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No. 56

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INSIDE
NEWS IN BRIEF

Pupils Should Read 50 Books a Year ................. 3 1 1992 .
METHODS OF TEACHING
:
Get Lit Up:
: Stephen Lapeyrouse, Erin Bouma
Literature as a Teacher's Best Friend .................. 4 : .
Communicative Approach : .
in Teaching Reading in High School .................. 5 , : .
Motivating Pupils to Read ................................ 6

The Huge Potential of Mini-Sagas
for Developing Students' Vocabulary .................10 . ( )

. ( )
....12 , IT
. ( )
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ,
Letting 'While' for a While................................ 8 .

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES .
Limeric Game .................................................14 -
.
- ...............................15
A Review of a Book .........................................18 . ()

FOCUS ON LANGUAGE :
Literature & Book Vocabulary..........................19 .

English Literature Quiz ....................................19 :


Literary Genres .............................................. 39 .,
.,
LESSON PLANS .,
"Beauty is a form of genius." .............................21 .,
.,
...................................... 24 .,
TOPICAL JOURNEY .,
.,
Books in Our life ............................................ 27 .,
TEXTS FOR READING
.,
Storytelling Benefits and Tips ...................... 40 .,
TESTS .,
.,
Book Vocabulary Test ......................................41 .,
Five-Minute Tests .......................................... 47 .,
.,
SCHOOL THEATRE .,
Grishka's Books .............................................. 42 .,
.,
Gone with the Wind ........................................ 43 .,
PREPARING FOR EXAMS .,
.,
Books ............................................................ 47 .,
TEACHERS' BOOKSHELF .

Psychology and the Art of Public Speaking ...... 50



FOCUS ON LITERATURE :
...........................51 79002; CD- 12630

:
77-44339 21.03.11
............................. 53
Bringing Taboo Issues to the lassroom............ 54 : 16.04.14, 16.04.14

Reading Skills ................................................ 57
TEACHERS FORUM . , . 1, , . , 142300
: www.chpd.ru. E-mail: sales@chpk.ru
How to Bring Up a Reader? ........................... 58 : 8(496)-726-54-10, 8(495)-988-63-76
YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION 30016 .
Rivers in Literature and My Special River ........ 60
My Favourite Character .................................. 61 :
. , . 24, , 121165
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E-mail: eng@1september.ru
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Unless otherwise indicated images in this issue are from shutterstock.com E-mail: podpiska@1september.ru
NEWS IN BRIEF English

Literature with PUPILS SHOULD READ


3
MayJune 2014

a Small l 50 BOOKS A YEAR

Speaking about getting students to read books seems


to be a never-ending and an open-ended story at the
same time.
Looking at the topic question which asks our stu-
dents to reveal the role of books in their lives, what kind
of books are we talking about? Are we insisting on pa-
per books? In this case we immediately restrict our pos-
sibilities as, unfortunately, the Russian book market has
very few worthy English books. Maybe, then, we agree
that our students can read e-books? Or can even down-
load the books into their mobile phones? In that case Children as young as 11 should be expected to read 50
they of course will not experience the pleasure of page- books a year as part of a national drive to improve literacy
turning and smelling the texts; but the probability that standards, according to Michael Gove, the UK Education
they will finally get down to reading, I dare suppose, Secretary.
will drastically increase. Then should we speak about He said pupils should complete the equivalent of about
the role of books or about the role of literary texts? a novel a week and that the academic demands placed on
English schoolchildren had been too low for too long.
When speaking about a literary text we assume sev- The vast majority of teenagers read one or two books
eral things about its nature. as part of their GCSEs and Mr Gove said all schools should
A literary text is one which deals with moral issues, raise the bar by requiring pupils to read a large number
values and messages. It is written in a representational of books at the end of primary school and throughout sec-
language which needs the readers imagination in order ondary education. A report in December concluded that
to grasp the potential meaning the text is carrying. It is reading standards among British teenagers had slipped
from 17th to 25th in an international league table.
written for a reader, who may like or dislike what is on Mr Goves latest comments were made following a
offer. tour of charter schools state-funded institutions that
If we look at the notion of literariness from this very were run free of government interference in the United
point of view, we will inevitably notice the huge variety States. One primary school in a hugely deprived area of
of genres contemporary literature exposes us to. Apart Harlem, New York, set pupils a 50-book challenge over
from poems, short stories, and novels, contemporary the course of a year and children also competed to be
quickest to read all seven Harry Potter books.
media space offers us blogs, internet legends, chat/sms/ The Infinity School was ranked higher than any other in
text romances, and songs. the city, even though more than 80 per cent of its mainly
If we accept that a literary text is not only one written African American and Hispanic pupils were from families
by a dead white man (a term used to refer to classical eligible for free and reduced price lunches. It was among
writers of the nineteenth century), but lively material almost 100 schools run by the Knowledge is Power Pro-
having the three above-mentioned features, our aim of gram (KIPP), a charity established by two teachers.
Mr Gove said KIPP had far higher expectations of its
getting the students to read would become more achiev-
students than British schools. We, the Coalition Govern-
able and less frightening at the same time. ment, have attempted to raise the bar but, I think, havent
been ambitious enough, he said.
Elizaveta Bogdanova Recently, I asked to see what students were reading
at GCSE and I discovered that something like 80 or 90 per
cent were just reading one or two novels and overwhelm-
ingly it was the case that it included Of Mice and Men.
We should be saying that our children should be read-
ing 50 books a year, not just one or two for GCSE.
!
SPECIAL OFFER!

A current review of the National Curriculum was ex-



pected to specify the authors children should study at

each stage of their education. As an interim measure, Mr
www.1september.ru
, ,
Gove would be asking leading childrens authors to set
, . out the 50 books each child should read, with schools
1 30 2014 . urged to issue the challenge to pupils.
: One of the biggest problems in the English state edu-
www.1september.ru cation system is that only a minority can follow an aca-
(, demic education and that only a minority can go to univer-
) sity. Quite wrong, said Mr Gove.
Our expectations have been too low for too long.

: podpiska@1september.ru - Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk


" "

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English METHODS OF TEACHING

4
MayJune 2014 GET LIT UP:
Literature as a Teachers Best Friend
Literature. Quite a divisive word, that. Throw it ings. Why, there is barely time to cover every page in
through an open window into a room full of language the course book, so why bring in extra work?
teachers and most will dive behind furniture, fingers The argument for literature
in their ears and looks of horror on their faces. The point to make at this critical juncture is to
A few, possibly, will greet its arrival amongst them make it clear that all the teachers who fall into the
with a squeak of delight and start playing with it like categories described above, and many others not
a favourite pet. mentioned here, have misunderstood what literature
A bit of an exaggeration? Not really. Most teachers in the language classroom can be. The key point is
of English as a foreign language will identify fairly read- that literature can be a very flexible tool for any lan-
ily with one group or the other, with those who would guage teacher:
welcome the chance to use literature in the classroom it requires no specialist training;
and those who wouldnt even think about it. it can be brief, contemporary and relevant;
it can be used to enhance, supplement and com-
WHY NOT USE LITERATURE? plement the curriculum;
You need to be an expert it can aid students speaking as well as reading
There are many reasons why teachers dont feel skills,
comfortable with literature in the language class- it can engage the class in aspects of critical think-
room. Perhaps they are still in the recovery stage ing that text books rarely do and open minds onto
themselves, with painful memories of literature the world;
classes as a curriculum subject at school. Unsuit- it can assist with specific language learning and it
able and unhelpful exposure to the weighty tomes of is an ideal tool for revision purposes.
long dead writers has left them numb to the possible
charms of the art. It might be that they dont read Many teachers who have courageously taken the
books themselves, gain no pleasure from them, and leap from being non-users to users of literature in
so dont see why they should take the burden into the EFL classroom speak of the feeling of liberation
class. Others might perceive a wide gulf between the it gives them, and the sense of creativity it transfers
teaching of a language and the study of the literature to the class. Literature, they discover, gives them
of that language, and why would they not? Many uni- permission to enter other worlds and ideas and to
versities maintain sturdy defences between the study explore them confidently.
of a language and the study of its literature: two dif- Of course, this doesnt happen without a degree
ferent departments; two different mind sets. Others, of preparation. A little will happen simply by open-
possibly the largest group, might think literature has ing up a book in class and reading to students, but
a place in the language classroom but that its not not a lot. Even less will be achieved by sending the
for them. After all, dealing with literature requires the class away to read Chapter 3 over the weekend for
hand of an expert, doesnt it? And, lets face facts, it homework. Nothing will be achieved by deciding to
is a bit elitist, this literature thing, isnt it? structurally analyse the book or its contents. What is
It must be proper literature required is a careful handling of the sometimes deli-
A reverse distinction can sometimes be seen in cate interface between language and literature and
some of the many of the reading groups which have to understand where the students fit into the creative
been blossoming all over the place in recent years, reading cycle. What is needed is a way of raising stu-
where peoples love of books extends to a desire dents expectations so that reading becomes a posi-
to meet regularly with others and share that love. tive experience. What is indispensable is an under-
In some groups, the readers seem to experience a standing of where the narrative might lead the reader
certain feeling of discomfort at choosing non-canon- and, at the same time, to recognise that a narrative
ical, non-classic texts to share to read. The elitism might take 30 different people to 30 different places,
alluded to earlier can be seen dividing popular, or and be able to deal with that reality in class.
even modern literature, from proper literature (that Thus, while we may not need any expert skills in
is books by dead white men, with an occasional hon- literature per se, we will need to be fairly resourceful
orary woman allowed in) as if being found sharing, and imaginative teachers. Luckily there is a growing
let alone enjoying, a popular or, heaven forbid, light- body of support in http://www.teachingenglish.org.
weight book, was something of a minor sin; some- uk/literature, from engaging classroom resources to
thing to be ashamed of. help from communities of experienced teachers, and
Its too hard for the students from access to copyright free short stories and po-
On the other hand, those who do welcome narra- etry to contact with authors and poets.
tive and poetry into the classroom often do so with a The purpose of the literature section is to provide
passion, and it is this enthusiasm which drives them some guidance through the wealth of available ma-
to want to share with their students. But even here terials and support, to provide a platform for sharing
hesitation is noted. Do they feel adequately equipped ideas and experiences and to explore some areas
to share what they see as a precious jewel with their that are at the cutting edge of what is, for many teach-
students? Arent many of the books they feel pas- ers, the most powerful instrument in their school bag:
sionate about too advanced for their students lan- literature as a tool for language learning.
guage level anyway? So, next time someone lobs some live literature
Theres not enough time! through an open window, youll be one of those who
However, the biggest cause of excluding literature welcomes it with open arms.
from the language classroom, the over-riding factor
which supposedly clinches the argument, is that By Fitch OConnell
there is no time in the school syllabus for such dally- Source: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk
METHODS OF TEACHING English

COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH 5
MayJune 2014

In Teaching Reading in High School


Its not a secret that more and more children grow terests, which are the main sources of motivation in
up without even picking up a book. Their literary ex- educational processes.
perience is limited to comics, magazines, and, later, Reading is a receptive kind of activity, and while
abridged versions of school programs. reading the text, students extract information, which
What is the reason of the fact that an average means that the information is transferred from the
teenager reads less today than a person of the same author to the reader. In fact, it is not. Any communi-
age 1520 years ago? The overall decrease of inter- cation is always motivated; that is, extracting infor-
est in reading is the effect of time. In society, there is mation from the text, the reader always has a goal. If
no longer a cult of a book, when one worn book was there is no goal, reading does not have a communi-
passed from person to person. There is no shortage cative sense. It is equally absurd to paraphrase the
of books, and what is available is not interesting, text, especially if the task is to reproduce the content
especially seeing half-naked girls and awful space as close as possible to the original.
monsters on the covers of colourful magazines. No Reading is one of the most important kinds of
one would ever think to utter a phrase such as All communicative and cognitive activities of students.
the best I have is due to a book, or Love a book a Reading has different functions: to practise mastery
source of knowledge. of a foreign language; to learn language and culture;
An increasing amount of information, especially and as it is a means of information and education
information relevant to youth, can be obtained today and a means of self-education, it promotes the de-
through audio and video, TV and computer networks. velopment of other forms of communicative activity.
However, a book was the tool that helped form the Reading gives the greatest opportunity for education
moral principles and cultural values, master the in- and overall development of pupils with the help of a
formation accumulated over the centuries, develop foreign language.
imagination, teaching how to analyze, and evaluate While reading, we usually solve three major
their own and others actions. problems: seeing the general content of the text, se-
Russian children are not well-educated, and the lecting and extracting information. The communica-
situation is getting worse. Here are the results of the tive approach in teaching reading can be achieved
international research of OECD (Organization for through the use of various types of reading, and dif-
Economic Co-operation and Development) published ferent methods of organizing reading.
in 2009. Knowledge of 15-year-olds in reading, math-
Lyudmila L. Zakolodezhnaya,
ematics and science is tested and compared every
MIOO Teacher-Trainer,
three years, starting from 2000. In each of the items
Presenter of Oxbridge Professional Development,
you can get 0 to 600 points. Absolute first place was
Teacher of Gymnasium No. 1542, Moscow
awarded to China: 556 points in reading, 600 points
in math and 575 points in natural sciences. Russia
took the 43rd out of 65 countries in reading. See full text in additional materials.
In fact, our country once had the title of the coun-
try of the most readers; today fewer people (both
adults and children) read. Today, more and more
people proudly say they do not read books. And
that child will never read in whose family there are
no books at all. And now, despite the abundance of
printed materials, there are many such families.
First of all, the phrase how to make a child read,
must be changed to what should be done to make
a child want to read. Everything that is done under
pressure, will lead to no good. A child should be in-
terested in reading, and not do it because the teach-
er told me so.
Thus, reading should not be a punishment, duty
or condition. Books should be a reward. Our task is
to put reading on the list of priorities be as high as
possible. To do this, a child should find it useful and
interesting. If reading is not attractive to us, why has
it to be attractive to our children?
What provokes a child to dislike or be indiffer-
ent to reading? One of the reasons is a badly bal-
anced school program, which does not take into
account the age and psychological characteristics
of children and adolescents. Literature lessons can
discourage students even interested in reading: an
impressive list of books, heavy volumes, the stand-
ard approaches: biography of the author retell-
ing of the work portraits of the main characters.
School programs, whose main objective was and is
to develop an interest in reading, destroys this inter-
est. Childrens assimilation of information is based
on their own views, real feelings, thoughts and in-
English METHODS OF TEACHING

6 MOTIVATING PUPILS TO READ


MayJune 2014

This article looks at ways to apply the process model of learning of new vocabulary. The choice of appropriate texts
motivation as proposed by Dornyei (2001) to a number of sug- is important as those which provide 'too low a level of chal-
gestions and techniques for making the challenge of reading lenge can result in apathy, but a too high a level can lead to
authentic literature accessible and motivating. over-anxiety or stress' (Williams 1999). The word challenge
suggests something that is not easy but that can be over-
MOTIVATION come, given outside support and encouragement, in addi-
Motivation is one of the key factors that determine suc- tion to the pupil's own hopeful attitude to the outcome. It
cess. It provides the main incentive to initiate learning a for- also suggests something that is worth overcoming because
eign language and later the determination to persevere and it leads to personal growth and a sense of achievement.
sustain the long and often difficult learning process. Without Explain how the book is to be worked on. For example,
sufficient motivation, even individuals with the best of abilities once a week for half an hour in class, fifteen minutes in
cannot accomplish long-term goals. Teachers working in state class and fifteen minutes in the pupils' own time. Make sure
schools are first and foremost supposed to teach the curricu- the rhythms of reading are built up and class interaction on
lum, but we cannot ignore the fact that this cannot happen the reading is developed. How much class time is dedicat-
without motivating our learners. In addition, adolescent learn- ed to reading will depend on your teaching situation, your
ers come with their own emotional and psychological baggage curriculum requirements as well as on yourself and your
and interests making the task of motivating them one of the pupils.
greatest challenges for teachers. Using authentic literature to Prepare your pupils. Most pupils will need help in making
supplement core materials is one way of motivating adoles- the leap from teacher-guided close study of graded short
cents, yet the task of reading a short story or novel in a foreign texts to authentic literature. Encourage pupils to think about
language can be daunting for many pupils. their approaches to reading and how to build their confi-
dence. Allay fears they may have about not understanding
Creating the Basic Motivational Conditions every word by emphasising that 100 per cent comprehen-
Create a pleasant and supportive learning environment. sion is not necessary to understand the overall meaning.
A context which is supportive will encourage pupils to de- They should use all available clues from the language, the
velop their full potential. context and from the illustrations, where relevant, to help
Establish ground rules or a class contract between yourself make sense of the book. We need to bear in mind that
and your class regarding behaviour and norms which eve- 'training of pupils to be hopeful and robust in the face of a
ryone agrees to. challenge, and to develop and use strategies to deal with
Encourage peer support groups which recognise individual 'difficulty' is very much the teacher's responsibility' (Rixon
pupils' interests, levels, skills and strengths. See also fi- 1995). Therefore, train pupils in some of the strategies
nal outcomes below many of these can be produced as needed for effective reading such as previewing, skimming
group outcomes thereby exploiting different talents and in- and scanning, inferring meaning, etc., and explain that sup-
telligences within each group. port will be provided (see below).
Provide a point of entry. This could be a scene from a story,
Generating Initial Motivation an illustration or any paragraph or even page can be looked
Inform your pupils of why they are being asked to read an at or read in class before the actual reading of the whole
authentic text, and explain the benefits to them. For exam- book begins. The main criterion is for the material to be ac-
ple, exposure to the richness of real English will develop cessible to the pupils and sufficiently stimulating to arouse
language awareness, language competence and passive interest and motivate and give a flavour of the work in terms
vocabulary assimilation; it will develop global rather than of setting, characters, narration, etc. It can provide a starting
discrete comprehension; it will be different to their regular point (and a future point of reference throughout the read-
materials and activities and provide variety; it will develop ing) for all subsequent reader involvement with the text. The
knowledge of the culture of the target language and, overall, point of entry should be able to be read largely without ex-
will contribute to pupil's long-term language learning goal. planation, and the pupils should be encouraged to react to
Make sure pupils realise that when reading an authentic the stimuli the passage contains. Pupils can predict what the
text the objectives will be different to those for studying a story will be about or express a reaction (positive or nega-
short text, so they can form realistic expectations and avoid tive) to the material. If there is a film tie-in or audio recording
frustration and disappointment. Tell them they can do it and of a story containing sound effects, these could also be used
will enjoy it! as points of entry.
Involve pupils in the selection of the text, if possible. For ex- Provide pre-reading stimuli. This is a before-reading stage
ample, if you are using a collection of short stories, give a involving, for example, previewing the title and the cover
brief description of each or provide a point of entry (see be- illustration, the back cover, information about the author,
low) for three or four and organise a class vote for the one looking at the list of contents or chapter headings, and
pupils like best and, if possible, different groups can work looking through the book to get an impression of layout,
on the story they prefer. Being involved in such decision- print size and illustrations. Pre-reading stimuli will also ex-
making will give pupils a sense of ownership and responsi- ploit various elements which lead into the story involving
bility. Furthermore, much of successful reading is affected stimulating pupils' interest, eliciting vocabulary, introducing
by the way the subject matter relates to the pupil's exist- characters and setting, making predictions about genre and
ing cultural and general knowledge or to subject-specific using prior knowledge to contextualise a story and to relate
knowledge. Pupils will be helped in their reading if some of it to what they already know. For example, for Treasure
the information is already understood and this will help the Island ask pupils what they know about pirates and pirates'
METHODS OF TEACHING English

tales. What do the stories have in common? (Treasure, vio-


lence, excitement, mutiny, etc.)
Inform pupils of a final outcome. Many stories lead naturally
7MayJune 2014

to a stimulating outcome such as acting out a story, produc-


ing a poster, creating a quiz, a role-play, writing a sum-
mary, a letter, a book review or questionnaire, organising Style: This will cover features such as archaism, humour,
a project or a display, recording favourite passages com- colloquialism, dialect, specialised language used, register
plete with sound effects, directing a TV book programme, and chapter length.
etc. Knowing that their work is leading towards something Evaluation: An evaluation stage after reading can also be
concrete and relevant can help pupils invest the necessary included in the diary.
effort and persevere throughout the reading process. Integrate multimedia.
There is no doubt that multimedia adds a motivational di-
Maintaining and Protecting Motivation mension. There are many film tie-ins or audio recordings that
Support the reading process. can be used in combination with a story. In addition, the Inter-
Presenting while-reading tasks with explicit objectives in a net can be used to research authors, settings and locations,
motivating way, and diversifying these by incorporating differ- historical details or topic-related information. Software with
ent levels of support and allowing for different forms of re- authoring programmes such as Storyboard (a text reconstruc-
sponse, can help overcome the problem of mixed level and tion activity) can be used either by the teacher or groups of pu-
interest classes, engage all pupils and thereby enhance their pils on short, favourite passages or summaries, for example.
self-esteem and confidence. Many publishers provide down-
loadable task sheets to provide ideas or, if possible, work with Rounding off the learning experiences
colleagues to produce worksheets. Display final outcomes. It can be very motivating for pupils
Monitor reading. to see their efforts displayed. Outcomes can be produced
In the first instance, this involves checking that a certain individually or by groups of pupils. If appropriate, involve
amount of reading has been done and what has been read parents.
has been understood, and building upon that comprehen- Encourage positive self-evaluation. As mentioned above, a
sion to motivate further reading. Ideally, this should become reading diary can include an evaluation stage to encourage
interaction with texts read, their interpretation and discus- pupils to reflect on some or all of the following:
sion all of which need to be encouraged. Pupils have to be Was the book enjoyable for you? Why or why not?
stimulated to recognise the value of bringing their own ex- What were your favourite or least favourite moments?
pectations and experiences to bear on what they read. Opin- Who were your favourite or least favourite characters?
ions and interpretations must vary, and their exchange and Was the book easy for you to read? Why or why not?
evaluation is a vital part of the interactive learning process, Would you recommend it to your friends? Why or why not?
involving language development, cultural awareness, and What did you learn from the book? For example, useful
learner growth in overall education terms. Very often there language, factual, cultural, historical, geographical infor-
is no one correct answer to a question. The more open that mation, etc.
the text is to interpretation, the more rewarding it is likely to Would you like to read another story by the same author?
be for the pupil. Why or why not?
Have pupils keep a reading diary. Give honest evaluation. Let pupils know why they did or did
Another form of monitoring which encourages pupil rather not do well and what they can do to improve. We need to
than teacher monitoring, is the keeping of a reading diary. This be aware of the dangers of an over-reliance on praise, and
has the advantage of being an individual and personal record, of the negative effects of punishments and reprimands.
while at the same time documenting and reflecting on work
done in or out of class. It can be written in the pupils own To conclude, viewing motivation as a process and con-
language as well as partly in English, but as pupils language sidering how each of the different stages interrelate can help
level improves, they should be encouraged to use more and our pupils develop the habit of reading by becoming more
more English in their reading diaries. Negotiate with pupils and self-aware, positive, competent and autonomous and, con-
set ground rules that cater for and include all levels. Reading sequently, motivated to tackle the next authentic text. Happy
diaries can be arranged under several headings such as: reading!
Story: Pupils highlight key moments in the plot and com-
pare expectations before reading with what actually hap- References
pens. Summary skills will often be useful here. Dornyei, Z. 2001. Motivational Strategies in the Language
Vocabulary: Pupils keep notes of new, unusual, attractive, Classroom, CUP.
useful or specialised words. Ellis, G., McRae, J. 1991. The Extensive Reading Handbook for
Characters: Pupils make brief notes on characters to es- Secondary Teachers, Penguin English.
tablish their importance in the plot, how they develop, and Greenwood, J. 1997. Promises, promises class contract, Ac-
what happens to them in the end. Pupils can also record tivity Box, CUP.
their own feelings or opinions about the characters, their Rixon, S. 1995. What is Too Difficult for young learners of
expectations and results. English to understand?, The Journal, Vol.2, No. 1, TESOL
Setting: This can cover both time and place. Journeys and France in association with the British Council.
voyages can be traced; period details and descriptions jot- Wida Software, Storyboard
ted down and commented on. Williams, M. 1999. Motivation in language learning, English
Narration: Pupils establish the narrative point of view. Teaching Professional 13: 6-8.
Genre: Pupils determine the genre.
Illustrations: Starting with the cover, any visual materials in By Gail Ellis, Head of Young Learners Centre,
the book can be commented on and their contribution to the The British Council, Paris and Special Lecturer
understanding of the work and enjoyment value considered. in the School of Education, University of Nottingham
English

8
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Field Notes
MayJune 2014 LETTING WHILE FOR A WHILE
Even though quite a lot has been written and said so far about seems to be no apparent answer in the classroom, I open the door
the importance of reading and the role of books in our and our and, as I have said above, take up field observations.
students lives, turning the last page of any professional text we Standing at a safe distance so as not to be noticed (luckily the
still remain on our own with an unresolved question: how can I overcrowded school corridors are a perfect place for spying, so
get my students to read? there is no need for me to put on a wig and sunglasses though
Of course, each of us has a pack of successful stories with it would, undoubtedly, make the day of both my colleagues and
bookworm students, real reading-lovers. But in the very depths my students) I watch my learners. Very soon, I notice two or
of our solitary reflections we might admit that very often the three clearly distinguishable groups made up by my learners. To
ones who read are the ones who usually come to our classes as my surprise they are centred not around the most popular girls
already reading creatures. We only develop them further, which, and boys, but grey mice, neatly looking shy girls, maybe even
of course, is very important; but what to do with those students having two plaits, who are carefully retelling the content of the
who come to us not reading at all? Do we label them as reticent assigned texts, being listened to by those who havent managed
readers, and then try to tolerate their non-reading identities? Or to find the time to read.
is there anything we could experiment with? The second thing I thought of (the first was of course right-
In this issues field notes, I would like to share with you some eous anger and cursing) was how attentive and concentrated the
of the observations I acquired while working with non-reading listeners were. Those loud boys and playful girls were doing
students. their best to catch every word uttered by the story-teller. The
Last Supper lasted for more than 15 minutes, accompanied as I
THE CRIME AND THE PUNISHMENT? could read from the faces by meaningful questions and clarifica-
Facing a student who, depending on his artistic abilities and/ tions. When the bell rang, the well-equipped students entered my
or moral up-bringing, says, lowering his eyes: Excuse me, mad- classroom worrying only to not forget the precious knowledge.
am, I havent read what youve asked us is quite an unpleasant So by the time the lesson began, my active listeners were
though notoriously wide-spread situation, which teachers dont well aware of the story, but could hardly take part in thorough
like boasting of. However, if we breathe in deeply and tell the discussions, as they had deprived themselves by the act of not-
truth to ourselves, most of us will admit that from 10 to 70 per reading, and thus had no emotional, personal response to the
cent of our students perform in such a way. text. What they had acquired was a second-hand story, emotion-
So what shall we having heard such an utterance? ally filtered by the storyteller. The mystery was revealed.
Depending on the variety of factors, we may either forgive
the unforgivable and let the student at least take part in the les- WHATS THE NEXT STEP?
son, eliciting from him/her a sincere promise to catch up with There is an old saying, which I really like: If there is a process
the material, or, being more devoted to our disciplinary duties, which is unavoidable, you should lead it. So, if story-telling hap-
put a fail grade into the register and ostracize the criminal for pens in the corridors and I cant stop it, why not invite it into my
the 45 minutes. classroom and legitimize it? This is how while-reading lessons
These extremes can both be justified in terms of teachers re- with my students began.
action to a classroom situation and the objectives of classroom Of course, at first I felt a bit weird to offer to my students to
management. However, in a particular moment of my teaching read to them aloud. However, they appeared to be so grateful
career, I realized that the role of judge which was imposed on and ready to work, that I soon forgot about my initial worries.
me by the persistent non-readers didnt evoke much excitement Moreover, I got busy counting the benefits I unexpectedly got.
in my educational soul, so I tried to look at the story from a dif- That was how it began.
ferent angle. Now reading a whole story with my students I am absolute-
What if I regard non-reading not as an excusable/non-excus- ly sure that 100% of the learners gtt a first-hand product. This
able flaw of a students character, but as a symptom, or talking means for me that, firstly, my pre-reading lesson is not spent in
literally, a mystery which needs to be investigated. vain, and, secondly, that the whole group is able to take part in
To put an end to the-crime-and-the-punishment pattern in my the post-reading activities.
reading lessons I had to trace the roots of the problem, leaving Also reading with the students and leaving 5-10 minutes for
my comfortable teaching oecumene to look for the evidence out- reflection, I can collect immediate feedback and thus see in what
side the classroom. direction I should take further teaching steps.
To do so I usually ask my students to close their eyes (and
STRANGERS IN THE LIGHT make sure that this requirement is fulfilled) and then ask them
Let me picture the layout of a typical failed reading lesson of to grade the text from the point of view of interest, raising their
my own. I choose a nice literary text to read with my students. hands and indicating by number of fingers how much they like it:
As a well-behaved, communicative teacher, I devote 45 minutes from showing zero if they like the story to 5 if they appreciated
to boosting curiosity, enhancing interest and hooking my learn- the text. This gives me a very clear visual picture of how well the
ers attention. I go through all prescribed procedures and having text is received and whether I should stay longer on it or should
a slight feeling of pedagogical satisfaction, assign the text for shorten the further discussion as much as possible if the learners
the next lesson. dont like the story.
The next time I meet my students most of them, say 70 per These simple feedback procedures let students feel that they
cent, seem quite ready for the usual comprehension check ques- are treated as readers not as learners, and that their attitude to the
tions or reading tests, or even discussions. However if I dig a story is important for me.
bit deeper I realize that out of those 70% about a half are quite Having learnt about the interest, I ask my students, still sit-
unsure in their answers to more sophisticated questions. As there ting with their eyes closed, to say how difficult the text is: from
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT English
0 very easy, to 5 extremely difficult. This helps me under-
stand how much language work should be done as well as evalu-
ate whether the text I have chosen is at an appropriate language
level.
If there are still 5 minutes left before the end of the lesson, I
9 MayJune 2014
can ask my students to work in pairs and to say to each what they
like and/or dislike in the story and why. middle of our studies, we all were living in an industrial era.
With time I realized, that if the actual reading happens in Whereas our learners belong to the era of information. No mat-
the classroom and is guided and supported by me as a teacher, ter how simple this statement seems, to me it implies an impor-
there is no need for over-thorough pre-reading preparations, tant message.
aiming at creating, boosting and sustaining interest in the text I still remember how difficult it was at the end of the 1990s to
which might be able to survive the next 48 hours between the find an article or a book I needed. The only source of information
lessons when the learner is expected to get down to reading. for me then was a text printed on paper. The recent technologies
On the contrary, a 10-minute intense pre-reading activity which were only entering our lives and they didnt seem very reliable
activates the general knowledge necessary for the understand- or time saving. I suppose most of us remember the time when
ing of the plot and introduction of some very key vocabulary in the Internet was connected via telephone wires, and if anyone in
the context is sufficient for the fulfillment of a communicative the home was using the web, others had to patiently wait being
duty. cut off from the outer world (mobile phones were even more
Then, if you ever have counted how much time it takes you rare than the computers then). This all shaped a very peculiar
to read a 6-page story aloud, you would have already found out attitude to the printed text in peoples minds. And this attitude
that in 30 minutes reading at a normal pace you may cover 6 or 7 was inherited from the many reading generations of the previous
pages of A4 text. Thus, in a 45-minute lesson you will manage to centuries. Reading was natural and crucial in the world where a
read a story, do pre-reading, and collect brief feedback. printed or written text was the only source of information. And I
believe that most modern teachers share this fading, sacred feel-
PREACHING VS DOING ing towards the printed word.
I am a very big promoter of reading aloud to the students no What about our students? They are all digital natives. They
matter how old they are. I believe that this oral story-telling tra- happened to be born in the world where information is being
dition is a very powerful tool in the hands of the teachers. Apart poured into their ears and eyes from all possible sources. Their
from all those medieval magic connotations, this enables us to childhood is deprived of moments of silence and solitude when
cater to both visual and auditory learners, as well as do our job a person can be left on his own, looking around, noticing and
as informers and facilitators. exploring the world around him. Our modern learners are sur-
It also contributes highly to participatory learning, building rounded by a multiplicity of video and audio messages, coming
up the feeling of a team and developing rapport between the stu- from various screens. They live in a much noisier world, and
dents and the teachers. they have to learn how to be picky to not get overwhelmed by
A lot of students, for whom the work with secondary imagi- the flood of information.
nary worlds is quite a new experience, may find it unbearably If we look at our teenagers from this very point of you, I be-
difficult. So when you share with them this experience by read- lieve it would facilitate our understanding of why reading, such
ing together you provide the psychological support which is so an enjoyable and easy activity for us, the teachers, seems so
needed, teach them how to focus on the content, and share ap- complicated for our learners. Indeed, for those who have very lit-
preciation or any other emotional response to the text. tle experience of concentration and silent mental work, who are
What is more important is, I think, that when the learners used to processing intensely packed short pieces of information
see that you spend such valuable lesson time on reading aloud, (like YouTube videos which perfectly exemply the mode of
they realize that this activity is indeed very important if the modern thinking: striving images, impressive music, total acces-
almighty teacher who is always suffering from time pressure, sibility for sharing and appreciation for everyone), a task which
allocates 45 or 90 minute to reading with her students. Our stu- requires a long attention span is too much of a challenge. Our
dents learn not only from what we say (they rarely do so) but learners need our support and guidance more than they or even
from what we do. So if we preach that reading is important, then we can imagine.
lets read in our lessons. Despite my usual relatively optimistic view, I have a feeling
that the fate of the reading tradition is in the hands of modern
WE AND THEM teachers. If we miss an opportunity to facilitate the reading proc-
If I were to write about any other topic but reading, I would ess for our learners, there might be very few reading people in
have already finished the article. However, I do believe that as a century or so. I think letting while-reading for a while is
non-reading students are a real pain in our teachers lives, I can worth considering, at least until our learners become confident
dare write a few more lines revealing my beliefs on the teaching and skillful readers. We can not make our students like reading,
experimentations. but we should do our best, taking risks at times, to show to them
I am inclined to think that the issue of non-reading students that it is possible. So while-reading for a while is maybe worth
seems acute, and at times even burning, not only due to the gen- it, dont you think so?
eration gap, which always remains a yawning abyss separating
us from our students. To my mind, the peculiarity of our times By Elizaveta Bogdanova
lays in the difference of epochs, if not eras, modern teachers and
modern students belong to. FURTHER READING
The rapid changes our society has been undergoing in the Harmer, J. (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching
past twenty years have become a commonplace if not a cli- (Fourth Edition). England, Pearson Education Limited.
ch in professional and non-professional discourses. Still, we Harmer, J. (2011) How to Teach English (Seventh Impression).
England, Pearson Education Limited.
quite rarely if ever stop to ponder such a dramatic period as we
Larsen-Freeman D. & J. Anderson (2011) Techniques and Princi-
have been doomed to witness. The truth is, that twenty years ples in Language Teaching (Third Edition). Oxford, Oxford Univer-
ago when we were starting our teaching careers or were in the sity Press.

VK.COM/CREATE_YOUR_ENGLISH
English METHODS OF TEACHING

10 THE HUGE POTENTIAL OF MINI-SAGAS


MayJune 2014

FOR DEVELOPING STUDENTS VOCABULARY


Perhaps mini-sagas are like Chinese meals; Mini-sagas develop students vocabulary and writing skills,
youre still hungry after youve eaten the lot. logic and cognitive skills.
Or perhaps they are simply addictive,
like salted peanuts, and you cant stop What are the possible ways of using mini-sagas in EFL class-
dipping your hand in the bowl rooms?
I guarantee that you will be entertained, As a way to revise and recycle vocabulary and grammar pat-
amused, stimulated, moved, and even terns. You can pre-set certain vocabulary items or gram-
encouraged to have a go yourself. John Humphrys mar structures as necessary elements of the story. Students
need to include them in their writing.
It is next to impossible to overestimate and, on the other To provide a summary for the reading passage. When we
hand, to underrate the role of vocabulary in everyday and pro- ask our students to retell the text, we might have no time to
fessional communication. Whether we mean reading, writing, listen to all of their retellings. Giving them such a task as
listening or speaking, we primarily need words to put our ideas writing a mini-saga of the text under discussion, we make
across and to understand others. So the problem of enlarging sure that every student has their say.
and enriching students vocabulary has become one of the ma- To provide a review for a film or a book. Students may read
jor challenges in EFL classroom. a book or watch a film they would like to recommend to their
The goal of communication is clarity, and an effective group-mates. So they can do it in the form of creative writing.
speaker is one who has the ability to express complex ideas To develop skills for writing abstracts. Our students may
with relatively simple words. We believe that using mini-sagas develop their English skills for academic purposes by writ-
stories of just fifty words may be an effective way of ex- ing abstracts in the form of mini-sagas.
panding creativity and stretching students thinking alongside As a piece of creative writing Mini-sagas may be regarded
developing their lexicon. as a motivating activity to cater to students different inter-
What comes to your mind when you hear the word saga? ests and needs. They have to put their stories in just fifty
Probably you start thinking about courageous Vikings going words, so their creative juices start flowing.
on long dangerous voyages and exploring unknown hostile
lands. However, mini-sagas are different. A How-To Tips for Implementing Mini-sagas in EFL Class-
The name is actually an oxymoron. Sagas are long tales that rooms
originated in medieval times by Norse and Icelandic people. Pre-Writing Stage
Mini-sagas in their turn were invented by famed and influen- 1. Introduce the topic to the class. Discuss with your students
tial science fiction writer Brian Aldiss while he was working different types of stories, let them innumerate key features
on a massive, 3 volume novel. As an exercise, he tried to of a story.
encapsulate all the essential elements of a story in exactly 50 2. Discuss the ingredients of a good story (e.g. characters,
words. In 1982 The Daily Telegraph started a writing competi- the setting, plot, conflict, style). Ask your students to guess
tion of mini-sagas with cash prizes. The winning entries were how short a story could be whilst still containing all the
compiled into a printed book edited by Brian Aldiss. Today we necessary elements.
can use them in EFL classroom in a number of ways. 3. Tell your students about the origin and characteristics of sa-
A mini-saga is piece of writing, alternately known as micro- gas and explain the peculiar features of mini-sagas. Provide
stories and ultra-shorts, with exactly 50 words (not including some examples of mini-sagas.
the title). It has to tell a story. So in order to develop the plot it 4. Give students just the title and the first sentence of a mini-
is necessary for it to have a beginning, a middle, and an end. saga. Ask them to guess the plot.
The title of a mini-saga can be as long as 15 words.
While-Reading Stage
What are the benefits of using mini-sagas in EFL classrooms? 1. Ask your students to read the sagas and to compare their
To the learner, writing 50 words doesnt sound challenging. guesses in pairs.
So students are not frightened by the idea of doing it, un- 2. Ask them to identify the structural elements of the story
like the situations when they are asked to produce long and the title, the beginning, the middle part, the ending of the
complicated essays or compositions. story. Direct their attention to the number of words only
Mini-sagas are short and easy to work with, and they do not 50 (mo more, no less).
take much time and they can be on any topic. 3. Group work in small groups students try to identify and
These activities turn out to be engaging and motivating. analyse expressive means used in the stories.
They expand students creativity, because such constraints
(the exact rules of writing mini-sagas) make them think Post-Reading Stage
about laconic and concise ways of expressing their ideas. 1. Students come up with the rules a writer should follow to
Mini-sagas stretch our students thinking. Learners have to produce a captivating mini-saga. They discuss their ideas
find a topic to make it fit in 50 words. and make guidelines for prospective mini-saga writers.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

11
MayJune 2014

2. Pair-work In pairs they choose a topic for their mini-saga pigs all huddled by the door, opening it slowly. Then suddenly
and brainstorm some ideas for it. three pies flew through the air and into the pigs.
3. Students make a draft copy of their story and think of the Mmm... apple, said the pigs licking their lips!
title for it. Charlotte Cross
4. They swap their mini-sagas with other students but leave
out the title. So students read their classmates mini-sagas MONSTER
and make some suggestions for improvement. They answer It was hiding. The hideous giant with blood covered hands
two questions Do they think the story is clear or confus- and honking feet waited for the tiny baby to come closer. Then
ing? Does it have a definite ending? without any warning the hideous giant lunged at it and swal-
lowed the jelly baby whole. The blood-thirsty human crawled
Whats more, they try to create their own title for the story away to his lair of doom.
and return the sagas back to their authors with the com- Sam Gilbert
ments.
1. After that, students make some final improvements to the We believe that mini-sagas are great fun to write. Whats
original story, editing it down to fit into a 50-word grid. more, they help to unlock students creativity and make them
think outside the box.

REFERENCES
Mini-sagas. Young Writers Creative Writing Competition
http://www.youngwriters.co.uk/new-adventures-second-
ary-competition.php
2. You may run a competition for the best mini-saga. For this Lindsay Clandfield. Writing Skills: Mini-saga
you may post your students mini-sagas on the group blog. http://www.onestopenglish.com/skills/writing/lesson-
Students will have an opportunity to read all the mini-sagas plans/writing-skills-mini-saga/146335.article
and leave some comments. Afterwards, they may vote for Writing: Mini-things
the best mini-saga in their group. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/lesson-plans/writing-
mini-things
THREE LITTLE PIGS
One evening, three little pigs were having a party. They By Anastasia Fetisova,
were having a great time. Someone knocked at the door! The Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow
English METHODS OF TEACHING

12
MayJune 2014



-
. , -
, , (
, , - ) ,
, .
, -, ,
, - :
. The title of the text we have read is
, The main idea of the text is
(Reader) , The author wanted to say that
( The main character is
). The events described happened in
, - The story ends when
, , I like the text which we have read because
( - (
), ) -
, ,
. , , . :
Who likes much?
: Which do you like better?
- - Do you sometimes go to?
, ; Do you like to go to?
- - What place do you usually go to?
( ), How much (money) do you pay / take for? Etc.
, ; -
:
, . -
, - .
, -
. . , -
, , , , . -
( ) : I am ready, I have ,
already read the text. .
- ,
. , .
.
, . - , (
, ). -
: Well, you see; I think; I ,
suppose; it seems to me; as for me, etc. .
(Reader), -
: , -
1. Answer questions about the author. , -
When and where was (he/she)born? ,
What were his/her parents? ,
What are his/her most famous books/plays? ,
What did he (she)write about in his plays? .
When did the author die? -
2. What do you know about the background and the plot of ?
( , -
.) . -
3. Speak about the characters of the text (book/play): (Vocabulary Work):
Who is? 1. Translate from English into Russian.
Is he/she a good (bad man/woman)? 2. Translate from Russian into English.
Whom does he want to marry/to be friends with? 3. Explain the words.
What can you say about? 4. Find the English equivalents of the words.
Do people respect him/her? 5. Make collocations. Use the completed phrases to make
Speak about sentences based on the text.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

6. Use the verbs in the correct form to complete the


sentences below.
7. Mark the sentences as T (true) or F (false).
8. Explain such words as...
13MayJune 2014

9. Find the sentences in the Present Progressive


Tense; the Past Progressive Tense, translate
them.
10. Find the endings of the sentences.
11. Make up your own sentences with the words and Other variants:
expressions from ex. 1. make a plan for the summary of the text;
12. Cross out the unnecessary word. sum up the text;
give some pieces of advice to the main characters;
, write a letter to the main character;
draw some pictures to the contents of the text you have
- read;
. - make up dialogues between the main heroes of the
- text;
. prepare for a discussion and write your summary on
the 1st part / episode of the book / text;
- prepare control reading of an extract;
. 3- - translate from Russian into English and learn by heart;
. discuss the problem of friendship: Do you agree that a friend in
, need is a friend indeed?
() - compare two main characters;
, - give the Russian equivalent of the saying All that glitters is not
gold. How do you understand it? ( -
, , ).
. discuss in pairs. Do you think the men were right or wrong to?
Questions for discussion, for example: Why?
Do you think it is a good idea to?
What do you do when you need? -
What do you think is going to happen in the next episode
(part)? , ,
: .
1. Use the 2nd and 3rd questions for making up a dialogue. ,
2. Imagine that you are ,
3. Find sentences that prove that ,
4. Ask your best friendnot to agree tos little joke. . ,
5. Choose the sentences that are true to the text.
6. Who said the following? :
7. Match the speech and the character. 1. -
,
, , .
, 2. , -
- .
. 3.
For example: .
T: Lets sum up what we have done at our lesson and what you 4. : )
have learnt. What did you speak about? ; ) .
P1: We have read an interesting text about Its title is It is 5. .
about 6.
P2: We have learnt new words. Now we can say what we call .
Etc. 7. .
- -
:
1. Lets discuss the problems of the text / comedy / book. , -
2. Lets make a dialogue between ,
3. Make up monologues (imagine that you are) ,
Tell us about .
4. Answer teachers questions: -
Has this story a happy ending for all the characters? , ,
What lessons does this story teach you? , , ,
, , , .

(1012 ) - ,
. . ..
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

14 LIMERIC
MayJune 2014 GAME
for Students of 8-9 Form
PROCEDURE:
The class is divided into four groups.
Each group is given a paper with tasks and cards of limericks.
The time limit is 12-15 minutes depending on the level of the class.
At the completion of the task the groups have to read the limericks they have created. The best reciting should be given extra points.
At the end of the performance the pupils have to complete the sentence with their key words.

VARIANT 1
Task 1. Find the proper version of translation for each limerick. (4 points)

There was a Young Lady of Ryde, ,


Whose shoe-strings were seldom untied. ,
She purchased some clogs,
And some small spotted dogs,
And frequently walked about Ryde. .
There was a Young Lady whose bonnet
Came untied when the birds sat upon it; . Task 2. Fill in the blanks and read the poem. (3
But she said, I dont care! : ! points)
All the birds in the air ,
Are welcome to sit on my bonnet! , , !
There was an Old Man on a , still
There was an Old Man with a flute. Who was seldom, if ever, stood ; gown
A sarpint ran into his boot; . He ran , up and down
But he played day and night, In his Grandmothers , hill
Till the sarpint took flight, , Which adorned that Old Man on a . hill
And avoided that man with a flute. .
There was a Young lady whose , surprise
There was a Young Lady whose chin Were unique as to ; wide
Resembled the point of a pin; , . When she opened them , colour and
So she had it made sharp, , People all turned , size
And purchased a harp, And started away in . eyes
And played several tunes with her chin. . aside

Task 3. Put the pieces of the poem into the right order and find your keyword. (3 points)

How pleasant to know Mr. Lear!


How pleasant to know Mr. Lear! a. Leastways if you recon two thumbs;
Long ago he was one of the singers,
But now he is one of the dumbs.
His mind is concrete and fastidious, b. The children run after him so!
Calling out, Hes gone out in his night
Gown, that crazy old Englishman, oh!
His ears, and two eyes, and ten fingers, c. Who has written such volumes of stuff!
Some think him ill-tempered and queer,
But a few think him pleasant enough.
He sits in a beautiful parlour,
d. With hundreds of books on the wall;
He drinks a great deal of Marsala,
He has many friends, lay men and clerical, But never gets tipsy at all.
e. He cannot abide ginger beer:
Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish,
When he walks in waterproof white, How pleasant to know Mr. Lear!
f. Old Foss is the name of his cat;
His body is perfectly spherical,
He weeps by the side of the ocean, He weareth a runeible hat.
a b c d e f g h
g. His nose is remarkably big;
His visage is more or less hideous, M I L E K R I C
He reads, but he cannot speak, Spanish, His beard it resembles a wig.
h. He weeps on the top of the hill; YOUR KEYWORD IS
He purchases pancakes and lotion, ____________________________
And chocolate shrimps from the mill.

. . By Z. V. Savenkova, School No. 276, St. Petersburg

VK.COM/CREATE_YOUR_ENGLISH
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

- 15
MayJune 2014

1011-
: - :
, , - 1. ( 10 11 -
, (, ,
), ( - , , -
), (
-, -, ), - , /
( ).
).
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4.
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. - , , -
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6.
, www.elllo.org (video), -
, -
(, , ,
, , , ). , (-
, , , -
, - )
. . ( Facebook,

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-
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.

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.
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

16
MayJune 2014


1. ( 1)
1: , !
-
-
-.
2: Hello, dear guests! Today we are inviting you 2.4 1
to make a trip in the world of English and French litera- 1: -
ture The Literary English Channel. - .
3: Bonjour, nos chers invits! Aujourdhui ,
nous vous proposons de faire le voyage La Manche ( 2753).
littraire dans le monde de la littrature anglaise et 2: The next task is based on your knowledge of
franaise. writers from English and French speaking countries.
2. Name the writer whose picture you can see on the
2.1. screen.
1: - 3: Ltape suivante va montrer vos connaissances
, sur les crivains des pays anglo-francophones. Nom-
, . mer lcrivain dont la photo vous voyez sur lcran.
2: In the beginning of our trip we suggest each
team should choose its name and motto according to 2.5.
their choice of country.
3: Nous commenons notre voyage et proposons 1:
chaque groupe (le pays est dj choisi) dannoncer -
son nom et sa devise. . -
/ -
2.2. - .
- ( 226) 2: On the next stage of our trip the teams are to
1: , demonstrate their acting skills. The teams are to act out
, episodes from the works of the English and/or French
. ( - writers.
.) 3: A ltape suivante de notre voyage les quipes
2: The teams should name the country after they dmonstrent leur matrise artistique. Vous devez jouer
see the name of a writer who represents this country on un extrait dun oeuvre littraire en anglais ou/et en
the screen. franais.
3: Les groupes nomment le pays dont le
prsentateur est lcrivain dont le nom est crit sur la 2.6. 2
diapositive. 1: , -
, (-
2.3. 5478).
1: - 2: You can see the name of the book on the screen.
. - Name the author of the book.
/ 3: Nommez lcrivain, lauteur de loeuvre dont
. - le titre vous voyez sur lcran.
, -
. 2.7. www.elllo.org
2: We invite the team leaders to the stage. Each 1: !
team leader is to represent a character from literature in . -
English and/or in French. The rival teams are to give the - -
names of the character, the book and its author. . -
3: Nous invitons les capitaines des groupes sur , -
notres scne. Chaque capitaine prsente le personnage
de loeuvre littraire en anglais ou/et en franais. Les .
groupes-concurrentes ont nommer le personnage, 2: Dear participants! Our trip is in progress. It
loeuvre et son auteur. is time you met some students your age from Eng-
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

17
MayJune 2014

- .
(
, -
).
2: Dear participants! Our trip in literature is com-
lish and French speaking countries. You are invited ing to its end. We ask the members of the jury to give
to take part in the discussion of the questions about marks to The Literary English Channel participants
their literary interests and to answer their questions and announce the results of the trip.
as well. 3: Chers participants! Notre voyage littraire
3: Chers participants! Notre voyage se pour- tient sa fin. Nous demandons notre jury bien estim
suit. Il est temps de vous communiquer avec les je- dapprcier les manifestations des participants de La
unes trangers anglo-francophones de votre ge. On Manche littraire et faire le bilan.
vous propose de prendre part la discussion sur leurs
prfrences littraires et donner vos propres rponses -
la question pose. .
-
2.8. 3 -,
1: , -
( 79 ,
103). .
2: You can see the name of the character. Name
the work of literature connected with him/her. ,
3: Sur lcran vous pouvez lire le nom dun per- ,
sonnage. Nommez loeuvre littraire. 2
.
3.
1: !
.
- .
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

18
MayJune 2014

Exercise 1. Read the review of the book: While I was reading the book, I felt sorry for him, but I
The Catcher in the Rye (By J. D. Salinger) appreciated his personality and point of view.
Id like to tell you about the book Ive recently read. Its I would, of course, recommend my friends, students and
quite a famous novel by an American writer Jerome David teachers to read that novel by Salinger. I hope youll like it!
Salinger called The Catcher in the Rye.
The story was written in the late-40s and the action takes Exercise 2. Match the paragraphs of the review in Ex. 1
place in the post-war period in the USA. This book was very and their aims:
popular among the readers after it was published, and its a) to describe the plot of the story;
problems arent old-fashioned even today. b) to give your own opinion of the book;
The main character, Holden Caulfield, is a teenager of c) to introduce the book to the readers;
about seventeen. He is a student in Pencey School and tells us d) to tell about the main character(s);
his life story. Holden is a tall and handsome boy. He sounds e) to mention when and where the action of the book takes
miserable about the life he is living. But he is sincere and so place;
romantic that he is liked by the readers. f) to recommend the book to the readers.
The fact is that Holden has been expelled from Pencey
for failing his exams. Hes got a couple of days before Exercise 3. Finish the sentences writing about the book
Christmas vacation starts, and he isnt eager to appear at youve read:
his house in New York where his parents and younger sis- 1) Id like to tell you about the book called _____________
ter live, before next Wednesday. So he stays at a hotel _____________________________________________.
and entertains himself with a lot of different things. For 2) The story was written in __________________________
instance, he goes to a bar where he dances with unknown _____________________________________________.
ladies; he calls his girlfriend and invites her to the movies. 3) The action takes place in __________________________
Finally, he wants to meet his sister, Phoebe, and enters his _____________________________________________.
house secretly. To his luck, his parents are out at a party, 4) The main character, ___________________, is (was) ___
so he has a chance to speak to Phoebe. Only when his _____________________________________________.
mother comes into the room, Holden hides in the closet. 5) What I really like is _____________________________
After that he makes up his mind to leave home and go _____________________________________________
to another state. But he wishes he could see Phoebe and ____________________________________________.
say good-bye to her. To his surprise, Phoebe comes to the 6) What Id like to criticize is ________________________
place of their meeting with a heavy suitcase as she wants _____________________________________________.
to go away with him. In the end, Holden changes his mind 7) I personally think the book is ______________________
and returns home. _____________________________________________.
I really enjoyed the book. You get to understand Holdens
behavior and his dream to become a catcher in the rye so Exercise 4. Write a review of the book. Use 150180
as to catch the kids in the rye. In my opinion, the problems words.
of young people nowadays are similar to those Holden had.
What I liked best was the way Holden changed during the Exercise 5. Work in pairs. Speak about the book youve
story, as in the end he vividly became a little better and got read to your partner.
to understand the aim of his life. What I didnt like was some
slang Holden used, though it was very typical for such teens By Alexander Derbaremdiker,
as Caulfield. Polytechnic College No. 8, Moscow

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FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

19
MayJune 2014

LITERATURE & BOOK ENGLISH LITERATURE


VOCABULARY QUIZ
Check up on your knowledge.
The study of literature uses many specific vocabulary words that will 1. In which century were Geoffrey Chaucers
probably be unfamiliar to your students even if they have studied litera- Canterbury Tales written?
ture in their native languages. You should take some time and review a) 14th century
with your students the following literary terms and give examples of b) 15th century
c) 16th century
each. This step is important because if your students do not have the
d) 17th century
tools, i.e. vocabulary, to talk about their ideas, they will not be able to 2. Who wrote, Where ignorance is bliss, it is
share them. folly to be wise?
a) Rudyard Kipling
Literary Terms b) William Shakespeare
Alliteration a literary technique that uses the same sound at the c) Robert Burns
d) Robert Browning
beginning of a set of words (the large laughing lion languished) 3. How many lines does a sonnet have?
Antagonist the person who comes against the protagonist or hero. a) 10
The antagonist is often the villain. (The Joker is the antagonist to Bat- b) 12
man.) c) 14
Author the writer of a book (Mark Twain was the author of The d) 16
4. In which forest did Robin Hood live, accord-
Adventures of Tom Sawyer.) ing to the legend?
Climax the emotional high point of a piece of literature where the a) Nottingham Forest
reader does not yet know the outcome b) Sherwood Forest
Genre the class of literature to which a piece belongs (includes c) Heartwood Forest
biography, romance, mystery and science fiction among others) d) Royal Forest
5. Which Bronte sister wrote Jane Eyre?
Plagiarism use of another persons words or ideas without proper
a) Anne
citation b) Charlotte
Point of view the perspective from which a story is told, usually c) Emily
either first person (I shall tell you of my grand adventure.) or third 6. What nationality was Robert Louis Steven-
person (He spoke of lands unknown and people unseen by modern son, the writer of Treasure Island?
a) Scottish
eye.)
b) English
Protagonist the main character or hero of the piece (Tom Sawyer in c) Welsh
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer) d) Irish
Resolution the completion or correction of the conflict in a story 7. Who was the author of the famous story-
Setting the time and place of a story (in The Help the setting is the book Alices Adventures in Wonderland?
Mississippi in the 1960s) a) Rudyard Kipling
b) Oscar Wilde
Symbolism using one person or thing to represent another (chaos is c) Frank Baum
often symbolized by water) d) Lewis Carroll
8. What is the title of the book, which opens with
Being a Writer the line All children, except one grew up?
write/publish literature/poetry/fiction/a book/a story/a poem/a novel/a a) Jungle Book
b) Peter Pan
review/an autobiography c) Winnie-the-Pooh
become a writer/novelist/playwright d) The Railway Children
find/have a publisher/an agent 9. What is the book Lord of the Flies by William
have a new book out Golding about?
edit/revise/proofread a book/text/manuscript a) a road trip round the USA
b) a swarm of killer flies
dedicate a book/poem to
c) a life in the space
d) schoolboys on a desert island
Plot, Character and Atmosphere 10. Which wild area is the setting of The Hound
construct/create/weave/weave something into a complex narrative of the Baskervilles?
advance/drive the plot a) Marymoor
b) Dartmoor
introduce/present the protagonist/a character
c) Yorkshire
describe/depict/portray a character (as)/(somebody as) a hero/villain d) Lancashire
create an exciting/a tense atmosphere 11. Who wrote The Importance of Being Earnest?
build/heighten the suspense/tension a) Daniel Defoe
evoke/capture the pathos of the situation b) Rudyard Kipling
convey emotion/an idea/an impression/a sense of c) Oscar Wilde
d) Roald Dahl
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

20
MayJune 2014

ENGLISH LITERATURE engage the reader


QUIZ seize/capture/grip the (readers) imagination
12. Who wrote The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll
rouse/elicit emotion/sympathy (in the reader)
and Mr. Hyde? lack imagination/emotion/structure/rhythm
a) Robert Louis Stevenson
b) Jane Austen Language, Style and Imagery
c) Agatha Christie use/employ language/imagery/humour/an image/a symbol/a metaphor/a
d) H. G. Wells
13. Who wrote A Tale of Two Cities?
device
a) Oscar Wilde use/adopt/develop a style/technique
b) Daniel Defoe be rich in/be full of symbolism
c) Mark Twain evoke images of/a sense of/a feeling of
d) Charles Dickens create/achieve an effect
14. Name the author who wrote about the For-
maintain/lighten the tone
syte family.
a) Walter Scott introduce/develop an idea/a theme
b) John Galsworthy inspire a novel/a poet/somebodys work/somebodys imagination
c) Charles Dickens
d) Agatha Christie Reading and Criticism
15. How many books are there in J. R. R. Tolk-
read an author/somebodys work/fiction/poetry/a text/a poem/a novel/a
iens Lord of the Rings?
a) 1 chapter/a passage
b) 2 review a book/a novel/somebodys work
c) 3 give something/get/have/receive a good/bad review
d) 4 be hailed (as)/be recognized as a masterpiece
16. In the book The Lord of the Rings, who or quote a phrase/line/stanza/passage/author
what is Bilbo?
a) a wizard
provoke/spark discussion/criticism
b) a dwarf study/interpret/understand a text/passage
c) a troll translate somebodys work/a text/a passage/a novel/a poem
d) a hobbit
17. Who created the famous character of Harry Books Inside and Out
Potter? Rare book: When few copies of a book are known to exist, it is called
a) J.R.R. Tolkien rare.
b) J.K. Rowling
First edition: The first printing of a book, valued by collectors because it
c) George Orwell
d) Ray Bradbury is the original version of the authors text.
18. Which is the first Harry Potter book? Autographed copy: A book that is signed by the author.
a) Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
b) Harry Potter and the Chamber Inside
of Secrets leaves: each sheet of paper is a leaf.
c) Harry Potter and the Philosophers pages: each side of a leaf is a page.
Stone endpapers: the pages between the cover and body of a book; they may
d) Harry Potter and the Order of the be plain, colored, or printed, such as with a map.
Phoenix front matter: the pages before the text (title page, etc.)
19. What is the name of the fairy in J.M. Barries back matter: the pages following the text (index, etc.)
story, Peter Pan?
a) Alice
text: the basic information, or core, of a book.
b) Tinker Bell index: a list of names or topics that are referred to in a book.
c) Dorothy bookplate: a label pasted in a book that names the owner or donor.
d) Amanda bookmark: a strip of paper that you put between the pages of a book
20. What is the name of Gulliver in Jonathan when you finish reading so that you can easily find the place again.
Swifts book, Gullivers Travels?
a) John Outside
b) Robin dust jacket: the paper cover.
c) Lilliput cover or case: the outside binding.
d) Lemuel spine: the backbone.
paperback: a book with a cover made of stiff paper or card.
KEY: 1. a; 2. b; 3. c; 4. a; 5. b; 6. a; 7. d; 8. b; 9. hardback: a book with a hard cover.
d; 10. b; 11. c; 12. a; 13. d; 14. b; 15. c; 16. d; 17.
b; 18. c; 19. b; 20. d
Source: http://busyteacher.org/
By Tatyana Makhrina Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina

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LESSON PLANS English

Beauty is a form of genius. 21 MayJune 2014

O. Wilde
Main Aim To develop reading skills: reading for detail and intensive reading so that students can analyze and discuss fictional texts;
scanning so that students can find needed information in a fictional text
Subsidiary Aims To enable learners to talk about beauty using topic vocabulary and literary words
To develop fluency in speaking
Personal Aims To develop deductive and logical abilities and the use of evidence in building arguments
To encourage extensive reading of authentic texts
To increase learners confidence in expressing their personal opinions
To personalize the topic Beauty to the students
Level Upper Intermediate
Assumed Topic vocabulary on the theme Beauty (see Opportunities, Module 4, Warm-up, key word bank)
Knowledge Familiarity with the words from the text (the previous lesson was devoted to discussing unknown words with the use of
monolingual definitive dictionaries)
Anticipated Pace of the lesson is quite unpredictable. Itll depend on how much the text will involve the students. Thats why the lesson
Problems needs extra (optional activities).
Lack of confidence in students judging literature texts
Some students might feel reserved in the presence of guests.
Interaction Class work
Patterns
Resources O. Wilde. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Extracts from chapter 2 and chapter 13. Fields of Vision, Volume 2, Macmillan online
dictionary, Oxford online dictionary
Teacher Aids Personal Laptop, scanner, ABBYY FineReader 10, Internet access
Mobile Internet access to online dictionaries
Timing 40-45 minutes
Long-Term This is the 6th lesson in the sequence of 15 lessons devoted to the theme Beauty
Planning
Teacher Elizaveta Bogdanova

Stages of the Lesson


Stage Activity Teacher Students Timing
Warm-up Revising topic vocabulary from the text The teachers asks students to explain The students explain in 5 min
in English the meaning of the phrases English expressions from
Aim: revise topic vocabulary necessary he is reading out the text which the teacher
for further discussions reads out. They may use
notes from the previous
lesson.
Controlled Answering questions to the text Reads out questions and asks Answer the questions 10 min
Speaking (checking home assignment) students individually referring to the text
Practice Based Give feedback (depending on the
on Text Analysis Aim: practice prepared speaking, focused pace of the lesson either during or at
on accuracy, and the use of evidence the end of the activity)
from the fictional text
Freer Speaking Expressing opinion Reads out questions for discussion The students 5 min
Practice Aim: practice fluency in speaking and encourages students to share express their views
their opinions
Guided Reading Reading text and answering Gives students texts which they Read the text aloud one by 20 min
comprehension questions havent seen before one
Explain the task Answer comprehension
Aims: develop scanning skill questions to the text
Develop reading for the gist
(understanding main ideas in a text with
30-35% of unknown words)
Feedback Teachers comments Praises and thanks the students, Write down assignment for 2 min
explains to them the home the next lesson
assignment
Optional Dorian Gray Syndrome Asks students about possible Guess the meaning of the
Activities meaning of DGS phrase.
Aim: practice fluency in speaking Explains the meaning of this phrase Express their ideas on the
Ask students about possible reasons subject
that can provoke this illness
English LESSON PLANS
When does he believe Dorian will He will realize it when he is old

22
MayJune 2014
realize the importance of youth?
Why does he consider beauty to
be higher than genius?

Which, in his opinion, is more


and ugly (lines 12-15).
Beauty is higher than genius
because it doesnt need to be
explained (lines 17-18).
Thought is more superficial
superficial: beauty or thought? than beauty (line 23).
Greeting What is the enemy of youth and The passing of time (line 31-
Teacher: Good afternoon, dear friends. Please, take your seats. To- beauty according to Lord Henry? 33)
day we are going to continue the conversation we started on our What are, in his opinion, the false Dorians age is marked by the
previous lesson, the conversation about beauty. ideals of the age? pursuit of worthless objectives
in a world of ignorance and
Warm-up vulgarity (lines 36-38).
Teacher: During our previous lesson we were reading and trans- What does he think Dorian New sensations (line 40)
lating a text from a well-known novel by Oscar Wilde The should always be searching for?
Picture of Dorian Gray. How, in his view, do youth and Flowers die but are reborn;
Who can tell me why Oscar Wilde is worth mentioning if we beauty differ from the elements whereas once youth and
speak about beauty? of nature he mentions in the pas- beauty are gone they never
sage (hill-flowers, clematis)? come back.
Suggested answer: because Oscar Wilde belonged to a cultural and
philosophical movement of the late nineteenth century that studied Teacher: Now, let us proceed to the analysis. Well work in the
problems of aesthetics [i:setiks]. same way.

Teacher: Well, I quite agree with you. Now, to make sure that the Analysis Question Suggested Answer
words and expressions from the text are familiar enough to you, 1. Lord Henry compares the a. physical degeneration: lines
lets do the following activity: I will say a word or a phrase from beauty of youth to the ugliness 13-15 (old and wrinkled terri-
the text and ask you to explain to us its meaning in English. of ageing. bly), lines 32-33 (time is jealous
a. Find expressions in the text roses).
where he refers to: psychological anxiety: lines 29-31
Expression Suggested Answer the physical degeneration (and then defeats), lines 33-34
to achieve eternal youth to be always young caused by ageing. (You will suffer horribly), lines 52-
to lead a life of debauchery to drink, play cards and live a way the psychological anxiety 55 (Our limbs yield to)
of life which is not acceptable caused by growing older. b. intellectual ability: lines 17-18.
moral restraits the ideas, beliefs or values that b. Find examples in the text natural phenomena: lines 18-
control you, dont let you step where he compares beauty: 20, 33
beyond particular limits to intellectual ability: lines precious metal: line 36
to depict to make an image to natural phenomena: lines
to a precious metal: lines c. lines 20-21: it makes princes
to stand the strain to be able to live in an c. Underline sentences in the of those who have it. Lines 42-
uncomfortable, tense situation
text where he speaks of the so- 43: The world belongs to you for
fake existence not real life, a life full of lies cial status endowed by youth a season.
shallow people people who cant see complexity and beauty.
and depth in anything
tedious extremely boring Free Speaking Practice
sickly aims aims that make you feel sick The teacher reads out question 2 from the text analysis and invites
because of their uselessness students to express their opinions.
worthless objectives useless ideas, aspirations, aims
exquisite extremely beautiful Question Suggested Answer
temptation the desire to do something, Focus on Lord Henry reference to other Lord Henry doesnt
especially something wrong or
people and their opinions. Does he share agree with others.
unwise
the views held by others? How would you He refers to them as
transgression an act that goes against a law, rule, describe the views expressed by Lord Hen- tedious (line 36) and
or code of conduct; an offence ry? Do you think a character such as Lord gives the impression
to be worth doing smth sufficiently good, important, or Henry could exercise a strong influence that he feels superior
interesting to be treated or regarded over a young man like Dorian? Are young to them
in the way specified people attracted by transgression?
hedonism the pursuit of pleasure
unconscious done or existing without one Feedback
realizing Teacher: Thank you very much for the work youve done. Now, lets
have a look at another text from the same novel.
Controlled Speaking Practice
Teacher: Now, as we are sure we wont get lost in the text, lets Guided Reading
proceed to the task which you had to do at home. The first part The teacher hands out text It is the face of my soul (an extract
of the task is titled Comprehension. Comprehension tasks make from chapter 13). (See the text in Appendix 2.)
sure that we understand a text correctly. So please, read a ques- Teacher: You havent seen or read this text before. Now we are
tion and give your answer. (See the text in Appendix 1.) going to do the following: we will read the text aloud, not very
quickly; as we have to understand the meaning of what is being
Comprehension Question Suggested Answer read. Then Ill give you 2 minutes to concentrate and we will
Why does Lord Henry tell Dorian because the sun will ruin his answer comprehension questions to this text.
to sit in the shade? complexion (lines 2-3) It is important to understand that there will be some words
What is the one thing worth hav- youth (lines 9-10) that you dont know. Please, dont worry and dont panic. You
ing, in his opinion? should understand the general idea of the text.
LESSON PLANS English
The students read the text one by one. When the reading is finished
the teacher explains the task.

Teacher: Now I give you two minutes to prepare answers for Com-
prehension questions.
23MayJune 2014

When the students are ready, the teacher asks them one by one. The
students answer referring to the text. give definitions to the following words: initially, self-contradictory,
valid, a clich, to reveal, unconventional, a perspective on life.
Comprehension Question Suggested Answer The teacher reads out the task and asks the students to share their
1. What does Dorian think the 1. His soul (line 2) opinions.
painting represents?
2. What is Basils reaction to 2. He is horrified at the painting Suggested answers to the workshop.
the painting? Does he immedi- and only very slowly realizes that Workshop beauty is a form of genius is high-
ately recognize the painting as he painted it (lines 7, 16-19). In the extract you have read, er, indeed, than genius (line 17).
his own work? Lord Henrys opinions often It is only shallow people who dont
3. Basils disgust manifests 3. He breaks into a sweat, and his seem to contradict the ac- judge by appearances (lines 24-25).
itself in physical symptoms. mouth, which starts to twitch, is so cepted view of things. Find The true mystery of the world is the
What are they? How does Do- dry that he cant speak. Dorian ob- examples of Lord Henrys visible, not the invisible (lines 25-
rian respond to Basils sense of serves Basil dispassionately, though paradoxical statements. 26).
repugnance? he shows some slight signs of satis-
faction at Basils discomfiture OPTIONAL ACTIVITY 3
4. What explanations does Bas- 4. He says that the dampness in Proof Reading and Peer Correction
il offer for the transformations in the room has distorted the can- Teacher: Now, let us check how attentive you are. Everyone will take
the painting? What conclusions vas (lines 42-43). He concludes two or three sentences from the text. In these sentences there will
does Basil draw about Dorians that Dorian has led a life which is be some mistakes: spelling, punctuation, grammar or style. You
life on the basis of the changes more evil than anyone could im-
have to correct these mistakes pointing out their type. You may
in the painting? agine (lines 64-66).
use the original text to make sure that your correction is right.
5. What sin does Basil think both 5.They have committed the sin of
he and Dorian have committed? pride (line 81).
Dorian Gray is a extraordinary handsome yong men.
Feedback Dorian Gary is an extraordinarily handsome young man.
Teacher: Today we have worked with two texts from a well-known Dorian can sees his own sole in the painting and throught it he real-
novel by Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray. We have ize he can acheve internal youth.
found out why this novelist is worth mentioning in the topic Dorian can see his own soul in the painting and through it he real-
beauty. Then, we read two texts from the novel. Could you ex- izes he can achieve eternal youth.
plain why these two particular texts were chosen? What can it matter cry Dorian Gray laufing as he set down on the
sit at the end of garden.
Suggested answer: The first text introduces the philosophy of he- What can it matter? cried Dorian Gray, laughing, as he sat down
donism and worshipping beauty; whereas the second text shows the on the seat at the end of the garden.
consequences of this philosophy.
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY 4
Teacher: Thank you very much for the work youve done today. Categorizing
For next time, please answer the analysis questions to the text Teacher: Make a table of two columns. Place the following words
into two groups according to their connotations, positive or
and make sure you can explain in English the meaning of all
negative. There is one word that is ambiguous.
unknown words. Thank you for the lesson and have a nice day.
horrific debauchery fake marvelous divine shallow
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY 1
bitter sallow tedious ignorant vulgar common wither
Free Speaking Practice sluggish exquisite
Teacher: Have you ever heard about Dorian Gray Syndrome? What
might it be about? OPTIONAL ACTIVITY 5
Well, thats a medical term. It describes a mental disorder when Guessing Words from Their Origins
a person is obsessed with the idea of staying young. What can
the symptoms of this disorder? Word Origin
sovereignty Middle English: from Old French soverain,
Suggested answers: heavy use of anti-aging cosmetics, taking plas- ('sOvrItI) based on Latin super above. The change in the
tic surgery. ending was due to association with reign
superficial Origin: mid 16th century: from Latin, from super-
Teacher: What, in your opinion, can cause this disorder? above + facies face
The answers are open. triumph late Middle English: from Old French triumphe
('traIAmf) (noun), from Latin triump(h)us, probably from
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY 2 Greek thriambos hymn to Bacchus.
Paradoxes content late Middle English: via Old French from Latin
Teacher: Well done. Now, as weve got some time left, let us look contentus satisfied
at the tasks from the writers workshop. Did you find these sallow ('sxlqu) Old English salo dusky, of Germanic origin;
tasks difficult? What was difficult, if anything? Who wants to
related to Old Norse s lr yellow, from a base
read aloud? meaning dirty

A student reads aloud the definition of paradox. The teacher makes By Elizaveta Bogdanova
sure that the students understand all the words by asking them to See more in additional materials.
English LESSON PLANS

24
MayJune 2014

7-
:
: ; I.
. Teacher: Hi, boys and girls! Im glad to see you. How is it
: going? Is everything OK?
, , , - Our lesson is dedicated to the greatest American humor-
. ist, novelist, and well-known writer Mark Twain.
: People all over the world cant help but admire his great
, humor. He was known as a great humorist. One quotation
; by M.Twain is, Humor is the great thing, the saving thing.
, - The minute it crops up, all our irritations and resentments
. slip away and a sunny spirit takes their place.
: , Power
Point, , - II.
M. , - 1. Whose portrait is it?
. It is Mark Twains portrait.
: 2. What is he?
1. Kindness quote He is a writer.
Kindness is a language which the deaf can hear and the 3. What language did he speak?
blind can see. He spoke American English.
2. Motivation quote 4. What was his real name?
Really great people make you feel that you, too, can be- Samuel Clemens.
come great. 5. M.Twain was a great American writer, wasnt he?
3. Achievements quote Yes, he was.
It is easier to stay out than get out.
4. Mankind quote III.
Everyone is a moon, and has a dark side which he never 1. Missouri 4. irritation 7. resentment
shows to anybody. 2. cub pilot 5. Mississippi River 6. masterpiece
5. Accident quote 3. steamboat 8. lawyer 9. to crop up
Accident is the name of the greatest of all inventors.
6. Needs quote IV.
All you need in this life is ignorance and confidence, and
then success is sure. Pupil 1: Mark Twain, whose real name was Samuel Clem-
ens, was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Mis-
souri. His parents, John and Jane Clemens, moved their
family to Hannibal. His father was a lawyer. When Sam-
uel was 11 years old, his father died. The shock changed
him, and he was a different boy. He went to work in a
printing shop.
Pupil 2: Once, he wrote funny stories for the newspapers.
Sam changed many jobs and visited many places in the
USA. At the age of 20 he found a job on a ship travelling
up and down the Mississippi. In 1857, Clemens began
working as a cub pilot on Mississippi River steamboats
and received his steamboat pilot license in 1859.
Pupil 3: In 1863, Samuel Clemens began using the pen name
Mark Twain. The name was a phrase used on the steam-
boats of the Mississippi River which meant two fathoms
deep. In 1868, Twain became engaged to Olivia Lang-
don, and in 1870 they married in Elmira, New York. They
lived in Buffalo, New York, where Clemens worked as an
editor and writer for the Buffalo Express.
His wife Olivia gave birth to a son, Langdon, and three
daughters: Suzy, Clara, and Jean. Clemens marriage last-
http://joiedevivrefilm.com ed 34 years.
LESSON PLANS English

25MayJune 2014

Short Stories
About Barbers
Boons of Life
Eves Diary
The Curious Dream
A Fine Old Man
https://www.marktwainhouse.org A True Story

Pupil 4: In 1904, the deaths of Olivia and Jean deepened Non-Fiction


Twains gloom. In 1909, Twain was quoted as saying: I Christian Science
came in with Halleys Comet in 1835. Its coming again Life on the Mississippi
next year and I expect to go out with it. It will be the great The Letters of M. Twain
disappointment of my life if I dont go out with Halleys Following the Equator
Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: None here are
these two unaccountable freaks: they came in together Essays
and they must go out together. The Death of Jean
Pupil 5: Mark Twain died of a heart attack on April 21, Is Shakespeare Dead?
1910. He was buried in his wifes family plot in Elmira, What is Man?
The Bee
New York.
Concerning Tobacco
V.
VIII.
Teacher: You have mentioned the main facts of Mark
Teacher: A cinquain is a five-line poem that describes a
Twains life. Now, Id like you to agree or disagree with
noun (person, place, or thing). It is a fun and easy way to
some statements about Twains life.
introduce children to poetry, but all ages can enjoy using
this form.
1. Mark Twain was born in the 18th century. No, it is not true.
He was born in the 19th century.
Line 1. One word title, a noun (a person, place, or thing).
2. His father was a writer. Its not true. His father was a law-
Line 2. Two adjectives (words that describe the thing).
yer.
Line 3. Three verbs (words that tell what your noun does).
3. When Samuel was a boy, he dreamed of becoming a sail-
Line 4. A phrase (or sentence about the noun).
or. Its right.
Line 5. A synonym for your title, another noun (another
4. Mark Twain had two daughters. No, it isnt true. He had
word for your title, describing your noun).
three daughters: Suzy, Clara, and Jean.
5. In 1876, Mark Twain published his first novel, The Adven-
Teacher: Now, we are going to write our own poem about
tures of Huckleberry Finn. No, it isnt right. He published
famous writer Mark Twain. This type of poem is called a
his first novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
cinquain.
6. His novels are known only in the USA. No, it is not right.
Children and grown-ups all over the world know these
Cinquain
two novels. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is con-
Mark Twain
sidered to be Twains masterpiece.
Critical, satirical
Write, work, and publish
VI. Relaxing ( )
The father of American literature
Writer
VII.
Teacher: Mark Twain was one of the greatest American hu-
IX. .
morists and short story writers. American satirical and
Teacher: Dear friends, our lesson is over. Thank you for
critical literature began with Mark Twain. His works are
the lesson. You have learnt a lot of things about M.
divided into four categories.
Twains family, his works, and his birthplace.
I think it was very interesting. Did you like our lesson?
Novels:
What did you like the most? You will get a good mark
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn today. Good bye!
Mysterious Stranger
The Prince and the Pauper By Khaver Mustaphaeva,
The Innocent Abroad School No. 858, Moscow

VK.COM/CREATE_YOUR_ENGLISH


. 77 000349, . 027477 15.09.2010



( )

2014/15

108
3990 .

72
3390 .

edu.1september.ru

, :
,
www.1september.ru
English

Books
TOPICAL
TOPICAL JOURNEY
JOURNEY

27
in Our Life
MayJune 2014

It is what you read when you dont have to that




determines what you will be when you If one cannot enjoy
cant help it.
Oscar Wilde
reading a book over and
over again, there is no use
Do not read, as children do, to amuse yourself, in reading it at all.
or like the ambitious, for the purpose of instruc-
tion. No, read in order to live. Oscar Wilde
Gustave Flaubert

To learn to read is to light a fire; every syllable


that is spelled out is a spark.
Victor Hugo
Let us read, and let us dance; these two amuse-
ments will never do any harm to the world.
Voltaire

Not all readers are leaders,


but all leaders are readers.
Harry S. Truman

I am a part of everything that I have read.


Theodore Roosevelt

The person who deserves most pity


is a lonesome one on a rainy day who
doesnt know how to read.
Benjamin Franklin

Reading brings us unknown friends.


TOPICAL JOURNEY
Honor de Balzac Speaking on Reading .............................28
Books and Reading
The more that you read, the more things
you will know. The more that you learn, Conversational Questions .......................28
the more places youll go. History of Book .....................................30
Dr. Seuss
Book Celebrations .................................30
He that loves reading has everything Facts about Books..................................32
within his reach.
William Godwin Book Quotes .........................................32
Poems about Books ............................... 33
If you dont like to read, Popular Books .......................................34
you havent found the right book.
J.K. Rowling Great Characters ................................... 35
Guided Reading Questions .................... 35
To acquire the habit of reading is to construct for
yourself a refuge from almost all the miseries of life. Libraries ...............................................36
W. Somerset Maugham Fairy Tales.............................................38
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

28
MayJune 2014
Speaking on
Books and Reading PROVERBS
Conversation Questions
Do you enjoy reading? BOOKS
Do you read much? A book holds a house of gold. (China)
Do you have a favourite book? A book is like a garden carried in the pocket. (China)
What's your favourite book? It is better to be entirely without a book than to believe it entirely. (China)
What do you like reading most? (books, mag-
Many books do not use up words; many words do not use up thoughts. (China)
azines, comics, e-books)
Where do like reading most? (at home, at Scholars talk books; butchers talk pigs. (China)
school, on public transport) If you want to be acquainted with the past and the present, you must read five cart-
Why do people read? (for information, for fun, loads of books. (China)
to while away the time) One is happy when one has books; but happier still when one has no need of them.
When did you begin to read? (China)
Who taught you to read? To read a book for the first time is to make the acquaintance of a new friend; to read
What was your favourite book in your child- it a second time is to meet an old one. (China)
hood?
The head is older than the book. (Belgium)
At what age did you begin to read novels?
What types of books do you know? Other peoples books are difficult to read. (Netherlands)
What kinds of books do you like? There is no worse robber than a bad book. (Italy)
What kinds of books do children like to Teachers die, but books live on. (Netherlands)
read? You cant judge a book by its cover. (U.S.)
What is your favourite genre of books? It is not healthy to swallow books without chewing. (Germany)
Who is your favourite author?
Who is your favourite character? READING AND WRITING
Do you read classic books?
Reading is the best way to learn. (Russia)
Do you prefer fiction or non-fiction?
Do you like to read detective stories? After three days without reading, talk becomes flavourless. (China)
What is your attitude to popular science fic- Other peoples books are difficult to read. (Netherlands)
tion? Those who read many epitaphs lose their memory. (Latin)
Do you prefer reading books by foreign or The wise read a letter backwards. (Germany)
Russian writers? By writing we learn to write. (France)
In what language do you read more: Russian What one writes remains. (Netherlands)
or English? Wise silence has never been written down. (Italy)
Have you ever tried to read a book in Eng-
Good scribes are not those who write well, but who erase well. (Russia)
lish?
How many books have you read in English? Think much, say little, write less. (France)
What English writers do you know? Learn to handle a writing-brush, and youll never handle a begging-bowl. (China)
Why is it exciting to read different kinds of Those who can read and write have four eyes. (Albania)
books? A love-letter sometimes costs more than a three-cent stamp. (U.S.)
Do you prefer to read a book or to watch a The hearts letter is read in the eyes. (England)
film? Never argue with someone who buys ink by the barrel. (China)
Do you ever read film reviews? The best memory is not so firm as faded ink. (China)
Do you watch the movie that came from a
In our alphabet, B comes after A. (U.S.)
book?
Most people say the book is better than the One can study calligraphy at eighty. (Japan)
movie. Is this true for you? W
Where
herre hands are needed
re nnee
eede words
dedd woor s aand letters are useless. (Germany)
word
Ideas start with I. (U.S.)
(U.S.)
(U
W
When
henn in
n aanger,
nger
ng er, sa
say
ayy tthe
hee alph
alphab
alphabet.
abeet. (U.S.)

LITERATURE
L
LIITER RATU URE
LLife
ifee w
if without
ithou
out literature is de death.
eat
ath.h (Latin)
(L
IItt is nnot
ot good to be th tthee poetet ooff a vvillage. (Germany)
TThere
herre dies a poet iin
he n everyo
everyone.
onee. (England)
(E
E
P oetss are fatherss ooff li
oe
Poets llies.
es. (L
Lat
atin)
(Latin)
PPoets
oetss and pigs are ap appreciated
ppr
prec
eciaateed oonly
n after their death. (Italy)
SSlowly
lowlly but su
lo surely
sure ly tthe
rely he eexcexcrement
xcreeme
ment nt of foreign poets will come to your village. (Mali)
The ddog og mmay
ay be wonderful pros prose,
se but only the cat is poetry. (France)
OOne ne aactor cannot
ctor cca
ctor annot make a play.
anno (U.S.)
y (UU
T hoose that begi
Those ginn the play m
begin ust co
must continue it. (Turkey)
TThose
hose
ho see w ho hhave ffree
who seats
reee ssea play hiss first. (China)
e ts aatt a pl

Sources:
Sou
ource
ou rces:
rce s: www.http://wordlily.com
ww .http://wordlily.com
www ht
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

n Reading 29
MayJune 2014

BOOKS & READING IDIOMS


read someone like a book to be able to work out someones
intentions even if he is lying
Sam says he doesnt like Sally but I know he does, really. I can
read him like a book.
read up on something to research a topic
I have a presentation on communication strategies next week so
I need to read up on it beforehand.
read between the lines to find a hidden meaning in something
At first, this story looks like its about a farm, but if you read between the lines, youll Have you ever read a book and then watched
find that its about politics. the movie?
read someones mind to know what a person is thinking Which is better, the book or the movie?
What a great gift! I was going to buy this CD next week. You must have read my mind. How often do you go to the library?
read something (from) cover to cover to read something from the beginning to How do you choose the books you are going
the end to read?
What factors are important to you when
The newspaper comes before breakfast and my husband reads it cover to cover while
choosing a book to read? (reviews, the front
hes eating. cover, a recommendation from a friend)
read oneself to sleep to read something in preparation for falling asleep Is there a book that you have read more than
I need a really dull book so I can read myself to sleep. once?
lip-read somebody to understand what somebody is saying by watching the way their What was the title? How many times did you
lips move read it?
I couldnt hear her but I could read her lips. Is there a book you just couldn't finish?
take it as read (British and Australian) to accept that something is true without making What is the longest book you have ever
sure that it is (often + that ) read?
We just took it as read that we were invited. How long did it take you to read it?
have your head in a book to be deeply involved in what you are reading What is the funniest book you have ever
read?
hit the books/crack the books to study very hard
How many books have you read in your life?
If you want a scholarship, youd better start hitting the books now.
How many hours do you spend reading in a
be in somebodys good/bad books used to say that somebody is pleased/annoyed with you
week?
Im in her good books at the moment because I cleared up the kitchen. What is your favourite time of day for read-
bring somebody to book (for something) (formal, especially British English) to pun- ing?
ish somebody for doing something wrong and make them explain their behavior Where is your favourite place to read?
We will ensure that people who commit fraud are brought to book through the courts. Do you listen to music while you read?
by the book following rules and instructions in a very strict way Do you often read book before go to bed?
She always does everything by the book. Who are the great authors in your language?
do something/play by the book to follow all the rules, or use the accepted methods Who is the most famous writer from your
His lawyers dont always play by the book country?
in my book in my opinion, used when you are giving your opinion Why do you think the Harry Potter books are
Shes never lied to me, and in my book that counts for a lot. so popular?
(be) on somebodys books (to be) on an organizations list, for example of people who Do you think you could write a novel? Why or
are available for a particular type of work why not?
We have very few nurses on our books at the moment. Most of the houses on our books Do you agree that young people do not read
are in the north of the city. much these days?
close the book on something to stop doing something because you no longer believe Why doesnt everybody enjoy reading?
you will be successful or will find a solution How important are books to you?
The police have closed the book on the case (= they have stopped trying to solve it). What would life be like without books?
a closed book something that you know nothing about Do you prefer paperbacks or hardbacks?
What happens inside computers is a closed book to most people who use them every Do you prefer to keep the books you read?
day. Do you ever read the last page of a book be-
cook the books/fiddle the books to change facts or figures dishonestly or illegally fore you start reading it?
His accountant had been cooking the books for years. How often do you want the story in a book to
the history books the record of great achievements in history never end?
She has earned her place in the history books. What do you think of the idea of E-books?
dont judge a book by its cover used to say that you should not form an opinion about What are the advantages and disadvantages
of E-books?
somebody/something from their appearance only
Where do you usually buy books?
I think she looks sweet, but you cant judge a book by its cover.
Do you buy books at a bookstore or at an on-
take a leaf from/out of somebodys book to copy somebodys behaviour and do things
line bookstore?
in the same way that they do, because they are successful
Do you spend a long time browsing in book-
an open book a person or thing that is open and honest shops?
suit your/somebodys book (British English, informal) to be convenient or useful for Do you think the Internet will make books dis-
you/somebody appear?
Well, if youre honest and hard-working, that suits our book. Do you think that books and libraries may dis-
every trick in the book every available method, whether it is honest or not appear in the future?
Hell try every trick in the book to stop you from winning. April 23rd is World Book Day in many coun-
tries. Do you celebrate World Book Day
See more in additional materials. Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina where you live?
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

30
MayJune 2014

Book Celeb
HISTORY OF BOOKS
The book is also linked to the desire of humans
to create lasting records. Stones could be the most
ancient form of writing, but wood would be the first WORLD BOOK DAY
medium to take the guise of a book. The words A book is a garden kept in a pocket. A book always proves to be the best friend of
biblos and liber first meant fibre inside of a tree. mankind. World Book and Copyright Day is a globally celebrated event that aims to
In Chinese, the character that means book is an
promote the pure joy of books and cultivate the habit of reading. UNESCO declared
image of a tablet of bamboo.
Clay tablets were used in Mesopotamia in 23rd April as the day of celebration of knowledge sharing through books. Its observed
the 3rd millennium BC. The calamus, an instru- in over 100 countries around the world and its purpose is to encourage reading and a
ment in the form of a triangle, was used to make love of books in children.
characters in moist clay. The tablets were fired World Book Day is organized by UNESCO every year to offer a literal feast for
to dry them out. At Nineveh, 22,000 tablets were ardent book lovers across the world. The official date set for celebrations in 2014 is
found, dating from the 7th century BC; this was April 24, on which authors, readers, critics, publishers, and editors congregate at a
the archive and library of the kings of Assyria, single place to make the event a grand success. Alternatively referred to as Copyright
who had workshops of copyists and conserva-
Day and International Book Day, this is one of the global events that is held in high
tionists at their disposal. This presupposes a
degree of organization with respect to books, esteem all over the world. Promoting copyright values is one of the actual objectives
consideration given to conservation, classifica- behind organizing such a unique festival. As a matter of fact, it is celebrated on the first
tion, etc. Tablets were used right up until the 19th Thursday of March in the UK every year.
century in various parts of the world, including
Germany, Chile, and the Saharan Desert.
After extracting the marrow from the stems, a The History Behind World Book Day
series of steps (humidification, pressing, drying, Book lovers observed an official event for the first time on 23 April, 1995, to address
gluing, and cutting), produced media of variable the problems of plagiarism and copyrights in a serious manner. Numerous people are
quality, the best being used for sacred writing. known to attend the events associated with this special day with 6 March, 2014, being
In Ancient Egypt, papyrus was used for writ-
dedicated exclusively for children. The day is observed with a lot of excitement in
ing maybe as early as from First Dynasty, but
first evidence is from the account books of King
European countries like the UK and Ireland to the promote good reading habits among
Neferirkare Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty (about kids. Exclusive packs are supplied to schools across the world as well in order to ensure
2400 BC). A calamus, the stem of a reed sharp- that children get to read what they want.
ened to a point, or bird feathers were used for Madrid was the first city to be proclaimed World Book Capital on the sixth World
writing. The script of Egyptian scribes was called Book and Copyright Day.
hieratic, or sacredotal writing; it is not hiero-
glyphic, but a simplified form more adapted to
manuscript writing (hieroglyphs usually being Events for Book Lovers on World Book Day
engraved or painted). National Book Tokens Limited assumes the responsibility of passing on tokens
Papyrus books were in the form of a scroll of for which books can be exchanged. Around 14 million children under eighteen are
several sheets pasted together, for a total length
known to benefit extensively in this regard. Such tokens can be redeemed at any
of up to 10 meters or even more. Some books,
such as the history of the reign of Ramses III, local book center for eight books of personal choice. Perhaps, it is even possible to
were over 40 meters long. Books rolled out hori- pick your favorite book based upon a specific character, author or theme that has
zontally; the text occupied one side, and was mesmerized you over the years. Valuable books from celebrity authors can be easily
divided into columns. The title was indicated by accessed. A short story writing competition is organized with the goal of promoting
a label attached to the cylinder containing the the practice of reading and writing amongst the children, young adults, and adults
book. Many papyrus texts come from tombs, of the city.
where prayers and sacred texts were deposited
(such as the Book of the Dead, from the early
2nd millennium BC). World Book Day Grand Celebrations Across the Globe
Other countries in Europe are actively involved in spreading knowledge about
Writing on bone, shells, wood and silk ex-
isted in China long before the 2nd century BC. the value of books as well. Booksellers in Spain are actively involved in publicizing
Paper was invented in China around the 1st books since 1923 through which readers from different backgrounds are able to ben-
century AD. The discovery of the process using efit. The event is marked as a perfect tribute to celebrate author Miguel de Cervantes
the bark of the blackberry bush is attributed to who passed away on this exact day. However, it was because of the earnest efforts of
Tsai Louen, but it may be older. Texts were re- UNESCO that the official World Book Day has been celebrated since 1995 in order
produced by woodblock printing; the diffusion of to observe the birth and death of William Shakespeare. April 23, the anniversary of
Buddhist texts was a main impetus to large-scale Shakespeares death was ultimately chosen.
production. The format of the book evolved with
Several developing countries also observe World Book Day with local flavor.
intermediate stages of scrolls folded concerti-
na-style, scrolls bound at one edge (butterfly Children are given the utmost importance, as they get to read exactly what they
books) and so on. want. Publishers and authors too are known to campaign actively for the Copyright
Day to bring up the issues commonly faced by them. With the availability of social
The first printing of books started in China media, the event has already been popularized to a great extent. Understanding the
and was during the Tang Dynasty (618907), importance of reading books and treasuring details is what avid readers are bound
but exactly when is not known. The oldest extant to receive.
printed book is a Tang Dynasty work of the Dia-
mond Sutra and dates back to 868. Sources: www.festivalsofindia.in; www.ibby.org
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

31
ebrations MayJune 2014

The theme of the 2008 International Chil-


INTERNATIONAL CHILDRENS BOOK DAY drens Book Day, which was sponsored by the
International Childrens Book Day (ICBD) has been celebrated annually since 1967 Thailand IBBY National Section, was Books En-
to inspire a love of reading and to call attention to childrens books. Hosted by the lighten: Knowledge Delights.
International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY), it takes place each year on or The 2009 international sponsor was the
around Hans Christian Andersens birthday, April 2. Egyptian Section of IBBY, and the theme was I
Often, schools and libraries hold events in conjunction with International Childrens am the World.
Book Day. The theme of the 2010 International Chil-
drens Book Day, which was sponsored by IBBY
Each year, a different National Section of IBBY volunteers to sponsor ICBD and
Spain, was A book is waiting for you, find it!
chooses an author to write a message to the children of the world and an illustrator to The theme of ICBD 2011, which was spon-
design a poster. sored by IBBY Estonia, was The book remem-
ICBD celebrations are held across the world and include guest appearances by fa- bers.
mous authors and illustrators, writing competitions, and book awards. It is a busy day IBBY Mexico was the 2012 sponsor of Inter-
for school and public libraries. ICBD also aims to promote international understanding national Childrens Book Day. The 2012 theme
through childrens books, to increase childrens access to books, and to encourage the was Once upon a time, there was a story that
publication of better quality childrens books. the whole world told.
In 2013, the celebration was led by the USA,
Activities include writing competitions, announcements of book awards and events
with the theme Bookjoy around the world.
with authors of childrens literature. In 2014, the host is Ireland and their chosen
Childrens literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, and poems that theme is Imagine Nations Through Story.
are enjoyed by and targeted primarily towards children. Modern childrens literature is
classified in two different ways by genre or by the intended age of the reader. The late International Childrens Book Day Posters:
nineteenth and early twentieth century became known as the Golden Age of Childrens
Literature with the publication of many books acknowledged today as classics.
This year Ireland is hosting International Childrens Book Day.

LETTER TO THE CHILDREN OF THE WORLD


Readers often ask writers how it is that they write their stories where do the ideas
come from? From my imagination, the writer answers. Ah, yes, readers might say. But
where is your imagination, and what is it made of, and has everyone got one?
Well, says the writer, it is in my head, of course, and it is made of pictures and words
and memories and traces of other stories and words and fragments of things and melo-
dies and thoughts and faces and monsters and shapes and words and movements and
words and waves and arabesques and landscapes and words and perfumes and feelings
and colours and rhymes and little clicks and whooshes and tastes and bursts of energy
and riddles and breezes and words. And it is all swirling around in there and singing and
kaleidoscoping and floating and sitting and thinking and scratching its head.
Of course everyone has an imagination: otherwise we wouldnt be able to dream.
Not everyones imagination has the same stuff in it, though. Cooks imaginations
probably have mostly taste in them, and artists imaginations mostly colours and
shapes. Writers imaginations, though, are mostly full of words.
And for readers of and listeners to stories, their imaginations run on words too.
The writers imagination works and spins and shapes ideas and sounds and voices
and characters and events into a story, and the story is made of nothing but words,
battalions of squiggles marching across the pages. Then along comes a reader and
the squiggles come to life. They stay on the page, they still look like battalions, but
they are also romping about in the readers imagination, and the reader is now shap-
ing and spinning the words so that the story runs now inside his or her head, as it
once did in the head of the writer.
That is why the reader is just as important to the story as the writer. There is only
one writer for each story, but there are hundreds or thousands or maybe even millions
of readers, in the writers own language, or perhaps even translated into many lan-
guages. Without the writer the story would never be born; but without all the thousands
of readers around the world, the story would not get to live all the lives it can live.
Every reader of a story has something in common with every other reader of that
story. Separately, and yet in a way also together, they have re-created the writers
story in their own imagination: an act that is both private and public, individual and
communal, intimate and international. It may well be what humans do best.
Keep reading!

Siobhn Parkinson
Author, editor, translator and former Childrens Laureate of Ireland

Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina


English TOPICAL JOURNEY

32
MayJune 2014 Facts abou
BOOK QUOTES
The books that the world calls immoral are books
that show the world its own shame. Paper was invented in China around 105 A.D., by the eunuch Tsai Lun.
Oscar Wilde The Bible contains 3,566,480 letters, or 810,697 words.
There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral
book. Books are well written, or badly written. The Gutenberg Bible was the first printed book in the world in 1456.
That is all.
Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray The Bible is the worlds most popular and sold book ever 6, 5 billion copies.
There are books to read, books to reread, and
books not to read at all. More than two and a half billion Bibles have been made. If you put them on a long
Oscar Wilde bookshelf and started driving along the shelf at 55 mph, you would have to drive 40
Classic a book which people praise and dont hours per week for over four months to get to the end. All these Bibles would fill the
read. New York public library 467 and one-half times.
Mark Twain
You can never get a cup of tea large enough or a One out of every eight letters you read is the letter e.
book long enough to suit me. In 1939 an author named Ernest Vincent wrote a 50,000 word novel called Gadsby.
C.S. Lewis
No book is really worth reading at the age of ten The only thing unusual about the novel is that there is not a single letter e in the
which is not equally and often far more worth whole thing.
reading at the age of fifty and beyond.
C.S. Lewis There have been over 20,000 books written about the game of Chess.
Some books should be tasted, some devoured, Perhaps the most uninteresting book ever written is the calculation of pi to two mil-
but only a few should be chewed and digested
thoroughly. lion places, in 800 pages. Just think of the TV special that could be made from this
Francis Bacon script.
The worst thing about new books is that they
keep us from reading the old ones. In the book, Les Miserables by Victor Hugo is one sentence that is 823 words long.
Joseph Joubert When Victor Hugo wrote to his editor inquiring about their opinion of the manu-
All I have learned, I learned from books. script, he wrote, ? They answered, !
Abraham Lincoln
I kept always two books in my pocket, one to If you stretched out all the shelves in the New York Public Library, they would
read, one to write in. extend eighty miles. The books most often requested at this library are about drugs,
Robert Louis Stevenson witchcraft, astrology and Shakespeare.
Often on a wet day I begin counting up; what Ive
read and what I havent read. Interestingly, William Shakespeare invented the word hurry.
Virginia Woolf
A writer only begins a book. A reader finishes it. Leo Tolstoy wrote a large book called War and Peace before computers and copying
Samuel Johnson machines. His wife had to copy his manuscript by hand seven times.
I think its the books that you read when youre
young that live with you forever. The first published book ever written on a typewriter was The Adventures of Tom
J.K. Rowling Sawyer. Mark Twain used a Remington in 1875.
I would sooner read a time-table or a catalogue
than nothing at all. It took Noah Webster 36 years to write his first dictionary.
W. Somerset Maugham Jonathan Swift wrote a classic book called Gullivers Travels that borders on science
A good book has no ending.
R.D. Cumming fiction. It was written before science fiction was what you called such books. In this
Choose an author as you choose a friend. book he wrote about two moons circling Mars. He described their size and speed of
Wentworth Dillon orbit. He did this one hundred years before they were described by astronomers.
A good book is the best of friend, the same today
and forever. The man who wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories, Arthur Conan Doyle, was a profes-
Martin Tupper sional ophthalmologist, an eye doctor. Because in his time specialty medical prac-
All books are divisible into two classes, the books tices were hard to build and didnt pay well, he had to take up writing to make ends
of the hour and the books of all time.
John Ruskin
meet.
A good book is the best of friends. Charles Dickens had to be facing north before he could write a word.
English Proverb
Your library is your portrait. Agatha Christie is known throughout the world as the Queen of Crime. The Guin-
Holbrook Jackson ness Book of Records cites her as the second best-selling author of all time, after
No furniture so charming as books. William Shakespeare.
Sydney Smith
Books are lighthouses erected in the great sea A.A. Milnes beloved, simple bear Winnie the Pooh was named after Manitobas
of time. capital city, Winnipeg, and that there was indeed a real bear a black bear from
Edwin P. Whipple
Canada who ended up at a zoo in London, England who went by that name.
The name Wendy was made up for the book Peter Pan. There was never a recorded
Wendy before.
J.K.Rowling was the first person to become a billionaire by writing books.
The main library at Indiana University sinks over an inch every year because when it
was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would
occupy the building.
Abibliophobia is the fear of running out of things to read.
People in Iceland read more books per capita than any other country.

Sources: http://azweird.com; http://booksandbrews.co.uk


TOPICAL JOURNEY English

out Books 33MayJune 2014

DID YOU KNOW? POEMS ABOUT BOOKS


The largest medieval manuscript in existence is The Codex Gigas, created by a ODE TO THE BOOK
single scribe in the early 13th century. It is sometimes called The Devils Bible A book begins as abstract
because of a large unexplained picture of him. Lavishly illustrated, just the writing Marks upon a page
alone, not counting the illustrations, would have taken five years of constant writing And then makes the mind
to complete. Its sovereign stage.
The largest book in the world is The Klencke What you find within
Atlas, 1.75 meters long and 1.90 meters Depends on your latent light;
wide. It is so heavy it needs six people to A books power is the mirror
Of your mental might.
lift it and another two to open it. Johan
Maurits of Nassau made The Klencke At- A mirror wherein the world dreams.
The freest country. The only place
las, which Amsterdam merchant Johannes
With an open border
Klencke apparently presented to Charles II And infinite interior space.
of England upon the Kings restoration to
This miraculous touch from heart to eye,
the throne in 1660. The book is a collection This binding of love that can make us whole,
of 37 printed wall maps encapsulating all A good book may be the best
the geographic and historical knowledge of Surviving aspect of our living soul.
the time. All the maps are either unique or one of only a few copies. By Ben Okri
The most expensive book in the world has only 13 pages, but it is worth about 153
million euros. The title of the book is The Task, written by Tomas Alexander Hart- READ TO ME
mann. The author explained that its value stands in its content, the book offering Read to me riddles and read to me rhymes
answers to some fundamental questions of humankind in less than three hundred Read to me stories of magical times
sentences: Where do we come from? Where are we going? What is the real task we Read to me tales about castles and kings
still have to take on? The book was seen in 2009 at the Dubai Art Fair, but it will Read to me stories of fabulous things
Read to me pirates and read to me knights
never be exhibited again at the authors demand. Read to me dragons and dragon-book fights
The weirdest book in the world is indeed a strange object, perhaps unknown. The Read to me spaceships and cowboys and then
book Cent mille milliards de pomes (One hundred million million poems) was writ- When you are finished- please read them again.
ten in 1961 by the French poet Raymond Queneau. It has only 10 pages with 14 lines By Jane Yolen
on each page. Its curiosity lies in the fact that every single page is cut into strips
containing a sonnet. These can be read by combining fragments at your will. All ten LOOK IN A BOOK
sonnets have the same rhyme scheme and employ the same rhyme sounds. There- Look
fore, any line from a sonnet can be combined with any from the other nine, giving in a book
and you will see
1014 (= 100,000,000,000,000) different poems. Reading all the possible variants words
would require a lot of time, therefore some people see it as also being the longest and magic
book in the world. and mystery.
The longest online novel, on the other hand, is Marienbad my love, written by Mark
Look
Leach and published in 1998. The author started writing the 17 million word novel
in a book
in 1980, telling the story of a journalist who becomes a movie director convinced and you will find
that after he films a new version of the French New Wave classic, Last year at sense
Marienbad (1961), the end of the world would come. You can read the novel will and nonsense
www.marienbadmylove.com. of every kind.
One of the most controversial books of all time is Lolita, by Vladimir Nabokov. It Look
was a subject of controversy right from its publication in 1955, and its controversial in a book
nature has followed it ever since. It was published in France, but it was banned there and you will know
and in other countries such as the United Kingdom, South Africa, Argentina, and all
the things
New Zealand. However, it seems that in America the book enjoyed a big success that can help you grow.
selling 100,000 copies in the first three weeks. The novel is an exploration inside the
By Ivy O. Eastwick
mind of Humbert Humbert, who narrates his life and obsession for nymphets like the
12-year-old Dolores Haze.
GOOD BOOKS, GOOD TIMES
The most famous bookshop in the world Good books, good times
is called Shakespeare and Company. Even Good stories
though it is situated on Bucherie Street, in Good rhymes
Paris, France, this emblematic bookshop Good beginnings
Good ends
became famous because of its numerous Good people
visitors and tourists from around the world. Good friends
It was opened in 1919, on Dupuytren Good fiction
Street, but it was closed in 1941, after the Good facts
Good adventures
German occupation. The owner, Sylvia
Good acts
Beach (1887-1962), is known around the Good stories
world as the publisher of the famous novel Good rhymes
Ulysses by James Joyce. GOOD books
GOOD times.
Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina By Lee Bennett Hopkins
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

34
MayJune 2014 Popular Books
MOST POPULAR KIDS BOOKS IN ENGLAND
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) compiled a list of the most popular novels
in England.
Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. Alice falls down a rabbit hole
and finds herself in Wonderland. Her odd encounters with such characters as the
White Rabbit and the Queen of Hearts have enchanted readers since 1865.
Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery. The Cuthberts of Prince Ed-
ward Island planned to adopt a boy orphan, but Anne Shirley arrived instead. Red-
headed, imaginative and mischievous, Anne provides the family with a dose of daily
adventure. The first installment of a series of eight books.
The BFG by Roald Dahl. Although most children are terrified of giants and their
wicked ways, Sophie has nothing to worry about when shes abducted by the BFG.
The Big Friendly Giant blows happy dreams through childrens windows.
Black Beauty by Anna Sewell. This classic, told from the perspective of the horse,
follows Black Beauty as it matures from a young colt into an overworked cab horse.
The story also teaches lessons about humane animal treatment.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl. After five children find a golden
ticket in their chocolate bars, theyre treated to a private tour of Willy Wonkas
famous candy factory. Charlie Bucket, the most decent of the lot, will never be the
same after the adventure.
Double Act by Jacqueline Wilson. Identical twins cope with the death of their moth-
er, their fathers new girlfriend, a new town and a new school. In addition, the twins
begin to form their identities as individuals.
Goodnight Mister Tom by Michelle Magorian. With World War II looming, Willie
Beech, an abused child from London, is sent to the countryside, where he experi-
ences a very different life with Mr. Tom.
The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien. Like most good hobbits, Bilbo Baggins dislikes ad-
venture. But when Gandalf the Grey Wizard arrives at his door, he finds himself one
of 13 dwarves who seek to reclaim a lost treasure from a dangerous dragon. The
Hobbit is considered the prequel to Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Holes by Louis Sachar Stanley. Yelnats, accused of a crime he didnt commit, is
sentenced to Camp Green Lake, a detention center where boys dig holes to build
character. Stanley soon realizes that they are digging for more than just character.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis. Peter, Susan, Edmund and
Lucy discover a magical land, called Narnia, through the back of a wardrobe. In
Narnia, the siblings help the golden lion Aslan fight against the evil White Witch.
Little Women by Louisa May Alcott. The March sisters come of age while their
father is away during the Civil War. Told in two parts, beautiful Meg, adventurous
Jo, sensitive Beth and romantic Amy bond as young sisters and then pursue their
individual dreams as they mature into adults.
Lord of the Flies by William Golding. A group of English schoolboys stranded on
a deserted island must fend for themselves. At first the boys work together to make
shelters, light fires and hunt for food. But everything falls apart when some decide
they would rather play than work.
The Princess Diaries by Meg Cabot. Mia Thermopolis is like any normal ninth
grader in New York until her father tells her that hes the Prince of Genovia, and
shes the crown princess. (Other books in the series include Princess in the Spotlight,
Princess in Love and Princess in Waiting.)
The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett. Orphaned Mary Lennox arrives at
her uncles Misselthwaite Manor convinced that shell hate living there. But shes
pleasantly surprised when she and her cousin discover a magical garden.
Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson. After a pirate shows up at his mothers
inn, young Jim finds a treasure map and sets out in search of buried treasure on a
faraway island.

Sources: http://www.factmonster.com; www.tadworthps.surrey.sch.uk


TOPICAL JOURNEY English

Great Characters 35 MayJune 2014

Do you know Charlotte, Hans, and Alice? They are friends of your grandparents and GUIDED READING QUESTIONS
parents. When you read about them, theyll become your friends, too. Who is the author of the book?

Alice, an impressionable Victorian girl of seven-and-a-half, Where does/did the story take place?
falls down a rabbit hole into Wonderland, where she has many When did the story take place?
strange and curious adventures. What did the character look like?
Alices Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll Where did the character live?
Annabel Andrews. Cranky teenager Annabel Andrews gets Who are the main characters in the book?
herself into the strangest situations. When we first meet her, Compare two of the characters.
she has switched bodies with her mother. Later, she begins to What kinds of people are in the story?
organize her life around a television that shows tomorrows What happened in the story?
news.
In Freaky Friday and A Billion for Boris by Mary Rodgers Explain something that happened at a specific
point in the story.
Charlie Bucket is a poor boy who loves chocolate. He and four other children win the If you were going to interview this character/
privilege of being shown around the mysterious Willy Wonkas Chocolate Factory. author, which questions would you ask?
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, by Roald Dahl Which is your favourite part? Why?
Who would you like to meet most in the story?
Charlotte is a spider who lives in a barn above the pen of Wilbur, a young pig. By writ- Why?
ing messages in her web, Charlotte saves Wilburs life. Meanwhile, Charlotte, Wilbur,
the other farm animals, and Fern, a young girl, all learn something about the meaning What do you think would happen next if the
story carried on past the ending of the book?
of life and friendship.
Charlottes Web, by E. B. White Who was the storyteller? How do you know?
Predict what you think is going to happen next.
Dorothy Gale and her dog, Toto, are blown by a cyclone from Dorothys aunt and Why do you think so?
uncles farm in Kansas to the country of the Munchkins in the imaginary Land of Oz. What would you do if you could visit this
Dorothy, after many adventures accompanied by a Scarecrow, a Tin Man, and a Cow- place?
ardly Lion, finally finds the Wizard, who they hope will solve all their problems.
How is the main character feeling at the start/
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank Baum
middle/end of the story? Why do they feel that
way? Does this surprise you?
Pippi
Pippilolta Provisionia Gaberdina Dandeliona Ephraimsdaughter Long- Did the ending surprise you? Is it what you ex-
stocking is a 9-year-old who lives in the villa Villekula with her pected? Why/why not?
purple spotted horse and other animal friends as a result of her fa- What is the main event of the story? Why do
thers being lost at sea. Carrot-haired Pippis spunky and optimis- you think this?
tic outlook on life leads her and her two neighbors into fantastic How has the text been organised?
adventures. Why do you think authors use short sentences?
Pippi Longstocking, by Astrid Lindgren
How did you think it would end?
Laura Has the author used an unusual layout in the
The central character is really the author, who started to write about her text? If so, describe it and say why you think
childhood in 1932, when she was 63 years old. These memoirs tell the story they did this?
of 5-year-old Laura, who moves with her family from a log cabin in Wis- Has the author used a variety of sentence
consin across the prairie states. The books recall her life from her young structures?
tomboy days to her adulthood. Has the author put certain words in bold or
Little House on the Prairie series, by Laura Ingalls Wilder italic? Why have they done this?
Why did the author choose this title?
Madeline
Madeline is a 6-year-old girl who attends boarding school Do you want to read the rest of the text? How
in Paris. An individualist, she is the envy of her 11 class- does the writer encourage you to read the rest
mates, for she is both the bravest and the naughtiest. of the text?
Madeline series, by Ludwig Bemelmans Can you find some examples of effective de-
scription? What makes them effective?
Nancy Drew Which part of the story best describes the set-
Nancy Drew is a detective who has appeared in dozens of ting?
books. She tries to help her father, a district attorney, solve
Can you find examples of powerful adjec-
his cases. Her curiosity and clear thinking always prove
tives? What do they tell you about a character
successful. or setting?
Nancy Drew series, by Carolyn Keene
Can you find examples of powerful verbs/ad-
Tom Sawyer verbs? What do they tell you about a charac-
Tom is a young boy who lives with his aunt Polly and ter, their actions, or the setting?
brother Sid in a small town on the Mississippi River. Clever Find an example of a word you dont know the
and adventurous, Tom and his friend, Huckleberry Finn, get meaning of. Using the text around it, what do
into one scrape after another in the days of the Old South. you think it means?
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain

See more in additional materials. Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina See more in additional materials.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

36
MayJune 2014 Libraries
LIBRARY (from French librairie; Latin liber THE FIRST LIBRARIES consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing
= book) is an organized collection of information the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC.
resources made accessible to a defined com- These written archives mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. The earliest
munity for reference or borrowing. It provides
discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit. There is also evidence of libraries at
physical or digital access to material, and may
be a physical building or room, a virtual space, or
Nippur about 1900 BC and at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification
both. A librarys collection can include books, pe- system. Private or personal libraries made up of written books (as opposed to the state
riodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century
prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of
videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, au- the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. From the
diobooks, databases, and other formats. Librar- 15th century in central and northern Italy, libraries of humanists and their enlightened
ies range in size from a few shelves of books to patrons provided a nucleus around which an academy of scholars congregated in each
several million items.
Italian city of consequence. Tianyi Chamber, founded in 1561 by Fan Qin during the
Ming Dynasty, is the oldest existing library in China. In its heyday it boasted a collec-
A library is the delivery room for the birth of ide- tion of 70,000 volumes of antique books. The first library classification system was set
as, a place where history comes to life. up during the Han Dynasty. In North America, it is believed that personal collections
Norman Cousins of books were brought over to the continent by French settlers in the 16th century. The
oldest non-personal library on the North American continent was founded at The Jesuit
Libraries store the energy that fuels the imagi- College in Quebec City in 1635.
nation. They open up windows to the world and A LIBRARY is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution,
inspire us to explore and achieve, and contribute a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services
to improving our quality of life. may be intended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase
Sidney Sheldon an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be
expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition
Libraries allow children to ask questions about to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts
the world and find the answers. And the wonder- at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries
ful thing is that once a child learns to use a li- often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facili-
brary, the doors to learning are always open. tate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to
Laura Bush their electronic resources and the Internet.
MODERN LIBRARIES are increasingly being redefined as places to get unre-
If you want to get laid, go to college. If you want stricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are ex-
an education, go to the library. tending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessi-
Frank Zappa ble by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and
analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.
I have found the most valuable thing in my wallet
is my library card. 10 BIGGEST LIBRARIES IN THE WORLD
Laura Bush 1. Washington, D.C.s Library of Congress. During the War of 1812, a huge portion
of the original collection was sold. Fortunately, another 6,457 books were sold to the li-
When I got my library card, thats when my life brary by Thomas Jefferson from his very own collection. Composed of four buildings in
began. Washington, D.C., the Library of Congress is such an impressive display of books and a
Rita Brown grandly designed structure that it has been used in numerous movies to this date. With a
vast book collection of over 30 million and written in just about any language you can
The library card is a passport to wonders and think of, the Library of Congress definitely deserves all its fame. The public can visit
miracles, glimpses into other lives, religions, ex- the library, but only high-ranking American officials are allowed to check out books.
periences, the hopes and dreams and strivings
of ALL human beings, and it is this passport that
opens our eyes and hearts to the world beyond
our front doors, that is one of our best hopes
against tyranny, xenophobia, hopelessness, de-
spair, anarchy, and ignorance.
Libba Bray

To build up a library is to create a life. Its never


just a random collection of books.
Carlos Mara Domnguez

My two favourite things in life are libraries and bi-


cycles. They both move people forward without
wasting anything.
Peter Golkin

Everything you need for a better future and suc-


cess has already been written. And guess what?
All you have to do is go to the library.
Henri Frederic Amiel Sources: http://examples.yourdictionary.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

37
MayJune 2014

TYPES OF LIBRARIES
Academic Libraries
Academic libraries are libraries that are host-
ed in post-secondary educational institutions,
such as colleges and universities. The main
functions of an academic library are to provide
2. Moscows Institute for Scientific Information Russian Academy of Sciences. resources and research support for students and
faculty of the educational institution. Some of
This librarys 13.5 million-book collection was established to collate any and all pub-
them are accessible to members of the general
lications done by research facilities and Russian scholars. If youre looking for data public in whole or in part.
related to findings in the field of linguistics, nuclear power, and even genetics, then this
is the right place to start your search. Childrens Libraries
Childrens libraries are special collections of
3. Beijings National Library of China. The West doesnt have a monopoly on li- books intended for juvenile readers and usually
braries, for the East also has its share of the worlds largest libraries, among which is kept in separate rooms of general public librar-
the National Library of China. Situated in Beijing and with 26.3 million books in its ies. Some childrens libraries have entire floors
collection, the NLC is sure to give joy to the average bibliophile. Among its hoard of or wings dedicated to them in bigger libraries,
books, youll find the worlds greatest and richest compilations of Chinese writings and while smaller ones may have a separate room or
area for children. They are an educational agen-
ancient documents.
cy seeking to acquaint the young with the worlds
literature and to cultivate a love for reading.
4. Massachusetts Harvard University Library. Compared to all the other universi-
ties in the world, Harvard University Library houses the most enormous private col- National Libraries
lection of books. Established in the year 1638, the Harvard Library is considered to be A national or state library serves as a nation-
Americas oldest. Today, the library has a total of over 13 million books displayed in al repository of information, and has the right
90 library wings, each dealing with a particular field of study. of legal deposit, which is a legal requirement
that publishers in the country need to deposit a
5. Ottawas National Library of Canada. With nearly 19 million books in its col- copy of each publication with the library. Unlike
lection, the National Library of Canada is also a contender for the biggest library in a public library, a national library rarely allows
citizens to borrow books. Often, their collec-
the world. Founded in 1953, the library was established with the goal of collecting and
tions include numerous rare, valuable, or sig-
preserving Canadas heritage in the form of documents, texts, pictures, and other writ- nificant works.
ings related to the countrys culture and history.
Public Lending Libraries
6. St. Petersburgs Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Commissioned by A public library provides services to the gen-
the Russian Federation for the purpose of collecting the countrys books and research eral public and usually makes at least some of its
findings, the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences has a collection that consists books available for borrowing. Typically, libraries
of numerous writings done by Russian writers, scientists, and a host of other signifi- issue library cards to community members wish-
cant personalities. It is the legal obligation of all writers and scientific institutions who ing to borrow books. Many public libraries also
are publishing works to donate a copy of their writings or findings to the library. This serve as community organizations that provide
free services and events to the public, such as
played a huge role in helping the library amass such an impressive 20 million-book
reading groups and toddler story time.
collection, although the accuracy of this number isnt guaranteed today, since a fire that
happened at some point in the past destroyed a large chunk of the collection.
Reference Libraries
A reference library does not lend books and
7. Frankfurts German National Library. Housing a collection that consists of ap- other items; instead, they must be read at the
proximately 18.5 million books, the German National Library in Frankfurt has done library itself. Typically such libraries are used for
a satisfactory job of painstakingly accumulating every German publication and work, research purposes, for example at a university.
which was the intention behind the librarys founding. Perhaps one of the most unique Some items at reference libraries may be histori-
features of this library is the branch that displays all the German music records as well cal and even unique.
as the publications that deal solely with music.
Research Libraries
8. Kievs Vernadsky National Scientific Library of Ukraine. With a collection of A research library is a collection of materi-
als on one or more subjects. A research library
writings, manuscripts, and books reaching more than 13 million, the Vernadsky Na-
supports scholarly or scientific research and will
tional Scientific Library in Kiev is the countrys hub of information. The library was generally include primary as well as secondary
founded in 1918, and a lot of its collection can be traced back to the 18th and 19th cen- sources; it will maintain permanent collections
turies. and attempt to provide access to all necessary
materials.
9. New York Public Library. Another library worth mentioning is the New York Pub-
lic Library, which has about 11 million books to its name. Aimed at bringing history Special Libraries
and information closer to the general public, the library has plenty of branches scattered All other libraries fall into the special library
throughout New York where people can check out books as they wish. category. Many private businesses and public
organizations, including hospitals, museums, re-
search laboratories, law firms, and many govern-
10. Londons British Library. When it comes to the number of items in its collection,
ment departments and agencies, maintain their
the British Library is unparalleled. It has over 150 million items, most of which are own libraries for the use of their employees in
works circulated in the United Kingdom. The library also has scores of items from other doing specialized research related to their work.
countries and has books written in a multitude of languages. Depending on the particular institution, special
libraries may or may not be accessible to the
See more in additional materials. Submitted by Evgeniya Khaimova
general public.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

38
MayJune 2014 Fairy Tales
FAIRY TALE BOOK REPORT A fairy tale is a story featuring folkloric characters such as fairies, goblins, elves,
Fairy Tale: _____________________________ trolls, giants, and others. The fairy tale is a subclass of the folktale. These stories often
______________________________________ involve princes and princesses, and modern versions usually have a happy ending. An-
Author: _______________________________ other common element in many fairy tales is magic.
Illustrator: ______________________________
Country of Origin: _______________________
______________________________________ Common Elements of Fairy Tales
Setting: _______________________________ 1. A fairy tale begins with Once upon a time....
______________________________________ 2. Fairy tales happen long ago.
______________________________________ 3. Fairy tales incorporate fantasy and make believe.
Main Characters: ________________________ 4. Fairy tales have clearly defined Good vs. Evil characters.
______________________________________ 5. Royalty is usually present in a fairy tale, such as a beautiful princess/handsome
______________________________________ prince.
What was the conflict or problem in this fairy
6. There may be magic with giants, elves, talking animals, witches or fairies.
tale?
______________________________________ 7. Fairy tales have a problem that needs to be solved.
______________________________________ 8. It often takes three tries to solve the problem.
______________________________________ 9. Fairy tales have happy endings they all lived happily ever after.
What did the main character have to do in order 10. Fairy tales usually teach a lesson or have a theme.
to overcome the problem?
______________________________________ ACTIVITIES
______________________________________ Unscramble fairy tale words:
______________________________________
1. vlei ___________________
Conclusion:
How did the fairy tale end? 2. esrspnic ___________________
______________________________________ 3. unqee ___________________
______________________________________ 4. slaect ___________________
______________________________________ 5. rgndao ___________________
What lesson does this fairy tale teach? 6. cnreip ___________________
______________________________________ 7. odgo ___________________
______________________________________ 8. nkgi ___________________
______________________________________
9. chwti ___________________
10. fel ___________________
Fairy Tales Quiz 11. icamg ___________________
1. What F changes into a prince when kissed?
2. What M knows who is the fairest of them 12. eftsor ___________________
all? 13. ofwl ___________________
3. What C finds a husband by losing a glass 14. odgl ___________________
slipper? 15. setqu ___________________
4. What L goes to visit granny in the woods?
5. What G is very fond of chairs, porridge and Key: 1. evil; 2. princess; 3. queen; 4. castle; 5. dragon; 6. prince; 7. good; 8. king; 9.
beds? witch; 10. elf; 11. magic; 12. forest; 13. wolf; 14. gold; 15. quest
6. What R is the colour of a hood worn by a lit-
tle girl?
7. What S is helped in his workshop by elves? FAIRY TALES WORDSEARCH
8. What D is a small person who helped Snow V R G Z Q N L F F Q S Z P S K
White? T A C Q E J F Y K O K B R N E
9. What W is the word to describe Snow Whites
stepmother? S Z M E N O R D L U A C I I T
10. What S sleeps for 100 years? O C U P E B Q H X N V G N V A
11. What S is the fairest of them all? H Q D Z I Y X X C O H E C W R
12. What T is the number of little pigs?
13. What R lets down her hair to escape a tow- G B Q S S R Y U F T G B E O I
er? E L T S A C E A M E I Z I T P
14. What B is amazed to find someone in his S Q R R O D I A U L U W G N E
bed?
15. What H has a sister called Gretel?
F S W A B R G P H E S N O S K
16. What T is hiding under a bridge when a G V E R Y I S D F K B O N W X
goats crossed? I P Q C C V J L R S G R N E O
17. What M is the time Cinderella turned back to
rags?
A N Q H N M E R M A I D O C D
18. What U is the word to describe two sisters? N W A O K I D M R J Z O I O Y
19. What G has a brother called Hansel? T N Y S W O R D H A K I N G M
20. What J climbs a beanstalk?
D N W O R C P P Z E R A W V Q
Answers: 1. Frog Prince; 2. Mirror; 3. Cinderel-
la; 4. Little Red Riding Hood; 5. Goldilocks; 6. Key: broom; castle; cauldron; crown; dragoon; fairy; genie; ghost; giant; king; knight;
Red; 7. Shoemaker; 8. Dwarf; 9. Wicked; 10. magic hand; mermaid; pirate; prince; princess; queen; skeleton; sword; vampire; witch;
Sleeping Beauty; 11. Snow White; 12. Three; 13. wizard.
Rapunzel; 14. Baby Bear; 15. Hansel; 16. Troll;
17. Midnight; 18. Ugly; 19. Gretel; 20. Jack Sources: www.readwritethink.org Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

LITERARY GENRES 39
MayJune 2014

Crossword
Myths Tales Diaries Biographies
Short Stories Legends Essays

Novels FICTION NON FICTION Speeches

Autobiographies

LITERARY GENRES
Sonnets Poems
Comedies
Ballads
Tragedies
DRAMA
Pastorals POETRY Tragicomedies
Farce
Lyrics Melodrama
Songs Pantomime

Do the crossword. All the words are related to LITERATURE (the key-word).

1 L
2 I
3 T
4 E
5 R
6 A
7 T
8 U
9 R
10 E
1. An exciting story in which something frightening or unusual happens.
2. An account of someones life which is written by other people.
3. An exciting childrens story with imaginary characters who can do impossible things.
4. A play that entertains people and makes them laugh.
5. A ____________ novel is based on real events in the past (adj).
6. A story of love.
7. A story about imaginary people and imaginary events.
8. An ___________ story is full of risk and danger that makes you feel excited (adj).
9. A play that ends sadly, in which the main character usually dies.
10. A story about a crime in which a detective tries to find a murderer.

Answers: 1. thriller; 2. biography; 3. fairy tale; 4. comedy; 5. historical; 6. romance; 7. fiction; 8. adventurous; 9. tragedy; 10. detective.

By Tatyana Ivanova, School No. 258, Moscow


English TEXTS FOR READING

40 STORYTELLING Benets and Tips


MayJune 2014

We often give stories to our students to read, but how of-


ten do we tell them a story? This article looks at the benefits
of storytelling and gives advice on performance skills:
What can storytelling offer?
storytelling and intercultural understanding.
other benefits of using storytelling in the classroom.
commonalities of cultures around the world.
performance techniques.
a last word.

What can storytelling offer?


Children have an innate love for stories. Stories create magic
and a sense of wonder about the world. Stories teach us about
life, about ourselves, and about others. Storytelling is a unique
way for students to develop an understanding, respect and ap-
preciation for other cultures, and can promote a positive attitude
towards people from different lands, races, and religions.

Storytelling and intercultural understanding


There are a number of ways in which storytelling can en-
hance intercultural understanding and communication. Sto- think of the plot as a film or a series of connected images
ries can tell yourself the story in your own words
allow children to explore their own cultural roots create your own version of the story (adapt and improvise)
allow children to experience diverse cultures retell it numerous times until it feels like a story
enable children to empathise with unfamiliar people/plac-
es/situations Performance skills
offer insights into different traditions and values Remember to...
help children understand how wisdom is common to all vary the volume, pitch and tempo of your voice (enunci-
peoples/all cultures ate clearly and exaggerate expression)
offer insights into universal life experiences use your face, body, and gestures (let your body speak)
help children consider new ideas make your body and face respond to the tale
reveal differences and commonalties of cultures around have a clear focus and maintain concentration
the world maintain engaging eye contact with the audience/individ-
ual listeners
Other benefits of using storytelling in the classroom create a charismatic presence (make the audience believe
Stories in you)
promote a feeling of well-being and relaxation use different, exaggerated character voices
increase children's willingness to communicate thoughts use your space/be dynamic
and feelings remember to pace yourself
encourage active participation always remember to regain your style as a narrator
increase verbal proficiency use silence and pauses to add dramatic effect
encourage use of imagination and creativity
encourage cooperation between students A last word
enhance listening skills Young Learners share a remarkable variety of personal ex-
periences, values, and ways of understanding. The language
Commonalities of cultures around the world they learn in the classroom is the tool they use to shape their
Stories reveal universal truths about the world. Through thoughts and feelings. It is more than a way of exchanging
stories we see how very different people share the same life information and extending ideas, it is their means of reach-
experiences and how human nature can transcend culture. ing out and connecting with other people. Stories can link
not only the world of the classroom and home but also the
Performance techniques classroom and beyond. Stories provide a common thread that
Telling a story can captivate an audiencethat is, with can help unite cultures and provide a bridge across cultural
the right techniques and a little practice. gaps.
Remembering and retelling the plot: Adapted from a workshop
map the plot as a memory technique by Paula Stoyle, British Council, Jordan
use story skeletons to help you remember key events Source: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk

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TESTS English

BOOKS VOCABULARY TEST 41


MayJune 2014

1. Match the types of books with their definitions. 6. Match the book idioms and phrases with the definitions.
1. reference book a) books about imaginary people and events 1. bookworm a) to know what a person is thinking
2. yearbook b) stories about things that happen in the future 2. every trick in the book b) to research a topic
3. fiction c) books about real events, people or places 3. have your head in a book c) to begin studying
4. non-fiction d) a story about a crime and a detective who 4. hit the books d) something that you know nothing about
tries to find out who did it 5. read between the lines e) to be deeply involved in what you
are reading
5. science fiction e) a story about a love affair
6. read up on something f) to find a hidden meaning in
6. thriller f) a book printed once a year by a school or something that is said or written
a college 7. read someones mind g) every possible way
7. novel g) a book that you look at in order to find 8. closed book h) someone who enjoys reading books
information and spends a lot of time doing it
8. mystery h) a book that tells an exciting story about
murder or crime 7. Fill the gaps in the sentences with the following phrases and idi-
9. romance i) a long written story in which the characters oms (well-read; in someones good book; bookworm; bookmark; read up
and events are usually imaginary on; by the book; read someone like a book; in my book).
10. detective j) a story in which crimes and strange events 1. She feels she has to go and cant use her creativity.
are only explained at the end 2. ..., nothing is more important than football.
3. Her elder sister is intelligent and extremely .
2. Match each kind of book with what you would expect to find in it. 4. Youll enjoy traveling more if you the history of the countries youll be
1. atlas a) basic course book at school or university visiting.
2. autobiography b) information about subjects in alphabetical 5. My sons favourite hobby is reading. He reads at least one book every
order week. Hes a
3. dictionary c) lists of words grouped according to their 6. This is such a good website I am going to it so I can go back to it
similarity in meaning again easily.
4. directory d) different maps 7. Youre bored, arent you? I can .
5. encyclopedia e) a list of famous people and brief details 8. Were not going to or lie about the health of our business.
of their lives
6. guidebook f) meanings of words 8. Match the correct word in each pair to the sentences.
7. manual g) tourist information about a country 1. I want to go sightseeing and I need to know which places to visit.
8. textbook h) instructions on how to use or repair a machine _____________ guidebook/atlas
9. thesaurus i) a story of ones own life written by oneself 2. I dont like reading books, but I want to read something fresh and new
10. Whos Who j) a list of names, addresses, telephone every month. I like reading about the latest fashions and celebrity news.
numbers in alphabetical order _____________ magazine/comic
3. I cant do my homework. I need to look up some information about the
3. Match the descriptions with the names of parts of a book. history of Spain in the eighteenth century. _____________textbook/
1. appendix a) an introduction to a book grammar book
2. bibliography b) the cover of the book
4. Im writing an essay and I want to improve my writing. I dont want to
3. binding c) a list of what is contained in a book
4. chapter d) one of the main divisions of a book use the same words all the time. ____________ thesaurus/dictionary.
5. contents e) an introduction to a play, a long poem 5. I love fiction and I want to take a good story to read. Im going on holiday
6. cross-reference f) the end of the book, giving additional for a week, and I want the book to last the whole week. _____________
information short story/novel
7. epilogue g) a list of all the writings used in the
preparation of a book 9. Choose the correct word in the sentences.
8. index h) a part of the story that is added after the end 1. Its a good book, but the cast/plot/setting/text is hard to follow.
9. preface i) a list at the back of the book giving names, 2. I bought this book because it has a very attractive folder/cover/coat/
subjects in alphabetical order wrapping.
10. prologue j) a note directing the reader from one place 3. If you cant find what you are looking for in the book, use the preface/
to another one in the same book directory/list/index.
4. The first copy/edition/title/type of a book can be very valuable.
4. Match the literary words with their definitions. 5. I am reading a book about the existence/living/life/way of Henry VIII.
1. title a) a person in a book 6. His brother knows most of Robert Burns poems by mind/head/heart/
2. text b) the main subject or idea in a piece of writing memory.
3. character c) one of the parts into which a book is divided 7. My younger brother buys a comic/cartoon/textbook from the local
4. plot d) the most exciting or important part of a story newsagents every Friday.
5. setting e) the name given to a particular book 8. Because Shakespeare mainly wrote plays, he is usually regarded as a
6. chapter f) the events that form the main story of a book writer/dramatist/novelist.
7. theme g) the writing that forms the main part of a book
8. climax h) to arouse the curiosity or interest 10. Complete the text with the correct words (books; characters; popu-
9. intrigue i) the mode or fashion of expressing thought in writing lar; stories; diary; famous; memory; creatures).
10. style j) the place or time where the events in a book happen Roald Dahl, one of the most successful childrens writers in the world, was
born in Cardiff, Wales in 1916. His parents were Norwegian so they often told
5. Match the titles of the books with their authors. him (1) about trolls and other mythical (2).... He started writing stories and
1. Farenheit 451 a) Charlotte Bronte things about himself in a secret (3) when he was eight years old.
2. Matilda b) J.K. Rowling Roald didnt like school very much. His main (4) of this time was a
3. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn c) George Orwell school trip to a Sweet shop and thats when he started thinking about his
4. War of the Worlds d) J.R.R. Tolkien famous story Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Roald Dahls unhappy
5. Jane Eyre e) Ray Bradbury days at school later influenced many of his (5) and stories.
6. Robinson Crusoe f) Roald Dahl During his life time he wrote dozens of (6) and many continue to be
7. The Old Man and the Sea g) H.G. Wells (7) with both young and old today. Many of his books have become (8)
8. Harry Potter h) Daniel Defoe films too.
9. Animal Farm i) Mark Twain Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina
10. The Hobbit j) Ernest Hemingway See keys.
English SCHOOL THEATRE

42
MayJune 2014 GRISHKAS BOOKS
5-
CHARACTERS: Together: What should we do?
Narrator Russian Grammar: Lets run away!
Books: Geography, Mathematics, History, Russian Mathematics: Where should us go? All the boys and girls
Grammar, Gogol, Brothers Grimm tear and damage we books. We have nowhere to go.
Helpers Helper 2: , ,
Librarian : -
!
ACT 1 Brothers Grimm: Lets run away! , , -
!
Narrator: This is Grisha Skvortsov and these are his books. Helper 4: , ,
They are dirty, torn, and dog-eared, with drawings on ? What should we do? How can we get rid
the pages. of Grisha?
Helper 1: - Gogol: Lets go to the library!
, , , , Helper 5: Lets run to the library they will give us shelter
, , - and take care of us! , -
.
Books: 1) I am Geography. Grisha drew a cow and wrote: !
this is my book if anybody touches it, I will tear his Narrator: And they went to the library.
nose off.
: , ACT 2
, ( -
). Librarian: Who are you?
2) Im Mathematics he hit Mishas head and tore me Books: We are Grisha Skvortsovs books. He doesnt love
in two. us. Please, take us into the library!
Narrator: Librarian: Poor things, we will help you!
, Helper 6: Our doctor will take pity on you and clean and
. stitch you up and give you new covers!
, -
, , , , -
. , , , ,
!
3) Im Russian Grammar he smashed me and drew Narrator: And now Grisha has a problem: he has homework
a chimney cleaner on page 35. to do but where is his mathematics book?
,
! He comes to the library.
( .)
4) Im Gogol. I was smart when I was new and now Grisha: ,
Im rugged and have no cover. ,
, , , ,
! , ! (
5) Im History. He tore pages of me and made model .)
planes. ( .) Grisha: lease, do you have my mathematics textbook? I
cant find my book anywhere.
Books: We will not go back to you! You dont love us!
Grisha: Please, Im sorry. I will take care of you in the fu-
ture I promise.
Narrator: And the books forgave Grisha and returned home
with him.

By Karina Zalieva,
School No. 708, Moscow
Photo by the author
SCHOOL THEATRE English

GONE WITH THE WIND 43


MayJune 2014

Margaret Mitchell
THE CAST
Scarlett OHara
The Tarleton twins (Stuart and Brent Tarleton)
Rhett Butler
Gerald OHara
Ashley Wilkes
Melanie Hamilton
Charles Hamilton
Frank Kennedy
Mammy
Jeems (a male negro servant)
Dilcey & Prissy (female negro servants)

SCENE I
Music & song Dream a Little Dream of Me.

Narrator: There was a land of Cavaliers and cotton fields


called the Old South. Here in this pretty world Gal-
lantry took the last bow. Here was the last ever to be
seen of Knights and their Ladies Fair, of Master and
of Slave. Look for it only in books, for it is no more
than a dream remembered. A Civilization gone with the
wind

Enter Scarlett, Brent and Stuart Tarleton.

Scarlett: Dont you two care about being sent home from the Stuart (to Brent): War is mens business, not ladies.
University of Georgia for bad behaviour? Brent: Ive got an idea. Lets talk about the barbecue at
Brent (carelessly): What do we care if we were expelled Twelve Oaks tomorrow.
from college, Scarlett? The war is gonna start any day Scarlett: I hope it doesnt rain tomorrow. Theres nothing
now, so wed have left college anyhow. worse than a barbecue turned into an indoor picnic.
Stuart: Oh, isnt it exciting Scarlett? You know those fool Stuart: Oh, itll be clear tomorrow and hot as June. Look at
Yankees may actually want a war? that sunset. I never saw one redder. You can always tell
Brent: Well show them! weather by sunsets.
Scarlett: Fiddle-dee-dee. War, war, war; this war talk is Brent: Look, Scarlett. About tomorrow, just because weve
spoiling all the talk at every party this spring. I get so been away and didnt know about the barbecue and the
bored I could scream. Besidesthere isnt going to be ball, thats no reason why we shouldnt get plenty of
any war. dances tomorrow night.
Brent: Not going to be any war, goose? Stuart: You havent promised them all, have you?
Scarlett: You know, (bored) its all just talk. Why, Ashley Scarlett: Well, I have! How did I know you all would be
Wilkes and his father told Pa just last week that the home? I couldnt risk being a wallflower just waiting
Yankees are too scared of us to fight. There wont be on you two.
any war, and Im tired of hearing about it. Twins: You a wallflower! (The boys laugh uproariously.)
Stuart: Why, honey, of course theres going to be a war. Stuart: Look, honey. Youve got to give Brent the first
Brent: The Yankees may be scared of us waltz.
Stuart: But theyll have to fight. Brent: ... and Stuart the last one, and...
Brent: Why, the Confederacy. Stuart: Youve got to eat supper with us.
Scarlett: Well, I havent thought about that yet. Ill think
Scarlett makes a face of bored impatience. about it tomorrow.
Stuart: If you promise, well tell you a secret.
Scarlett: If either of you boys says war just once more, Ill Scarlett: What secret? Who told you?
go in the house and shut the door. Stuart: Miss Pittypat Hamilton.
Brent and Stuart: But Scarlett Brent: Ashley Wilkes cousin who lives in Atlanta, Charles
Scarlett: Remember I warned you. and Melanie Hamiltons aunt.

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English SCHOOL THEATRE
sir, I didnt notice you all say anything to make her

44
MayJune 2014
mad. Looks to me like she was glad to see you and
she had missed you and she cheeped along happy as
a bird, till about the time you all got to talking about
Mister Ashley and Miss Hamilton getting married.
Then she quieted down like a bird when a hawk flies
Brent: She told us well hear news of a wedding tomorrow over.
night at the Wilkes ball.
Scarlett: Oh. I know about that. That silly nephew of hers, The twins looked at each other and nodded, but without com-
Charlie Hamilton, and Honey Wilkes. Everybodys prehension.
known for years that theyd get married some time.
Brent: Do you think hes silly? Last Christmas you sure let Stuart: Jeems is right. But I dont see why.
him buzz round you plenty. Brent: My Lord! Ashley dont mean anything to her, cept a
Scarlett: I couldnt help him buzzing. I think hes an awful friend. Shes not crazy about him.
sissy. Brent and Stuart: Its us shes crazy about.
Stuart (triumphantly): Besides, it isnt his engagement thats
going to be announced. Brent nods in agreement.
Brent: Ashley is going to marry Charlies sister, Miss Mela-
nie! Scarlet (to herself): Ashley to marry Melanie Hamilton! Oh,
Brent: They were not going to marry until next year, but it cant be true. Its all a mistake. Ashley is in love with
with all the talk of war, both families think it will be me, not Melanie!
better if they are married soon.
Stuart: Now, Scarlett, weve told you the secret, you must SCENE II
promise to eat supper with us. Mammy emerged from the hall, a huge old woman with
Scarlett (automatically): Of course, I will. the small, shrewd eyes of an elephant. She was shining
Brent: And give us plenty of dances? black, pure African, devoted to her last drop of blood to the
Scarlett: All. OHaras, Ellens mainstay, the despair of her three daugh-
Stuart: Youre sweet! ters, and the terror of the other house servants. Mammy was
Brent: And sit with us at the barbecue in the morning? black, but her code of conduct and her sense of pride were as
Scarlett: What? Oh, yes, of course. high as or higher than those of her owners.

The twins look at each other jubilantly but with some sur- Mammy: Is de gempmum gone? Huccome you din ast dem
prise, waving their hats and yelling back to her as they ter stay fer supper, Miss Scarlett? Whars yo man-
leave. ners?/Is the gentleman gone? How come you didnt
ask them to stay for supper, Miss Scarlett? Wheres
Stuart: Dont it look to you like she would have asked us to your manners?
stay for supper? Scarlett: Oh, I was so tired of hearing them talk about the
Brent: I thought she would. Do you suppose we said some- war that I couldnt have endured it through supper,
thing that made her mad? especially with Pa joining in and shouting about Mr.
Stuart: I cant think of anything. Besides, when Scarlett gets Lincoln.
mad, everybody knows it. Mammy: You ain got no mo manners dan a feel han,
Brent: Yes, thats what I like about her. (Calling to the negro an after Miss Ellen an me done labored wid you. An
groom.) Jeems! hyah you is widout yo shawl! An de night air fixin ter
Jeems: Suh?/ Sir? set in! Ah done tole you an tole you bout gittin fever
Brent: You heard what we were talking to Miss Scarlett frum settin in de night air wid nuthin on yo shoulders.
about? Come on in de house, Miss Scarlett./ You aint got no
Jeems: Nawsuh, Mist Brent! Huccome you think Ah be more manners than a hen, and after Miss Ellen and me
spyin on wite folks?/ No sir, Master Brent. How come done labored with you. And how you is without your
you think I be spying on white folks? shawl? I told you and told you about getting fever from
Brent: Spying, my God! You darkies know everything that sitting in the night air with nothing on your shoulders.
goes on. Now, did you hear us say anything that might Come on in the house, Miss Scarlett.
have made Miss Scarlett mad or hurt her feelings?
Scarlett turns away from Mammy with studied nonchalance,
Thus appealed to, Jeems gives up further pretence of not hav- thankful that her face has been unnoticed in Mammys preoc-
ing overheard the conversation and furrows his black brow. cupation with the matter of the shawl.

Jeems: Nawsuh, Ah din notice yall say anything ter mek Scarlett: No, I want to sit here and watch the sunset. Its so
her mad. Look ter me lak she sho glad ter see you an pretty. You run and get my shawl. Please, Mammy, and
sho had missed you, an she cheep along happy as a Ill sit here till Pa comes home.
bird, tell bout de time yall got ter talkin bout Mist Mammy (suspiciously): Yo voice soun lak you catchin a
Ashley an Miss Melly Hamilton gittin mahied. Den cole./Your voice sounds like you are catching a cold.
she quiet down lak a bird wen de hawk fly ober./ No Scarlett: Well, Im not. You fetch me my shawl.
SCHOOL THEATRE English
Mammy waddled back into the hall and Scarlett heard her
call softly up the stairwell to the upstairs maid.

Mammy: You, Rosa! Drop me Miss Scarletts shawl. (Then,


more loudly.) Wuthless nigger! Ah got ter climb up an
45
MayJune 2014

git it mahseff. /Worthless nigger! I got to climb up and


get it myself. Scarlett: Was Ashley there, too?
Gerald: He was. (Gerald lets go of his daughters arm and
It seemed strange now that when she was growing up Ash- turns, peering sharply into her face.) And if thats why
ley had never seemed so very attractive to her. In childhood you came out here to wait for me, why didnt you say
days, she had seen him come and go and never given him so without beating around the bush?
a thought. But since that day two years ago when Ashley,
newly home from his three years Grand Tour in Europe, had Scarlett can think of nothing to say, and she feels her face
called to pay his respects, she had loved him. It was as sim- growing red with annoyance.
ple as that. She had wanted him, in that first instant, wanted
him as simply and unreasoningly as she wanted food to eat, Gerald: Well, speak up.
horses to ride and a soft bed on which to lay herself.
For two years he had squired her about the County, to balls, Still she says nothing, wishing that it was permissible to
fish fries, picnics, and court days, and never a week went by shake ones father and tell him to hush his mouth.
that Ashley did not come calling at Tara.
True, he never made love to her, nor did the clear gray eyes Gerald: And now, daughter, whats all this about you and
ever glow with that hot light Scarlett knew so well in other Ashley?
men. And yet and yet she knew he loved her. She could Scarlett: There is nothing, Pa (shortly, tugging at his arm).
not be mistaken about it. Instinct stronger than reason and Gerald: Has he been trifling with you? Has he asked to mar-
knowledge born of experience told her that he loved her. He ry you?
was courteous always, but aloof, remote. No one could ever Scarlett: No (shortly).
tell what he was thinking about, Scarlett least of all. She Gerald: And he wont.
loved him and she wanted him and she did not understand
him. Fury flames in her, but Gerald waves her quiet with a hand.

Scarlett: Oh, if Pa would only come home! Gerald: Hold your tongue, Miss! I had it from John Wilkes
Gerald (surprised to see her): Well, Missy, (pinching her this afternoon in the strictest confidence that Ashleys
cheek) so, youve been spying on me and, like your to marry Miss Melanie. Its to be announced tomor-
sister Suellen last week, youll be telling your mother row.
on me that I was jumping again.
Scarlett: No, Pa, I was waiting for you. I just wondered how Scarletts hand falls from his arm.
they all are over at Twelve Oaks?
Scarlett: I dont believe you. So it was true!
Gerald was a small man. He was sixty years old and his crisp Gerald: Have you been running after a man whos not in
curly hair was silver-white, but his shrewd face was unlined love with you, when you could have any of the bucks
and his hard little blue eyes were young. His was as Irish a in the County?
face as could be found in the length and breadth of the home- Scarlett: I havent been running after him. It it just sur-
land he had left so long ago. prised me.
Gerald: Its lying you are! (In a burst of kindliness.) Im
Gerald: About as usual. They are there and talking war and sorry, daughter. There are lots of other young men,
Scarlett. Marry one of the twins and then the planta-
tions will run together. I want my girl to be happy and
Scarlett sighed. If Gerald once got on the subject of war and you wouldnt be happy with Ashley Wilkes.
secession, it would be hours before he relinquished it. She Scarlet: Oh, I would! I would!
broke in with another line. Gerald: That you would not, daughter. (Slowly, fumbling for
words.) The Wilkes are different from other people.
Scarlett: Did they say anything about the barbecue tomor- Look how they read books and go to Boston and New
row? York to see paintings and hear music.
Gerald: Now that I think of it, they did. Miss whats-her- Scarlet: Why, Pa, nobody rides a horse better than Ashley!
name the sweet little thing who was here last year, Gerald: Oh, yes, Ashley can ride and drink with the best
you know, Ashleys cousin oh, yes, Miss Melanie of men, but he cares nothing about those things. Now,
Hamilton, thats the name she and her brother Charles Puss, there are other fine boys to marry. And when Im
have already come from Atlanta and gone, Scarlett, Ill leave Tara to you.
Scarlett: Oh, so she did come? Scarlett: I dont want Tara! Plantations dont mean anything
Gerald: She did, and a sweet quiet thing she is. when (when you havent the man you want).
Gerald: Do you stand there, Scarlett OHara, and tell me
Scarletts heart sinks at the news. that Tara that land doesnt mean anything?
English SCHOOL THEATRE

46
MayJune 2014

Scarlett nods obstinately.

Gerald: Land is the only thing in the world that does mean
anything, (shouting), for tis the only thing in this world
that lasts, and dont you be forgetting it! Tis the only Mammy: Whut gempmums says an whut dey thinks is two
thing worth working for, worth fighting for worth dy- diffunt things. An Ah aint noticed Mist Ashley axing
ing for. It will come to you, Scarlett, that love of the fer ter mahy you. / asking to marry you.
land. Its in your blood. Ill not worry your mother with Scarlett (irritably): Put down that tray and come lace me
this nor must you. tighter, and Ill try to eat a little afterwards. If I ate now
Scarlett: Oh, Pa! I couldnt lace tight enough.

Enter Dilcey and Prissy. Cloaking her triumph, Mammy sets down the tray.

Dilcey (holding Prissy by her hand): Good evenin, young Mammy: Whut mah lamb gwine wear?
Misses. Mist Gerald, I is sorry to sturb you, but I Scarlett: That! (Pointing at the fluffy mass of green flowered
wanted to come here and thank you agin fo buyin me muslin.)
and my chile. Mammy: No, you ain. It ain fittin fer mawnin. You kain
Gerald: Hum hurrump (clearing his throat in embarrass- show yo buzzum befo three oclock an dat dress ain
ment at being caught openly in an act of kindness). got no neck an no sleeves. Ah sho gwine speak ter yo
Dilcey: Miss Scarlett, I know how you ast Mist Gerald to Ma bout you.
buy me. And so Im gwine give you my Prissy fo yo Scarlett (coolly): If you say one word to her before Im
own maid. dressed, I wont eat a bite.
Scarlett: Thank you, Dilcey, but Im afraid Mammy will
have something to say about that. Shes been my maid Mammy sighs resignedly, beholding herself outguessed. Be-
ever since I was born. tween the two evils, it was better to have Scarlett wear an
afternoon dress at a morning barbecue than to have her gob-
Song When you are good to mama. ble like a hog.
Mammy enters with a tray.
Mammy: Hole onter sumpin an suck in yo breaf (com-
SCENE III manding). Just hold on and suck in.

Mammy (with a tray of food): before going to any party, Scarlett obeys, bracing herself and catching firm hold of
the OHara girls must be crammed so full of food at one of the bedposts. Mammy pulls and jerks vigorously and,
home they would be unable to eat any refreshments at as the tiny circumference of whalebone-girdled waist grew
the party. smaller, a proud, fond look came into her eyes.
Scarlett: Its no use. I wont eat it. You can just take it back
to the kitchen. Mammy: Ain nobody got a wais lak mah lamb (approv-
ingly).
Mammy sets the tray on the table and squares herself, hands Scarlett: Oh, hurry! Dont talk so much.
on her hips. Gerald: Scarlett OHara, its time we started for the Twelve
Oaks.
Mammy: Yasm, you is! You is gwine eat evey bite of dis.
Scarlett: I am not! Now, come here and lace me tighter be- Mammy carefully drops the twelve yards of green sprigged
cause we are late already. I heard the carriage come muslin over the mountainous petticoats and hooked up the
round to the front of the house. back of the tight, low-cut basque.
Mammy: Now, Miss Scarlett, you be good an come eat
jesa lil. If you dont care what folks says about this Scarlett: I am coming. Pa.
family, I does. And I done told you and told you, you Mammy: You keep yo shawl on yo shoulders wen you is
can always tell a lady by the way she eats in front of in de sun.
people like a bird.
Scarlett: Feedle-dee-dee. I dont believe it. Ashley Wilkes By Julia Raskina,
says he likes to see a girl with a healthy appetite. School No. 1567, Moscow

Mammy shakes her head. See more scenes and video.


PREPARING FOR EXAMS TESTS English

47
MayJune 2014

BOOKS
I. LISTENING
1. Listen to what Daniel says about his hobby. Five-Minute Tests
THE PLEASURE OF READING
Many of my friends prefer different activities in their free time. Some of 1 E
them enjoy dancing or hanging out in the streets, listening to CDs or relaxing
alone. In my leisure time I also enjoy different activities like bowling and Read the text below and think of the word
cartoons, but Im keen on reading. which best fits each space. Use only one
I get pleasure from reading. Besides, I think that I explore the world through word in each space.
reading. I went to Victorian England and to St. Petersburg before the fall of
the tsar. I went to Tara and Thornfield Hall as I read Gone with the Wind and Enid Mary Blyton
Jane Eyre. They never seemed to me like books, but like places I had lived in, John is very excited. He is reading (1)____
had visited and would visit again, just as all the people in them Harry Potter book about four children and Tim, the dog.
and Scarlett OHara, Robin Hood and Sherlock Holmes were more real than Their adventures started on Kirrin Island.
people I knew. On the island there (2)_____ an old castle
I was the first in our group to read and to enjoy Harry Potter and The Phi- with treasure and mystery. John is enjoying
losophers Stone by J. K. Rowling. My classmates listened to my retelling of (3)______ book. He is going to read all the
this bestseller with great pleasure. It was the first time they didnt call a book books (4)_____ this author.
stupid and me a bookworm. The author of the book, Enid Mary Blyton,
I read because I love reading more than any activity on earth, but I also (5)_____ born in London in 1897. She wrote
realize that reading makes me an educated person and my life richer. many exciting books for children. Her stories
are magic. They are (6)____ of adventures
According to the text, choose the letter of the incorrect ending. and thrilling events.
1. Daniel is keen on reading because
A. he gets pleasure from reading. Key: 1. a; 2. was; 3. the; 4. by; 5. was; 6. full.
B. reading makes his life richer.
C. he wants to be the first to read bestsellers. 2 I
Fill in the table.
2. In his leisure time he enjoys
A. exploring the world through reading.
Forms and People
B. hanging out in the streets with his friends.
Forms Person
C. different activities like bowling and cartoons.
(0) the novel novelist
3. Daniel gets pleasure from reading (1) short stories
A. detective stories. (2) poetry
B. only best sellers. (3) plays
C. historical novels. (4) critique
Key:
2. Listen to the text. Forms Person
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW (0) the novel novelist
George Bernard Shaw, an outstanding Irish playwright and critic, was born (1) short stories short story writer
in Dublin on July 26, 1856, to a poor Irish Protestant family. (2) poetry poet
His family later moved to London. There, he started writing novels and (3) plays dramatist/playwright
plays. Between 1892 and 1930 he wrote over twenty plays, both tragedies (4) critique critic
and comedies. One of the most popular plays is Pygmalion. This play has
always been a great success with the public in many countries. 3 I
Shaw received several honours in literature. He was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1934. Match the beginnings and endings of the fa-
mous sentences on books and reading.
Choose the right answer. 1. Some books are to be tasted, others to be
1. a) B. Shaw is a British playwright and critic. swallowed,
b) B. Shaw is an Irish playwright and critic. 2. A good book is the best of friends,
3. All books are divisible into two classes,
2. a) His family later moved to London. 4. There are books to read, books to re-
b) His family later left London. read,
English TESTS PREPARING FOR EXAMS

48
MayJune 2014

3. a) He wrote over fifty plays.


Five-Minute Tests b)He wrote over twenty plays.

5. I would sooner read a timetable or a cata- 4. a) Pygmalion has always been a great success in London.
logue b) Pygmalion has always been a great success in many countries.
6. Choose an author as you
7. A man ought to read just as inclination 5. a) Shaw was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934.
leads him; b) Shaw received twenty honours in literature.
8. In science, read the newest works,
II. READING
a. the same today and forever. 1. Here are five extracts from the stories by A. Christie. Match the extracts
b. as what he reads as a task will do him little and the names of the stories they are from.
good. A. . The fact still remains that numerous other applicants were sent to see
c. and some to be chewed and digested. it, and yet, in spite of its remarkable cheapness, it was still in the market
d. and books not to read at all. when Mrs. Robinson arrived.
e. the books of the hour and the books of all B. . As you know, the Bank wished to extend their credits in America,
time. and for this purpose decided to send over a million dollars in Liberty
f. than nothing at all. Bonds. Mr. Vavasour selected his nephew, who had occupied a position
g. choose a friend. of trust in the bank for many years.
h. in literature, the oldest. C. It was a week later. Beneath our feet was the golden sand of the desert.
The hot sun poured down overhead. We had arrived in Cairo and had
Key: 1. c; 2. a; 3. e; 4. d; 5. f; 6. g; 7. b; 8. h.
driven out at once to the Mena House Hotel, right in the shadow of the
4 A Pyramids.
D. . Ones guilty, but the other three are innocent. And unless the truth is
Use the word in brackets to form a word or found out, those three are going to remain under the terrible shadow of
a verb form that fits in the sentence. doubt.
E. . .. His absence may have the most serious results possibly a premature
Ernest Hemingway and disastrous peace. And we have no one who can be sent in his place.
Ernest Hemingway is one of the great 20th He alone can represent England.
century American writers. His (1)_________
(credible) career, and the legend which devel- Names of the story:
oped around his (2)___________(impress) 1. The Million Dollar Bond Robbery
personality, was that of a man of action, 2. The Four Suspects
devil-may-care (3)_________(adventure), a 3. The Kidnapped Prime Minister
brave war correspondent, an amateur boxer, 4. The Adventure of the Egyptian Tomb.
a big-game hunter and deep-sea fisherman, 5. The Adventure of the Cheap Flat.
the victim of three car accidents and two
plane crashes, a man of four wives and many 1 2 3 4 5
loves, but above all a brilliant writer of sto-
ries and novels.
His war experience and adventurous life bond
provided the background for his many short
stories and novels. III. USE OF ENGLISH
Hemingway is famous for his lean style 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the right tense. Find and under-
which (4)________widely ________(imi- line the sentences with infinitives as an attribute.
tate) but never matched. His heroes show GONE WITH THE WIND
courage in the face of (5)_________(dan- In 1936 Margaret Mitchells book Gone with the Wind 1)____________
gerous), a characteristic which Hemingway (to become) very popular with Americans. Everyone 2) ____________ (to
(6)_________(admire) greatly and which he admire) its beautiful and down-to-earth heroine, Scarlett OHara. Vivian
prided (7)________(he) on possessing. Leigh 3) __________ (to be) the first 4) __________ (to play) the role of
Key: 1. incredible; 2. impressive; 3. adventurer;
Scarlett. In 1991 Alexandra Ripley, a historical novelist, 5) ____________ (to
4. has been imitated; 5. danger; 6. admired; 7. write) a novel called Scarlett. She 6) __________ (to try) 7) ____________
himself. (to answer) the burning questions about Scarlett and Rhett. Joanne Kilmer
8) ___________ (to be) the second 9) ___________ (to play) the role of
By Youdif Boyarskaya, Scarlett.
School No. 814, Moscow
PREPARING FOR EXAMS English

49
MayJune 2014

2. Use the word in brackets to form a word or a verb form Comments from Young People
that fits in the sentence. Im interested in books of business.
A book is one of the (1)___________ (great) wonders of I never get bored with books about history. My whole family
the world. Why are so many people fond of (2)__________ likes reading books about history. They widen our scope.
(read)? The world of books (3)___________ (be) full of won- I like reading adventure and science fiction. They help me
ders. You and characters of books can find (4)__________ to relax.
(you) in different countries and have a lot of adventures. I think I explore the world through reading.
The book is a (5)_____________ (faith) friend. Books form Reading makes me an educated person.
(6)____________ (we) values and characters. We try to Reading makes my life richer.
be like the chartacters of our (7)______________ (favour) Plan
books: brave, honest, not silly or greedy, and true friends. Introduction
Books teach (8)_____________ (we) to understand the Say why you are writing this article, what information the
beauty of nature, take care of it, to understand other people article includes and how you got the information.
and help them. Books (9)____________ (be) with us since Most popular books
childhood. Least popular books
Conclusion
3. Use the word in capitals to form a word or a verb form
that fits in the sentence. KEY:
THE FUTURE OF THE BOOK I. LISTENING
IF IT HAS A FUTURE 1. 1. C; 2. B; 3. B.
The death of the book (1)___________ (predict) for centu- 2. 1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a.
ries. There were those who thought that the (2) ____________ II. READING
(invent) of printing heralded the end of (3)______________ 1.
(civilize). Cinema, radio, and television have all been pre- 1 2 3 4 5
sented as the (4)_________ (murder) of our most treasured B D E C A
icon. The Internet is the latest suspect (5)___________
(hold) the smoking gun. III. USE OF ENGLISH
The problem is that this is a murder without a victim. 1. 1. became; 2. admired; 3. was; 4. to play; 5. wrote; 6. tried;
More books (6)__________ (publish) than ever before. 7. to answer; 8. was; 9. to play.
The mass media of the twentieth century have generated 2. 1. greatest; 2. reading; 3. is; 4. yourselves; 5. faithful; 6. our;
print, not destroyed it. Books (7) __________ (derive) 7. favourite; 8. us; 9. have been.
from movies and broadcasts groan on the shelves of book- 3. 1. has been predicted; 2. invention; 3. civilization; 4. mur-
shops (8)___________ (through) the world. Newspapers derer; 5. to hold; 6. are being published; 7. derived; 8. through-
(9)__________ (fill) with stories about media people, both out; 9. are filled; 10. have been.
in reality and the soapy world, which they inhabit. Far from IV. USE OF ENGLISH
killing the book, the media (10) ___________ (be) one of its Sample answer
saviours. Our parents and teachers often grumble that we only read
magazines with gossip about famous people. We decided to
interview young people about what their reading preferences
IV. WRITING
are. 50 boys and 50 girls were asked the question: What kind
You are asked to write a magazine article about students
of books do you read for pleasure?
reading preferences. Use the information and the plan be-
As we found out, both boys and girls are keen on adventure
low.
books. A lot of boys like science fiction. Both boys and girls
READING PREFERENCES: are interested in books about history. My whole family likes
RESULTS OF SURVEY reading books about history. They widen our scope, said An-
ton, 14. Modern novels are especially popular with girls. I
never get bored with them, said Dasha, 16.
kind of books boys girls A few boys read books on business. Education, travel, and
adventure 60% 40% humour are rather popular with boys and girls.
science fiction 45% 5% The girls are not keen on business, thrillers, and sports. The
boys dont display an interest in romance novels and modern
education 20% 15%
novels. But all the students are sure that reading makes them
history 30% 20% more educated people and their life richer. A lot of students
sport 30% 1% think they explore the world through reading.
modern novels 1% 40%
business 15% 1% By Youdif Boyarskaya,
School No. 814, Moscow
English TEACHERS BOOKSHELF

50 Psychology and the Art of Public Speaking


MayJune 2014

All teachers are presenters. We are it themselves and not always the way you expect. You can
expected to perform in the classroom, have great content, but if it is poorly organized it will seem
at conferences, and when conducting mediocre.
workshops for our colleagues. Not all People learn best in 20-minute chunks, so its the ideal amount
of us feel in our element in front of an of time for a presentation. If your presentation takes longer, see
audience. Some of us get tongue-tied, how you can build in some kind of change every 20 minutes.
get cold feet and cant wait for the tor- Either take short breaks or plan activities/a change of topic.
ture to be over. Susan Weinschenks People are more motivated as they get closer to a goal, when
book is a collection of tips that can help the end is in sight. You can get this extra motivation even with
craft an effective presentation. The ad- the illusion of progress. Even in a short presentation, make
vice she gives is based on her exten- sure the audience is aware of where you are and how much is
sive experience (multiple examples are left. Provide clues about the progress throughout the pre-
provided) in the business world, not Susan M. Weinschenk. 100 Things sentation.
in the classroom, but it works equally Every Presenter Needs to Know People may be good or bad at delaying gratification. You should
well for all kinds of target audiences, about People. New Riders, 2012. assume that you have both types in your sessions. You need to
because she draws on psychological research, experiments, and make sure that you are not making people wait till the end of
data. This information is interesting in and of itself, the insights your presentation to get it. You need to have a-ha moments
into human perception and response mechanisms being the most throughout the presentation so that people who cant wait feel
valuable. What is more, she raises our awareness of many things that they are learning something right now.
that we do unconsciously or take for granted, thus uncovering People are more motivated to compete when there are fewer
many secrets behind successful public performances. competitors. They feel they are more likely to come out on top,
All the facts are grouped into several chapters: how people so they try harder. The smaller your audience, the more they
think and learn; how to grab and hold peoples attention; how to will be motivated to do an exercise that involves competition.
motivate people to take action; how people listen and see; how Plan for smaller groups for any competitive activities.
people react to the environment; how people react emotionally; Vision trumps all the senses. Half of the brain's resources are
how people react to you; how people decide to take action. The dedicated to seeing and interpreting what we see. Because vi-
author concludes by giving a concise summary of all the key sion is so important, you need to minimize what you show,
things to keep in mind at every stage when crafting a presenta- since it will interfere with other channels, such as the auditory.
tion. Since it is impossible to describe all the 100 pointers here, To make sure that people are paying attention to what you
we will confine ourselves to a number of illustrative examples are saying, you should have less visual stimuli. Slides where
that give a foretaste of the book. things fly around or move a lot will be distracting, as well as
People process information better in bite-sized chunks. The those with too many pictures.
advice is to use progressive disclosure, i.e. provide only the We look where others look. If you as the presenter turn and
information people need at the moment, not give them too look at the screen behind you, then your audience will look at
much to digest all at once. If you are going to show a slide the screen too. This is a good thing if you are trying to draw
with bullet points, consider having only one bullet point ap- the audience's attention to something on the screen. But if you
pear at a time. keep looking at the screen because you are nervous, then you
People only remember 4 items at once. They can hold 3-4 are just distracting the audience from listening to you.
things in working memory as long as they arent distracted. People are happier when they are busy. Doing nothing makes
This rule applies to memory retrieval, too. Chunk information them impatient. Simply sitting and listening to the presenter
into categories, with no more than 4 items in each. is dangerously close to doing nothing. You have to engage the
People filter information. They seek out and pay attention to audience in interaction: ask them questions, divide into small
information and cues that confirm their beliefs, while ignoring teams and give them something to discuss, etc. People will do
or even discounting everything that doesn't support what they a task rather than be idle.
hold true. Psychologists call this confirmation bias. In order to The more scarce something is, the more valuable people will
get past the automatic filters that your audience may have and feel it is. If listeners feel that the information you are pro-
make them open to the ideas that you are presenting, you need viding in your presentation is hard to find, they will value it
to start with what they believe, and only then surprise them more highly. Point out the places where you offer ideas that
with something they did not expect. arent available anywhere else.
People process information best in story form. Stories engage People imitate your emotions and feel your feelings, which
people emotionally. The phrase Let me tell you a story has means YOU have to make sure you are rested, prepared, re-
a wonderful effect on listeners. They wake up and start paying laxed, and passionate about your topic. When you are, those
attention. The story typically presupposes a setting, the char- feelings are communicated through your words, tone of voice,
acters, the conflict/obstacles to be overcome by the characters, and body language, and are picked up and felt by your audi-
the climax, and the resolution. It inevitably makes the point ence.
stronger than just giving dry information. For more juicy facts and handy tips, read the whole book. And
People are driven to create categories. They will impose cat- remember that practice makes perfect. So grab every chance you
egories when they are confronted with large amounts of in- have to deliver what may turn out to be the best talk ever!
formation in order to make sense of the world. If you dont
organize your material into categories, the audience will do By Yulia Shcherbinina
FOCUS ON LITERATURE English

51
MayJune 2014

- ***
Three people called Val, John and Pete
Limericks. Made themselves some chocolate to eat.
- When a man called Micky
(18121888), Asked if it was sticky,
, - Val replied, Yes it is, in the heat.
. Daniel Miles (6 years old)
- ***
, There was a young girl from Blue Peter,
. On her travels was faced with a cheetah,
, Though John looked a good meal,
. , There was no package deal,
Twas the bite out of Pete that was sweeter.
, Joanna Simpson (13 years old)
-
. .
1971 . , ,
(Blue Peter), - ***
. There was once a brown dog called Spot,
- Who tied up his tail with a knot,
, ( - To remember his bone,
) (.: The Blue Peter Book of Which hed left back at home,
Limericks. London, 1972). When he sometimes went out for a trot.
. Rebecca Telford (7 years old)
, - ***
, . , There was a young man with a fox,
. - Which slept in a cardboard box,
- It went into town
; To buy a nightgown,
, , And returned with some red and white socks.
. - Jeremy Chantrill (10 years old)
1846 . (.: A Book of Nonsense). ***
There was an old lady from Beddy,
: , , ; Who went for a walk with a teddy.
, , And when they came back
, ; , The teddy was fat,
, - - Because he had eaten the lady.
; Robert Whitaker (6 years old)
-
; , -
( ). , - .
:
, . ***
There was a.... My father, he sat on a chair,
, - For sitting he has quite a flair.
? ? , - But the chair it went crack,
, He fell flat on his back.
, . Id have laughed, but I just didnt dare.
Theresa Saward (13 years old)
: ***
There was a young man called Pete, There was an old teacher named Brass,
Whose hair hung down to his feet. Who was blessed with an unbrainy class,
Said Val to John, They slept and they snored
Its getting too long, And completely ignored
We cant let him out on the street. Theorems like Pythagoras.
Karen Fisher (10 years old) Susan Owens (15 years old)
English FOCUS ON LITERATURE

52
MayJune 2014

And if youre not a clot,


. Youll see why its called a Sampan.
, Teresa Jenkins (10 years old)
. - ***
In hot weather a farmer named Doyle,
. Would wrap himself up in tin foil,
In a cool place hed store
*** Himself and hed snore,
There was a young laddie called Tony, For he feared in the heat he might spoil.
Who ate plates of fried macaroni, Bruce Smith (10 years old)
He got very fat, ***
But he didnt mind that, There was a headmaster called Skinner,
Cos he bounced when he fell off his pony. At games he was always a winner,
Belinda Kellett (8 years old) He won games of chess,
*** And went to Loch Ness,
There was a young lady called Janet, Then had the monster for dinner.
With a figure the shape of this planet Fergus Cross (9 years old)
When discussing the mile,
She thought for a while, , -
Then stood up, quickly, and ran it. .
Krystyna Januszczyk (14 years old) -, -
*** (
There was once a tailor called Pinn, ),
Who only made suits for the thin, (-
To keep out the fat, ). ,
He stood on the mat, ,
And only let thin ones come in. . , ,
Natasha Willis (8 years old) .
-,
-
, , - . , , -
. -
,
*** . , ,
There was a young boy called Danny, , -
Who wanted to visit his nanny, , ,
He got on the bus, -
Without any fuss, , .
But he never had any money. , , -,
Daniel Paul Cundy (4 years old) .
-
*** (
There was a young lady from Reading, ),
Who was dying to go to a wedding.
So she bought a big hat, , , -
With a veil and all that, , ,
But she couldnt see where she was heading. ,
Kathryri Wright (9 years old) .
:
, - 1) (, . .);
( 2) ;
). 3) -
*** , .
There was an old man called Sam,
Who sailed in a boat to Japan, .. ,
It was shaped like a pot, - 3 .
FOCUS ON LITERATURE English

53
MayJune 2014



, -
-
. -
, -
. -

,
, . -
,
.
, -
. ,
-
, - There was an Old Man in a boat,
Who said, I am a float! I am a float!
. - When they said, No! you arent!
- He was ready to faint,
, That unhappy Old Man in a boat.

, , , - There was a young lady of Parma,
. Whose conduct grew calmer and calmer,
When they said, Are you dumb?
, , - She merely said, Hum!
. That provoking young lady of Parma.
,
,
.
, , -
. -
,

,
.

There was a fat man of Bombay,


Who was smoking one sunshine day,
When a bird called a snipe,
Flew away with his pipe, There was an old man who supposed,
Which vexed the fat man of Bombay. That the street door was partially closed,
But some very large rats
Ate his coats and his hats,
While that futile old gentleman dozed.

There was an old man in a garden,


Who always begged everyones pardon,
When they asked him, What for?
He replied You are a bore!
And I trust youll go out of my garden.

,
1416,
. -

English FOCUS ON LITERATURE

54 BRINGING TABOO ISSUES


MayJune 2014

to the Classroom
Cultural and linguistic taboos are hard to avoid as a Russian Such controversy is very likely to prevent Russian schools
saying goes, a word dropped from a song makes it all wrong. from including books of this kind in their curricula, but they can
Plunging our students into the language environment, we can not definitely be included in supplemental reading lists. It may also
shield them from TV commercials advertising feminine hygiene be difficult to deal with books dedicated to taboo topics because
products or from debates about gay marriage, which are covered there is a risk of offending or disturbing the learners, which is why
by all mainstream media. However, we can give our students a teachers should always take into consideration their students re-
helping hand and guide them through the maze of sensitive issues ligious and cultural background, as well as other circumstances.
and tricky vocabulary. It may also be difficult to choose a book or story by a young
In trying to raise students cultural and linguistic awareness, adult writer for individual students or for the whole class, as con-
teachers have to address a wider range of issues in their classrooms, temporary YA literature still remains terra incognita school li-
including those which have long been considered inappropriate for braries have few copies if any, and students often have to make
educational purposes. In response to this growing demand, mate- do with The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Along with
rials, writers, and publishing houses have created such books as the global decline of interest in reading among young people, all
Dangerous English 2000 (Elizabeth Claire) including even bed- this makes the mission of introducing contemporary YA writers
room and toilet vocabulary rich in euphemisms, double meanings, to Russian students even more challenging.
and the slang, and less dangerous Taboos and issues (Richard Another problem is a lack of materials created to motivate
Mac Andrew and Ron Martinez), covering numerous sensitive top- the students to read and facilitate the process of reading, so in
ics ranging from transgenderism to social inequality. an attempt to meet this demand the British Council launched a
Another area where students are likely to encounter linguistic project called BritLit in order to create materials based on works
and cultural taboos is literature, especially books by contempo- by contemporary British writers. The mission of the project is
rary young adult (teenage) writers, who address such hot issues to change the traditional approach of dealing with literature in
as identity, bullying, sexuality, depression, suicide, drug and al- TEFL, where fiction is merely used as texts, i.e. material for lan-
cohol abuse, crimes, disabilities, family conflicts, divorce, and guage and vocabulary practice. All materials can be found at the
numerous others. Such books can spark an interest even in the website https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/britlit. They are free,
most reluctant readers, and this is one of the reasons why they are downloadable, and most of them include audio and video files as
now becoming included in school curricula in GB and the USA. well as the original texts (thanks to the authors for their generous
In spite of all the benefits, even award-winning books may be permission), which solves the problem of finding books for the
so controversial that some parents object to their children reading whole class.
them. For example, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time In 2011, Russian teachers joined the project in NILE (Norwich
Indian by Sherman Alexie has won numerous awards, includ- Institute for Language Education) and I was lucky to be there and
ing the 2007 National Book Award for Young Peoples Literature. take part in creating BritLit kits packages of teaching materi-
The novel is a first-person narrative by a Native American teen- als, consisting of pre-reading, during reading and post-reading
ager from a reservation family, who are so poor that they had to (follow-up) activities, teachers notes, and audio and video files.
shoot their sick dog because they cant afford the treatment. The They are not lesson plans though, and basically their essence
boy is skinny, with poor eyesight and an over-sized head. He is is reflected in the term kit, which means a box of tools, from
used to bullying, but he still ventures to go to an all-white public which you can take what is necessary, depending on the teachers
high school in another town, where he faces more challenges. and students needs and interests, their level, and the amount of
The story is heartbreaking, but the authors sense of humor paired available time. All elements of BritLit kits serve to achieve the
with funny cartoons drawn by the boy make the story easy to read primary goal of building up motivation at all stages of reading.
for a young adult audience. Most BritLit kits are based on stories, because its easier to
Despite high praise from critics and a positive response from deal with them in terms of size, so in 2012 it was decided to
readers, the book was removed from several schools curricula balance this inequality and create a kit based on a full length
because it depicts sex and violence, contains profanity, and has novel. This time our team was Russian and consisted of a group
been viewed by many as anti-Christian. In response to such accu- of school teachers and a group of university teachers Klimeno-
sations the author wrote in the Wall Street Journal a post called, va J. (Moscow State University), Mamaev M., Skitina N. and me
Why the Best Kids Books Are Written in Blood. He points out (Moscow State Regional University). Both groups were guided
that he has visited many schools and received many letters from and inspired by Alan Pulverness Assistant Academic Director at
students who liked the book and have had difficult experiences NILE and author and co-author of a number of ELT textbooks.
similar to his own depression, attempted suicide, gang warfare, Both teams had to read nine beautifully written novels short-
sexual and physical abuse, absentee parents, poverty, racism, and listed by Alan and choose one for their kits-to-be. It was a diffi-
learning disabilities. Sherman Alexie also agues that attempts cult choice because all of the novels touch upon sensitive or even
to prevent school-aged children from learning about such harsh taboo issues terminal illnesses and death (Patrick Ness, A Mon-
things are way, way too late, because most kids have already ster Calls), children with special needs (Mark Haddon, The Curi-
experienced them in real life. ous Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time), bullying and crime
FOCUS ON LITERATURE English

55
MayJune 2014

friends or relatives died recently? Do you know anyone who is


terminally ill? Perhaps not. So, the topic we chose to deal with
before reading the novel is dreams, because we could use it as a
bridge to the issue of nightmares and monsters, and as one of the
pre-reading activities we suggested a quiz about dreams.
(Kevin Brooks, Kissing the Rain), religious conflicts (Theresa
Breslin, Divided City), child abuse (Melvin Burgess, Nicholas TRUE FALSE
Dane), war and its impact on peoples lives (Meg Rosoff, How I 1. Everyone dreams every night.
live now, Mal Peet, Tamar, Bali Rai, City of Ghosts), terrorism, 2. Babies dont dream about themselves.
suicide bombing, teenage sex and pregnancy (Malorie Blackman 3. In our dreams we may see unfamiliar faces.
Noughts and Crosses). 4. You cannot dream while snoring.
The group of school teachers chose Divided City by Theresa 5. People always dream in colour.
Breslin, and after a heated discussion our group of university 6. In Middle English the word dream meant
teachers decided on the award-winning novel A Monster calls by joy and music.
Patrick Ness because we felt that it had prospects in terms of ma- 7. Usually children have more nightmares.
terials writing and because of the emotional response it elicited. 8. Your body is virtually paralyzed during
The impact the book has on the reader is enhanced by the fact your sleep, so that it cannot act out aspects of
that the original idea of the plot was conceived by Siobhan Dowd, your dreams.
who died of breast cancer and had no time to write the novel, so 9. Cats and dogs dont dream.
the publisher asked her colleague to finish what she had begun, 10. Most people forget about 90 % of their
and now there are two names on the cover Siobhan Dowd and dreams.
Patrick Ness. 11. In dreams, positive emotions are more
The story opens with 13-year-old Conor waking from the common than negative ones.
same nightmare every night. At 12:07 a voice calls to him from
outside his bedroom window, which overlooks an old church and Key: 1. T, 2. T, 3. F, 4. T, 5. F, 6. T, 7. T, 8. T, 9. F, 10. T, 11. F.
its graveyard sheltered by a yew tree. Walking to the window,
Conor meets the monster, which looks like a towering mass of Before reading the novel students can also be asked to pre-
branches and leaves. The monster claims that it will help Conor dict what it is about judging from the title, because the verb to
by telling him three stories, all of which have an important mes- call has several meanings in the English language and may mean
sage. In return, the monster wants Connor to tell him his true sto- communicating by telephone, saying something in a loud voice,
ry about what worries him the most. Between the stories we learn or demanding somebodys presence, for example. Students can
that Conors mother has cancer, he has complicated relationships also be asked to visualize the monster, as it is interesting to know
with other relatives and he is bullied at school. His is heartbro- how different the images in peoples minds can be. Besides,
ken, however when Conor is forced to tell his own nightmare, he drawing is always fun and such activities create a more relaxed
begins to learn how to cope with his grief. atmosphere.
The novel is heartbreaking, but most reviews consider it use- However, after the students start reading the novel it will be
ful and important both for children and adults, and in some way it impossible to avoid talking about death, and here emerges the is-
can have a healing or therapeutic effect. Even the respected medi- sue of vocabulary with numerous euphemisms having different
cal journal The Lancet published a review of the book, saying that shades of meaning, connotations, and register. As a post-reading
the story of a 13-year-old boy whose mother is terminally ill is activity students can be asked to find such euphemisms and dis-
remarkable for the unique way it tackles the difficult yet universal cuss their properties in examples taken from newspapers or fic-
subject of a terminal illness within a family and all those terrify- tion:
ing, conflicting emotions that such a situation throws up. 1. A new book has rounded up hilarious true stories of people
However, one of the arguments against choosing this novel kicking the bucket in truly crazy fashion. (The Sun)
was that some students might have lost their friends or relatives 2. Now, every day with Daniel is a blessing. Yvonne dreads the
or they might have a terminally ill loved one, and the story would moment when she will be forced to say goodbye to her only
hurt their feelings or bring back painful memories. For this rea- surviving son. As full-time carers, Yvonne and hubby Nor-
son, it was decided to tread lightly while working on our kit man, 51, are constantly aware that each breath could be Dan-
and the first challenge was to create pre-reading activities to in- iels last. (The Sun)
troduce the book. 3. Kafeel Ahmed is a suspected terrorist who apparently intend-
A common ELT practice is to activate the schemata, i.e. to ed to die in flames, taking with him as many innocent people
alert the student to any prior information, knowledge or experi- as possible. Plenty wish hed met his maker. Now doctors are
ence of the topic. But is it appropriate to ask students directly fighting to save him against his will and at huge cost to the
such questions as: Are you afraid of death? Have any of your very people he would probably like to annihilate. (The Sun)
English FOCUS ON LITERATURE

56
MayJune 2014

4. Michels passed away early on Thursday morning in a hospi- 5. A unique funeral tradition occurs in _______________. A typi-
tal in Belgium after complications resulting from heart surgery cal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz_funeral ceremony begins
two weeks ago. (The Guardian) with a march by the family, friends, and a jazz band, starting
5. Radio star Ken Bruce yesterday killed off rock legend Frankie from the home, funeral home, or church, and proceeding to the
Miller much to the shock of the singer... He told millions of cemetery. Throughout the march, the band plays very somber
listeners that Miller originally from Bridgeton, Glasgow music which is later replaced by loud, upbeat, raucous music
was sadly no longer with us. But in fact the 62-year-old was and dancing where onlookers join in to celebrate the life of the
at home, listening to the show. (The Scottish Sun) deceased. They wave handkerchiefs above the head that are no
longer being used to wipe away tears.
Surprisingly, the list of euphemisms related to death includes
humorous ones, like at room temperature, kick the bucket or Key: 1. Vietnam, 2. Europe, 3. Thailand, 4. The Vikings, 5. New
pushing up daisies. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that Orleans.
when people laugh, they release painful feelings, and as the hero
of The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian said, when it Among other materials there are also ideas for project work,
comes to death, we know that laughter and tears are pretty much tasks on conversational analysis for more advanced students, and
the same thing. extra resources, which we were lucky to find audio and video
Such laughter is called cathartic by psychologists and it can interviews with Patrick Ness and an audio recording done by the
work wonders. An example of laughter therapy can be seen in author.
the American film Patch Adams with Robin Williams. In one A Monster Calls is a moving novel and naturally all students
of the scenes of the film, the doctor dressed as an angel comes to will have something to say, even if they find it too personal and
a terminally ill patient and starts calling death different names, therefore hard to talk about. But one needs to speak out to lay the
challenging it with rude and humorous ones: Death. To die. To bogey to rest and students may be referred to websites like http://
expire. To pass on. To perish. To peg out. To push up daisies. To dyingmatters.org, which were created for dying people and their
push up posies. To become extinct. Curtains, deceased, demised, families who can feel shut out of social circles and experience a
departed, and defunct. Dead as a doornail. Dead as a herring. tremendous sense of isolation. Another website dedicated to this
Dead as a mutton. Dead as nits. The last breath. Paying a debt subject is http://deathcafe.com, which tells about a nonprofit so-
to nature. The big sleep. Gods way of saying Slow down. The cial franchise of death cafes where people can come and talk
patient is angry at first but later he joins in, and they take turns about death over a cup of coffee. This project has received media
calling death names and end up laughing. coverage both in Britain and in the US, including The New York
Another follow-up activity is focused on burial rituals and Times and The Guardian.
customs in different cultures. The task is to read some facts about Talking about death doesnt bring death closer, in spite of nu-
burial rituals and try to guess whose cultural traditions they be- merous fears and superstitions which still exist. The same is true
long to Europe, New Orleans (the USA), Thailand, Vietnam or regarding many other taboo topics, and perhaps now the time has
the Vikings. come to broaden our minds and the range of issues we bring to
1. In _______________ people are buried in the fields where our students who are eager to discuss up-to-date topics and read
they lived and worked. It is common to see large stone monu- books written for and about contemporary teenagers.
ments in the middle of a pasture and friends and relatives leave
thick wads of counterfeit money under rocks so the deceased By Ekaterina Toroptseva,
can buy whatever they need on their way to the next life. Moscow State Regional University
2. In 19th century _______________ the dead were carried out References:
of the house feet first, in order to prevent the spirit from look- 1. Paula Span Death Be Not Decaffeinated: Over Cup, Groups
ing back into the house and beckoning another member of the Face Taboo, New York Times, June 16, 2013
family to follow him. For the same reason family photographs 2. Eleanor Tucker What on earth is a death cafe? The Guard-
were also sometimes turned face down. ian, Saturday 22 March 2014
3. In _______________ there are wooden spirit houses in front 3. Sherman Alexie, Why the Best Kids Books Are Written in
of almost every hut no matter how rich or poor the owners are. Blood. The Wall Street Journal, July 12, 2011
Food and drink are left there for the souls of departed relatives 4. Odhran ODonoghue A Monster Calls. The Lancet Oncol-
who are believed to watch over the lands and the families left ogy, Volume 13, Issue 5, Page 458, May 2012
behind. 5. Interview with Patrick Ness on writing A Monster Calls: http://
4. _______________ were buried in large graves dug in the www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00yhhyd
shape of a ship and lined with rocks. The persons belongings http://www.teachingbooks.net/tb.cgi?tid=26522&a=1
and food were placed beside them. Men took their weapons 6. Audio recording (done by Patrick Ness)
to the next world, while women were laid to rest wearing their http://www.candlewick.com/media_view.asp?isbn=
finest jewelry and accessories. 0763655597
FOCUS ON LITERATURE English

57
READING SKILLS MayJune 2014

1. STYLES OF READING Notice any maps, graphs or charts. They are there for a purpose
There are three styles of reading which we use in different situa- Notice the reading aids, italics, bold face, and questions at the end of
tions: the chapter. They are all there to help you understand and remember.
Scanning: For a Specific Focus Question. Help your mind to engage and concentrate. Your mind is
The technique you use when youre looking up a name in the phone engaged in learning when it is actively looking for answers to ques-
book: you move your eye quickly over the page to find particular tions.
words or phrases that are relevant to the task youre doing. Try turning the boldface headings into questions you think the section
Its useful to scan parts of texts to see if theyre going to be useful should answer.
to you: Read. Read the first section with your questions in mind. Look for the
the introduction or preface of a book answers, and make up new questions if necessary.
the first or last paragraphs of chapters Recall. After each section, stop and think back to your questions.
the concluding chapter of a book. See if you can answer them from memory. If not, take a look back at
Skimming: For Getting the Gist of Something the text. Do this as often as you need to.
The technique you use when youre going through a newspaper or Review. Once you have finished the whole chapter, go back over all
magazine: you read quickly to get the main points, and skip over the the questions from all the headings. See if you can still answer them.
details. Its useful to skim: If not, look back and refresh your memory.
to preview a passage before you read it in detail 4. SPOTTING AUTHORS NAVIGATION AIDS
to refresh your understand of a passage after you've read it in Learn to recognise sequence signals, for example: Three advan-
detail. tages of... or A number of methods are available... leads you to
Use skimming when youre trying to decide if a book in the library or expect several points to follow.
bookshop is right for you. The first sentence of a paragraph will often indicate a sequence:
Detailed Reading: For Extracting Information Accurately One important cause of... followed by Another important factor...
Where you read every word, and work to learn from the text. and so on, until The final cause of...
In this careful reading, you may find it helpful to skim first to get a General points are often illustrated by particular examples, for ex-
general idea, but then go back to read in detail. Use a dictionary to ample:
make sure you understand all the words used. General: Birds beaks are appropriately shaped for feeding.
2. ACTIVE READING Particular: Sparrows and other seed-eating birds have short, stubby
When youre reading for your course, you need to make sure youre beaks; wrens and other insect eaters have thin, pointed beaks; herons
actively involved with the text. Its a waste of your time to just pas- and other fish hunters have long, sharp beaks for spearing their prey.
sively read, the way youd read a thriller on holiday. Whatever you are reading, be aware of the authors background. It is
Always make notes to keep up your concentration and understand- important to recognise the bias given to writing by a writers political,
ing. religious, and social background. Learn which newspapers and jour-
Here are four tips for active reading. nals represent a particular standpoint.
Underlining and Highlighting. Pick out what you think are the most 5. WORDS AND VOCABULARY
important parts of what you are reading. Do this with your own copy When youre a university graduate people expect you to use a vo-
of texts or on photocopies, not with borrowed books. If you are a cabulary which is wider than a non-graduates. To expand your vo-
visual learner, youll find it helpful to use different colours to highlight cabulary:
different aspects of what youre reading. Choose a large dictionary, rather than one which is compact or con-
Note key words. Record the main headings as you read. Use one or cise. You want one which is big enough to define words clearly and
two keywords for each point. When you dont want to mark the text, helpfully (around 1,500 pages is a good size).
keep a folder of notes you make while reading. Avoid dictionaries which send you round in circles by just giving syno-
Questions. Before you start reading something like an article, a nyms. A pocket dictionary might suggest: impetuous = rash.
chapter or a whole book, prepare for your reading by noting down A more comprehensive dictionary will tell you that impetuous means
questions you want the material to answer. While youre reading, rushing with force and violence, while another gives liable to act with-
note down questions which the author raises. out consideration, and adds to your understanding by giving the der-
Summaries. Pause after youve read a section of text. Then: ivation 14th century, from late Latin impetuous = violent.
1. put what youve read into your own words; It will tell you that rash means acting without due consideration or
2. skim through the text and check how accurate your summary is thought, and is derived from Old High German rasc = hurried.
and Underlying these two similar words is the difference between vio-
3. fill in any gaps. lence and hurrying.
3. A TIP FOR SPEEDING UP YOUR ACTIVE READING There are over 600,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary; most of
You should learn a huge amount from your reading. If you read pas- them have different meanings (only a small proportion is synonyms).
sively, without learning, youre wasting your time. So train your mind Avoid dictionaries which send you round in circles by using very com-
to learn. plicated language to define the term youre looking up, leaving you
Try the SQ3R technique. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, struggling to understand half a dozen new words.
Recall and Review. Keep your dictionary at hand when youre studying. Look up unfamil-
Survey. Gather the information you need to focus on the work and iar words and work to understand what they mean.
set goals: Improve your vocabulary by reading widely.
Read the title to help prepare for the subject If you havent got your dictionary with you, note down words which
Read the introduction or summary to see what the author thinks you dont understand and look them up later.
are the key points Source: http://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk
Notice the boldface headings to see what the structure is Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina
English TEACHERS FORUM

58
MayJune 2014 HOW TO BRING U
Grave Mercy, His Fair Assassin Trilogy by Robin LaFevers.
. : ,
Initial Reaction: This is the kind of book I live for. Gripping, intriguing, 5 , 710 14.
dangerous. Beautiful. A historical novel packed to the brim with fleshed- 1516 . .
out, fantastic characters and some of the best world-building in the genre , .
by far.
, ,
What I liked: First of all, I have to repeat: this is the kind of book I live
for. Ive always been a reader, but the books that made me truly begin to . : -
devour words were historical romances in the Tudor era. Now, I always , ,
thought they needed to be a little grittier, but for the world-building, and , -
absolute escapism, they were perfect. While GRAVE MERCY is a very .
far cry from Tudor historical romances, it does offer the perfect blend of -,
the escape of history, the plans and plots of court life, and the action and .
all around kick-ass-ness that I craved of its heroines. . ( , -
-: - ): .
.
, .
Revolution by Jennifer Donnelly , , -
, , .
: 14, - -
Though I have been hearing folks rave about Jennifer Donnelly the past . , -
six months or more, this is not the first time that I have heard of her. I came .
close to reading her young adult novel A Northern Light, based on the real : , -
life tragedy of Grace Brown and Chester Gillette. I would still like to read . -
that at some point. As I said earlier this month I am glad that reading this for : The House where Evil Dwells by James Hardiman.
my IRL book club has forced me to finally have to pick this up. Its also a
- -
bonus that the novel focuses heavily on the French Revolution, which I am
exploring in my reading of Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities. ( ): -
Revolution tells the story of teenagers Andi Alpert and Alexandrine . , .
Paradis. The two girls dont know each other officially, in fact they are .
separated by 200 years and an ocean, as they grow up on different .:
continents. Andi lives in present day Brooklyn and Alex in revolutionary .
France. Andis life has been deteriorating after the death of a loved : Alice was
one sends her family sinking into the type of dysfunction that is beyond beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and
repair. Her father immerses himself in work, and her mother begins a of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the
slow descent into madness, while Andi punishingly works out her guilt
book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations
and grief through her music, drugs and lapses into half-hearted suicide
attempts and promiscuity. In a last ditch effort to keep her on track for
in it, and what is the use of a book, thought Alice, without
high school graduation and college, her father takes her with him on a pictures or conversation?
business trip to Paris, France. There Andi finds Alexs diary and upon
reading it becomes dangerously immersed in her revolutionary life; she . .
finds they are similar in their despair and in tragedy. , , ,
There was a lot that I loved and will look forward to again with , .
Jennifer Donnellys writing. I loved the way that she got the voices of .
the teenagers and the realism of the dialogue. She vividly created that , .
world for me with the angst, the smart mouths, and the rapt attention to . : -
pop culture. I also liked the way Donnelly took a chance and made Andi
! .
completely cranky and obnoxious. I dont know that I ever really liked
her, but I deeply understood her. She is a brat, shes hurting, and she -
is not nice so that she can push people away. Andi has experienced a , ,
great deal, so you buy into this being who she is and how she copes, . , -
though you want her to make different choices or you want to smack her. ,
Usually both. Donnelly does a wonderful job of weaving the history of the , , , -
revolution into Alexs diaries in such a way that you dont even mind that .
you have gotten a history lesson, and her use of music to bring the novel .
to life was extremely well played. I often read for longer than I intended, .
and wondered how Andi could put down Alexs diary.
: ,
I was fully immersed in Andi and Alexs lives and I wanted the answers
to questions posed in both stories equally. Though I had a feeling it was
. -
going the direction that it inevitably took, I was a little disappointed with the .
ending. Its not abrupt or inappropriate in any way and it is as well-written . -
as the rest of the book, but it felt a little flat and somehow disappointing , -
for me. I think maybe I just didnt want it to go where it did, and it took a bit , . ,
away from the story. All in all though, I loved and was captivated through . ,
almost all of this novel. Donnelly touches on a plethora of themes such , -. -
as mental instability, drug use and abuse, death, and the collapse of a
family, to name a few, and she does it in a completely organic way. I look 2005 . 2006
forward to experiencing more of Donnellys richly detailed writing and
Dragon Rider
characters in her other novels.
.
TEACHERS FORUM English

G UP A READER? 59
MayJune 2014

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: There are a lot of great books about hard life of 2010
people that were written especially for kids. 2011 Truth or Consequences ( ), -
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languages in the original. ! -
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Setterfield (b. 1964) is a British author whose 2006 debut novel, , , , -
The Thirteenth Tale, became a New York Times No. 1 best-seller. , . -
It is written in the Gothic tradition, with echoes of Jane Eyre , ,
, ,
and Wuthering Heights; Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (b. 1960) is a
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Belgian dramatist, novelist and fiction writer. .
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By Olga Sventsitskaya
English YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION

60
MayJune 2014 RIVERS IN LITERATURE
AND MY SPECIAL RIVER
Rivers are a great treasure! For centuries they have been
main roads all over Russia, as well as in Perm Krai. There
were neither railways nor airlines. Rivers have become an
important part of peoples life. Our ancestors settled along
the banks of rivers both big and small. It was rivers that gave
them all the necessary things for living: water, food, trade,
and communication with others. Little by little people and
rivers became so close, that people treated them as living
creatures. They addressed them kindly and lovingly. We can
find a lot of desriptions of rivers in literature, poems, songs,
and art.
A lot of great writers pictured rivers in their works. The
most famous description of the river Dnepr was written by
N.V. Gogol. He compared the Dnepr with a strong, mighty
and powerful man. In 15 lines he used 9 metaphors, 17 epi-
thets and 2 comparisons.
It`s interesting to compare his description with that of
the great English writer Jerome K. Jerome in his famous love our river.The former teacher of our school, Potyomina
book Three Men in a Boat. He wrote about the Thames, one Nina Vasilevna, has written a small poem about the Vilva,
of the most important rivers of Great Britain. Like Gogol, he and Melkomukov Sergey Nikolaevich composed the mu-
also compared the river to a living creature. But the Thames sic. Once the teachers of our school (which is unfortunately
doesn`t look like the Dnepr, which has the same character closed now) sang it at an amateur competition. The villagers
in daytime and at night. In Jerome K. Jeromes description, still sing it. I have tried to render it in English.
the Thames is a playful and kind dancing wavelet. Chas-
ing shadows, throwing kisses to lilies silvering moss grown You carry through the forest your water
wall and bridges. But in rainy weather, which is typical for My Vilva, you are so fast
Great Britain, its water is brown and sluggish. The author Our people call you Kama`s daughter
compares the river with a weeping woman surrounded by And love you with all their hearts
silent ghosts with reproachful eyes. I`ve counted literary
devices in this abstract and discovered that there are 38 epi- The peace of your water protecting
thets. Strong old pinetrees on your banks
The village I live in has a river called the Vilva. Our Vilva For centuries they have been standing
is only two meters wide and not very long, but it is a part of On guard of your water and lands
our village life. The name of the river means new, clean,
fresh water. There is another variant, vilyos, which in Whenever I am in my future
the Komi language means twisting. The schoolchildren of My dearest, my native land
Vilva tried to find its source several times and at last found it I`ll always remember your nature
15 kilometres away from the village near the pine forest. We And Vilva, my closest friend

The people of our village love their native place, know a


lot of legends and still sing the song.
It doesn`t matter what rivers are like long or short, wide
or narrow, famous or not, all of them deserve to be described
with metaphors and epithets as they play an important role in
peoples lives and fates.

, 7
,

. ,


. .

VK.COM/CREATE_YOUR_ENGLISH
YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION English

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MayJune 2014

MY FAVOURITE CHARACTER
A fascinating and unforgettable character! ible, like the traits of Scarletts character. What I admire most of
A heroine that will never be forgotten. all about Scarlett is her fighting spirit, her determination to never
Chicago Tribune retreat and never surrender. Recalling some episodes of the book
can easily prove this.
I have read many wonderful books that have made a big impres- Scarlett was born in a rich planters family and always got every-
sion on me. Its hard to say which character has had the most signifi- thing she wanted. She led a careless life and grew up rather selfish.
cant influence on my way of life and my worldview. I often take my But then, the Civil War broke out. For the first time ever Scarlett
favourite books and lovingly begin to turn over the pages that are so was confronted with peoples cruelty, betrayal, starvation and other
precious to my heart. Here is The Gadfly by Ethel Lillian Voynich, attendant horrors of war. The escape from burning Atlanta, occu-
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and pied by the Yankees, became the culmination point of her moral and
the favourite book of my childhood, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer physical sufferings. I cant help wondering where Scarletts striking
by Mark Twain and so on and so forth there are too many of them. firmness came from, how that spoilt eighteen-year-old girl was able
It is really difficult for me to choose my favourite character because to get through all this and survive in such a hell. That was the mo-
they are all close to me in their own way. Maybe it is Felice Rivares, ment when Scarlett understood how much Tara meant to her: She
the fearless and courageous champion of truth in The Gadfly? Well, wanted Tara with the desperate desire of a frightened child frantic
he has really had an influence on me and, to tell the truth, this book for the only heaven it had ever known. Home! But when Scarlett
remains the only one that makes me cry every time I read it. But its returned home she found that she had a lot of troubles in store for
main character is a man (and I am not) which means that sometimes her: Tara had been ruined. And she began to work as hard as she
we are not in the same camp. Another character to be considered is could to save her family and her home. She understood perfectly
Sherlock Holmes. He is undoubtedly clever, and his personality is well that yes, Tara was worth fighting for, and she accepted simply
very magnetic. I admire Holmes but he doesnt have any influence and without question the fight. No one was going to get Tara away
on me. The same could be said about Tom Sawyer. I read the book from her. It gives me the creeps every time I read Scarletts words,
when I was nine. Tom seemed very brave, honest and romantic to the courageous words of an exhausted but unbeaten woman: As
me. Now that Im fifteen, I recall my attitude towards this character God is my witness, as God is my witness, the Yankees arent going
with a smile. But who, then? Suddenly I understand that Ive forgot- to lick me. Im going to live through this, and when its over, Im
ten something very important. I go to the bookshelf, take a book with never going to be hungry again. No, nor any of my folks.
a pastel-colored cover and read: Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Here we can see yet another of Scarletts traits worthy of respect
Wind. How could I forget it? I re-read favourite chapters and I under- a strong sense of responsibility. Sometimes her methods of strug-
stand that Scarlett is the character I like most of all and she has made gle were not too fair; but when Im told that Scarlett is heartless, I
an unforgettable impression on me. Why do I want to write about disagree. She was very kind, although she didnt confess it even to
Scarlett? What have I found in her that attracts me so much? herself. I think everyone liked Scarlett for her wonderful character
The novel Gone with the Wind was first published in 1936 and traits: resolution, selflessness, vitality and courage, but at the same
became the talking point of all America. Everyone liked the high- time femininity, delicacy, defenselessness and charm. The list of
spirited and beautiful heroine, Scarlett OHara. Everyoneexcept her virtues can be endless.
the critics. She ran the gauntlet of the reviewers and, I think, suffered Many people have their ideals, and some even idols. Fortu-
many indignities. Even the author said the following about her hero- nately, I dont belong to the second group. I wouldnt say that Scar-
ine: I tried to describe a woman who is anything but admirable... I lett is my ideal either. In some respects, Im more self-restrained
find it absurd and funny that Miss OHara has become a sort of na- than she is. But it wouldnt be a stretch to say that I try to be as
tional heroine; and I think that it is very bad for the moral and mental resolute and purposeful as Scarlett. I can give an example. Every
state of the nation, if the nation can applaud and admire a woman year I take part in the English language competition held in my
who behaved like this. With time the author warmed to her character town. I love English and would like to know it well. Last year, dur-
and wrote to one of her fans: Im glad that you like Scarlett and con- ing such a competition, I unexpectedly failed at the very first stage.
sider her a resolute girl, worthy of admiration Many people also For me, it was a real disaster. I came home and burst out crying.
say something like that about my heroine. They say that, no matter After some time I saw a book on my desk, opened it in the middle
how selfish Scarlett was, she had unconquerable courage. They like and began to read to distract myself somehow. As you can guess,
Scarlett because of her determination and her ability to see the crux of it was Gone with the Wind. Little by little, my hysterical mood be-
the matter in difficult situations a feature which is always rare. The gan to disappear and I decided (as Scarlett had once done): I cant
critics also accused Scarlett of being a cynical, shameless and heart- think now. Ill think later. Ill think of it all tomorrow. And the next
less woman who had no rights to be called a lady, who thought only day everything seemed much simpler and then I told myself: Oh,
about her own interests. They failed to understand that a character feedle-dee-dee! Its no use crying over such trifles. Do something!
that had conquered the whole country just couldnt be so negative. It Make it happen like Scarlett would have done. This year I have
is not in vain that the readers adored the fearless Miss OHara. Eve- become the best in the same competition.
ryone who has ever taken Gone with the Wind in their hands begins to So, Scarlett is the character that has had the most significant influ-
sympathize with this wonderful, little American woman. ence on me. She is wonderful and extraordinary in every respect. I
Now lets take a closer look at Scarlett and try to find out what think it is no small wonder that she has conquered all the world with
attracts me to this character. Scarlett could stand up for herself; her charm and firmness. One cant help loving this heroine, full of
she, like an abandoned cat, was able to rise to her feet and keep energy and fire. For me, she personifies courage, self-reliance and
on struggling. She was full of contradictions; the name given by selflessness, beauty and coquetry, soberness of mind and resolution.
the author to her heroine also speaks volumes; it can mean at least
three things: a red flower, a disease (scarlet fever) and a wan- By Anna Mokhova,
ton woman (The Scarlett Letter) things seemingly incompat- Gymnasium No. 1, Tula
English

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