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No-Load Loss

Themistoklis D. Kefalas, Member, IEEE, and Antonios G. Kladas, Member, IEEE

formers are estimated at about 33 TW h/year, whereas reactive H Parameter of the hysteresis model.

power and harmonic losses add a further 5 TW h/year. The re-

duction of distribution transformer no-load loss is particularly im-

portant as the ratio of no-load to load losses is nearly three. In this I. I NTRODUCTION

paper, the no-load operation of wound-core transformers under

sinusoidal and distorted supply-voltage conditions is investigated.

For that purpose, a 2-D nonlinear transient finite-element analysis

taking into account hysteresis has been developed. The hysteresis

A CCORDING to Strategies for development and diffusion

of Energy Efficient Distribution Transformers (SEEDT),

the losses in European Union (EU-27) distribution transformers

model is based on a modified JilesAtherton representation, and are estimated at about 33 TW h/year. Furthermore, reactive

the proposed analysis is compared to experimental data. power and harmonic losses add a further 5 TW h/year. Thus,

Index TermsFinite element methods, industrial power system the total losses of distribution transformers in EU-27 might total

harmonics, magnetic anisotropy, magnetic cores, magnetic hys- to about 38 TW h/year. In comparison, the energy consump-

teresis, magnetic losses, nonlinear magnetics, power transformers, tion of Athens subway (ATTIKO METRO S.A.) in 2006 was

soft magnetic materials, transient analysis.

more than 400 times less, i.e., 0.09 TW h/year.

Transformer losses can be resolved into two components,

N OMENCLATURE namely, no-load and load losses. No-load loss occurs from the

, a Parameters of the Langevin function. energy required to retain the continuously varying magnetic

A Time derivative of the magnetic vector potential flux in the core, and it is invariant with load on the transformer.

vector. Load loss arises mainly from resistance losses in the conducting

H Parameter of the hysteresis model. material of the windings, and it is varying with the second

Az zth component of the magnetic vector potential. power of the load. One might argue that the load loss of a

Bp Peak flux density. typical distribution transformer is more important than the no-

D Potential-current coupling stiffness matrix. load loss. This stems from the fact that the load loss at rated

DF Deterioration factor. load is six times more than the no-load loss in the case of

f Frequency. transformers constructed of grain-oriented steel and 13 times

G Inductive damping matrix. more in the case of transformers constructed of amorphous

HAN Anhysteretic component of the magnetic field. steel [1]. Nevertheless, a distribution transformer is in circuit

HH Hysteretic component of the magnetic field. every day for 24 h and has a no-load loss load factor of 100%,

HHS Parameter of the hysteresis model. irrespective of the load delivered. The load loss, on the other

HHW Irreversible part of the hysteretic component. hand, will vary over a wide range, even for the same average

HRET Reversible part of the hysteretic component. load, since load losses are proportional to the square of load.

I Time derivative of the electric current vector. As a result, the continuous loss of energy to the magnetic core

Jz zth component of the current density. exceeds the loss of energy to the conductive material of the

L(AN ) Langevin function. transformer, even in the cases where the core is constructed of

MS Saturation magnetization. amorphous steel.

Mx , My Components of magnetization. Due to the loading characteristics of EU-27 distribution

N Number of turns of the excitation coil. transformers, the ratio of no-load to load losses is close to

S Lamination cross-sectional area. three. Consequently, the reduction of distribution transformer

no-load losses has recently become the top priority of many

countries [1].

Manuscript received February 28, 2009; revised August 5, 2009. First pub-

lished September 1, 2009; current version published December 11, 2009. This No-load loss is sensitive to the distortion of the supply-

work is part of the 03ED45 research project, implemented within the framework voltage waveform [2]. The deterioration of the supply-voltage

of the Reinforcement Program of Human Research Manpower (PENED) and waveform is caused by industrial and domestic loads, e.g.,

cofinanced by National and Community Funds (25% from the Greek Ministry

for DevelopmentGeneral Secretariat of Research and Technology and 75% switch-mode power supplies and fluorescent lamps that inject

from EUEuropean Social Fund). current harmonics in the power grid. Researchers developed

The authors are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineer- passive networks for the reduction of the ac input-current

ing, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece (e-mail:

thkefala@central.ntua.gr; kladasel@central.ntua.gr). total harmonic distortion (THD) [3], [4], techniques for the

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2009.2030207 minimization of undesired low-order harmonics at the input

0278-0046/$26.00 2010 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: Themistoklis Kefalas. Downloaded on December 19, 2009 at 13:36 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010

acdc converters with low-line-current distortion [6]. More re-

cently, cascaded multilevel inverters were developed for effec-

tive control of the input-current and output-voltage waveform,

diminishing in this manner harmful harmonic components [7],

[8], and active power filters and static var compensators using

multilevel inverters for the compensation of load currents with

a high-harmonic impact [9].

This paper deals with the distorted supply-voltage wave-

forms of the power grid that arise from the aforesaid situations,

i.e., without multiple zero crossings (no minor loops) and only

odd higher harmonics [10], in order to evaluate in particular

the harmonic impact on wound-core distribution transformer

no-load operation. Transformers are classified, depending on

Fig. 1. Typical wound core.

their magnetic core type, stack core, or wound core. Many

researchers have published their results from investigations of

stacked-type transformer cores [11], [12]. As a counterpart,

there are a few published works in the case of wound-type trans-

former cores, and many issues still remain unclear since the

stack- and wound-core topologies are completely different. The

authors have developed recently numerical techniques based

on the finite-element (FE) method, specifically formulated for

the no-load loss and flux-distribution evaluation of wound-

core distribution transformers under sinusoidal supply-voltage

conditions [13], [14]. This paper extends the aforementioned

numerical technique in order to include the case of distorted

supply-voltage conditions commonly encountered in the power

grid. A transient analysis is necessary for determining the

harmonic impact on wound-core distribution transformer no-

load operation. The analysis developed herein integrates the

hysteresis phenomena in the FE method. The hysteresis model

that the authors used is based on previous formulations given

in [11] and [15][17]. Nevertheless, the hysteresis model and

the respective FE formulation have been modified, as previous

attempts were constrained to the modeling of stacked magnetic

cores [11], ferrite pot cores [16], and rectangular Epstein frames

[17]. The simulated results are compared to the experimental

results obtained by a no-load loss and local-flux-density mea- Fig. 2. Wound-core transformer. (a) One-phase core type. (b) One-phase shell

surement apparatus [18]. type. (c) Three-phase shell type.

The purpose of this paper is to point out to the reader

the importance of distribution transformer no-load loss, as the stack core and the wound core. A typical wound core, shown

well as the harmonic impact on transformer no-load opera- in Fig. 1, is composed of hundreds of long continuous strips

tion, and to provide transformer manufacturers a no-load loss of sheet steel. The main advantages include reduction of joints

analysis numerical tool with which they can evaluate the tech- and the use of the grain direction of the steel for the flux path.

nically and economically optimum distribution transformer, Wound cores are commonly used for distribution transformers

working under either sinusoidal or distorted supply-voltage with ratings that range from a few kVA to a few MVA. One-

conditions. and three-phase wound-core distribution transformers are con-

structed by using one or more wound cores assembled about a

preformed electrical winding coil, as shown in Fig 2.

II. B RIEF D ESCRIPTION OF

W OUND -C ORE T RANSFORMERS

III. FE A NALYSIS FOR N O -L OAD L OSS E VALUATION

In order to transmit and distribute electrical energy over large

distances economically, it is necessary to minimize Joule losses The FE method has been used extensively by many re-

in the transmission lines by using a high voltage. The required searchers for the accurate field analysis of electromagnetic de-

increase and decrease of the voltage are performed by the vices. A 2-D FE analysis approach used for the analysis of 3-D

electrical transformer that, in its simplest form, consists of two magnetic components was developed in [19], an FE analysis to

coils of conductive wire wound around a magnetic core of soft validate a new winding design for planar integrated magnetics

iron. In practice, two types of magnetic core are used, namely, has been carried out in [20], and a coupled electrothermal

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KEFALAS AND KLADAS: HARMONIC IMPACT ON DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER NO-LOAD LOSS 195

numerical analysis of planar and medium-frequency power motion HRET . Thus, it follows that the magnetic energy of the

transformers was presented in [21] and [22], respectively. Also, hysteretic component HH is given by

the FE method was used for determining the transient behavior

and short-circuit forces of stack-core power transformers in HH dB = HHW dB HRET dB. (2)

[12] and [23], respectively. The main advantage of the FE B B B

method over analytical methodologies like the one developed

in [24] for the behavior modeling of magnetizing currents in a The anhysteretic component HAN is obtained by solving

dcdc converter is the accurate computation of the local distri- (3), where MS is the saturation magnetization, L(AN ) is the

bution of field quantities such as flux density. This is necessary Langevin function of AN given by (4) and (5), and and a are

in the case of wound cores where it is experimentally verified the parameters of the Langevin function

that the flux-density distribution is nonuniform [13], [14].

The authors developed an FE methodology in [14] that is HAN = B/0 MS L(AN ) (3)

particularly formulated for wound cores in order to evaluate

accurately the no-load losses under sinusoidal excitation. The L(AN ) = coth(AN ) 1/AN (4)

method is based on the combination of the experimentally

evaluated local specific core losses with the FE-computed peak- AN = [HAN (1 ) + B(/0 )] /a. (5)

flux-density distribution of the wound core. The local specific The irreversible part HHW and the reversible part HRET

core losses are expressed as a function of peak flux density, of the hysteretic component HH are given by (6) and (7),

and the computation of the peak-flux-density distribution of the respectively, where ID is a variable that takes the +1 and 1

wound core is performed using the FE method. The accurate values when B > 0 and B < 0, respectively, and HHS , aH ,

representation of the wound core with low computational cost and H are the parameters of the hysteresis model

was achieved by considering the iron-laminated material as a

homogeneous medium and by developing an elliptic anisotropy HHW = HHS L(H ), H = (HH + ID HHS )/aH (6)

model that is specifically formulated for wound cores [14]. The

elliptic anisotropy model takes into account the directional de- HRET = ID H dHH /dB. (7)

pendence of the BH characteristic due to the iron laminations

The differential equation of hysteresis is obtained by substi-

and the grain orientation of the magnetic steel. The material

tuting (6) and (7) into (2) and isolating dHH /dB

modeling of the wound core with the proposed technique

results in significant computational effort reduction, not only dHH HHS L(H ) HH

= . (8)

in the case of 2-D FE analysis but also in the case of 3-D FE dB ID H

analysis [14].

In this paper, the numerical methodology developed in [14] The application of the Euler scheme to (8) yields the fol-

is extended by considering the time evolution of flux density. lowing nonlinear equation, from the solution of which the

For this to be achieved, a nonlinear transient FE analysis is hysteretic component HH is obtained:

developed, which integrates the hysteresis phenomena. In this

ID H HH = (HHS L(H ) HH ) B. (9)

manner, the technique developed in [14] can be applied not only

to sinusoidal supply-voltage cases but also to distorted supply-

voltage conditions.

V. T RANSIENT 2-D FE A NALYSIS

In 2-D FE analysis, Poissons equation is solved, which is

IV. H YSTERESIS M ODEL a function of magnetic vector potential and reluctivity. When

hysteresis is taken into account, numerical difficulties arise due

The hysteresis model is similar to the JilesAtherton model,

to the discontinuity of reluctivity when B is equal to zero. The

but the independent variable is the flux density B instead of

aforesaid problem is tackled by considering the constitutive

the magnetic field H [15]. In this way, the hysteresis model

equation for ferromagnetic materials [11], [17]

can be integrated in a 2-D FE analysis, where B in each

element can be directly evaluated by the curl of magnetic vector B = 0 (H + M). (10)

potential A. Simplicity, computational efficiency, and ease of

implementation are its main advantages, in contrast to other Combining the aforementioned equation and Amperes law

hysteresis models like Preisach [11]. According to [15], H is yields the following equation for the 2-D problem:

partitioned into two components, namely, the anhysteretic HAN

and the hysteretic HH , as follows: v0 Az + (My /x Mx /y) + Jz = 0. (11)

H = HAN + HH . (1) are a function of B [17], i.e., Mx = f (Bx , By ) and My =

f (Bx , By ), the differential of M is given by

Furthermore, HH is divided into two parts, i.e., one associ-

ated with the irreversible part of domain-wall motion HHW , and dMx Mx /Bx Mx /By dBx

= . (12)

the other one associated with the reversible part of domain-wall dMy My /Bx My /By dBy

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196 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010

By using (12) and the 2-D vector potential, the second left-

hand term of (11) is given by

My Mx My Az My Az

=

x y Bx x y By x x

Mx Az Mx Az

+ . (13)

Bx y y By y x

zation and flux density can be expressed by means of a tensor

[16], [17]. Using the Euler scheme to represent the differentials

yields

Mx |M| cos sin Bx

= (14) Fig. 3. Experimental setup.

My |B| sin cos By

multiplying and dividing the right-hand side of (14) with |B|,

it follows that

Mx Bx

= (15)

My By

M B |M B|

= = . (16)

|B|2 |B|2

Mx Mx Fig. 4. Block diagram of the experimental setup.

Bx By

My My = . (17)

Bx By VI. E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP

The problems solution is obtained by discretizing (18), The experimental setup used for evaluating the harmonic

which is derived by substituting (13) and (17) into (11) impact on wound-core no-load loss is shown in Fig. 3. The

block diagram of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 4.

v0 A 23-turn excitation coil was supplied from a single- and

Az + Jz = 0. (18)

v0 three-phase supply via a variable transformer (Regulac, type

RQ 25-M, input: 240 V 50/60 Hz, output: 0275 V, 25 A

The coupled field-circuit global system of equations is given and Regulac, type RK8-G3M, input: 415 V 50/60 Hz, output:

by (19), where D is the potential-current coupling stiffness 0476 V, 8 A) in order to magnetize the wound cores with a

matrix, G is the inductive damping matrix, and A and I are the distorted supply-voltage waveform. A programmable ac and dc

time derivatives of the magnetic vector potential and electric power supply (California Instruments MX30) was used so as to

current vectors, respectively. To solve the time-dependent sys- magnetize the wound cores with a sinusoidal waveform.

tem (19), the Euler backward numerical integration technique The voltage across the excitation coil terminals was captured

is used, and the nonlinearities are taken into account by using using an active differential voltage probe. The specific voltage

the NewtonRaphson iterative scheme probe provides safe means of measuring floating potentials by

converting the high input differential voltage ( 1400 V peak)

0 0 A S D A 0 into a low voltage ( 5 V). The 3-dB frequency of the voltage

+ = . (19)

G L I 0 R I V probe is 18 MHz, the rejection rate on common mode at 50 Hz

is 90 dB, the dc output offset voltage is 0.15 mV, and the

The important advantage of the proposed methodology is that attenuation factor is equal to 205.

it provides similar accuracy to the other techniques, existing in A current probe based on the Hall effect is used for capturing

the literature [25], while involving faster convergence due to the the no-load current. It provides a galvanic isolation between the

adoption of the modified JilesAtherton model. However, such primary circuit (high power) and the secondary circuit (elec-

techniques involve time-stepping procedures for waveform- tronic circuit), and very good linearity (< 0.2%). The current

distortion consideration and require important computation measurement range is 36 A peak, and the 1-dB frequency of

resources. the probe is 150 kHz.

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KEFALAS AND KLADAS: HARMONIC IMPACT ON DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER NO-LOAD LOSS 197

and line-to-neutral supply voltages.

Fig. 5. Current and active differential voltage probes.

did not change much due to the search coils being introduced.

The voltage and current probes were designed and manufac-

The voltages induced in the search coils were captured by

tured by the authors at the Laboratory of Electrical Machines,

directly connecting the search coils into the NI6143 DAQ card

National Technical University of Athens. The circuit analysis

inputs. Necessary calculations and analysis of the captured data

of the probes was carried out by using OrCAD-PSpice. Both

were carried out by using LabVIEW software.

probes are shown in Fig. 5.

The output of the probes was connected to a noise-rejecting

shielded BNC I/O connector block (BNC-2110) via passive VII. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION

probes (TP6060). A noise-rejecting shielded cable (SHC68-68- Seven wound cores of different geometric parameters

EP) connects the data-acquisition (DAQ) device directly to the and core materials, i.e., a conventional grain-oriented (M4

BNC-2110 connector block. 0.27 mm) and a high-permeability (M-OH 0.27 mm) grain-

The DAQ device used was National Instruments (NI) 6143. oriented electrical steel, have been tested at peak flux densities

NI 6143 has eight differential channels, an ADC resolution of up to 1.8 T. Both line-to-line and line-to-neutral voltages were

16 bit, a maximum sampling rate of 250 000 samples/s per used during the no-load test in order to evaluate the effect of

channel analog input, and a 5 V analog-input-signal range. their different harmonic contents. The no-load loss and the

Finally, the DAQ device was placed into a PCI slot of a desktop spectral information of the voltage and no-load current, up

PC (processor: 1.8-GHz Intel Core 2 Duo, memory: 1-GB to the 29th harmonic component, were obtained by the VIs

DDR2). described in Section VI. The results are presented in terms of

Three virtual instruments (VIs) were created with the use of the deterioration factor (DF) that is defined as the ratio of the

LabVIEW software. The purpose of the first VI was the real- no-load loss due to a distorted voltage waveform to the no-load

time measurement of the excitation coil voltage and no-load loss due to a pure sinusoidal voltage, for the same peak flux

current waveforms, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and peak, density [10]. The peak flux density Bp is given by (20), where

rms, and THD values. The second VI was used for capturing V is the average rectified voltage, f is the frequency, N is the

the voltage and no-load current waveforms and FFT, for two number of turns of the excitation coil, and S is the lamination

periods of the fundamental frequency, and for the maximum cross-sectional area

sampling rate of the DAQ device. The third VI was used for

manipulating the acquired voltage and current data in order to Bp = V /4f N S. (20)

compute the no-load loss.

The repeatability error of the experimental setup is 0.3%, The phase of the voltage harmonics relative to the fundamen-

whereas the absolute error is within 0.5%. Thus, the specific tal, as well as their amplitude, influences the no-load loss [10].

experimental setup permits the evaluation of the harmonic Figs. 6 and 7 show the harmonic contents of the distorted line-

impact on no-load loss, even in the cases of distorted supply- to-line and line-to-neutral supply voltages, which were used as

voltage waveforms of low THD. input for the nonlinear FE transient analysis.

The experimental setup was also used for local-flux-density One-half of the wound-core geometry is modeled due to

measurements in order to evaluate the FE-computed flux- symmetry. Fig. 8 shows the geometry and the respective flux-

density distribution of wound cores. Two-turn search coils density vector plot of one of the seven wound cores tested.

wound around the total width of the steel sheet were inserted in The output of the nonlinear FE transient analysis is the no-load

order to determine the peak-flux-density distribution along the current waveform. The mean power, i.e., no-load loss, is easily

limb, yoke, and corner of the wound cores. A 0.1-mm-diameter obtainable by the voltage and the theoretically determined no-

solderable enameled copper wire was used for the search coils. load current waveforms.

The overall loss of the core did not change noticeably after the The simulated and experimental no-load currents for si-

coils were wound in position, showing that the flux distribution nusoidal, distorted line-to-line, and distorted line-to-neutral

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198 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010

Fig. 7. Phase-angle plot of deformed line-to-line and line-to-neutral supply Fig. 10. Wound-core simulated and experimental current waveforms under

voltages. deformed line-to-line voltage excitation.

190 mm, electrical steel: M-OH 0.27 mm).

deformed line-to-neutral voltage excitation.

TABLE I

S IMULATED V ERSUS E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS

sinusoidal voltage excitation.

A comparison of the harmonic content of the experimental

voltage excitations are shown in Figs. 911, respectively. The and simulated no-load currents under sinusoidal, deformed line-

peak flux density is 1.8 T, and f = 50 Hz. to-line, and deformed line-to-neutral supply-voltage waveforms

Table I presents a comparison between the experimental is shown in Figs. 1217. The simulated results are in relatively

and calculated no-load loss, DF, and rms values of no-load good agreement with the experimental ones. Nevertheless, in

current for the sinusoidal and distorted voltage waveforms the case of deformed line-to-line and line-to-neutral excitations,

examined. The deterioration percentages of no-load loss due to there is a large discrepancy in the experimental and simulated

distorted line-to-line and line-to-neutral voltages are 3.46% and phase angles of the 17th, 19th, and 23rd and the 19th, 25th,

1.51%, whereas the rms values of no-load current, an important and 27th harmonics, respectively. These differences explain

transformer design constraint, increase by 37.3% and 27%, the deviance between the experimental and simulated no-load

respectively. current waveforms shown in Figs. 10 and 11.

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KEFALAS AND KLADAS: HARMONIC IMPACT ON DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER NO-LOAD LOSS 199

Fig. 12. Amplitude plot of experimental and simulated no-load currents under under deformed line-to-line supply-voltage excitation.

sinusoidal supply-voltage excitation.

Fig. 13. Phase-angle plot of experimental and simulated no-load currents Fig. 16. Amplitude plot of experimental and simulated no-load currents under

under sinusoidal supply-voltage excitation. deformed line-to-neutral supply-voltage excitation.

Fig. 14. Amplitude plot of experimental and simulated no-load currents under Fig. 17. Phase-angle plot of experimental and simulated no-load currents

deformed line-to-line supply-voltage excitation. under deformed line-to-neutral supply-voltage excitation.

Also, Figs. 1217 show the effect of the distorted supply- excitation. Nevertheless, this is not the case for the rest of the

voltage waveform on the no-load current harmonic content. A harmonics. Also, the impact of deformed line-to-line excitation

comparison of Figs. 12, 14, and 16 shows that the amplitude on no-load current is more significant than that of deformed

of the fundamental, third, and fifth harmonics of the no-load line-to-neutral excitation.

current under deformed-voltage-waveform excitation is larger To sum up, the theoretical and experimental results presented

than that of the no-load current under sinusoidal waveform in this paper clearly illustrate that the distorted supply-voltage

Authorized licensed use limited to: Themistoklis Kefalas. Downloaded on December 19, 2009 at 13:36 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

200 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010

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IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 429432, Apr. 2003. Themistoklis D. Kefalas (M09) was born in Greece

[3] P. Pejovic and Z. Janda, An improved current injection network for in 1977. He received the Electrical Engineering Ed-

three-phase high-power-factor rectifiers that apply the third harmonic ucator degree from the School of Pedagogical and

current injection, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 497499, Technological Education, Athens, Greece, in 1999

Apr. 2000. and the Diploma and the Ph.D. degree in electrical

[4] C.-L. Chen and G.-K. Horng, A new passive 28-step current shaper engineering from the National Technical Univer-

for three-phase rectification, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, sity of Athens, Athens, Greece, in 2005 and 2008,

pp. 12121219, Dec. 2000. respectively.

[5] C. Rech and J. R. Pinheiro, Line current harmonics reduction in multi- He is currently with the School of Electrical

pulse connection of asymmetrically loaded rectifiers, IEEE Trans. Ind. and Computer Engineering, National Technical

Electron., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 640652, Jun. 2005. University of Athens. His research interests include

[6] A. K. S. Bhat and R. Venkatraman, A soft-switched full-bridge single- transformer and electric machine modeling and optimization.

stage AC-to-DC converter with low-line-current harmonic distortion,

Dr. Kefalas is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece.

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 11091116, Aug. 2005.

[7] P. Lezana, J. Rodriguez, and D. A. Oyarzun, Cascaded multilevel inverter

with regeneration capability and reduced number of switches, IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 10591066, Mar. 2008. Antonios G. Kladas (S80A99M02) was born

[8] S. G. Song, F. S. Kang, and S. J. Park, Cascaded multilevel inverter in Greece in 1959. He received the Diploma in

employing three-phase transformers and single DC input, IEEE Trans. electrical engineering from the Aristotle Univer-

Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 20052014, Jun. 2009. sity of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1982

[9] P. Flores, J. Dixon, M. Ortuzar, R. Carmi, P. Barriuso, and L. Moran, and the D.E.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Pierre and

Static var compensator and active power filter with power injection Marie Curie University (Paris 6), Paris, France, in

capability, using 27-level inverters and photovoltaic cells, IEEE Trans. 1983 and 1987, respectively.

Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 130138, Jan. 2009. He was an Associate Assistant with Pierre and

[10] A. J. Moses and G. H. Shirkoohi, Iron loss in non-oriented electrical Marie Curie University from 1984 to 1989. From

steels under distorted flux condition, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 23, no. 5, 1991 to 1996, he was with the Public Power Cor-

pp. 32173220, Sep. 1987. poration of Greece, where he was engaged in the

[11] H. L. Toms, R. G. Colclaser, and M. P. Krefta, Two-dimensional finite System Studies Department. Since 1996, he has been with the School of

element magnetic modeling for scalar hysteresis effects, IEEE Trans. Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,

Magn., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 982988, Mar. 2001. Athens, Greece, where he is currently a Professor. His research interests include

[12] B. Kawkabani, G. Rosselet, and J. J. Simond, Combined transformer and electric machine modeling and design, as well as the analysis

analyticalnumerical approach for the modeling and analysis of of generating units by renewable energy sources and industrial drives.

three-phase transformers, in Proc. IEEE IECON, 2006, pp. 15211526. Dr. Kladas is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece.

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