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Today, Im gonna talk about my independent research.

My research question is to what extent do


prescription from physicans impact on the overuse of antibiotic? To answer this question, I go through 7
steps which help me discuss and analyze more deeply. Firstly, Introduction. Speaking to reasons why I
choose this topic? My major is pharmaceautica engineering. So, absolutely Im curious about health
science, medicine, particularly children health.I deicide to choose antibiotic resistance which is closely
related to my field.

. As we know, antibiotics have become one of the most impressive innovation in the 20th century,.
It was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. It saves thousands of lives during world war 2.
However, this golden-era of antibiotics is coming to an end due to the consequences of
antibiotic overuse. In Australia, there is an significant increase in the use of antibiotic.
Several studies have shown that there is a link between prescription from physicians and the
overuse of antibiotic..
Im sure that many of you have heard antibiotic before but doesnt know what the definition is.
Antibiotics are antibacterial substances used in clinics, which are derived from microbes to
prevent the growth of bacteria. Concerning to antibiotic resistance, when bacteria face with
resistant traits regularly an increase in the growth resistant strains. As a result, Drug is no
longer effective to against the infecting bacteria.
Let me introduce the prescribing antibiotic in Australia. In Australia, antibiotics are likely to be
prescribed in hospitals, nursing homes and community settings.
The figure illustrates the comparison of prescribing antibiotics in Australia and other countries
around the world. It is noticeable that Australia is a country that has the high rate of antibiotic
consumption around the globe
So why Australia is a developed country that this situation could occur? I investigate several
research, and finally find out that there might be 3 factors that influence antibiotic prescription.
Firstly, physician characteristic. , it is likely the case that physician prescribe antibiotics for
symptoms which is caused by viruses such as common cold, flu, ear infection and sore throat.
Furthermore, many studies show that age, time since graduation, and volume of practice could be
the reasons for over prescribing antibiotic.
Move to the second factors that is influence of others, as for colleagues, they have a significant
impact in uncertain situation. When physicians are in doubt as to whether give antibiotic or not,
they commonly follow the advice of a colleague. Similarly, Physicians often based on
information that was given by nursing staff to give antibiotic prescribing or not. Furthermore,
there is a possibility that physicians could prescribe antibiotic to meet a patients expectation.
Let talk about the influence of the environment. Information about local resistance patterns,
diagnostic resources, telephone communication could contribute to antibiotic prescribing decision
So, there might be 2 ways to reduce the use of antibiotic. Firstly educating patient is one the proper
solution because most of physician are influenced by patients to prescribe antibiotic. We should give them
a course about Why antibiotic has been prescribed and How to take antibiotic responsibly. There are
several useful resources that assist physicians to educate patients such as Consumer Medicine
Information (CMI) or NPS Medicine Wise. Delayed antibiotic prescription. In some cases, this
solution could be considered as a way to manage diagnostic uncertainty
To some extent, prescription from physicians has some impacts on the overuse of antibiotics
As we can see, there are 3 factors that influence antibiotic prescription. But the influence of patients
might be the significant one. So educating patient might be the proper solutions to promote rationale
antibiotic prescriptions
In conclusion I just want to emphasize again that Antibiotic resistance have been a particular focus in
Australia .To some extent, prescriptions from physicians might have some impacts on the overuse of
antibiotic. Influence of patients has profound impact on physician decision makings. The solution to
reduce antibiotic prescriptions is a top priority, which should focused on raising awareness of patients
about antibiotic resistance