
. , ,
N^>\, (31.18) N ?,

I Sx Is ^ [?2 (q) | (q) | 3 1 ^ | g j 3 ^ v (q). (31.21)


w3 .
r', r")], (31.22)
v = /a | / j | a , -

' ":
v (q) .= f [w, (', ") , (') wl (r")J -'" <''->"/' d*r" =

= I J , (') ! (") | (', ") -' <''-"/' d3/-'. (31.23)


Zw, . . -
[I = ' ",
L ( L
wr{j) [ R = (' -)- ")/2),
= | ' " | ^ / W1(T')W1(T") -
K{(R), (31.23) -
.
(31.24)

(, R) . ,
(31.26)
4. .
.

' = [ . = -'111 = "'' <27)
<S%eKOI.,
() ,

^ = J^ n f , = ^ n
s ( . + .) (31.28)
i 31] 247

,
. (31.8)

,
(31.4), , 7
(30.17). (31.28) -
(31.20) (31.26) (31.29),
cN N -

] (31.30)

n(r) = A%,(r) (31.31)
, /= J () dV,
(31.30)
<JN = lo1 [+8() (q, R)] d*R; (31.32)
-
:
<* = + 0. (31.33)


=<tyl (31 .34)
-
,
^ ^ ^ . R) (31.35)
.

. ,
,
<, <; -
,
-
() (. , 5).

248 [. IV


.
5. .

( (31.7))
(31.36)
, -
, , , -
. ,
---|-, 1+4, i inna. (31.37)
, -
( ), -
, . . , -
, . -
,
<fe.
(31.31) () ,
,
) = 1-; 4(). (31.38)
, (31.38)
, (31.9).-
i|>e (31.33), -
, (30.16), -
.
, (31.29) ynkl/2,

| ^ l l
( q , R). (31.39)

i})e (p, R) -
q:
iMp, R)-$<P.(q, R)exp(iqp)d? =
=-|- * (iqp) d'q + (4) (tqp) d'q.

8'6 (), -
, (31.25), (, R):
p, R)J. (31.40)
, e = 4nna, (31.40)
:
) (31.41)
S 31] 249

(31.40) (31.41) -
. - S () -
.
() -
,
. , -
, ,
.
3 ) ,



^ = ()% (, R).
,

0
8 ( O U n i ^ l , (31.42)
()| ( q) . -
8' ()% <^ I -
.

0 < 9 < , (31.33),
, 8 3 ~1 8 , -
> 9
< .
6. .
30. -

, , , -
, -
, -
Nt.
w2(Tlt ,) ,
7", -
:
,( r,) = const-exp j~_"frj-r.)j _
& = , -
, a Ult(t1, T,) Ult(rl,)
1
) , , 4<^ 1, -
. *
|13].
250 [. IV

, 2,
, ,.
,
V, , () = const = 1/, ,
Uia
& = .

(.. r , ) j j i ( l ^ ) . (31.43)

(31.43) (31.23), -
wl=\/V, , -
,

/ = 1, tp12
, /\1|
{ |, , \/d\, d =
= (/8^)'/1 ( )
[14], a Ne . ,

,
O ( q )

N,., -
(31.35)

(31.44)

(31.33) -
_

, ,
01=7ftjaa 1 = '/**,
(31-45)
(qd^>\) (31.45) -
, _
(31.46)
251

,

, N .
-
h.r~\lq<-^d, -
d.
, \q=2njq
,
.

, (31.47)
. . , (31.46).

1. ,
(*' <1)

j (I)
(/ ^>1)

= 2 /*; J (1, ,, 0)<ue,rfxa = V4*5 J (- 0, 3 ) , . (2)

. (1) (26.13),
kl < 1

/^> 1 , (26.13)
^ 1 / * ( , - ^ 1 . -
Xi = 6cos(p, 2 = * 5 ,
e (q) (11 2 , 0) do sin6dBdip ~ - p - dxidx^, (2).
2. 0 -
( ) = # | ( 2 +<2)-"/ 1
>-0 ( 0 = 2 / 1 0 ,
0 ).
. X
( 0 . ,
(2) , ( = 0,033)
0 = s/5 *4-''-
252 1. IV

= 5 1 0 - ' , L$~ 1 \ 1 0 - " "*''


d, l/o 0 d s ~ 2 0 . ,

.
3. , (27.3),
, , L
(. 34).
. -
L .
(27.3) / ~ ?,/. ~ )./d, d
. I^ ~ , . . '

d.
4. V, -
= 0, -
''*. -
, ,
z = 0 , -

-^ = 0.
ON 7=0
. , -
, 0 (1'|<'_|_ ' ' " * ) ,

m
34 -
( " t j m z y

R | ' | , * = | '*|, '* -


', '* {*', /', '}.
G (24.)
(25.12), ,

(1) ,
. 35.

q, = fc(nm), q 2 ( m*), q s A (n*m), q4 k{n* m*),

n* ,
/,
(nz =)-
1\ <| .\ | > , -
(1), 16 ,
[15]:

(2)

253
' (
mz 0, . . -
).
(2) q = q, Q q3, ,
. 35, .

. 35.

5. , -
-
, 7".
.
1+ , (,

no t i^tt ,
(29.10):

( 0 (29.11).
= (/, ), -
, ; 1~- ,
.
254 [. IV

(29.1) (29.4) ,

, / ( /(/),
(29.5).
tyv(t, t ) t
. 36 , ^>.
tfr , -
. lm
m ( , q).
, m
[16].
6.
! 2 . -
.
. ^ ) u1(a>i, )
,
(25.39),

^! m s , by ( ) , -
(27.8), a q ( n s n,-) ^!-]-
+tti)/2.
. . ^ 2 . . / \
Ifll^- / q -
( L. ( J
. (25.32), ,

. . (29.9), -
, , |1].
7. ,
,
, ( )
.
. ,
.

(31.10) (31.12)

qa^> 1, . . Q^Xfa, Na0T (aq)~*.


255

() NKOr qa -
.
^ ( ) -
,
(^>). , , ~ 1 / 3 , -
[17], f, (q)

., 1 I I 4nasin(8/2)\

, (6--, q 2k) / 0 "


' ka^ 10, . . > 1,6?..
, -
ka. d<^k, qrh = const
d/X <^ 1 (
q). , ,
().
, (
? )
. , -
. ,
, .
(!)
V

32.
-

,
/ .
, (, -
, ) . -

, , . . -
, .
,
- .
, , -
, , 8,
2).
, -
(h<S.lt)
- :
(), () -
().

. -

([1, 2] .;
. [35]). , ,
-
, -
, ,
, , .
-
. -,
(,
), " -
. -,

.
5 32) 257

( -
). ,
,
, .
, -
-
, .

,

. ()

Aufft'e(r) = 0 (32.1)

% (X\VZ\<^B -
). ,

:
<=* = ">, (32.2)

VS ( X)
.
VS,
S <p = S/k, -

1

).
-
< . -
'):

(32
- -3)

-
.
(32.3)
k,

*) ,
S .

) ,
~ 1 / * / . U~ f./| Ve|"j>X -
(., , (6|). I/*
|i=l/A/g.

9 . . . .
268 [. V

, > At, - . . :
(ft') (Vq>)-, (32.4)
(ft) 2(?? 0 ) + 0 = 0, (32.5)
0
(ft ) 2(\ 1 )- 1 = , (32.5)
1
(ft -) 2() + = - _ 1 , (32.56)

(32.4) , -
( = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) -
,
- . -
, (32.3) .
(32.3) - -
, ,
1
(32.3) ), -
, ,
.
(32.4) (),
] VUds ( ).
.
[3, 4]

- = *' ^T = ^rve t(tV8)], (32.6)


ds , a t -
, -
S = ft9 = const. |V<p| = J/~e,
t
vS
Ivsi I V4>I - VI. '
(32.6)
, (32.4)
(32.5) .

(32.7)

') , -
k -
, , ( i ~ 1/We
.
$ 321 259

/ \
dS (. 37):
/ .2 = VI AldS. - const. (32.8)

(32.5),
div (\ V<p) = div ( J / 1 \\) = div (It) =-
-
.

:
(32.9)
. VI, 38 ,
(. . (32.3),
)

J/XL (L ,
)
-
/:
37<
(32.10) -
-
,
^=1///.
- .
(32.4) -
(32.6) ,
.

'. () = () + (),

: <^:.
- 9 . , + .+ .-. , (32.11)
, %

()'=-~ (32.12)
o
< 1 | ~ ^ | 0 | , I V<p,|~ KI,Vq>,| ..
(23.11) (32.4) (32.12),
9*'
260 [. V

,, , . . . :

,
<|:
r o = r o (s) t 0 =-; t 0 (s), -
(32.6) = . ,
Po t 0 , t 0 drjds ,
r o (s). (32.13)
,,
,
) = 2/Mt o vp 1 ) = 2 / r ^ = e. (32.14)
,
s

L^^rds'. (32.I5)


r = r o (s), .. [0 (s')j
-"[>($')]
,
( ) = const, -
(fo Ve ;
, :
xe(s)- const, // (s) = const, zo(s) = s.

(32.16)
2
,
,~ 1,
z

(p^V.^.^z')^'- (32.17)

, ,
, -
, . .
33] 261

-
, -
:
(Ts-, (32.18)
.
,
,
= 1(/.4):
o-x = X--/)*> = < X ! X I , (32.19)
( ) <^..
_ , , , -
[7].
(32.19)
% L ,
.
-
. ,
, -
,
, , -
.
,
(41), -
,
, ( -
) , -
(32.10) (32.19). . (32.9) (32.18)
.
-
( ,
,
),
, -
. ( -
)
(., , [35]).

33.
<
< + ^ -
, , <! = 0,
< = ,
262


40i, ,) = < (rj (r,)> = f, (,) , (,)>. (33.1)
S =feq>, ,
MteO"..',)=*,.(,). (33.2)
.
ff1 -
1.
(32.17),

') = V. \ & \ dz''^^-,, '-"), (33.3)

, = (,, z j , = ( za)- ,
., I. (33.3)
-
'" ) =
=(' + ")/2. -

(33.4)

2 -
' 8' (, ti).
z, > zlt
, . 38.
(33.4)
/ e ^ S ^ ' a ( - 38 ),
|> .
-
, \ 0 :

, , 5- , < , -
, ,. ,

(33.5)
i 33] 263

z< = min {,, ,} , ,, = ,,.


,

(33.6)


. (33.5)

(33.7)

, (, O) = <t>e(j/>tj_+Oa) =
( ) = |Xj_ | = \^.\ + xj,
a = arctg(x v /x x )
.

(33.8)

J0(x) .
^, (33.5) (33.7)
0 z, 2 , :

(33.9)

(33.10)

-
! -
00

;8 = J (0, ) &, (33.9)




(33.11)
264 1 V

, , i|:,
*,()=<^~>. _ (33.12)
/ 8 ^/2/,

a ' ( Z
) ^ ^ l , (33.13)

, ,
1 ,
(P=-PiPi ^ 0 ) :

(*i. " f *<(. S K i H - W (33.14)



,
z, 3.
, , -
.
, (33.14)

,>,.
/ , , 1
. 39, -
, -
( ,
S) -
, . .
1~.
-

. ,
-



= za = L),

(. (33.15)

(33.16)
S 3:fl 265

(33.15) (33.16) , -
/ -
, . . /j_ ~ 1. -

(33.12),

, L ) ~ - ^ U > . e - p l / s ( ' - a ^ - p t / f ' ! . (33.17)

-
ijij_ ( ) :

Dx (, L) -= 2 [ ^ (0, / . ) - (, / . ) ] - ! $ *. (0. - * . (. ] *

(4.7)

j (33.18)

(33.15), -
, ,
i|re .
(33.18)

Y^ (33.19)

(33.8) Dj_
:

-2n 2 i,5 ( ,.(x)[l-/ 0 (xp)]xdx.


DL(p,L) (33.20)

36 -
.

. ,
266 . V

, -
( ) ,
_, -
(),
, . -
, rqeopfl,
,

, .
,
,
(,

* (32.15)).
-
, -
(. 40).
4f) /., L2 ,

' ' -
, ,, t 0 1 t 0 ,
, 6, -

. 6 -
.
Lt -
= 0 , ,, t 0 1 t,,
,
-
6 = , 9 . (33.5) -
:

>, (,, ,) - -% ] % (6 + U ) < (33.21)



/-< = min{Z.i, L,\.
,
8 -
, s. -

Lx L,, s -
, , , (,-(-,)/2.
t 0 1 t 0 , -
t, (
. 40 ). -
,
f 33) 267

(33.21) /.< J ds

t, .

1
<

* (ri. r j = i f *.[6 (s) + CU (33.22)

, . . Z., =
L2=L 8(s) , (33.22) -
:

, cj,
, , , -
.
(33.22), -
, ,
--
[ ( -
1, -
2).
r t , L .
= !, -
, 8 (s)
s = 0 s=L:

+ 1.). (33.24)

, ,

(33-25)
268 [. V

|>(,
(33.15).
L I

4 ? (, L) ~ 1 { ds * ? ( , L) = <fy * (vp, L). (33.26)


b b

.
,
5" | |, -

(33.26)

*(', L)dp'. (33.27)

, (33.24), , -
, ,

6(s) ,
. ,
(. 2).
t^*.
, th
(33.17), if*!^

f

.
. 41
/ : () (/2/|) -
2 : ^() /2(/,/)(//).
, /( = 7, =1,18/,,
= 2,40/, ,
. .
, .
(33.22)
, ,
> - -
S 331 269

dsdt, dsdZJz.:

% (ri. r2) = | j I J . [6 (*) + dt- (33.28)

, , , s
( /)
: e = e[r o (s)]. -
,
Hflp)

. 42.

t 0
s: t o = t a (s).
, -

.
( 5)
te(r', ") it e (r' ", R) = \(R),(' f, R), (33.29)

a'i(R)
/ (' ", R) ( /)
R = (r' ")/2. (33.29) (33.28)
R
R = r o (s), "
6 (s) + 1 0 (s) , 8(s) , t o (s)
' ",
(. 42).
i<

3)
[6 (s) + 1 , (s) ; 0 (s)] d%. (33.30)
% |0(5)| J

L<
Z.J L%. (33.30) Li = L1 L
270 |. V

6 = 0:

( 3 3 3 1 )

(33.31) -
:

/
0 (s) ,
t o (s) .

, _ oj, ,
\1^, . , ,
, -
. -
, ,
, (. 4).

( ) -
, , , ,
< = const:

(33.33)

, (33.33)
, ,
. . (

= const).
-
-
[ = ?(). . 43, 43,6
34] . 271

, . -
, -
(. 43, ),
(. 43, ). _
.
. ,
, -
-
. , -
amst
, -
.
, -
-
() ,
, .
,
, -
, -
. -
,
, -
, , - . 43.
, -
, -
dS, (32.8).
, , -
,
, -
,
'* [8J.

(33.33), -
. -
, , .

34. ,

1. .
,
^ -
t-=V<p/Ke, . -
t o = V<Po/' .
272 [. V


. _ < _ V ( + ! - 1 - ) _ V 0 , I



(32.14) - 2 | / (t0Vq>i).


t 0
^ ) (34.1)

Vi (
) .
(34.1) t, t 0
,
q>o= const.
-
-
. . ^,- ,
'" i - 2 * ^ I t 0 ,
, -
(a, , t 0 ).
t,

0:

-

0 , -
. 44. -
t,
(. 44), t\a ^:

,
(t 0 , ) (t 0 , p) ,
-==, ! = 0, -

(Pi. .) = < (Pi) Op (P,)> = i d
j ; I' ' (34.2)
i 34] , 273

, ,
, -
, :
-, (,, 2) = 1 |'(, -) ( -
~/ ) P i
( /. ^>/ ) -
+(,-f p 2 )/2. (34.2)
, 2 , -
- , ,. -
+ ^fp \p_t


, -
, i)?p .
f> , -
DL D_ c^P's- -
0 0 ,
, . . 0, :

42^ (34.4)

^ .
,
, --() (. 43):
-
, .
-

, , : > () = D(p).
, -
(. 4 . I), -
fia$
/ (, 1):

,-*1(-^)+^. (34.6)
))'! , a i|>^
6 ^ { 9 , 8ef = {tla, t^}
274 [. V

(
,
). (34.6)
(34.3)


*,(P)"[P*1(P)J'.
-
e ! t , Y<Pi- 6
:

, D (33.19),

(34.9)

,
(33.12),

i, 0 ~9
tj.(p) = aj,exp(p4/2/|), ^, (33.13).
-
. -
1 ):
(34.10)

') , (33.26),
- (
) L.
S 30 . 275

, (33.26):
1 1

[1 (0)]* = J d y i f f (w)|po = [!((0) J V'^Y = J[1 (0)]"".



,
, ,
.
(,
lL ',
, ).
0 0g, a
, -
8 ( ). ,
,
, AS () = k ( ).
kpa,


_ < ()
T~
,

= <[ (
<9J>, <^'
<ei>V,O' L (0),
(34.8)
2. .
, ,
. -
,
, -
.
r(s)
: r(s) = r o (s)-| r,(s) + r s ( s ) + . . . -
4 = 1"! (32.6) (=1)
L L I

q=\tlds=\iVL<fld2', (34.11)

,
-
:
, q - ^-.
276 [. V

(34.11) < (32.17)


,

q (p, L) = 1 J & J <fc" Vxe (. f J - ') Vie (P. ') <fa'.


0 0 0
(34.12)

(P = Pi.):

"' (3413>

? ijB q -
= const. -
(34.13) ,
'" ^(-*)/2. -
, (33.5),

, -
q.
(34.14) , (34.6):

(34.15)

,
? (,) q$(p2)
p t ,
f 31) , 277

qa qf :

. (34.16)

,
(33.12)

, -
= 1,
(34.13)

(34,8)

, , 6(s) , -
. -
pslL, ;= 7"

qa

2JJ
1

0
s2
' I
2
JJ


- (34.20)

s /.'/30,

(34.2.)

-
10 , .

, , -
[4] ,

,
, -
278 [. V

(. I, 30 36).


. , -
,
-
, , *
, .
-
. ,
[9,10],

[11 13].
3. . 2

---
. , Sic -
. --
2, ,
.
-
. , e = const, ..
. " 2 -
, J?, -
(a V D ,
^ = i - ^ - L

, , .
,
.

f- ^ , (34.24)


. . 2

t 1 279

, -
33 -
. -
, , (33.12),

J (34.25)

, -
(30.29). (30.29) (34.23) -
( = const)
l | (34.26)

1/" 1/ ' -
(32.15) <,. ,
, -
(33.31), 1/ 1/(.)8:

( 3 4 2 7 )

, # , 8 1 ,
. . ,
1 j> u>\ An&N ejm.

35.
,

' ,
, .
-

2 + < = 0, (35.1)
(32.5).
:
X = Xt + X.-f-X.+ ..., (35.2)
20 [. V

, . .
0. (35.3)
(35.2) (32.11)
(35.1) (35.3),

2V<p0Vy.1 -f , + 2VX.V<P, - 0. (35.4)


\(fx
\<fL Ai<f,, Vx = V 1 0 (t 0 T) - - V L -
. ,

|V':iVil = = I e I ~ - -
/., -
1, , I V <, I <^ I V j_<Pi |-
, | | <^| Lrpx j .
(35.4)
^^ 1 = 0. (35.5)
V.:Xo~0. "
const
(35.5) . -
,

, -
/ . ,

, (35.5) Ija
, . VxXo ,

% :

(35.6)
$ 35] 281

ifx(P>
--<Xi(Pii L) Xi (PJ, / -
4\('> ) :

(35.8)

'r'(s') " -r"(s") - ,


{ 2 (. 45), ^ ---

' ". -

,
i-1.
(.43.5)
1(',.")
OS

"'. - 4 r U ( P , )<*?. (35.9)



s< s' s", a p = const -
,
, 2. (35.9) (35.8),

JJ f (35.10)
-
(35.10) :

p, 0- (38.11)

, -
L,
282 (. V

(33.15)
L:

j (35-12)

, (35.11) ifx,

A
i*(P (35-13)

, -
if>j_-

-
:

J *l<b(* O^Vd'X (35.14)

(35.11) (35.14) = 0,
:

= -^ J xiO.(Kj., 0)<ftcx. (35.15)



:
(35 16)
**<<> ' - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -

00

. ^ ) = ^6(*),()<. (35.17)
5
, (33.12)
(33.16) (33.17)
4>x(P) = ; ( l - f + j J J ) < - p V " i , (35.18)

t 35] 283

, \ -
% = \
L%&
\% JL (VTL

. . D ~ L/kll ~
- (V//)3.
Y^L<^.lt (32.10),
(
).

:
?\. (35.21)
, -
-
,
( 37).
(35.14), -

. ,

("1, = ! (*. 0) (35.22)

-
.
(*, i ) = F(x x , L ) ^ 1 . ( ) . (35.23)

(35.23)
( 0) .
, -

. (35.23)
Xj_ -
, -
() -* 0 -
.~ . < 5.
, -
F%{v.i_, L) *0


(2) (0)= J ()* = , (35.24)
284 [. V

$0. (35.25)

(35.24) (35.25) -
. 46, -
, -
/-/-- /. , :

\ 7(, z)d2p-=O (35.26)


-

(, (35.26)

\ / (, L)d'fi /2 ). , 1 = \\"-~
| \ V * | , | ' ( 1 +2%),
( -
)

(35.26) %:

] (,)#-. (35.27)

(35.27) ('. ) , (35.24).


(35.24) , -

. ,
-
: (35.18)
p( ,

. -
.
(33.22)

") = | \" ds J i M 6 + Eto)d, (35.28)

,
.151 288

' ", (. 45)

(35.28)

(35.29)

(35.8)

(35.30)

6
p = ri 2 , iy
6-ps/i..
(35.30),


(35.31)

,
,
(35.11), 24/L":

(35.32)

(35.33)
286 (. V

= 0 -
.
1
I * ' * . \ * .. *

10 ,
:
1
[' (L)Y* s=3 \) (0, L) 3 { (1 v)" "() dy = ~ [()].
(35.34)
, (34.10)
(34.21)
, , ,
.
v 2 ( ' y)' s'(LsV/L* (35.33)
(35.34)
-
. , -
(s = 0) (S L) ,
,
. . . , , -
-
, . -
-
: -
, ,
,

.

36.


.
1 ,

( 4).
(33.19) (33.20).
(33.20) (4.17):
() = 0,033|-"'. ( - x'/xj,), (36.1)
S 36] 287

% , *, 5,92//0, 1
. (33.20) -
-
(. [3], 42):

= 2. 2 C|W' [^ (-4,1, -4^)-



,
D^(p,L) :

D(p,L)
(33.19), -
De(r),
(4.12) (4.13), ^>^
<^1, r ~ i 0 :

, , -
0,82 .
(36.3) -
.
D
. Dj_ -
() =
=ij!i (0, 1 (, L). , -
<7 , >
^ (.'-) . ^
De(p) (4.19):

^'-* > (36-5)


0 ( (4.19)
<! /0, -
alp).
i|j e (r)=[D e (oo)D e (r)]J2, (36.5)
288 [. V

l
<|^1|>(0) = /,C|Lo'' -
. , (36.6), -
^/. r^>L0
~ 1 0 , -
( (36.6) -
). , (36.6) -
,
<^1
r'^>L0. ,
(36.7) (36.8)
. I
(36.6) (33.if), -
:

- (36.7)
I

, -
,
o'i'/jOlL'J', -
> .
(36.8) 10-" -*''\ Z- = l , Lo 1 , -
;, -2-10 8 2.
a2s k'cfip 3-102
X 5-10" 5 ( ) 3-10~
>. 0,05 ( ).

34. ,
(36.3) <^>
(34.5)
' ! W ^ - . (36.9)
,
( (35.14))
[3]. , [3],
(36.1)
(^^0,8-C|/.Z,"Vl, (36.10)
36] 289

Kx(l>) ^(. L)lo\(L)


, . 46, [3J, ^
-=5,92//0. , Kx(v)
,
.

(33.26) (33.27). -
p<4h ^>/ 0 [3]

'(36.11)


, (34.10)
(35.34), ,

, -

, -
.

,
(. (34.21)). 1 3
, . 46.
(32.10)


:
/</. (36.12)
, /0 ~ 1 , -
( = 5-10~6) (36.12) -
L 200 .
(. 41) , -

.
,
(36.1) ^
, ^ . ,
-
/ (36.12) -
, _ -
VkL^l, -
,
1>1,.
, .
' . ' . 4.111
290 (. V

( -
) , -
. , (36.8) (36.10)

-%=
(35.20)
(10[/^1,
( -
. 41).

37.

,
-
( ), -
L .
-
.
S S, = fop, x ^ X i -
,
= ets< - e.+:t.efs1+jc1 = ^s.+x, (37.1)
(uo eiS'+x' ) -
. ,
|_
% (. (35.20) (36.13))/ -
, . .

uxuoeis*. (37.2)

<> = -'/.>, (37.3)
% 5 = 0.
(37.2)

, (33.31) (,

(37.4)
j 3/J 291

| (37.5)


, . . . (37.4)
, -
\.


aL
a^u^-''' . (37.6)
= 1 -
(37.5)

(37-7)

.
,,
(. f . IV).
,,^, r,) = <u(rx)u* (r,)>
(37.2) (37.3).
, , , -
( = ,,):
(. | 0
p, , (37.8)
/, s= | ti o | a , a Ds(p, L)
=/(, ^ .
(=1) Dx -
(33.19) (33.20), D x -
.
,
( (36.3)), -
,

[
0 JV), <1,- '

*
292 ] [. V

, $<^1,
( , )
: \|> () * 5 (). Os^>l, -
(37.10) ,
. (P. L) .(, L) ^ /^- 1 /' 5" > -. (37.
( |^>1) -
(, L) V/, >s (p, I)
2 I n 2 1 , 4 . Os=^fe*)v
, -
() 1. . -
, -
, -
/,^>^>/0.
(37.9) /

!! , /,-*'.
, (37.6) -
(37.8)
,
-
. ,
, -
i
,
() .

I. -
(33.33). ,
, , -
, .
,
- (. 47).
. /., , a Kt,
, 6(s)--ns/(# a Li),
s (3J.33) J?, Rt/
Ri-rLi (R<i l-o)/cosO, 0 .

, (33.25),
293

(Ro ,
. - '- ^ ,
" (/?0).
, ,
, -
. ()
, ,
.
-
( 10).

. 47: . 48.

2. (.- > 0 -
(. 48).
const.
.

, -
, , F (,
).

2>F (1)
.
3.
,
(2.29)" * ('> ).
. (, )
( ),
(33.15)
294 1. V

Vn.Lolab

0 /2 ,
1 8 s 2
/ , = a sin b cos . &( ^ ) ( /2),
, 1 .
4. , -

e = 8 i (. 49, )

.
= . (.32)

_ 111
1
> ds [' ' ds

L (. 49, ). -
(1) s.
, ^ () = J ^ E , -^ - -
,

() = -| T/70sin6, () /i-f n 0 t c o s 6 e s TV4,

| ()] \200-!-|-4/4. -
1 ~ - cos 2 G/f,,
S
(1) ( ds/ )
t = 4 n 0 c o s 9/e2, z = ,

' 1 + cos
295

A' = *noa*\ -
, :
, A sin 0 ( 1 sin6)
= ' -
2 cos'

6 45 ' 0.214, . . -
, , 0 30
(' /6). , ,
( () -
), , -
.
S.
.
. 6*,(Si) njci(sa) ,-(s,) Xft(sj)

Si s 2 .

6x,-(s,)
s < = mln{s', s"\.

:. S').

(, , ,
(35.7) (33.22) -

.
6. ' (-
, or ),
[14]. -
, , -
L
, ,
, 2 -
, .
,
,
L (. 50). . 60.
.
. I -'(. ),
0,

i.

296 [. V

. (1) ( L^-tF)


0, .

(0, i ) _ 2 i j (0, S)dC~4o?,a)-2o5,(2Z.), (3)



* () , (^3.9),
. %0 (, I.)
(2.)
.
(. . ^>/ ), (2) -
,

<4 (P. L) =s 2o% (L) ~% (2L),



[15].
VI

^38. ^
, ,
1
, -
6 < ^ 1 , . . -
,
. -
.
,
, (. V),
-
J^XL<<5/e. , . . L,
, :
^> (/ = LR, -
. -
. /
, -
L 1.
Y%.L ( -
-
). ,
< ^ / (. (32.10)). -
L.
36,
L > 200 ]^Xl = lz, . . -

.
. V
, -
, , ,
, , ^//,
.
298 1. VI

() ().
,
, . -
-
( 40).

-| k'[\
()]---0, (38.1)
2
( -
s
fe -^- (-
, F.--const), = [() ]/-
, <> = 0.
-
, .
z > 0
/1,,exp(ifez).
, /^>, -
, ,
, .

(, z) = i>(p, z)exp(ifor), = (, ). (38.2)
(, ) ( , ).
( = 0), v -
. ,
v (, )
, v
,
)..
dv] - dv

35 < l :


(38.3)

( -
(ikz)). (38.3)
, , , . ,
(ikz),
,
(2ifez), X.
, (38.3) , -
-
.
f 38] 299

(38.2) (38.1),

(38.3)
d*v/dz' 2ikdv/dz, -
v:
Vkpz +di+d, + k4(p,z)v=0. (38.4)

. . -
[1J.
(38.4), , .
, ,
, (38.4) (38.1) [2].
(38.1)
:
() = 0 () -k" $ G (') (') (') d?r'. (38.5)
0 () (
), 0 + &20 = 0, a G (')
:
G ( r _ r ' ) = ___L__exp^|r-r'|}, (38.6)

AG+&2G = 6'(r ')


.
(, ) (ikz). -
' (38.5)
< ' < z ' > :

() = , ()-& dz' U*P'G (-') I (') (') -
J
i
\ dz' \ d'p'G ( ') I (') ('). (38.7)

. -

du+ () = - ( - ' ) (') (') dz' dy,
> '. '4+
( G ( '))
' k*e (') (') dz'dtp', -
(') ('). -
300 [. VI

'
. ,
(38.7)
^ '' < , . . , ,


-
,
.

, -
'(38.7) -
, -

' > . , ,

' > ,
'

(. 51, ).
, , -
<^/ , ,
,



-

.
1} -
,
,
. 51. -
, -
,
. -
(38.7) )

"" () - () ' $ dz' \ d'p'G ( - ' (') " ('). (38.8)

, (38.8),
= ,
' < . ,
(38.7) (38.8)

') (0) (38.8) .


j 381 301

, . 51, , , -
. 51, ,
,. ,
(38.8), . fil, .
,
. ,
(38.8) .
, (38.8) ,
(0, )
. -
1
0 "'. [2], -
111
, ',
<", / .
(38.8) , -
>.<^.1. ,
/
0 ~ V ' e -
, -
8 . ',
(38.8) ' ,
, . .

<38 9)
-
, -
| ' | :

0
fe|r'|. | ' | -
,

", (38.9), | ' | ~ ). (')//,


1 )
(38.11)

) , ^ ^ /
1 , , -
(/)'. , (38. II)
, ,
302 [. VI

(38.6)

0,(1-0= -4-^^

(
X//,, , -
(38.10).)
(38.8) (38.12) -
,
) - ( , ) +

p',

(38.4).
, (38.2) -
' 0) (. ) v(p, ?)exp(ifezl. -
: (, ) -- () exp (ikz). ,
4-ft'n = 0 ()
Lj\a ()=0, , / + */*. ,
exp(/fcz),

(38.13)
v,
(38.13) . -
, , -

' = . , ,
* = 1(')!. -

,
. -
-,

38J 303

(38.13) ,

, -

r x J ^ cvni
| . 2 ( ' ) ( 2 ( ' , ) \ " * ^ [ 2 (
2 ( - ' ) ( , 2 ( - ' , ) \ " * ^ [2( - ') [ 2 (*-*'
^. , -
, (38.13),
! = -()1>()+ 2 4>-/1 0 ). (38.14)

, , 0 = 0,
(38.4).
(38.14) ,
(38.8)
(38.11).
, , -
. , -
(26.11)
(
):
^ ( 4 ) (38.15)
(38.15) (/2 <
< 6 < , 0 < < 2),
:

/2
< -
= 2k sin VjO,
2*
1
^ *<- (3816>

6
,
, .
304 1. VI


, z
, cr^z (, , -
, ).
, , -
(38.7),
0<5$1,

n'k'z J ()<|1. (38.17)


VT
.
(38.15) (^^ ),
0 (
) (38.17)
24


. . . -
, (38.17) ,
(38.18). x > ] ^ 2 (") -
x<fej^2, (38.18)
, (38.17) .
, , ij>B () = | ( ra/2aa). ( 3) (v.) =
=(2n)-' ( ' a a|a 3 exp( 2 /2) , (38.17),

"\-'"' (1 ~'') <^ 1. (38.17)


(38.18)
(. (26.19))

(38.18)

ka^>l ( ),
(38.18) \^.\, (38.17)
o^fe2za<^exp (fe2a"/2), . . \
, exp (k2a'/2)1).
,
(38.18),

') ^>1 ^>,


,
.
, .
f 381 305

(38.17). -
, -
.
-
() = |-"> ('/, -
, -
(. 4.17)).

> 2,0, La .
, -
,
. < 2/ . , , k^>'2n/L0,

, .
, (38.17),
:

, , | ~ 10~16 -*/>, ~ 10'" 1 .


k~ 10* " 1 ( ),
<10 8 , ,
-
103 .
.

2ft

,
(, ) = (i/) v(p, ). -
-
. -
-
.
, . --const
.
0(! ". VI

39.


AM-t-fe'[l-fe(r)]a = O, (39.1)
, (38.4) (, ),
(26.2), (26.3):
(39.2)
= lm(u'Vu) (39.3)

(
(26.2) k). <
.
u = Aexp(iS), S .
if
= A*\S. (39.4)
<?" v. v
v (iSr), = (ikz)

S = kz+S' (39.5)
S S' v.
(39.5)

(39.2)

4 [ - 4 ' ( A + - ^ ) ] + V I H V X S ' ] = 0. (39.6)


*:

liktf |j+xf jo + k4vtf = ,


{ 38] 307

+V(v*V"vVv*)=;0, (39.7)
v*Av v&v* = Vi(w*Vv Vp').
(39.7),
, (39.2). (39.7)
v = A exp QS'),
% (*<4) + Vi ( ^ VS') = 0. (39.8)

(39.8) (39.6) , &


-
A'dS'/dz. , -

dS'
(39.9)

(39.9) , S'
.
, -
(38.4) \<^1. ,

(39.5). S' -
. -
, (39.9) -
.
(39.8) . -
A'=vv*=uu*zal
. (39.8) k,

(39.10) -
. (39.10)
, (, ).
(39.10) 2,
= const $?,

^ j" / dx dy+ ^ d\v&'L dx dy = 0.
,i i

,
308 [. VI

, ,
2, &, -
X.
, -

z = coiist, . -
,
-
. (39.8):

<<4?^>
, Vi <-4'Vj_S'> = 0
, ,

, ,
, const, -

1U? TO*= ^ = ^J = const. (39.11)
(39.8),
, (39.6). -
, (39.6),

, (39.11)
/[.

40.
(38.4)
{p, ) = 0,
' (40)

v,
(, ) = (:') v (p, ), ,
(38.1), .
. (40.1)
.
(), -
. .
j <0] 309

[3]
. . [4].
,
.
t' (p, )

)), (40.2)

1(//4). S' S fes (. (39.5))


fez ,
1(/1/|,) = . ,
S' 1.
(40.2) (40.1),
!
^ f A i (, 2) =- 0 (40.3)

. (40.3), (40.1),
,
, .
(40.3)
-- 1 + + . . . , (40.4)

.-, ; ot = y^ <ea>, -
ol . . (40.4) (40.3)
, -
:
2ik^ 1 , - - ( , ), (40.5)

2 < f t ^ l - A i O , = -(V J . l )'. (40.56)

2ik ^ 3 -i- 3 = - 2 , V2, (4.5)

-
-
, > 0,
< 0 (, ) 0(17).
*1 , 2 = 0
, /:
(, 0) = v(p, 0) = ^ 1
310 (. V!

, (40.5)
:
,(, )=, = 1, 2, ...,

.


( (P. z) = \ dz' \ d*p'K ( ', 2 ')/,(', '), (40.6)

2ifeg- + Aj_, a f,
(.
-
(40.4) ( ,
2 ).
,, ,
(40.5)
/, . .

\\iO1\'<k*0t, |bVj/t\| s <<V (40.7)

(40.7) , ,
X
( , ,
). , (40.7)
,. , -
"
, ().
(40.6) (. 2)

*(-\ z-/) = - ^ e x P
( < M ) . (40.8)

, -
(. (38.12)),
exp(i'fe (')).
(40.6)
,
:

<(> ) = $ ( , z) exp (ixp) d'x,
z
ft (P. ) = J C< (x, ) exp (ixp) dx.
s
401 311

(40.6) (. 2)
Z


Pi (*. ) - I ( - '""'
D

,. (40.5) /, (, ) =
feJe(p, ) (40.9) ( 1 ,)

(, 2 )=4Jp(-^JP^)e(x,2')&'. (40.10)

(, ) -
(, ). - % =
= Re S' I m .

* (, ) \ * (,, ) ( ixp) d*x = V ' (, z) exp (ixp) d'x,



X(. ) =
= { X (, ) (ixp) = ^ - J (-)+*(-) (/) >

(40.11)
S'()
= j 5' (, ) (txp) * x - ^ - J '""f-"1'1 exp (ixp) #,
(40.12)

(, ) :
(,)=()+2>(-"'), S'(x, 2 ) = ^ ^ b V b i i i i ) . (40.13)
* (, ). (, ) ,
*(, ') ~--(, '), (40.10)

(>'.O^'. (40.14)

(40.10) (40.14) (40.13),

(x, z')dz\ (40.15)

[^^i](x,e')<fc'. 440.16)
312 [. VI

, Xi = S; = 0 ( -
1,
). -
, (40.15) (40.16), (, )
(Vx^i)*
(. (40.56)), .
% Sj .
.
,
, S'\ (40.15) (40.16)
( % (, )
<xs>, -
).
'/
const. (40.11)
(Pi> >: *) = < (Pi. *) (*. )> =
= \ d % \ dx,exp[f (.. + ^,)] < , ) (*,. )>. (40.17)
, i^ -
, (40.17). -
(40.15),
<X(*i.*)x (**)> =

| |
(40.18)

<(* z J e K , 2 1 = 6(x 1 + x t )F e (x 1 , Zj-,), (40.19)


F e
|||)-|<2 (40.20)
(. 4 . I).
(40.19) (40.18) ,
< (1, ) (* )> = ( ^ + 2 ) Fx ( ), (40.21)

) =
**<>"

^ i ! > ] .(, , - ) . (40.22)
* 40] 313

(40.21) (40.17) |),


( p l - P 2 ) ] F x ( x . ). (40.23)
, Fx(x, )
( const)
.
(40.22), -
, ,
Ft, -
(40.20). (40.22)

' -(z, + )/2, 1 = ,.



' 2 ' = (/2), (40.22)

X sin

2 . 52.
(40.20) ,
, < In. x*J/4fe

:

4* ik 2 '
,
-, Fe(n, ),
. , -
x.Jk -
*/4 , (40.24)
314 [. VI


Fx(, ) = Jdz' dj sin' [**%; *">] Ft(x, I). (40.25)

Fx(x, ) ,

>1. (40.26)
,
, ,
(2/<^). -
, , -
(40.20) || < 2/<<;. ,
, . 52,
2/<^
= 0 ( . 52 -
). Ft(x, ) ,
2 -
, . 52
, . . 2 -
( ) 0 < ' < (
33, . 38).
Ft (,
J , -
), -
.
(40.25)
Z
( >)
Fx (, ) -= J sin* [*' ^ ] dz' j Fe (x, 0 dj. (40.27)
Q -

F,(x, I) (. (3)
4 . I)

5 / (, ) dl = 2 (, 0), (40.28)
30

, (, 0) ,
(, 0). -
(40.27)
, Fx;

Fx (. - ~ [l - ^ s i n ^ ] (*. <)) (40.29)


I 401 315

>1, ..
.<^.1 1 j^sin-^
, 4. , Vk/z'^z'1 (.. Vkz'^>\),
, (40.29),
^>1 .
x z ^ l , (40.29), ,

, .
,
, , .
(40.29) , F e (x, )
-
.
Ft(n, ) - 6(Q. ,
Fe (, Q 2 (*, 0) () F|** (, ) (40.30)
(40.22) (40.29). ,
(40.30) (40.22) za,
(40.27),
(40.28).
, , (40.15), -
,

Fs{x, ), (40.16). -
(. 3), :

e (x,0). (40.31)

-const
Fs(x, z) :
fe (, ) = $ Fs (, z) exp (ixp) <Px. (40.32)

(, z)
const , i|)e(p, z) ^|>(|>, )
8 ( , , ,)
( -1, xj). (, 0) (, 0), . .
. (40.29)
(40.31) . , Fx(r.,z)
Fs(x, z) = | | , ,
j S' z const.
, ) tys
316 [. VI

Fx Fs>

(40.33)

(40.34)

J0(x) .
Ds(p, z) <{S\p1, )- S'tPj + p, )]>

(40.35)

41.
-
.
Wx(x,z)=\--sm^, (41.1)
.. , (, 0) Fx(x, ).
,
(41.2)

Wx(x) 1 .
x.F -k/z~yr2n/Xz
%,. ^>^ Wx -
.
Wx(x, ) . 53.

*,) = 1+&*1. (41-3)


(40.31), = 0 2, x > x f
, Wx, (. 53).
(, 0) -
, , , -
,
ft,
317

> / (, 0) .
v.jv.F [/ ''1 = 1/2/11,

. -
, D --Y?mj**F~ Xz'll
-
( 10).

^ 1 . . xm<^xF
jfe (. 54). -
, -
.
, -
(, 0), -
D<^1 ;
-
-
(, ) 14.(, ), . .
,

7 5 (),)2. (41.4)
-

(40.29) (40.31) 3 f
. 53.

" ( i, 0). (41 .5)

, . V, -
3
, , -
. k
Fx(x, ), . . -
.
Fx
.
= J Fx (, ) d ' x = - ^ ', (, 0). (41.6)

, ,
,
, *,
316 [. VI


-^0. % , -
. -

Vn x/xF
. 54.

. 55.

' (, 0) .
/
(. 55).
5 41] 319

(41.6)

P.)]p=orf (41.7)

(. 5). %' -
. V (. (35.11)).
(40.31) (41.4)

~~ """" (41.8)

-
, (, 0) . ,
-
.
(41.8) (. -
5)

~~ '" " (41.9)

(33.9) <p = S'/k,


. , ,
D<^cl
{V}.z<^lt) -
.
)^>1, -
.
() -
( 1, 2, . . . ) , ,
D = x'i/' ^> I -
,, . . , -
, -
, .
Wx, Ws -
. 56. ,
, , Wx m tys1.
, (, 0)
(, ,
WX{K, ) ), -
,
Fx(*, z)Fs(x, )~( 0), Dp-l. (41.10)
320 [. VI

, D

, -
:
(, ) ^ (. ) ^ j exp (/) , (, 0) d'x, D > 1. (41.11)

D^> 1

^'^^^, 0)dX D>1. (41.12)

,
D ^> 1 (41.8), -
D<\, .

, _
D^>1 2 : <^1,
(41.6), x*<vz3> * ~ Dj->\. ,
( -
, D~Xzill<.\) , , (
, Xz/ll )
? :

Ull [ (> 0) d s z .>/|/.


5 41] 321

, -


(41.14)

(415)


.
() -
* S'* (. 6):
- =^olk'az f 1 -**] =^cl(fta)MD-arctgZ)), (41.16)
S*=Jol Vaz [ 1 :- '-] = * ^ o.(to) (D + arctgZ, (41.17)
D 2zika1. D*0
arctgD D>'/3+..., , (41.6)
(41.7), . :

S' 1 , (41.8), :
571 j l/2S"alfe3az (41.19)

D^>\ arctgD/) (41.16) (41.17)


, , (41.12),
%1 S'':
(41.20)

1 S' 1 , V^2na| (fta)*/16 -


D . 57.
, , (41.18)
(41.20), ,
()
( ()<) .
(41.6), (41.8) (41.12), , 1

11 . . . . II
322 [. VI

/ .
,
(41.10)(41.12).

, -
, :
() =- 1-"': (41.21)
0,033, \ ,
2/3 .
()

(41.22)
/0 0
. -
DgXg/xJ.-,'
Lo,
-
').
') ,
,
La . .
0 -
.
323


^/,
^/


, , . -

- ,
. , D, <^ 1, -
|/"?., -
, -
.

*/*F

, (41.22) .
/1'(, ), \ -
, . 58.
^ x/' x (x,*z) ~ - 1 - - " ' ' *.'!>, .. /',.(0, ) 0,
^> /-'(, )) ~ *-"/. "/

x f x ( x , ) . 58

Fy(x, z)xdx (41.23)

.
,
() ( 0 , ),
(41.21). < , -
() , ~"'',
.
324 [. VI

, x o <x F l < 0
xWxO, -
(41.23). , ()
< 0
(41.21), -
(41.23). , *,,<<;%, -
()
.
, ^>, ,
, KFx<ue ,

5 x-'V.xdx-'/.- 1 / (41.24)

, -
(41.23) .
Wx -

(41.24), x m ^>x F
.
, 0 <^;xf<5^*m> -
, ()~-"'> ,
(41.21) (40.33)

^ - ' / . d x . (41.25)

tfzjk t* -

-^)f"'dt. (41.26)

= 0 (, /(0) 1),
a
= i(!x(0, )
, (41.27)

N ,

_!<!) *-v > tt 0,077. (41.28)


I 4l ] . 325


% ( 11>)
^ <~ 3 9 ~ >
-
. , X o ^ x f < ^ x m -
,
.
(41.26)
]/k'Z = V 2np<V).z. , -

yTCz. (11.26)
. 59 (. []).
.
(41.26) (40.34) -

(41.22), (40.34)
0.
, , -
WJ(K, ), -
Ws(x, )
--0. -
, , -
-
, ^
- w /yV&r'
, - )9
,
.

(41.21) < . S'"

, . .
!. -

(41.21) (41.15),
. , ,
(. (36.8)).
>s(P> )
const. , -
( , )
,

S (Pi, )S'(p,, ). (40.35)
", 10() < ^ - '
1 . ,
(41.21) (40.35) (41.22),
326 (. V]

(41.29)

2-"''> ~"\ . .
. , -
(41.24), , -

(41.30)

(41.29). -
2/ , ,
[1 0 ()]W s (r-, z) <^;2/|>
Xs, ^>2/ .
(41.29) = t,

(41.31)

(. 7) -
. U<^.p<^.L0 fep3S>>z,

(41.32)

(41.33)

tx(i>, ) . ) ^ ' .
, ( )
-%>' . (><Sj5/n
(. 8)
(41.34)

(41.35)


-
(, -
, ).
.
, -
, -
.
I 4
|] 327

. 1,
N~z/lt . -
,
lz ^t^lgk^l + -|-j, ..
/fee. -
, ,
,
S1' ~ N (Ijiiy = j - l\k\s\ alk^lbz,
(41.19).

.
. -
/>
. , -
, -
R, F nR/(n ),
, .
F~ltiz, a
(. 60) a~(lt/F) ~ . -
-
z = ~. -
\ d 1 %,
/^ \d/d.

,
F
d z<^,F
/, . . ~0
, ,
0
Ad^Ji.

(41.36) -
'

,
. 1/F -
,
,
,

= V ^i-
328 [. VI

, -

JV // .

(41.18).
, -
, -
(41.21), -
>() = C|p V l , / -
^ .
. -
(41.36)
_. / _ __ (41.37)
z
A I /V

, , .
1 -
/ 0 >| ( -
), I (41.37) /.
N ~ //0,

4 1 )
< -

/0<^(/, V\z<^.L0, Lo
. ,
/ > ^,
, , (41.37).
, I
(/, 1/),

-
,
, \'Xz,
,
X//. , -
, (/, .
i 111 MlIB .129

- -
(41.37).
(41.38), /
,
( ) , .. ]/~Xz. -

Cik'1-z" (41.39)

(41.27).

(,,.) ( ),
= | p L | .

. fil.

, (,, ) (2, ),
,
Az (,-, ) .
^ AS ~ k () , ()
(. 61). .
<^/ 0 , -
/0 ~ / 0 .
/ ~ fe2 [ (p)]a /5. (p) -
t. . I, 4, <^/ 0 ,
()~1(//0)*/*0''~^''''(>! , ,'Ssr|~C|fe8;j'/.p^J.

N ~// 0 ,

L 0 ^>p^>/ 0 . AS
. ,
,

" AS.
~ ,
330 1. V

( ()~ 1 / ').
, '~/ , -

6S* ~ CJfe'p''1 ~ Clfe'p''"^, (41.41)

(41.32).
, -

- , ,
,
, .
D^>1, -
(41.20),
. (41.20)
, -
-
[6J.

42.
.


.
,, , (40.5)
(40.),
Z

|(. z) = fc'Jdy ^ dz'/C(p', zz')e(p', '), (42.1)



(40.8).
S'
2

Xi(P> )~ * ' \ d V \ <'/( ', ')(', '), (42.2)

S[(p. ) = fe J dy $ dz' Im/C(p', ')(', '). (42.26)




S', n , ,
<">. <S'i >, <XiS[m>
. S' (/ S[).
, , .
I ,2| 331

-
,
, -
, -
S'. -
(42.2),
(,, 11),
-
(^>/8).
S' ,
~2"\ S' - 2 S " " , (42.3)

. [
,


(42.3) : = /^>1. -
% S'
-

.
. -
-
, ,
,
(42.3). , -
, (42.3),
. -
. S'

1) (., , [7]). ,
1
) , 5(0 , -
)= f | (t) f (I) it
t,
(lt, lt), -
:

( I

->
; [. VI

, . , -

S' ,
[8].
%
2 = In-, (42.4)

= ( ). (42.46)
(42.4),
, ,
. -
". % % = % + %

,
-
. (42.46) = () (/).

~" = /IJe"* <<?"*>

%, -
,

"
(42.5)
-
A' cons,t = A'0(cM. (39.11)).
(42.5) = 2,

' = \ ,

X= -oJ, (42.6)
.
,' -
.
, , [9],
(42.6).
{ 42] 333

(42.6) (42.5),

p^} (42.7)
/ ". -
, 7^*^\. 7*= 1 (42.7) fi^Ale'"*.
*= (/)

o) = Ai(eia*-l). (42.8)

, 1 = ' * , -
, .
.
, -
(38.4), -
. -
,
,
oj, S'', Ds{p) . ., ,
.
{., , [9,10]), -
.
, -
, :
!<^1. (42.9)

X | . , -
-
, ,
\ ( ) -

< 4 - 2 + , ( * - O-MY+ = / ( ) . (42.)
/(tf)tf 5!<^1.
Ds(p, ),
1 )

Ds(p, z)=--Dsl(P, z)+ai[Dsl(p, z)]'+..., (42.11)
DSl (, ) ,
.
: [. VI

Ds(p, )
DS1(P, ) < 1 . (42.12)
, (42.9) (42.12) :
,
, .
,
. (42.12) ,
-, . , -
(. VII), -
Ds(p, ),
(42.12). _
. %* <^ 1 -
, */.'1, T 0 -
, , (42.10),
.
, < : 1 ,

" . , -
(42.8)

J| = e '4_l4o|. (42.13)

.
( -
) , -
?
() u u,, + ul+...,
5 ,: /
= Re(Ug/uJ, S= Im (uu'utI). ,
Re, Im j, -
. -
, ,
, ,
In 1 0 / 0 , . .
In -4/0.

, ,
, .
,

(. I, (25.3)). -
<*>/.5 =1--0,27, .. -
i 42J 335

.

, .
(42.9),
, \, -
,

. f.2.

oJ<S I [8, 11]. -


, o j < ] ,
-
, .
, -
,
.

. 62 [8].
<,
0 ^ \,
( -
) %.
_ , ,
*>1, ,
.
336 [. VI

.
1. G(r)
() | *()-8() (1)
. () -
.
. (1)

{)-()(, )--- J d*x JJ dpg(x, ){(-)}, (2)


( - - * - ] - 0) , ( 1 > 0 )
(3) ,
.
(3) , -
G () . :

>

P i . j i Vk*x*-t-i
(ImPi > 0), (Imp. < 0). > 0, -

,
pip.* It ^ x2zl
(>)
,

; _ -.- ' =- _ nf 1' ;
Pi V*

( Imp, > 0
> 9 , * < 1 ). (5) (3), ,
> 0


(. ) ^- \ ^ ,.-,== , > 0. ()

< 0, -
, , ()
pt-
<aavr>unfi
9
I
| 2 t|.
3,47

i. [. z) (40.5).
.

+A^-f(p, )

(, 0) 0
(, z)=$exp(ixp).f(x, z)d*x. (2)

(1) / ( , ):

/(', z)^\ exp(ixp)n(x,


I r> (3)
(i (x, z ) - J-5 (-<xp') f(p';z) <Pp',

% ^ * , z ) ^ p ( * , ).

- ^ e x p ^ JiA f z 0 z
<(, 0)=-0,

(4) (2)
z
x (
(, )=-^ J ^' J < | . x p - ' ^~ | (, '

,
( , ') ( (3)):

', z)

, (40.6), /(, ) -
(40.8).
3. !$(*, *)
(40.16).
. (. (40.21)),

, z)S(W, z)> = 6 ( n + x ' ) f s ( x , ). (1)


338 [. VI

(40.16) ,

dz
JJdz'' II d z " c o s
<S (, ) S (', *)> =
Xcos

, (40.19),
. /"),
/"s /":

) = f fe'j [2^i^3] [ ! ^ 3 ] (. *'-*') (3)


' -
(40.30):
F l * * ( x , ' ' ) - 2 8 ( , 0)6 ('*),
(3)
z
FS (, ) = ^ (., 0) J cos ["' ( 2 ~ > ) ] ',
' (40.31).
4.
, , .
. (3.11),

. * . * ) =

(40.15),
z
'
" (40.19) (40.30), ' ,
1 ,
d l 3i Kl ( Z X
!, *i)X<*,. , ) > - 1 ' II " " L L2ft~
2ft' II

(4,-1 )-2 ? ( 0 ) 6 ( 1 - r * ) -

8
* . , , .^ , "? (, ') 1 . " i t ' s ') 1 j .
= - 2 - 6 ( K i + i)1 ) s( } e i'0)\ sin ^ " 2-j s l l > 2k J '

z < = min(z 1 , zt). (2) (1)

* x ( P i . i; Pi- ) = ~ - | ( ( , 0) exp [i (pjp,)l X


339

\J?s (3)
:

(4)

'
1
= /1 1~ |>

(5)

ip x , if5.
Zj 2 = (5) (40.29) (40.31). -
, , (5),
pi, . . -
z Zi z = z 2 .
(5) ( 2 t ) , (Zj-fjj). , -
,
.
5. (41.7) (41.6) (41.9) (41.8).
.

z ( , ):

, <])(, ) .

(
Aj_ [ ,
^_ exp (ixp) = 1 exp (ixp),
340 [. VI

= 0;

' (, 0)=

(41.6), (41.7).
= 0 (1),

a
(, 0) d x=-i- j" -, (0, ) dz

(41.8) (41.9).
6. -
-
:


! (0
. _ = ()(0, ). (40.33) = 0,

! xjj+Xj. (41.15) = 0 ( , 0) (2), -

3D

=JL 1
" g ) ( -5,
*
, Ktai/2 = t.
5

D = 2j//to2.
1


, = 0 /(0) 0. ,
J0 /

j'(D) = \ cos D/(r-'d< ^ Re [ e-i 1 + ''>ift = Re- ' '


0 '
341


.
7. (41.31)

p a <^z ^>.
. (41.31)
lx
f ~ 1, ^> 1 t~' , t <^ 1

1' (01- t 1 * /-2 1,
V ''-

f [1 ' (01 ( I + 4 T T s i n ^) /-'/*]? [1-. (01 f!'di--M,


J V 2 ftp / J

( . *i> 2 /zfe.|, (<1


I / \ ; < I

sin

D j ( p , )
kp'^-z .
8.



,


ifj(p,
f ( )) >,s(p,
>( )) p<^/^/ O i '-
'
.
. (40.33) (40.36):

, (1)

(2)

<bs (. ) > ~ 2 / / 0 ,
(1) (2) < 2/1. ^ / ,
< 2// 0 <^ 1.
( ) = 1 x V V * + -
(1) (2) (41.34) (41.35).
VII

43.
. IVVI -
-

. -
(
), ,
(-
, ).
-

. -


. ,
-
. ,
-
-
.
. I ,
-
,
. -
-
. .
,
(. 22 . I),
-
.
} 43] 343

-, -
: -
-
.
-, (. .
, )

.
--
.
-

. -
-
. -
,
(. I, 36, 37 7 . V, 22 . I
).
,
, -
/, . . 0
. -
.
, , -
,
/, -
.

- , . .
}
, -
( ),
-
-

. ,
. ,
-
(, -
- ), ,

(,
).
,
, -
,
344 [. VII

, . .
1) (
) .
,
,
, ( 38), , ,
,
.


, -

(. . , ,
z = 0). R{z) -
() 0 ^ ^ z ,
R -
,
() (., , [1]).
, -
, ,
. -
-
,
, .
38,

. , -
,,
. , -
-

, , ,
, -

')
, ,
.
I 43] 345


V.

-
, . I, , -
-
. ( )
-
(, ). -
, , -
( 7).

, . -
,
:
.
,
v(p, ).
-
, -

.
(38.4) , -
. (38.4),
(40.3) , -

-
( , (40.3) -
).
41
.
, . VI
.
-
( ) ,
, 41. ,
, -
. ,

AS*. , -

, S 2 AS,,. , -
'
, S'= 2 AS*. '>,
34b [. VII

S' = S-f- 2 AS* . ,

T
ss =(s(s+ jg
\ *=+
S ASk = 0 k> .

(. (41.17)), S'coz, ,
. ,
Ks = VTi? = VTJb. (43.1)

(., , (33.14) 4 . VI).
< = > = + , ,
(43.1),
(43 2)
W -
,
, . .
.
, ,
, -
.

. 41 -
1
-
, :

<^1, F^>te.
, . . F^>.
-
, -
. F^>z
, [
, .
<^1 F^>lt,
} 43] 347

-
.
,
, -
: /e<^|/"?.z.
,
.
, / -
1\J"K .

, zn. ,
-
2 ^>/ , -
, (/)^>/, . .

,

-
, -

.
,
,
-
( 47). ,

. ,

,, ,
.
. VI
,
-. R 40 -
(40.30):
/=(*, * * ( * . 0 = 2.(. 0 ) 8 , (43.3)
, F|** FB

,

i|>e(P. ) -
(, t)
i|)e(p, ) = ^ ( , )exp(xp)d4
348 6 [

, (43.3)
:
(. 1 S * ( P . S) - * ()(0. (43.4)

/1 () = 2 $ (, 0) exp (iftep) d*K (43.5)


( () -
).
i)>e (, z)

% (, S) = $ , (*, ) exp [i ( + pg)J d
,

S * (, = S * (. ) () d'x dp J W d? =
- -

= $ (x, p) exp (txp) 2 (p) a*x dp = 2n$ (x, 0) exp (t'xp) dlx =
= A (p).
, -
^ ^ ( , ) = () 6 ()
(),
J A(p). (43.6)
- -


() = - 1 [ ( 0 ) - ( ) ] = 2 | [ 1 -cos],( ( / .0)<. (43.7)

# ( )

(, 0).
8(, ) ,
-
8 , ,
(43.4).
(, ),
<"(Pi. ,)...( 1 )>.
(, ) -
, , ( ,)
8 ( ,) .
{ 441 349

.
, (, ) , -
(43.4), "
v (, ) ,
. (i 1, . . . , ) ) (/ = 1, ..., )
i, /
*,<*.. ,>.
i(p,, ,) (/, zj)
. --
,

.
, -
,
, .
(,, ,) e(pj, zj)
. , -

. ,
*((. - ,-:
(Pi. i*. P.. ,; . . . ; , ) =
= (! , z l ) 6 ( z , - z l ) 6 ( z 3 - z 1 ) . . . 6 ( Z , 1 - * n _ l ) . (43.8)
(, ), ,
- .
44.


-

v(p,
(, ) , -
z.
(, ) [2]. -

2
*
350 (. VII

(44.1) -
:

(p. 2)1.

. ). (44.2)

0 ,
',

2,to (p, )-2/ft exp ( ^ j i (, )). () =

f (, 0 ^ ) ( , '). (44.3)

(44.3)

Axf(p, ') expl( 1/tik ^ f-(,


\ '
(, ') -
(, ')> 0 < t ' < z ' i a -
(, Q S ^ z ' , -
- (, )
. ,
(44.3),

(44.4)
j.,41 351

-
(, ).
(44.4)

(, '; ) = ( ( ^ J ( > )<)). (44.5)


Z'

, -
.
, (, )
X

. = J (, )d raycco-
2'
, . ,

(?)] <44-6>
4 , (43.4):

Z 2

= (0) 5 <*, J dW ( - = (-') (0).


' '

"{, ') = [ _ * ! ^ 1 ( _ ' ) ] , (44.7)

()
(44.7) (44.4),
, 2)-2ifeexp [ - ^ i ] ,() =
Z

= - J dz' [ - ^ (-')] ^(, '). (44.8)

(44.8) (1/,)
'

, z),
352 [. VII


:
| * ^ ^ . ) =0. (44.9)
,
-

r,,, = <f(p;, )...(, )(;, *)...V(Pm, *)>. (44.10)
-

7 = (1, )...( ;, )1(;, )...'(;, ). (44.11)
(44.1) ([, ),
, ' ,, yt
[:
', )
- i + A; 0 ( P i ) + ([, z)v(p[, ) = 0 .
a(PJ, ) (pi, z)...v(p'n, )
xo*(pl, )...*( , ).
pi, Ai,

^ , )7=0. (44.12)
(44.1) (ft, )
"(Pi. )(. )...*(', ),
^ v ( p i , ) ...o
(44.13)
t(pi, ), . . . . (^, ) .
, (44.1}:

(, ) , t(pj, z)...t(pi, )
xo'tft )...*( ^, ),

2ifar(pl, ) . . . ( ; , ) ^ ^ - ^ ( ; , )...(^, )
- A I V - f t 4 ( P ; , )=. (44.14)
(, ), . . .
f(; )
, 4 4
] 353

, (44.12),
:

21 +1+'() = , (44.15)


1=;+... +;_;_... _;,
z ) - ( f t , ) . . . ( ^ , ). (44.16)
(44.15) (44.1)
V-Y. ~> (i. , -
, (44.1) (44.2), (44.3) (44.4),
= ,, (44.4):

p'f, 0) =

r n . M ( P ; , pl,z'). (44.17)

(44.17),

(44.18)

, (,. ).
, v (, ), .
''if*. ')

Pt(z,') = exp j - k j J i J.<l*(Pa. PP. (Pi- Pp. ?,)>! (44.19)

,
n m
i*(p;. pp. = 2 e(pi, o - 2 (pi, E).
a=] PI

Pi. Pi. J,)(i(Pa, Pi. W>= 2 2


C 1p 1

- 2 2 2 <8(p;,ge(pi,y>+ 2 2 <(?;.
a=l fl=l a = l P= 1
12 . . '. . II
354 [. VII

(43.4)
<(. ,) (, ,)> = (-) (,-,),

-2 5 2 ( ; - ) + 2 2 i 4 ( P ; - p j ) . (44.20)

,
/>,(*, ') = {-*!<?.(*-*')} (44.21)

(44.21) (44.17),
expO/.fe'-Q,,,,,*) , -

, (44.16) , -
:

(44.22)
. ( ; , PJT, ) = .(\) ...v.(;)vt>[)...v;(pm).
i=l, m = 0 (44.20) ,
(44.23)
Tlttamv(p, ) (44.22) (44.9).
r i ,,=<w(p'i, )*(", )>,
. . . (44.20)
= =\,
Qi. 1=2 ( 0 ) - 2 ( ; - ; ) = 2 ( ; - ,
gij|gl HU1 'UHUHTHUU'1' 355

(43.7). (44.22) -
= =1

-
. ,. ,
.
, " '
: 1 ( \ ' . * ) - < ' , ) |> = </(\ )>.
,
,,, = < (Pi. ) v (pi, ) * (, ) V (" )>.
= = 2, /4 ()
(44.20)

2 ( p I - p O - 2 , 4 ( p I - P ; ) - 2 A (PiP
=2[//(;-+(;-,-)+(;-

(44.22)

- ( - ; ) - ( : - ; ) 1 , , = 0. (44.25)
,,, . -
46.
(44.22)

v(p, )
*(, ) (. [22]).
.

45.

1. . (, ) -
(44.9):

12
356 . VII

. ,

(45.1) :
1 [*./] _ 1 [ *. / 9 ^ = . (45.2)

(, ) .
(45.1), = 0:
0, w (, 0) 0 (). (45.3)

(45.3) (45.2),[_ , -
) '.
exp {'/Ji%Atz\ v (, ) w(p, ), -
, . .
v(p, ) = ( - ^ 1 ) w ( , ) > (45.4)

v (, ) (, ), -
--0, -
. , -
,
.
,
0/8 (45.4) ,
.
(26.13):
2
= " J d4> f sin d6 '(21 4)',

. -
< -
x = 2fcsin(6/2), ,
2

_ -
() ' > 2k,
, ,
J^J 35?

(45.5)

( 1 . IV).
/8, ,
(43.5),

= 2 J () dlv. = 4 8 \ () d-.

^2J 4-o.. (45.6)


| |" (45.4) (45.6) -
:

, ) | { - } = !.(, z)|>e^. (45.7)


, -

() . , -
, i0 const w(p, 3) = const,
(45.7)
|(, )| = | . 1 ' { - . (45.8)
,
39, :
<| |> = |t0 | s = const. (45.9)
(45.8) (45.9),
<||1> = < | ! | > - | 1 ' = ||'(1--"' )- (45.10)
, -
,
^,1 -
.
2. . -
,,,.

(44.24). .
358 [. VII

= const +
', " :
p + = V,(P' + P"). = '-

Fj.^p', ", ) = ,, j (p + +P/2, *


/2, ) = (, +, ), , (44.24)
,

(45.11) -
4 :
(, + , z ) - J v ( P . P. ) ( ( + ) ^ . (45.12)
(45.11),

+^+-'^. (45.13)
*)
/(p + ft)=exp(ft)ftp) (45.14)
(45.13):

(45.13)

( - 5 ) [ (T^)V(P. . )] ()(. . ).
,
()

. . *)] (45.15)

) < ^ - > ,
.
359

(45.14) po = pz/ft,
' (45.15) :

y(p + pzjk, p, )

V1" (. ) = Y (> > 0) v = 0.


/fe,

(45.17)

(45.17) (45.12),
(,+,)=

p exp
-T' ) ^--^^(-^-)^}^-
(45.18)

<>(, + ) = (, pti, 0). (45.12)

V (o) (P. P) = 5 ? J e * P ( ~ ' P P i ) ""(, ;)d'p;-

(45.18),

(. +.) =


, -
' = (/Jfe), d?p = k*<Pp /?.

j
(, +, ) =4 -^ j*p'*p;rw(p', p ; ) x
j| ( p _p')( P + _p;)-5*! j t f ( 1 + ' (l - i ) ) <J-
(45.19)
5
360 [. VI)

(45.11) -
()
< 0 | (. +) [46].

. (*'(, + ) = const = /, (45.19)
+,
(4n*z/feJ) 6 ('). -
',

(. +, ) = /,[-5()]-(,*). (45.20)
, , -
,
+ . (45.20) = 0 , ( 0 ) = 0 ,

(0, + , )-<( + , )(+, )>-=7(+, ) = /0.


/ " = / 0 39.
, # ( )
. .
,
(*. ) (0, z), -
, ,

^(*)=1. (45.21)

-
, (, )/(0, ) 1
. ??>*,
.
, -
, . , f>k -
. , , ()~^' / > , -;:
,

37 .
, 1 "
J (, "'
*, -
). -
+ . (45.19), -
' pi (4*'/ 8 )('),
'
I 4
] h 351

:
Jr(f>. P+, *)dp+ = exp{-^z//(p)} jr">(p, p;)*p;. (45.22)
, -
,
.
(45.22) = 0 , # ( 0 ) = 0 , (0, p f , ) =
= /(+, ),

J 7( + , 2)rf"P+ = $ U p + ) d P + - (45.23)
(45.23) ,

= const; -
z = const .
(45.19) -

- (. 1).
3. . -
-
(), -

( ) -
.
.

|<W| do , R,
, :
(45.24)

3
. 9
(. (9.26)). 3 (R\ n)
R ' = R + n<# 3 (R, ) .
dl - -
: (1 ' = <x3dl. -
()
. -
- , -
:

A3<=^5(R, n')f(nn')do(n')di.
( /(')
' ). = 1 " &3W
362 [. VII

) + $ 3 ( R , n')/(n-n')do(n'),

-jr , -

-gJ = -.

(45.25)

-
, , , -
, .. / ( )
' .
, 9(R,n)

': '\, \ | < ^ 1 ,


.
(45.25) ,
. -
, -
, :
3(\ 1, n'j/^.L-nJdoK)^
00

S$ 1. ' ' l
, -
3(R; I, n'L) | n'j.1^1 , ,
, *
,
.
,

R = {p+,}, V i = ; j R ~ = a j p ' -
-

363

[4, 5]:

j ( ' ) ( D l . (45.26)
, -
(45.26) (45.11)
(, + , ).
(45.11)
(, + , ) +.
:
(, + , ) = Jexp(xp)f ( + , , )<. (45.27)
(45.11) exp(ftcp) , -
(43.7).
= 0.(45.28)

(43.5) , ,
():
if- J exp (ixp) () (, + , ) d'p =
,(x\ )(.+,

(45.2$

+ j + ^ F = + j (*-*''0)
F (+ (4529)
*') **'
(45.29) (45.26), , -
x/ft = nj., F (+, , ) = 7(+, nj_, ) ' = 6*''1,
(45.29) (45.26),
/
-**, / ( n j . - n i ) = ^ ( A ( n i - n i ) , 0). (45.30)
, /, -
, . , -

, . . -
.
364 [. VII

(45.6), , = 0> . .

, -

. / ( ^ ) ,
. IV -
(. (26.8), (26.11)).
, ,
,
, -
. 7].
3 , (45.27),
:
(, + > ) = ft' Jexp (iknp) 3 ( + 1 ) ) dlnL. (45.31)

. VIII (45.25)

, ,
.
, ,
(45.19), ,
(45.31),
.
[4, 5 ] .

46,

(44.25)
,., (|, P'ii Pi, Pi', ) = < ( ;, z) v (pi ) V (pi, ) ^ (,\ )>.

+ ( ; - - ( ; - - (,"-] ,., - . (46.1)


, ,,,
. , pi
;, " pj,

Pi- - )
, .
W ] 365


,,, ,,,:
*,(>. ft)
= r,.i(Pi. Pt: Pi, Pt, Ar,.,(Pi, Pi. )1(, ).
, , -
, ,,,,
,
,,, ' [ ", pi .
(46.1) ,
, Ttit(p[, '; \, ', ),
[A^r^^pi, '*\ Pi', Pi, )] - = ;
-
(46.1).
:

(462)

Pi = P+ + V, (P,-P,)V^P,
pj=p+V.fPiP,)'.
, AJ^AJ 2(V P+ Vp+ VPlVp,).
,,,, + ) , , ,, ,
4 (+, , ,, ,, ). (46.1)
:
e v
^ ^ + V V ) r ^ F ( p l , , ) 4 . (46.3)

( ())
F(.. ,. ) = ( 1 -^/2) + //(,-/2) +
+ (, + /2) + ( , - / 2 ) - (, + ,)- ( , - 2 ) . (46.4)
. , -
.
"(+, , 0 ) = 1.
, , 4 + ,

-
. , V p + r 4 = 0 (46.3)
366 (. VII

:
^ | . - ^ f ( p l , ,.) 4 .
(46.5)
,( , 0 ) = 1 .
,

. = 0, , (46.4)
(46.5),
P.. 0) = 5( ,) =
1), (46.6)

W* r ^ ( P i . ) 4 (. *).
* (.. 0) = 1. (46.7)
p = pl + pipift, = 0 ,
PiPi=P. . . ;, pi, pi, pi -
,
/V

, (. 63). [ [ pi ",
4 .

- ^ \ )),
4 (pj, ) , , -
:
4 (1. ,. ) = ,( ),
(46.8)
.(1,- ) = ;( 1 , P l , ).
|,|*, , = const.
, (pi, p[) (pa, pj) -
,
367

, (pi, pj) (pj, pi)


i p t ^ m j , . .
4(, z) =

1
, ^ , ) ( - . ^* ) <469>
, J=i ,
|, j <.
' VitPl + ft)
/,(pi + pj) (46.9)
lim . ^ . , , ) = (( ))\
pt- >
(46.10)
lira . (. ., *) = ((1, *))'.


, ,.
KiK (. (39.7)), -

}
(46.11)

, /(, ) = |(, )\*. -


, |(, )|0 ||>.
(46.11) = const
,

^Ip^^^ -
= /, -
. v>-0 -^+,
^IP^J, = 0 ,
CD

J / (, ) d'p = const = J / (, 0) d'p- (46.12)


00

-
(, ) = /(, ) + /(, ). (46.12),

$7(, )fi*p-=S'(p.O)*p. (46.13)


368 1. VII


(. (45.23)). (46.13) (46.12),
, (46.14)
:
, ,
,
.
, (46.14) . V
( 35.25))
.
(46.14) ,

= '" + = 7, ('+")

J*#(p+1p,2)*p+*p-0. (46.15)
, -
.
, -
(46.15):
$ 0, (46.16)
,
(, ) . (46.16)
(46.7).

( ) = 4 ( z ) - r * ( p , , *) (46.17)
, = 0, 4 (0, ) = </(;, ) / (pj, )>, (0, ) = 7,
(0, , ) = 1,( ) -
. , , , (46.10), -
. (45.11)
( ';+ = 0), -
, .

- - ^ ' (,, ) [F ( P l , ) - 2 ( P l )]. (46.18)


, -
, ,
lim K"(Pi., p,, <) = 0,
j 4
] 369

(46.18) , . .

i, ,. ) * , = - ^ 1 ^ ( 1 , ,)(, z ) d p , -
- ^ - , , 2) J [ F ( P l . p,)-2//< P l )jdp,. (46.19)

F (,, , ) 2 ( 1 ) ^ 0 . ,
(46.19) .
(46.19) ( = 0. f ( 0 , ,) = 0, ( 0 ) = 0 -

P,.

} ty,{plt O)dap,=O
( = ^ )
(46.16).
, (46.14), -
, (46.15) -
.
(46.7) 4
.
,
-
( ) ~ { '/'/2} [8] ( ) ~ - " / . [ 9 ] .

= [/()*)1(1) . -
, , -
.
, I, -
(46.7) [1316].
, -
, -
, .
(46.7)
iV*oo 4#- ,
, (0, ),
N , /?
. -
( )
fTi/p*,
, -
(45.21). .
-^\
, , ,
^. ,,<^
370 [. VII

V^/*^> 1 '()
2
1
() 1 + \ (zz'Ydz $ d*v. (*. 0) X

(46.20)
^>,(, )
. ,
r o = z/ftpt. ,
.
^ } . . . (46.21)
, () ^CJH""/, -
(46.20)
p-i (z) = t + 0 , 8 6 1 (-/. + . . . , (46.22)
p5 = 4x 5 = O,3O7Cift'/z"/i
, (.
(41.27), (41.28) (42.13)). (46.21)

* , (. ) = {-0,729!*'*/.> + . . . , (46.23)
,

, (46.21) -
(46.16). , -
tyr |^>1
^>. -
(46.16)

, |/(, )
.
ifv, -
(46.16) . ,
,
371

K B (46.16)
( (46.21).
-
gfgX [11] -
8 () = ^|"" / .

. 65.

. 64 -
p = f(P 0 ) ( /). 2,
(46.22),
( 3). -

[23].
372 [ . VI

. 65 ,
,(, ), ,
(46.23). , -
(Jo
.

47.


, (, )
- , -
, 43.
,
,
.
-
, -
, ,
.

( )
" ( . ) = ()
.
(47.1),

= 5*1" + <(- ZMP>Z)>> (47


.2)
(, 0) = (),
, ,
v, <>.
, a v ,
<>
(7.30),
<(, )(, z)> =

| f , Z)e(p', 2 < ) > ( | ^ )


,
6(, )/6(', z') = 0 ' > .
47] 373

43.

(47.2) (47.3)
<> :

, z)(p\ 2')>S,(p, ; ', '). (47.4)

, (47.2), .
S,. -
(47.1) /6(', '), ' < :
(.) _ | (, ) , ik:,_ _ 8(. ) , - ...
( 2 <
7 1 ^ ^ =

1 ^ +
^ ^[^ <475)
6 ( ' ) ( ' ) ( , ),
(, ), 6(z') = 0 " > ' .
(47.5):
. ; ', ') =
^ ^ ^ ) , 2 >'. (47.6)
/ ,

:

^ ^ > . ( 47.7)

, 5, -
(' ( ")^*(', ^. (47.7) (47.6),
*Si(p.; ', ')
374 [. VII

, -
-
v Sn.
(47.8) -
Sn. -
> ' , = '.
, St(p, '; ', ').
(47.1) ,
/(', '):

"(. *) =

6 (, )/6(', ') 0 < ' , -


'.
,
6 (, )
6(', ')
' = ( ),

= -
= <() v (. - '-")
(', ) *
(47.1).
(47.9) '=,
(47.8):
S,(p, '\ ', ') = ^(p')t(p, '). (47.10)

(47.9)
St. (47.9) / (*, "),
= '\
SAP, '; V', ' ; ". *") = ."?, (. *'; ". "; ', ' ) -
= y 6 ( p - p ' ) S , ( P , '; ', "). (47.11)
375

. - -
(47.9), -
S n + 1 .
--
. (47.4),
. .
<(, z)8(p'. ')>^**(,2; '.') = ( - ' ) ( - ' ) , (47.12)
' (47.4)
-5= ^ + 1 * ' ( - ' ) 5 1 ( , ; \ ),

- /
Sl (p, z; p', ) -
(47.10); -
, v:

|^Ai"-jv4(0)u(p>2), (47.13)

44 (44.9).
, - -
, ,
.
:
, -
-
(47.8). " ,

p M ( p - p " ) 5 a ( p ^ ; ', '; ", ). (47.14)
(47.11) ' , " '
' ",
i
S,(p, ; \ '; ", z) = 6(p-p")Sl (, ; ', ').

(47.14) ,

2A Aj - Sl
IF W^Si' > - (47.15)
(47.4) (47.15),
.
, (1)
ij!c, (47.12)
376 1. VII

- ,
, , .
= 2.
(47.15) (47.10). -
,

S, (47.4),
v:

{'2 ( ( ~' ^ < ~ > > } * > ( - ' ' ~ ' ) " ( ' - ' ) ; ( 4 7 - 1 7 )
,
. , ,
,
(47.17), -
, (47.13).
(47.13) (47.17),
/ if s (p', ' -
. 45
(. (45.4)),
1
v(p', ') -


(,)" .
{ ? % (')} (47.17). , -

/<1. (47.18)
,
(47.17) v(p', ') (', ) ,

{ /,*,(*')} 1. -
:

(47.19)
| ' | ^ >
] 377

. % ,
/j., Y(zz')/ft~
1/, it>e(p', ') -
f -
. (', ), -
.

VJ VT (47.20)
_ ife(p', ')(', )
(0, z')(, ), '
. , (47.20)
(47.19) :
_ Z

= --*(, ) J 11,(0, z-z')dz'. (47.21)



,
*>'. (47.22)
(47.21)
, ,

S*(0, *')&'-'/ <).



(47.21) -
(47.13).
, (47.21) v
<^/,
. , -
(47.21)

(z) = , exp J - j (-) .(0, QdA. (47.23)

<^1
>(0, ^, 0) = \, (47.23)
(*</). (47.24)
^>/,|, (47.23)
Z <

$ <* - 0 '. (0. 0 4 * J t|>e (0, ) d = V / 2 ,


378 [. VII


() = {feMnz/8} (z>M- (47.25)

(47.25).
(47.18), (47.20) (47.22) -
. -
(47.20) ,
in feaa, -
.
1 <^.\, 1
, -
.
(47.18) , 1
(, (4.6)
feM10/4 = eT0 ), , , ln <^d=
= . ^ . , (47.22) -
, / .
,

. (47.18) -
al. , ,~\1]
(47.18)

aJ/W!, < 1 . (47.18)


,
, -
,
.

.
-
, [20]. ,

[20].
(44.15) = = 1 , . .
(,', z)v*(p[, ),
(pj, )
e(pj, ). -e + const .
, ,
(,',) v* (pl,z).

, \, 1 /j_,
379


^ .


(47.26)
/,
. (47.26) -
, .
, -
*#(*) ~ 1 (. (45.21)), (47.26)

*>1-3 (47.27)
, ,

.

1. -
,

(I)

( = 0
, F) [6]. ,
H(f>) JPCJP*'3,
.
. / ( + , )
= 0. (45.19)

!. (2)

<>, (1) :

(3) (2) +. -

(4)
380 [. vit


(5)
(4) (). () = pCffl;
I

(4)

X { cos,}*,,.
no q> 2nJ(,(ip'p + /z), 1

(+. ,)= * ^ |*{ -< p .-flc*V} ( ^ ) - (6)


/, () , . .
= 0:

7 ( + , z)/{t(z)

(gftj2a)^-l, (7)
:

(8) :

/ ( ' [ =/(") = ] { I ut'/'}dt,~

, / 2 \V.
381

2o/g (). -
/>
"' ~"' , /()

8
( ) = 1 - 0 , 9 4 + 0 , 7 5 ' 0 , 5 6 + -, (10)

=0
f () -
. f(u) . 66.

t.0

0,6

0,2

4
. 66.

(45.23) / (+, )
z. -
. -

J (+, )<+-7(0
(45.23) ,
(0, ) S,M {) =1 (0, 0) S,^ (0). (12)

. ,
(12) ,
(. . 0),

U W S'&, (z) = (0, 0) S e 4 t (0), (13)
/ () 5()
.
(12) (13) ,
I, () = 1 (14,
| 1 4
, 2) / W

> 1 , , (II), /() 1,1"#/<


382 [. vn

2 2 !
, F a> ( ) g (z)1+ */ -
<^*- ( ), g'{z) k'a'/z',

^> ( ), g* as 1
> . /.
w
2. - -

['1(\ )<'
| 1
$ / <\ ) <'


,.
. -
. ,

)' (Pi-

. . , Pj = pJ Pj^P^i
+ , , ,, p s (. (46.2)) 0, - 0 .
f = p + + VsPi. ' = + V s P i . PiPi=(tl+1/4pi "
(+. , Pi. PJ, ) = ,(+. , pt, 0, ).
,
V = P-> IJ d V V i (P^-'/jPf) , (+, 0, 0, ).
8. , R,
/ (, ). -
J R ,
-
- .
.

7-<xjj/(p, z)d'p. (1)


2
, 2 /?. (I),
J = 72. (I) ,

J/J
7 1 1(0 )
383

(2) ,

(3)

7 , (/)*.
I 1 2 ,
= 0 1
**> \ 0 p # S , " "**"

, p = pipa p ' ^ P s .

(4)

( /()

(5)

(4)

(6)

, /2 -
R, .

8 (. . if/

= | | ) (6) :

(7)

, R -
| * . if/ (p, ) ,
M>J f(p) . / ()
teiMopa no /2:
384 [. VI]

(7):
2 2R
2R

I * )
^ J *< )' + . (8)

S-M-

tR
| f (, * ) p d p - j ^ j fi|)/(p. ) + . . . (9)
2
' (46.1) , -
(9) ~ * . , -
R , / } - * :

(10)
nR* j

, t(i;(p, z) ,
R , " 1 , ,
= /?'
.
VIII

48.

-
.
. VII,

, ,
,
. , , -
, , , -
,
. , , -
,
.
, -
(-
, . .),
,
. -

, .

.
,
, , [1].
,
, -
. -
,
-
(-
) ,
,
' 3 . . . . 1[
386 [. VIII


. -
,
.
,
, -
.

, .

, 0
. , . .
,

Z(r)G(r, r0) = A G ( r , r 0 H [ 1 + ( ) ] ( , ) = 6 (-) (48.1)

( ),
| 1 .
,
(24.10), ,() =
= G,(r,r,),

( ).
(48.2) 0 (24.10),

G (, ,) = G , (r, r,)-ft' J ,(, ,) (rj Go ( ,)-, +

+ ( - f t ' ) ' J Go (, rj i (rj G, ( ,) ( )

X Go ( r0) d'r, d?r. + ( - ft') J Go (r, r.) e (r,) Go ( ,)


X (,)G,(,, ,)(r.)G o ( r 0 )d> ri d>r,d'r 3 + ... (48.3)

, G, (, ) , . .
G, (, ,) = G, (,, ). ,
G (, ,). ,
G,,
(48.3)

5 Go (, ,) (,) G, ( .) dv, = J Go (r I t r0) (^ G, (, ,) dV, =

= SG0(r0,r1)e(rl)G,(r1, r)*^.

fljfl 387

:
$.ff,.(r, r j (,) G. ( > ,) I (rj G. ( .) # , <*>, =

= $ , (0, Tt)l(Tt)GAr,, ,) (,) , (,, ) * , * , -


= $ Go (<". >) (.) Go (rj, ,) e"(r,) G, ( ) dr, d?r,.

( , ^ , ) . ,
(48.3),
G(r,ro)=G(ro,r), (48.4)

:
,
.
. (48.3),
, < ( i \ ) . . . e(r t n _,)> = 0,
(7.20):
<(.) . . . ( , . = 2 * . ( , ) . . . .( ), (48.5)
. .


,, . . . , 2 ( ,, ,) (-
). ,
, (48.5)
r,, ,)|)(, 4) +
i r,)+ij> e (ri. 4)1|>.('>). (48.6)
<(,) . . . (2)> (2 1)11 .
(48.3) (48.5),

. ( , . ) +
J ,(. .^.,, )( r^firlth,+
J G, (, ,) G, (,, ,) G, ( ,) G, ( .) G, ( .) X
X ft>. (, ,) 1(1, ( 4) +1|) ( ,) , ( 4) +
+ (, .) (.. .)] * . . - dV4 + . . . (48.7)
,
.
() .

. -

13
38 [. VI11

. , -
.
G 0 (r,, r,) ,
,:

fe4i))E(,-, ,)
:

TJt ,, , %,
. , -
.

.

(48.7) . ,
(48.7)

, , rlt , -
, ,
,
.
. (48.7)
:
,-"'-, f-\

2 G

ft' \ Go (, ) Go (,, ,) . . . Go (,. r o )i (rj . . . ( r j d ' r , . . . d'r.


48] 389

2 In 4-1
Go 2 ,, . . . , 4.
< (rj . . . (,)>
(21)1! , , . . . , , -
,
(21)1! 2, 2

. , -
:

(48.7)
:

(48.7)

16


17 18 19


, (48.7) ,
15 ( ).

.
-
,
. , 19 (48.7)
' 1 ",

(48.8)
390 1. v i i t

, (48.7), -
. ,
3 2, -
19 4.
. ,
G(1>> (, 0)
" (, r0) = k' I G, (r, rx)G<*> (r,, r,) G, (., ) * fa. ,)
(48.9)

5< ( 6 )=* \ Ge fa, ;) G 0 (;, 0 (;, ;)


G 0 (;, ;) G 0 (;, ,) fa\ ;) > (;, ;) - ; . . . dv;. (48.1 )
, (48.10) (48.9)
-
(48.8).
-
, .
/ (48.7)
0 ( ). -
2 : ,
, 0 ,. -
, -
[, .
.
G, (r, r t ) G, (r u ,)
X G, (,, 0). 2
^(" r i) , ( ,
2) , . .
.
, . . -
3 5. -

Go (, ,) (,, ,) G, ( .) Go ( 4) , (41 ,).
,
, . ., -
, G, (,, 0).
,
. , -
?
3 -
, , , ,. , r t ,
, , ,.
1

, , 3, -
, -
, -
,
,
. -
4 -
, .

. 67.

( 4),
'
( ), -
-
(
,), -
( ,)
.
. 67.
(48.1)
(48.7) - , -
, -
,
392 [. VIII

. (48.7)

. ,
^ (48.7) .
G~ ,
, -
Go. (48.7)
3, 69 12.
(2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 1320 (48.7)). ,
-
Go, -
. ,
-
. ,

. ,
, -
. -
(48.7), , 3, 79 12
2, 3.
-
, 1.
(48.7) .
Go,

^^ (48.11)

(48.12)

(48.11)
O (
, )
.., J G ( r r
. } Q(r- f ) G
.
( r p u)
dr<dV, (48.lla)
481 393

Q (', ") =fc'G,,(', ") i|=e (', ") + ft $ Go (;, ,) Go ( ,)


3
xG 0 (r,, ") (', rs)i|)e (r t , r")d r,dra +
+ ft $ Go (', ,) Go ( r.) Go ( ") * , (', ")
X ) (r t , ra) d'r.d'r, + . . . (48.12)

Q ( -
).
-
, 2.

(48.13)

<3D* <> - ,
(48.12 (48.7) -
,
, (48.13)

< 3 > (48.12).


3

. . , -

(48.14)

(48.7)
.
394 [. VIII

, (48.14)
:

.
(48.15)
G(r, ro) = G c (r, ) + $ ,(. ,) Q (r l t ,)( r.) A y h y (48.15)
, (48.14)
(48.15), , -
. ,
, . -
(48.15) G (48.15),


(48.15),

, , , (48.14).
, -
, (48.15).
(48.14),
. ,
, , ,
.
(48.15), Q -
, -
G,
(. ). -
G_4epe3 Q, . . (48.7) -
< " ) ,
.
I 491 395

Q . -
-
(48.12) Q
, -
. , , ,
(. [2]).
, -
, ' ':
<G(r', r;)C* (", ; = (', '; ;, Q . (48.16)

,
(48.3) -
, . -
, (48.3)
- .
k*i(T) , G (, ) ^
; -
:

6(r, rt)~f , ^ ;>=


(48.17)
- / f - l 7 r l ~ (, J x > =
\ , ,/ , ;,

(48.3)
:

(48.3)

(48.3), -
, ,
(48.7).
G* (*, rj).
(48.3) , GJ,
, :

(48.18)

(48.3) (48.18).
.
(48.3) (48.18) ,
(48.3), (48.18). -
, (48.3)
396 [. V111

(48.18)

(48.19)

.
(,) (,) (,) (,) , (48.5), ,
(48.19) .
, -
G(r', rj) G*(r", ). -
,
- ( ). ,

G (', ') GJ (r", rj),
.
<G(r', ro)G*(r", )>

(48.3) (48.19)

(48.20)

310
.
.
/ (48.20)
| '
; ", -
(. 68).
S4S] 397

2 , , -

. . (. . 68).
,
(48.20). , /,

. 68.

.
, -
G, G; -
, -
. (48.20) 2, 4, 7, 9 13.
, ' _-
, , .
398 [. VIII


Go GJ, . .
', <
(48.21)
, '1

(. ,( f ' , . . ; > = J Go (', ,) Go (,, ; (", ,) X
;( !)/. ; ,, Tl)d'ri.. .d'r,. (48.21a)
. -

^ ^ (48-22>
, -
,
6 (, 3 ) (, 4 ).
(48.22) :
* ( f i . ,; , . ) - * . ( 1 . ) 6 ( 1 - 5 ) ( , - 4 ) +
\ ( 4) G,* ( ,) GJ (., 4) ( 1 - r s ) dr, +
r l f 4) % ( ,) Go (rit r,) ,* ( 4) +
+ 1 k*fe (rit ,) (r6, r.) Gt(rlt r.) G,(tt, ,) (,r.)dr.+... (48.22a)
( -
).
.
1.
, , -
, ( ) G,
;_ ,
G G*. (48.20)
3, 5, 8 10.

1* , , 1J


, 3 (48.20) , -
. . , ^( -'' ,
% 48] It 399

G, G* Go. ,
(48.23).
2. , -
,

(48.24)

(48.20)
6 12.
, , m -
,

, (48.20)

(48.25)
^ ^ ^

(48.14) G.
, (48.14)
(48.15), (48.25)
:

^yfi-m"' (.26)
" ' * - , 4 ?
, [ (48.26) -
, (48.25):

(48.26)
(', '; ;, = G ('' 5 * (*> > +
+ $ G (r\ r t ) G' (*, ,) / (,, ,; 4)
( , <; ;. Od/v . .dv 4 . (48.26a)
400 [. VIII

-
.
, ,
.
-
G 0 (r', ") -
(48.3).
:
G (', ") = G 0 (', - * 1 $ Go ('. 5(,) G ( ) dV. (48.27)
,

-
(48.15) (48.26). , ,
- , .
n- -
.
(48.27) -
. , -
=
= 0 1 4-(*). (/) ,
G (/, /) -

G (, /0) = , G (0, tt) = 0.



(48.27):

G(t, U)=G,(t. t0)-

9 .
, -
(48.27),
[17].
[18] -
[19].
,
,
.
i 49] 40|

,
(.
[5J),
(48.27).

49.
-
(48.15):
(, 0) - G. (, .) + J (. ,) Q (.) G ( .) * , -,. (49.1)
(-f-), ,
(A + ft!)G0(r,r0) = 8 ( r - r 0 ) , (49.2)

AG(r, ) + *?(, r o ) - $ Q (, r')G(r', ro)tf>r' = 6 ( r - r o ) . (49.3)
(49.3) (49.2) , , Go, -
G , --
. (49.3) ,
, ,
D
:
D () () + 4 (), () = J (, ') (') dr',
, % . ,
rot = ikH, rot = ikD

+fe'E + 4nfe* J % (, ') (') d'r' = grad div E.
(49.3), ,

-
. -
, , -

.
, . . -
, \|> ( ,)=\|) (,,). -
(48.12) Q (,, ,), , -
Q ,,, . . Q = Q(r1rj.
402 [: VII]

, Go (, )
, .^ -
G (, 0) = G ( 0).
(49.1) G, -

Go ( 14) = $ g0 () exp [in ( rj] d'x,
G (,) = \ g (*) exp [ ( - ,)] #. (49.4)
Q (,,) = $ q exp [IH (, r,)l_dx.
g o (x)


to, (49.4)
. ,
,
(fe-,fe + V,o).
(49.1)
(-) =
= 0 (-) + $ , ( - 1 ) Q (,-.) G f r . - r , ) * , - ! * ! - , . (49.6)
. .
. -
(49.6)

i ( ) = g, (x) + (8>)g, () q (x) i ( x ) . (49.7)
g, (49.5)
g () = g = .j jJ . . . (49.8)

(49.8) (49.4) ?()


Q (),
(_) 1 ""[,-(- ) 1 #, (49.9)
831 J
Ai-x J Q (') exp (') tPr' + io
G Q.
(49.9) , Q
,
. (49.9)
*] 403

, -
Q -
G.
,
,
, Q
(48.12), . .

pr^^hCrV' (49.10)
G, G

(4.8.14) Q _(49.10), -
G t :
/"

(49.11)
, (49.10) (49.9) -
0 ^ . .
(49.11).
-
, _ , , ,
Q(r')=Q(r') G(rr o ) = G ( | r | ) .
(49.9)
( ', ) -
. -
(49.9)

J^"" . (49.12)
J
" * - x ~ \

= 1'-|.
(49.1) ,

-
G [3, 4J.
G. -
.
404 . VIII

Af, ? Q
G, <? Q:

(AW)(r)=$G 0 (r,r 0 )/(r 0 )<fV 0 ,

j
(Mf) () , / -
(Af/), .
(49.1) /( 0 ) 0,
-
:

/,
:
AJ = Af, + AV.QAf = iW 0 (l+QiW). (49.1)
,
G(r', ") ( ) : G(r', r") = G(r", r').
, , :
3(r', r") = G(r*,r').
, -
1 :
= ?. (49.13)
G,
/:
= *. (49.14)

(49.13) ,
, , -
, ,
, , G
,
.
, (48.7) /6, 10,
13 1720 (7, ), (8, 12),
{11, /5), (14, 16).
G (', *) , Q (', ") = Q (", '),
Q ,
S 49] 405

G. ,
Q T =<?. (49.15)
,
: (...) =
= ...'.
(49.1). (49.13)(49.15)
M = M, + MUMt = (\+MU)M<l. (49.16)
, -
Af, (49.16),
j j l f . .
* , = ( ! + / * ! & ) ?. (49.16)
, (49.9)
Q, -
Q (, Q, -
). (49.1)
(1 + ^ ) :
1 + QM).
(49.16),

, /i^ Qt/M ,

<3 Q,)M. (49.17)
(49.17) (49.1),
Af,, Q-
(QQj). , QQ,
Q,
(49.17) , .
(49.17) -,
,
*,. Q <?,:
G (, ,) = G, (, ,) + J G, (. ,) [Q ( ,) - Qx ( ,)]
xG(r 2 , r o )dV,dV s . (49.17a)
(49.17)
. -
406 [. VIII

, . . , ,
(49.8):

<4918>
G
. ,
QQi = Q, , (49.18),
G2.
-
.
(49.12), Q(r)
(49.10),

*>- ^ - ^ <4919>
s lkr
-" X : \ %{r)e s\n*rdr + la
"1

, $ > (r)'=0iexp(), " 1 = /,
. 1|> , -
(49.19),
. ,
.

, -
Im > 0.
-
;

e^l-j/l+tfffi^.-

, | 6 | < ^ 1 ,

I (2) | ~ (+44) ^ " *



2/S4JJ/O (2ife)>, 161 <^ I

<49-22)
S 491 407

, , (49.21),
49 23
< - >
(49.22)
,
49 24
< - >
, (49.21) (49.23) -
:

(49.21) (49.23) -
. , , ,
^ol-=k'l\al<^l. (49.25)
3 , | 6 | < ^ 1
, = * + <*+... (49.26)
-
(49.19) , ,, Gl(R)

1 /j/2) I e(1<lR '""

(
Jx,R x>"

1 (-_- . (49.27)

.
G, ,
' , .
, . . I m x t Imx,:
Imxi k*a\
lm a2 ( + 4 2 ) '
408 1. VIII

(49.21) , . .

, (49.27) -
, (-
i -
" 1 = / ).
,
^ (49.28)

Go -
k xt( Imxj > 0), . .
. , 4
k: Rex, > k.
:

, . .
. ,
, -
.
, (49.25)
:

, -
(49.19), ,
|>.
(49.19)

fe2* + 4 - f $e(r)e'*rslnxnrdr + io=0. (49.30)


0

,
, , (49.30),
,
(,.
(49.29) (49.30) ,
, = + !,
, . , -
(49.30) :
x,=ft, -
, (49.30)
49] 409

1 lkr
ft y.\+k*l^t(r)e sinkrdr^O. (49.31)

, -
&, = ,

= ft["l+4fsl
n2krtfa () dr + i j | sin' kr ij>e (r) dr j . (49.32)

k,^
i|)g(r), -
(3.11):
99

1|>, () = - ^ (') sin (') ' 6.Y.1. (49.33)



(49.33)
( 3 ) (49.32)
no r '.

. (49.34)


, (49.19),
*"

, , # ^ > /
, ,
410 [. VII]

k > 4 .
6,/& -
- . (49.34)

(49.36)

, , > 1 -
() In f2Jfe_^j > 0 j , a n,
.

\|> ~().
(49.34)

ik
= 2 Im (fe8tt) = '* $ ,() dx. (49.37)

, -
*,
(. (26.13)):

2ft sin (0/2) = -


, (49.37), . . = -
-
, . . , *^>, -
(49.37)
-
(45.6). (49.36) 1 ^
,
1 l n ffU+xy
+ y __
ln

, ,
$ 401 411

. . ( -
) -
.

. -
Q (49.10).
Q, -

Q:

(49.38)

, Q, <?, ,
G, G P -
:


, (49.30),
'* '**':
00

? = k* + -- j () 1 W sin dr. (49.39)


, -
<1 = ,- (49.39)
fe
45
* f e l + i J *(r) e*"**rsin(k**r) dr- (4940)

J () '*' sinkr dr. (49.41)


krtt = k1 + &k, (49.29) |Afc|<^fe.


l f e l / ^ / . I/ft, (49.40)
412 [. VII!

(49.41) (49.40).
,

,
>()=*().
|\
'
X, '
X, _ (-2) J "
! |
/,
k ^ k

, | ? = ( , K 1 ) ( t c , + K l ) t * f 2 k ( i l t

Ak
, -
|| ,,, . .

\-sr (49.43)

(49.23)
, (49.25),
.
, ,
G

/, .
, (49.43)
, ,
(, ,
(49.38), Q).
, -
.
S ] 413

-
, -
( ) .
[2, 46J,
[7J.
,
-
- , -
[8].

50. .

(48.26)

(', "; ;, r;) = <G(r',ri)G*(r', >
;
(', "; ' r;)-G(r',ri)G(r', +
+ \ G (', ,) G" (", .) (,, ,; 4) ( ,; ' rj) x
X drl... d*rt. (50.1)
, -
(),
/().
() /()
n(r) = $ G ( r , r , ) j ( r , ) A v
,
S $G(r,ro)/(r0)d/-o, (50.2)
-
(') * (*):

- $ < (', ;) . > ( ( ; * ; =


= 5 (', "; ;, ;) /) / (
, (50.1) / (ri) ; (i-J) -
' rj,
. (1, *) = (') ( + j (', ,) G* (', ,)
X ( ,; 4) ( .) dV,... d*rt, (50.3)
414 [. VIII

,
-
/().
, -
(50.1) .

-
(45.25). , 45,
,
-
, .
,
,
(', ")
, , . . , / () = 0.
(50.3) -
. , G
(49.3),

D(r)G(r,r') = 8 ( r - r ' ) , (50.4)


() :
() = + * - & . (50.5)
a Qr , . .
Q (, '):

D(r) (50.2),
(50.4)
D(r)u(r) = j(r),
, , ,

D(r)u(r)=0. (50.6)
(') (50.3). -
(50.6) (50.4)
(')(', ") =
= $*(". ,)/(', ,; ., 4 )( rJd'/ydV.dV.. (50.7)
, (50.3) D* ("),
, (50.4) (50.6),
f ] 415

'. =
J G (', ,)(,, "; .) (, ) d'r, d'r, d'rt. (50.8)

(50.8) (50.7).
, , (50.7) , (50.8),

r', ") = J [* (", )(', 0; 4 ) -


- G ( r \ ,)( 0> r"; r s . r.)jr.(r t . rt)d'r.d'r,drt. (50.9)

(50.5)

- J * r . [ Q (', )(, r ' ) - Q ' ( r ' , .) . (', ,)]. (50.10)

, , -
R = V,(r'+r") = ' " . A'A" = 2vRV,. -
., R, ,
T(R, ):
r(R,r)-r.(R-|-V.r, R-7,r).

(50.10) (50.9) -
(G (', ") = G ('"),
Q (', *)= Q ('")),
2vV,r(R,r)-

=J [*(--
xd>rtd'r,d'rt. (50.11)

(50.11) -
,
Q, Q*, G' G,
, , , R'^Va (3+4)
416 [. VIII

' = , 4 . (50.11)
V,r(R, r)-J [Q (') ( R ~ . --)-

-|r,R-r"; R'+^. R'{)-


+ y - r \ R--\; R' + , R'y)
xT(R', T')d'R'd'r'd*r: (50.12)
, (50.12)
.
(50.12)
, , ,
(. (39.2))

,
0, (50.13)

<<5>
r ( R , r ) . ,

r ( R , r) = <(R + r/2) U (R-r/2)>,



V,r (R, r) = V, <* (R -r/2) V (R + /2) -
(R +/2) Vu* (R/2)>.
= 0 ,
fVrr (R, r)Jr= = '/,<' (R) VRu ( R ) - (R) V*M* (R)>,

<^(R)>=(()-'[V,r(R, r)J r=0 . (50.14)
(50.12). = 0 ,
2V*V,T(R, r), (50.14) (50.13),
$ 60] 417

(50.12) = 0
j[ Q(O r(R.-r")-Q'(r")
= J[G*(OX"(R, R-";
R
-G(r")A:(R-r", R; R' + T . 'I")
(50.15)
. (50.15).
/(),
Q, / /() . -
-
, Q, G , (50.15)
.
(50.15) :
J[Q(r-)d(R-R')(r"+r')-
-Q*(r") 6 ( R - - R') (*')] T(R', r ' ) d V dR'd*r",
(50.15)
F(R', ') ,
Q(-r')fi(R-R'+-)-Q'(r')s(R-R'-T) =
= J [G(r")/t(R-r\ R; R ' + T , R ' - T ) -
G'(r")K^R,Rr";R'+~, R ' T ) ] d'r". (50.16)
,
, -
[9].
-
. 1,
.. ImQ, (
), ' , /.
-
. .
, , G, Q -
, -
(50.16),
.
(50.12).
.
14 . . . . II
418 [. VIII

(49.38) Q:
Q () = **.() 0(1), (50.17)
G .

( ,; 4) = * ( 1 _ , ) ( 1 - , ) ( , - 4 ) . (50.18)

.
, (48.25)
(48.22) , -
:

(50.17) (50.18) (50.12),

=fc.J { (') fo, (r')if.(r-r')] (R - 4 - , r - r ' ) _


- * (') [tpB.(r'j -tfc (r +r')] ( R - 4 - , + ') j. d'r'. (50.19)
, , = 0
, . .

( , (50.17) (50.18)

). , (50.19),
if, ( ' ) i | > t ( r r ' ) , -
/>(). , -
-
(,
, 45).
, -
(50.19)
. -
F ( R , r )
.
, -
,
(lm k,^)~l ^ d.
-
, , d
R. -
f 50) 419

R
,
,
crj <.
F ( R , r ) no
,
/,
, |-*(-')1
( ' '
),
(
. VII -
). -
, -
, , ,
d
R. _ _f

~lt ' "' r r*h r
'

,
-
(50.19). , |tyE{')ij>,(r ' ) |
riark < (tt+r) ~ (<+/)
(. 69). , , ( / , + f*)
d T(R, r)
R. , (50.19)
H R 2 - , T ( R , ' ) . (50.19) -

, ) =ft*J (') .(')-^^-' (R, r-r') d'r'-


- A* J G (') f^ (') - . ( + ')] (R. + ') d'r'.


'-* '. " G*( r') = G ' ( O , ( ' ) = , ( ' ) , -

x
- . ( - r ' ) J (R. r - ' ) * ' . (50.20)

, () = ( T(R, ) -
), (50.20) -
. . -
14
420 1. VIII

T(R, r) 1):
(R. ) = I /(R, ) exp (ixr)dx, (50.21)
1
/ (R, ) = (8)- J (R, ) exp (txr) d'r. (50.22)
-
(50.20) -
G,

^( 50.23)
(

km^ = kl + lkl kL^>k2. , -


G ()G* ()
() = () = [.5 (') G* (r')] exp (ixr') d'r' =
2
= a l ^ ' ,, - (50.24)

, k,<^.ks (50.24)
-.
() = 0 = VfeJftj,
i {*<!> ~ 1/*!*,. x' = fejft|=F2/s1ft,, . .
: 0 ,, z ( =F ft,) = Vsz (0). , ()
-
k, lmkatlQl\/d. , ,

=1
^ 1 *'+* -
, ( ) d
ip e (r') T(R, ') ',

J 2*1*,

1
~ 2&
6(ftJfej );


) / 0,
,
(. [10] 1).
] . 421

6 ('xg) = & (~")2^(|6 { + ) ,


6( + ) = 0 ( > > 0),
(
8

fea,
i 1 50 25
*w* re - <->

(50.20).

5 (')-' (') = J 4 ^ (ix'r')d'x'
(50.21),

J \ (') exp (ixr')d'r' = 8 ()

2iV_j"exp(ixr)x/(R, x)d'x =

= ^ fd3xexp(ixr)/-(R, ) * ' (' ,) (' ) +


x'r)6(x' ftj fdx/(R. ),(' ).

-
, * ^ ' i exp (ixr), -


-' ,
' = '', ' . d'v.' v/'dWdo(n')

-f ^ ( - * , ) jd'x'/(R, ' ) ( - ' ) (50.26)


422 1. VI11

:
/ (R, ) = 6 ( - ) 3 (R. )-^, (50.27)
= .
(50.27) (50.26) 3 (R, )
:
(*,)V*3(R, n ) = 2 ^ - 6 (k t )3(R, n)x

.(') do (n') + (ft,) f '*'^do (n') X

('ftJJfR, n')<V>m').
()6(k,) = <t(k1)6(**,),
' fe,, -
-
, n) +
. n')do(n'). (50.28)

.
, (45.25),

06

-

(, ') = ^ . ( * , (-')). (50.30)
,
(50.28) [14J:
) + / o ( n , n') 3 (R, n')do(n'). (50.31)
(50.29) (50.30) ,
= {, n')do(n'), (50.32)
. . .
(50.30) -
(26.13) , , -
(50.30), -
k kt. , ^ -
f 50) 423

.
49 ft, ft , , , (*)
, .

. -
, , ,
, .
.
(50.21) (50.27), ,
T(R, r ) = - ^ | e " " 6 ( x - f e 1 ) jr(R, n)xdHdo(n).

, ,
(, ) = ((. )"->(). (50.33)
, -
. (50.33) = 0 , _
,
| ' | " > ( , 0) :
7(R) = J(R, n)do(n). (50.34)
, (50.33) , = 0 :
, )!_, = , $
(50.14)
ft felt :
<4()> = <3(, n)do(n), (50.35)
, J(R, n) -
: (-
), 1).
,
. -
r(R, r) (50.21), -
exp(ixr)
. ,
| | =ft, (50.33).
,
G one-

') , 9 -
.
424 [. VIII

( ). ,
,
, (. .
),
feV|a'^l. (50.36)
, (50.19) (50.20)
-
F(R, )
no R. , ,
(50.36).
, -
. , , ,
.
( -
), -
( 45).
,
,
. -
[12, 13].

(, 7 13 (48.20)).
-

. -
[10]. [11] -
, -
.
, -

[14]. .
, (50.20) -
T(R, ),
. ,
3 (R, ), (50.33)
, -
(. 2).
,
, F(R, ) -
.

[15, 16].
. -
,
.
$ 50] 425

, -
-
. -
,
, , ,
.
- -
.
. ,
-
(. 1,
, [ I I ]
).

.

-
- ,
,
( , -
). -
(. , [20, 21J) -
,
. ,
-
, : -

J22J,
, , .
-
, , -, ,

(
, , ,
,
).
,
, . -
, -
.
- , -
, - ,
-
, --
. . (. [23J -
).
426 [. VIII


I. (60.19), ,
'
;>. ^ F(R, r) = u(R4_r/2)u*(R/2) -
cTaBHMB(60.19)r(R,r)=4i,(R,D4-F(R,r),we(R,r)=<;(R+r/2)S(R-r/2)>.
(50.6) ,

(I)

(50.19)
1} ( :

-f j ( O V ) ( y . )
r
-*(O4k( + f T ( - y . r+r-)|<Jr'. (2)

, (50.19) (50.20), '/2 -


<, F, , (50.20):

e
R , r-r')<Pr'. (3)

* . (R. ) = \ f (R. ) (1)<lx.

' ( R . O - J /.(R. *)e*P(<)(.


(3) (50.24),
(50.25),

, ')]. (5)

8(x l)
/(R. H ) = ~ . ^ g ( R . ). *=,
487

3:

R. n) = a J ( R . n ) + $ ( , n ' ) j (

( , (50.29) (50.30)).
(6) (50.31) -
() , -
. (50.33)
, :
i M R , )=<{> 3 (R- )'*'"*>(). (7)

2. () V, () 0.
V , -
, () -
-
. -
-
, , -
,

t ki.
. - R nl
-
d,
- 7
.
( (6)
) ,
, . . :

,(*', K)h (Ri " <***' 0)

R,
.
d, , () , () Uof*"r,
0 ,
a U| . ( , )

(2) (I),
I I*
(3)

V.
n y 3 ( R , n) =gj-ir, ^ -
(. 70), , (3)
428 [. VIII

>

i| 0 <R, ), (7) I:
I|JO (R, ) = ( eiJ>"' do () ^ * * 1 ' ' 1 > , (* (nn), R . (5)

1 - - / , 111
- R , R. <Pr'~ fidldotn),
. . (f.'do (n) = j2-=TJ- (5)

'MR. ' ) = - I ) \ f x p f ) (*(" ") R -') - (6)

. IV -
, , ,
. , -
, .
IX

51. .


,
,
. ,
>
.
,
, .
( -
, ),
\( ,
, , ).
, ,
-

, . ,
, , -
, ,
.

(
), , , ,
. ,

,
, () -
( -
).
,
, 8
430 [. IX

3). ,

, -
-
.
.
,
,
, ,
. .

. -

.
, ,
[1] [2].
=
~(*> 1/) = ()- , <> = 0, . .
, -
(). z = (p) -
, -
.
, ,
,

fgrr=g^, N )
( 1 1 = ! ,, , ).

Et //,. -
.
,
: ,
, ._. -
= () ( = 0),
(;- = )-
. -
(, = 0)
(, = 0).
,

u | j = (p, ) | 1 = ( , = 0, (51.1)

i 51] 431

- N -

(Nj., tf2)=(ctVi& - a ) . o = [l + (V JL ;) 1 ]- l / t , (51.3)


V = ( ^ . \ .
-
(51.1) (51.2) ,
,
, .
, -
. -
,
, . -
,
.
,
, . .
<(Vi.'>~ <!//& 1. (51.4)
| ==<*>
= 0, /; . -
, , ,
.
, <">
, <><^,
,
(<4*-'- (51.5)
-
,
<^ 1 | Vj.J |~oj//{ <^ 1,
.

,
() :
RKf :
/ ? > 1 . (51.6)
> -
(
). -
: -
, -
;
-
432 [. IX

( -
).
, ,
.
, .
c^'U
.
(^'/;^1). , , -

. , ,
. , , -
-
. ,

, , -
. , -
, |Vj_?| -
.
, . . ,
.
52,
.
,

~ at/X <S! 1 | Vj.S| / ~ot / 't < ^' -

. . -
, -
[3].
U () ,
( ~''
).

() = L/ () - 2 ( "(). (51.7)
0

- (<;/)" (<;/^)\
.

(51.1), ,

0
= 0. Vj.?
, (51.4)

61] 433

-
(51.7) ; < * 1 .
(51.7) (51.8), (
z = 0, )
:

, n- ( ) ()
l ) 9 , -
v " (p) = u(^^u{a) (, 0)
z 0. , -
""
'"" 1 1 . uin>
(51.9) ().
-
(9.12),
( (9.14)(9.16));
z = 0 . -
(9.12),
( {, },

5 1 0
< >

, = 0
, "" () . -
2 ', -
. , -
,
, ,
(51.10), ,
-
, (51.10)
.
0, z
U () - (<fcn,r) = A exp [ik (n^p + ')] =
-= exp [/ft (nip zcos9 0 )l, (51.11)
' 5 , . . . II
4.34 [. IX

n,-=(ni, /t,) -
, nj = cos60 (. 71).
-
(51.10),

, -


)

(51.12), ^

-



.
-
/ (0) ()
-
. 71. ,
-

. (51.11) (51.12) ,

, , (51.10),

. (51.13)
^>\,
z=- 0
.
111
,
4
7[ = < | | > /,
. -
()
(51.13)
(

= ^ ^ | | ^ 1 | ) ; ( ' p")exp[ifeni(p' p") i ik(R'~R")\x

(51.14)
Ml 435

i|>t(p'P") ~ <(P') S(p")> ,


R' =]/"1--(')*, " = Vz* (p p')*. -
| ' ", ) = ( ' + ")/2 /?'
R" .
ih(l) = ipt(p'"), -
6^>/;,

.
\!% <^ 1')
1 R' R'
-
Ri = \ r\ | =
f-t *
= V^Z' + (P)*
R'R" .
, = Ri/', -

TJ -
= 0
= (, ), * :

t)
, -
( , 2 ,
/;),

(|) exp lift ( n i - ni) l\ <P6 = 4nft ( 4 l ) ,

, . .
; q_i_fe(nj.n'J -
q = fe(n,-,) (. 72).
(51.14) \:

) ,- , 1<^1, -
-
.

15*
436 (. ]

= 0
2,
.
(51.1 6) dlx\ = diZ -
1L

|i4|-g, (51.17)

rt| = 2//?1 = cos9 ^ R,//?^


z (. 71). (51.16) , ,
: ,
, -
qj_ = (nj_ njj, -

(. 25). ,
, ' 1 , ^ 0 qi_ = knsL,
A^ Sn/q^ //^ = A/sin 0.
, ^ ^
qj. = O, , . , -
(n^ n i , qj_ = 2feni_)
-=_?5- = -
' 2Ani 2sin0 0

. . \A^dLlR\ (51.17), -

n s .
, (51.18) . (51.16), -

,
, -
. -
(51.18), ('1) = cosa 0, cosa ,
,
. . 8, 90<-/2. (51.19)
2 = 0 .
2
aM(qx) Ry
f I) 437

,
M | i (
(51.20)

cM(qx) ?! 2 -
L , ,

/t<j?i ( ),
/;^> ( ). '
,

,, \1. (51.2) (51..4) ,

(51.8),

, , -
(51.9), , Vx?:

u{ni = 0
1-J -
(9.13):

(51.24)

/
(51.11). ,
(0>,
(51.22),

= [ik (n^_p n\z)\.
438 [. IX

8 (51.24)

, -
1>/(1) = </(')/*(")> ^ (|) -
:
17(6)= 4|^| 1 exp( ( ftni|)[ife(n' L Vi)-fc s ("i) 2 ] s tc(l)- (51-25)
( Vj. | = ' ").

' = i k J J / ('-
, -
| = ' " ) (' ")/2
elk<K'-K^;R'R" ( iftn'j_)/#f. (51.25),
7 t

= -Hjr- f-^r f exp (-/q J ) [i* (niyj.) -f A! (i)? ; (1) *E.


-
Ft (x):

qi^fe(ninji.),
f- * ("iqi) -ffe2(nj)2]2 =fc'[(n>)* + (n\ ) -(' 1)] =
= ** [ l -

1
7.^4|^]"-<^ ^ ^. (51.27)
(51.19),
-

(q 1) = 4* [ 1 (nioi)J F t (q x ), (51.28)
(51.18)
/'t(qi). [1 (n'j.n'J]1
( ) -
, , (51.27),
0, . , -

.
i 611 439

, -
. (51.27)

, u = 2 u " "

.
, -
, -
.
, ,
(
53), (51.28),
,
. . 8 0 - /2 0>-/2 ( '>-0 $ ()),
80 8 (51.28).
, -
(51.27) .

< ().


n, = (sine o , 0," cos 0o), n^ (sin 8 cos ,


sinSsincp, cos8), (51.18) (51.28)
5
^ cos*-8, cos 8 \
a
\ (1 sineosin9cos<p) J
! 2
^ ^-(sin 8 0 4-sin 82 sin 00 sin 8 cos )

fe/j ( ) -
;

90. . 8 ( -
8 <f)
. 73, 73, . . 73, -
: < (0)
'.
440 [ IX

ft/;^>l -
, .
-
6 = 60, tp = O, -

. 73.


A0~I/W t (. 74).
, Wj^>1 ,
(cos0o;j> \/),
, -
M l
,
t
2 /

<()
-

/0 = | ^4 |* cos90

,
0 / <^ /, -

-
, .
-
-
( , -
), ,
( ) -
.
,
.
-
5 441

(51.19) ,
.

il 1
U = Ae " ,
k( = ftV(p
/;.
:
(. )~7(. ) + (. P)N,(o, p), (51.30)
=7(, ) () -
2 0 , a .(i p)N 0 (a, ") -
2 (. 75).
-
X
/;,
-
dS,

Ae""f, ,

,
2 0 . ;
-
- '
, 2 0 . 75.
(n, = k,/fe = Vq>),
-
Q (. 75). ^ [
,- n s > 2, 7?,
Q, -

(51.31)

a(q ) F^ -
. -
, -
, . . ,
. (51.31),
(51.19), i?,>KWf- ft/;>l
Rt^>kll,
. -
W:<^1 (51.19) " (51.31)
R, ~ X .
442 [. IX

52. .

,
, ,
.
-
.
. .-
[4], .
[4],
[5], ,
.

(9.13).

1! = ()"<>, (52.1)
.
, ,
( ). ,
,
- . ,
,
, -
.
, U ()
() -
du/dN U dU/dN

u(r) = 5U/(r), | ^ = _ 5 i | ^ - , (52.2)


, .
, -
(52.2)
(52.1), -
2, . . .
,
.
(52.2) (9.11),
() = ()

]' <52-3)
R \'| = (, )
' = (', '), ' =
52 443

= (')- , -
. ,
', 0.
, (52.3) -
' = 0 : a\/V\ + (Vj.)* d2
= dZt/a = dip'/a. 2
N, = N/a (V.. 1),

(52.4)

( '
' = (', ')).
, 2 -
, , :
fe*j>l, z^xjj. (52.4)f
e'*<* >, -
() l;R:

| ^ (52.5)

q=-*V'(-i?) = t1n,-n() (52.6)


. n, =V'<p -
,

' .
, Vt,<^l
,
(
^ = ^ q._ 0), (N,q) =
=(4iYi)-| qz.
(52.7)


' = {', (')}. -
('),
, ,
444 . IX

qz, \/R , -
(') :

(52.8)

5J|j= 0 -
, = , qj. = O,
. -
, (
-
) -
, -
-
, -
as -

S
( ),

-
(. 76).
. 76.
-

-
, ,
ka\lD, D
, . ., , , -
R. , -

^-<U (52.9)
, -
-
; , (52.8) (52.7)
:+<f)-^: d 2 p ' i (52.10)

qz. A, R, , = 0.
, (qiVxJ) -
(52.5) , -
[4|,
5 52] 445

(52.10) qz q*!qz.
(52.10) (52.11) ' =
{', Of = 0, ' {',
&')\ 2, (52.7).
(')
-
[], ,
</
( qz) '
.
,
qzt,. t,
, ()
(') ,
, .
(52.11)

!; () , -
(). -
, /it(<7z) '
z- "?,, ('). ,
(5212)
'e'-
,
(52.12) , -
-
= 2?v- fii(qz)
v
.
(52.12)
(5], ,
(52.13)
, Slviq^ -
, ,
(. 77). "() -
(52.11) 0, . . , -
= 0 .
446 [. IX

, (52.11),
<0)
( 1 = 1 ) ,
(52.12),
(
0)
.
(52.13) , -



:
- (52.14)

, ,

. 77. -
(^;<^1)
/ijsw I +iqzt, 1, 0. ,
. -
q^ , /i;(<?z) -
.

/, = < | " | 2 > = < | | 1 > - | | . (52.15)
(52.11)

X < (52.16)
,
(' " = 0.

= />t(7 q'u '. P") (52.17)


5,
' " .
(52.12) (52.16),

ql; p' - (52.18)


52 . 447

4 5s
(52.17)
:
S%*. U ('. ")-/*(. -<?/. '. P")-fhUto"z)- (52-19)
( -
/j) ' ", -
| ' " | ^ > ' ; (') (")
,
/2
. , ,
5s , ,
| ' " |sg/ t .
5> -
(52.18). ' " -
= ' ' | = (' + ")/2. k(R' +<p') k{R" + <p")
%,
:
* ( ^ ' ) - f c ( t f ' + T " ) t = . * ( V . L + Vj.<p)!=-q 1 S. (52.20)

% 0 (. .
' = " = 1|) , , , q'z q\ 5 s -
1=(-")/2, . . q't
^ ^ ( ) .

R1 = V z' + (p)11 5 s (1> ) ^ (<?* (i) 9)! Pi ")-


, , % (52.18)
,
( )
= <\^r-d''y\< (52.21)

.
(52.21)
, .

(52.23)
448 1. 1

-
(52.20) (
). R
z = 0 -
, alp 5* .
,

(52.24)
1 , , -
/;. qzo{^> 1
1 /;/?;.
, , -

exp / - C " t y ' - 2 $ E t C 4 (52.25)



5 (I, ) = e-''oc[e*'t*i;( - (52.26)
1 ~ 1%11 ,
la~ /j/crs
a
(. 10),
as = V <S >
q,oz [6J.
qza^<^.\ qza^^>\
VW?P , \,

. ,
(52.21) -
-
[5].


, .
(52.22) -
, .
.
1. (<? Z OJ<^1), , -
(52.24), ff1 > ^ .
^t(l), ..
521 449

(51.15):

i J L . (52.27)

(|*| = 1)
(.
1), ,
, q ; \qz\ = 2k\'\.
2. (52.22) -
,
( ^>'). ,
(52.22) g, -
(52.19) <7,OJ^>1
, , ,
* . );/*(7.. - ? , . '. ") = <-''-">. (52.28)
-
, (52.25) -
0. ,
:
./(; = /(;(!). ^ (52.26) -

, 3s

(52.29)
(52.29) (52.22)

~ * Snoll-)] \\ ~2^|5|
5 [ ()

, -
(
) /f~[;()]~'.
, (,
, ), ,
| = 0, , 9>
[4]).
3. {qzaz^> 1), -
,
[7, 8]. ,
, (52.22) -
% = 0, ' " (52.28)
| = ' ":
450

v es V I
. < (iav)> = / v (a) -
v, ffi>(v)
:

/ v ( a ) = ^ exp(iav)w v (v)d"v,

tav)da. (52.32)

(52.31)
== <?, , (52.32),
aiv(qi/<7z):

exp ( - iq L a

(52.33)
,
, .
qx = 0> a\.(v)
v = Vxe 0 (

-
= 0), qx
, -
,
.
-
-
= 0, -
(52.33), -
. 78. , (52.30). -
, (52.30)
(52.33) (52.22)
. ,
,
4J./<7I qjq, .
J 53) - 451

4.. ,
/{ ()=~ ' / 2 ',
[9]
(qj,0):

(52.34)

= 0,577 , a Ei (z) -
(3 ).
83/| . \'qUi B
qzo^ . 78. , , {,
. qza^ 1
, qza^ -
I/eg. , ( )
qzo^ <,
-
,
<3.

53. .
- -
, ,
. ,
, ,
[1],
,
[2].
1.
.
, ,
-
, , -
(9.13)
. ,
-

.
-
. , -
-
(52.11), = 1
q' <72 2q (eoq),
.
452 1. IX



( , , -
). R^>]fklpOT
-

(52.21), , / 0 = || -
, 0 . , ,

(52.22),
, -
.
, /,=<]|2> ,
, -
(52.21), = ,
(52.22),
= 1|qeo|V<7*-
.
2.
.
,
. 79. -

-
: -
(. 79), -
.
if>,
: , 1^ -
, a <TJ , -
T)J^>CT;//;.
-
,
(52.22).

, -
, : -
-
, -,
- . . . ,
,
.
, .
(
) [1].
$53] . 453

3.
(-
).
(W;<^1), (Wc^> 1) .
,
( ).
-
,

. -
.
,
.
-
, ,
.. -

:
(
),
( ).
. . [10] -
, -
(52.11), -
,
, >--
.
111, 12]. [13, 14],
, -
.

: -,
t,{x)
() ' ](), , -, -
-
. , -
[1].
4. .
, ( -
)
( ) . ,
.
aj ()
; ; .

[1]. -
454 [. IX

,

<G> -
<( 0) <? (2, )>.
, , -
. ,
-
() -
.

, -
. -
,
-
, [1J.
,

, -
[1J.
5. .
,
, -
, -
. -

, -
. . ( , ,
[15]), -
. , ,
-
[16, 17], ,
-
[18].
, , -
. -, , -
, . -
, , -
, .

.
, -
, , . . (8, <).
-
, (6) const- cosU. ,
,
, ;.
455


1. , (W.^>1)
, -
, .
. | > 1 ^ ( ^ )
I q | ^ 1//^, . . -
, qj ^(^.ir,) = 0.
n 1 % 1
"i. JL' ( ') (51.18) ( I n ^ n ^ ) (51.28)
4 4
(n'z) 0 0 .
< (-)' F, ( q x ) = 4 (* cos ,)* F. (q ).

2. , -
(kU<^l), : 1)
fij,
, 2) L -
X/d (d -
).
. ,
, Ix
L/R,, Ry:
l~\/A0~XR,/L. , 6 1, /j. ~ X.
L ~ yR0 XR^Id, * -
. -
fii /^
~ X R l / I ~ d R 1 / ^ o - , , ~ /?,
, / ~d, -
(. 3 . IV},
3. ( ) -
-
.
. Rcero , -
, | 6 | .
-
1 ^ 1 >,
o | = (2*Oj)2. -
. 2 10 1 /j 2* ? <^1 ( -
) / si /J/2*0J 2> 5>> I ( ).
, -
z - 0 .
1 ( ) -
, -
( -=0) . , -
,

'"' "
R\ ,
/? .

I
1. . . R .---.:
, 1967.
2. . , & . . . .1. .: ,
1965, . II, 1967.
3. . . ,
. , 1940,
. 26, . 6.
4. . .
. , 1940, . 26, . 115.
5. . . -
..: , 1975.
6. Furulsu - On Statistical Theory of Electromagnetic Waves in a Fluctua-
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7. . . -
. . 1964, . 47, . 1919.
8. Donsker M. D. On Function Space Integrals. Proc. of a Conference on the
Theory and Applications of Analysis in Function SpaceCambridge. 1. I. T.
Press, 1904, p. 1730.
9. . ., . ., 3. .
, -
. , 1974, . 19, . 1758.

II
1. . ., . . -
..: . , 1971.
2. . . .
. : , 1974, . 17, . 541.
3. . . ..: , 1971.
4. . ., . . -
. . : , 1974, . 17, . 511.
5. . . . .: , 1969.
6. //., . . ,
1965, . 87, . 491, . I; . 88, . 347, . II; . 88, . 619, . I I I .
7. . . .
.: .: , 1966, . 91.
8. ., . ..: , 1970.
9. - . .: , 1974.
10. . . .: , 1976.
11. . .
. , 1970, . 5, . 218.
457

12. Kpaoqee . ., . ., . .
., 1975. . 115, . 239.
13. . . ..: , 196G.
14. . . .: ,
167.
15. II. . -
..: . , 1967.
16. . ., . . . : . , 1971.
17. -- . .
, 1974, . 62, . 5.
18. . ., . . -
..: , 1970.
19. , -
./ . . . , . . ..: , 1970.
20. . ., . ., . ., . .

: . , 1976, . 7, . 15, . I,
. 0, . 3, . II; 1977, . 1, . 3, . I I I ; . 3, . 55, . IV.
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22. Bcran M. J., Parrent . . Theory of Partial Coherence. N . Y., 1964.
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, 1961, . 4, . 630.
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- .
, 1970, . 102, . 3.
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11.. .: . -
.: , 197,4, . 41.
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, 1963, . 8, . 1812. '
31. . . , -
..: , 1975.
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.. : , 1968, . 11, 1371.
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.. : , 1971, . 14, . 85.
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. . : , 1974, . 17,
. 1350.
36. ., . . . .: , 1967.
37. li. . . .: . , 1975.
38. - . ..: . ,
1970.
458

39. . . , -
. . ., 1964, . 9, . 441.
40. . . .
. : , 1964, . 7, . 559.
41. . ..: , 1953.
42. . . . .: , 1964.
43. . . .2- ..: , 1959.
44. ). ., . . -
.: IV .
. : . , 1976.
45. . ., . . -
..: , 1975.

III
1. . . .
.: . , 1953.
2. . . ..: . , 1957.
3. . ., . . . .:
, 1957.
4. . . .
, 1956, . , . 371.
5. . . -
, , 1957, . 33, . 166.
6. . ., . .
..: , 1967.
7. . .
, , 1955, . 29, . 94.
8. . ., . . -
. .: , 1961.
9. . .
..: . , 1948.
10. . . .
.: . , 1961.
11. . ., . ., . . ---
., 1959, . 37, . 229; -
-- , , 1961, . 73, . 381.
12. . ., . ., . .
..: , 1962.
13. . . -
. , 1961, . 40, . 907.
14. . . . .:
..: , 1963, . 3.
15. . ., . . -
., 1973, . 65,
. 1382.
16. . . .
2- ..: , 1967.

IV
1. . . .
.: , 1967.
2. . ., . ., . ., . .
- .
, 1970, . 102, . 3.
459

3. . . -
. , 1956, . 1, 695.
4. . .
. , 1957,
. 2, . 1227.
5. . ., . .
. -
, 1959, . 4, . 398.
6. . . -
. , 1960, . 5, . 1370.
7. . . ,
. . : ,
1960, . 3, . 393.
8. . . ., 1957,
. 33, . 514, 679.
9i . .
. . 1974, . 113, . 627.
10. : . ./ .
. . ..: , 1965.
11. . ., Axuejep . ., . . . -
.-.: , 1964.
12. --. . .: , 1961.
13. ., . . .: , 1970.
14. . . .
2- . .: , 1967.
15. . . . .
: , 1961, . 7, . 378.
16. . ., . . -
.-- , 19>9, . 9, . 38.
17. . ., . . -
. .: , 1966.

V
1. . . .
, 1945, . 47, . 486.
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mogeneilies. Phys. Rev., 1946, v. 70, p. 486.
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, 1967.
4. . . -
,.: , 1975.
5. . ., . ., . ., . .
- .
, 1970, . 102, . 3.
6. . . -
. , 1938," . 18, . 283.
7. . . -
,, 1908, . 55, . 798.
8. . . -
. . ., 1968, . 14, . 1.
9. . ., . . -
, . : , 1971, . 14, . 706.
10. . -
. .: , 1975.
11. . . . . : -
!, 1958, . 1, . 34.
460

12. . !., . . -
. , 197(1, . 21, . .
13. . ., . . -
, =*, 11-76. . 21, . 1303.
14. 11. ., . /.
.
, I960, . 6, . 695.
15. . ., . ., . .
, -
. - . : , 1973, . 16, . 1064.

VI
1. !' . .
.: . , 1961.
2. . ., . .
. . :
, 1978, . 21, . 714.
3. . - . .
: . .. 1937, . 2, . 223.
4. . . -
. . : . ., 1053, . 2,
. 155.
5. . . . 2- . .: , 1959.
6. . .
. .: . , 1959.
7. . ., . .
. .: , 1%5.
8. .. , . ., . ., . . -
. .: , 1976.
9. . .
. . : ,
1962, . 5, . 490.
10. . II.
.
. ., 1960, . 6, . 87.
11. . . . .:
, 19(57.

VII
1. . ., . . -
. . : ,
1977, . 20, . 1040.
2. . . -
, -
. , 1969,
. 57; . 952.
3. . . ,
: -
, 1970.
4. . . . .
: , 19G4, . 7, . 380.
5. //., Random Volume Scattering,- J. Res. NBS, 1964, v. fi8, p. C67.
6. . ., . .
. . : -
, 1970, . 13, . 1061.
461

7. . .
. . : , 1968, . 11,
. 840.
8. . ., . .

.. : , 1970, . 13, . 16.
. Rrgsm W. P., Fourth Moment of a Wave Propagating in a Random Me-
dium.J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1972, v. 62, p. 966.
10. , , . . - -
.
, 1976, . 16, . 1264.
11. . , . , . ., - ., -
. . -
. . : , 1979, . 22,
. 2.
12. . , . ., . ., . .
.- .: , 1976.
13. Oochetashvily - S., Shishov V. I., Multiple Scattering of Light in a Tur-
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14. - , . .
. , 1974, . , . 1237.
15. . .
.. :
, 1075, . 18, . 1660.
16. . ., . ., . . -
-
., 15,77, . 73, . 481. :
17. . ., . . . ^ -
-
., HI70, . 58, . 024.
18. . . -
. , 1965, . 29. . 7.
19. Fradkin E. S. Application of Functional Methods in a Quantum Weld
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20. ., . .
.: , 1968.
21. . ., . . -
. .
: , 1!)71, . 14, . 1400.
22. . . -
-
., 16, . 56, . 2106.
23. . , . ., . .

. . : , 1977, . 20, . 1020.

VIII
1. . .
. , 175, . 117. . 49.
2. . . . .:
, 1967, . 5.
3. . ., . . -
, , 168, . 4, . 27.
4. . ., . . -

.. : , 1977, . 20, . 549.
462

5. . . . . :
, 14, . 17, . 165.
6. . . AafetepeH-
. : , 1974, . 17, . 570.
7. . ., . ., . ., . :
- .
, IS70. . 102, . 3.
8. . ., . . -
. . : :
, 1970,-. 13, . 356.
9. . ., . ,
.. : , 16, . 11,
. 719.
10. . ., . ., . ., . .

. . :
, 1972, . 15, . \'52.
11. . . .-
. : , 1973, . 10, . 461.
12. 10. .,
. . : , 1973, . 16,
. 88.
13. . ., . ., . .
, -
: , 1973, . 16, . 194.
14. . . .: , 1953.
15. . ., . .
. . : -
, 1972, . 15, . 1419.
16. . .
. : , 1975,
. 18, . 1870.
17. . ., . .
. .: , 1972.
18. . ., . . -
-
. - , 1973, . , . 499.
19. . . -
. .: , 1975.
20. . . . -
. , 1967, . 53, . 401.
21. . ., . .
. , 1967, . 53, . 978.
22. . . - ( -
). , 1955, . 56,
. 77.
23. . ., . -, . .
., 1975, . 115, 239.

IX
1. . /'., . .
.: , 1972.
2. . . .
, 1972, . 106, . 459.
3. . . .. , 1948,
. 1, . 246.
463

4. . . -
. , 1952, . 23, . 305. ,
1969, . 5, . 152251.
5.. . ., . ., . .

. . : , 1971, . 14,
. 854.
6. . ., . . , -
. . : , 1968,
. 11, . 56.
7. . . , -
. . : , 1965, . 8, . 1128.
8. Barrick D. E. Relationship between Slope Probability Density Function
and the Physical Optic Integral in Rough Surface Scattering.Proc. IEEE,
1968, v. 56, p. 1728.
9. E. .
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