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4

,
. ,

= 4.
u

=0, , = 0.
.
. :

= 4( + ),
u

. -
.

3.65.
. -
2. c -
. .
.
, . . .

= 0.

= ( ) = ( ).
. , ,
! , . 2
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. 4.1

, .

1 = = 4,

4
2 = = .

.

4 +1
= 1 + 2 = (4 + ) = 4( ),


4 = .
+1
,

1 1
= ( ) = ( ) = 4(1 ) = .
+1

3.23.

0 , 0 -
(. . 4.2).
, : 1) u
; 2) -
1 2 ,
0 .
.

. 4.2
.
!
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. , ,
3 ! , .
lectoriy.mipt.ru.

, . . .
.

= 0, = 0.

, . -
,
. , -
.
= u = cos .
:

1u = 2u = 1u = 2u .

2u = 2u = 2u + 4u ,
1 1 1u 1
u = 2u = = cos = .
4 4 4 0
,
0 cos ( 1)
=
2 4 = 2 .

u

3.31.
-
( = 100) ,
(. . 4.3). 50 ,
? = 2 .
.

. 4.3

0

0 = .



= .

.

= ( ) + =( ) + = ( ) + .

.
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. , ,
! , . 4
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100 50 2
= + , = = 0,02 .
1 99 50

3.24.
5 ( = 7)
1
7 . ?
.

. 4.4

.
u u

= , uu = = .
uu
u u

1 2 .

= = ()42 = 4,

. ,

() = ,
2
u u u1 u2
1 1 1 1
uu = = = 2 = ( ) + ( ) .
2 1 2 2 3
u u u2 u3

:
1 1
= = u2 u1 u3 u2 = 1 = 35 40 .
uu uu1 u2
+ u2 u3 756
+ 16 7

(1 =91011 ).

.
!
pulsar@ phystech. edu
. , ,
5 ! , .
lectoriy.mipt.ru.

. 4.5

1.
, . ,
.
. -
.
2
2 = , = 2,8 1013 .

, . ,
( ) .
2
uu .

2
1 2
12 = .
1 2
,
1 2 1 3 2 3
= + + = ,
12 13 23
.
1 u u 1
= = u u ,
2 uu uu 2 u
1
u , - , . 2
. . u u = u u .
1 1
= = .
2 2
u u

. -
(. . ??).
.
. :

=
= ,

.
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. 4.6

2
= = 2 2,
2 2

= = 4 .

:
2
=,
8
, .
2
(, )
= = = .
8 8 8

= [ 3 ] = [ 2 ] .

. ,
2
= = .
8
.
(. . ??).

. 4.7

1 > 2 . , -
. , .

= = 1 2 .

:
1 1 2
= = = .
2 2 8
u u u
.
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, . -
. -
( = const).

. 4.8

2 1 1
= 2 1 = ( ).
8 2 1
1 > 2 , .
, (. . 4.9).

. 4.9


= const. 2 (1 > 2 ).

2
= 1 2 = ( 2 ).
8 1

3.59.
2 -
(. . 4.10). -
,
1 . ,
, . -
1 0?
.
.

2
== ,
8
.
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. , ,
! , . 8
lectoriy.mipt.ru.

. 4.10

2
= = .
8
:

1 = 2 ,

1 1 = 2 2 , 1 = 2 .
1
= 1 + 2 = 1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 1 2 .

:

12 2 2
1 = , == = .
1 + 2 8 8(2 + 1 )2

3.43.
, -
.
.

. 4.11

.
u
1
= ()42 .
2
0

2
() = 22 (1
).
32
.
!
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. , ,
9 ! , .
lectoriy.mipt.ru.


16 2 2 5
= .
15

4 3
= .
3

3 2
= .
5
,
1 2
= .
2

3.50.
. -
, .
.

. 4.12

. ,
. , -
.
1 ( ).


2
= = .
2 2
.

+ .

1 2 2
= = uu
(1 ) + ,
2 + 2(1 + u )
.
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lectoriy.mipt.ru.

, . , -
.

= .

,

= 42 = .


2
= .
84
2
2 1 2 2
= = = ( 2) = .
8 8 84
3
.

. 4.13

. .

= 2,
. .
, .
C: + = 4.
: = 0.

2
2 2
= = 2 = 2 ( ) = .
42 84

.
!
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