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S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

1. Name of the College:S.S.D.G.C.T`s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of


Institutions,Atigre,Kolhapur.

2. Name of the Program: M.E (Civil-Structures)

3. Name of the Students: Ms.Prajaktta Madan Gobade

4. Date of Registration: 25/07/2016

5. Name of Guide: Prof.V.S. Patil

PG Recognition No. & Date: SU/PG BUTR/Recog /232, date 10 April 2012

6. Proposed Title: Effect of Ground Motion Scaling on seismic fragility of Mid-rise


Reinforced Concrete Buildings

7. Type of Project: Non-Sponsored

8. INTRODUCTION
The ground motion selection approach adopted for conducting fragility analysis of structures
through nonlinear dynamic analysis can affect significantly the results obtained. The scaling
method of the selected ground motions is a second factor that plays a major role as well. This
work presents a methodology for the selection and scaling of ground motion time histories in
fragility analysis that is based on a combination of existing studies with the introduction of novel
steps that are recommended so as to achieve specific objectives.
Fragility curves express the probability of structural damage due to earthquakes as a function of

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

ground motion indices, e.g., PGA, PGV, Sd, Sa. In this study, an analytical approach was adopted
to construct fragility curves for a mid-rise building. A typical building structure is considered and
designed according to the seismic design codes. Using the strong motion records, nonlinear
dynamic response analyses are performed, and the ground motion indices for the frame building
are obtained. Using the ground motion indices, fragility curves for the frame building are
obtained.

9. PROBLEM STATEMENT

Present study involves the collection of at least 50 ground motions, use of criteria given by
various researchers for the scaling of ground motion and perform Incremental Dynamic analysis
using 20 scaled and un -scaled ground motions to obtain seismic fragility curves.

10. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of ground motion scaling on seismic
fragility of mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings. In addition to this objective:

1. To study the various criteria for the selection of ground motions for time history analysis.
2. To study the procedure for the proper scaling of ground motions.
3. To study the effect of scaling the ground motions on time history analysis.
4. To study the development of fragility curves for scaled and unscaled ground motions.

11. LITERATURE REVIEW

P. Rajiv (2011), In this paper, 6 storey 3 bay moment resisting RC frame is considered. Fourty
five ground motion records were used to study ground motion variability. Numerical model of
frame was developed in opensees & increamental nonlinear dynamic analysis were performed.
Fragility curves obtained for frame & they conclude that fragility curve is very close to average
CQ structural model capacity.

Qaiser uz Zaman Khan (2013), studied one of the first to relate the vulnerability of tall
buildings to different earthquake intensity measures. The purpose of this study was to introduce a

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

method for the development of fragility curve for high rise buildings under the effect of different
earthquake loading. He observed the effect of different structural parameter on structural
performance due to earthquake loading and a relationship between the fragility curve parameters
and number of stories. He conclude from fragility curve that there is an effect on fragility curve
parameters due to no. of stories (height of building), time period, stiffness and weight. Linear
regression analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship between PGA and no of
stories. And from that he developed equation to determine the seismic force for a fixed
probability for any height of building.

Ioannis P. Christovasilis (2014), presented the effectiveness of the scaling method on the
developing of fragility curves. Two datasets have been selected for comparison: (1) the dataset of
FEMA P695 and (2) the site specific dataset developed using the proposed procedure. The
structure considered for the application example is a 5-storey residential light-frame wood
building. Results of the proposed scaling procedure are less conservative with respect to the set
in FEMA P695, however more case studies are necessary to generalize this statement.

Z. Bayati & M. Soltani Mohammadi (2012), In their research, to properly select and scale
Ground Motion Records, the Collapse Probability of Reinforced Concrete Frames under
investigation were modelled. According to resultant IDA curves of sample concrete frames and
using the approximated collapse fragility curves, an appropriate methodology was developed for
selecting and scaling a limited number of ground motion records. The results showed that it is
possible to decrease number of the required dynamic analyses for estimating the structural
collapse capacity, by approximation of the collapse fragility curve. They concluded that
obtaining the estimated IDA curves can be utilized for properly selection of a limited number of
ground motion records.

Zekeriya Polat (2006), He studied in his research a method for obtaining the fragility curves for
mid-rise R/C frame buildings is defined and the fragility curves of a mid-rise R/C frame building
were constructed in terms of Sa, PGA and Sd under the effect of twelve artificial ground motions
with respect to different numbers of stories. The considered damage levels are yielding and
collapse, since they can be determined analytically with reasonable accuracy. He observed from
the fragility curves that there is an effect on fragility curve parameters due to the number of

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

stories in the buildings. Regression analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship
between the fragility curve parameters and the number of stories, and extended fragility curves
were constructed with the help of the results of regression analysis.

G. P. Cimellaro (2011), In his paper examines the effect of scaling the ground-motion records on
fragility models for MDOF inelastic structural systems. Two types of scaling procedure are
considered: amplitude matching and spectrum-matching techniques. Amplitude matching has
been realized using historical records corresponding to a specific hazard level. Four spectrum-
matching techniques using the methods of SIMQKE, RASCAL, RSPMATCH, and SMSIM have
been selected using as target spectrum the UHS and the CMS-. Therefore, eight methods are
compared & results are obtained.

Bekir Ozer Ay and Sinan Akkar (2012), They suggest that the proposed methodology can be
considered as an efficient tool for the verification of nonlinear structural systems for a given
target hazard scenario. The selected and scaled recordings by our procedure result in lesser
uncertainty about the median inelastic response with respect to the other two methods. The
performance of the method is fairly acceptable for linear structural systems because the median
spectral ordinates of the scaled ground motions follow the target hazard level (represented by a
predictive model) closely over a wide period range with slightly higher dispersion when
compared with the CMS method.

J.W. Bai & P. Gardoni (2014), In their study incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) for low-rise
and mid-rise reinforced concrete building structures is conducted and the results of IDAs are
compared with seismic demand models. In addition, the IDA curves are compared with
traditional push-over curves and the dynamic analysis results using unscaled synthetic ground
motions. They conclude that based on the comparison between IDA and traditional push-over
curves, the inflection point of the push-over curves generally correlates with the transition point
of IDA curves. However, there is a difference between IDA and push-over analysis coming from
the nature of two different analytical methods. Even though the results are from the same
structure, push-over curves are developed with static lateral load applied to the structure
cumulatively, while the results from IDA are more record dependent because these are the results
from the nonlinear dynamic analysis using scaled ground motions. . In the higher intensity range,

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

the IDA curves have fluctuating behavior and the five-story building results show more
nonlinearity due to more complex story responses It is also verified that transition points for the
bilinear formulation of seismic demand models are reliable based on the comparison between
IDA and the demand models.

Koktong Tan (2014), This paper develops analytical fragility curves for a RC concrete frame
building under ground shaking. A three story RC frame building was selected as a study case.
The system was analyzed and compared for two different site soil conditions subject to a
relatively small number of strong ground motion records. Nonlinear time history analyses were
conducted using opensees. The maximum inter story drift ratio for the building was compared to
slight, moderate, extensive and complete limit states. The result shows that the local soil
conditions can significantly modify the fragility curves.

A.Gholizad (2014), In this paper, four, six and eight storey moment-resisting frames were
considered. The lateral seismic forces affecting on structures were calculated using the
equivalent lateral force. Increamental nonlinear dynamic analysis were performed using 10 near
fault ground motions to determine maximum inter-storey drift ratio. Based on these ratio fragility
curves were developed in terms of PGA. They conclude that fragility values of immediate
occupancy performance level at PGA of 0.35g/6 are 0% for three sample frames, and these
values for life safety performance level corresponding to the design base PGA (0.35g) for the 4,
6 and 8 story buildings are 17%, 51% and 70% respectively. The results show that sample
structures exceed the life safety limit state under the design PGA.

12. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The ground motion scaling have the significant effect on the seismic fragility of RC building.

13. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

A proposed research work comprises a study of seismic response of building with ground motion
scaling. It also includes the study of effect of ground motion scaling on seismic fragility of
buildings. Also to study nonlinear RC model for time history analysis.

For achieving the objectives the study will be conducted in following phases-

1. Collection and study of at least 50 seismic ground motions.


2. Use of technique for the scaling of ground motion.
3. Generate a nonlinear model of RC framed structure for time history analysis.
4. Perform Incremental Dynamic analysis using 20 scaled and unscaled ground motions.
5. Development of fragility curves from IDA results, compared is made and results will be
concluded.

14. DATA COLLECTION

The Primary data will be collected through the analysis of ground motion scaling by using
software & the Secondary data will be collected from previous literatures and from books.

15. DATA ANALYSIS

The result will come through the study of various criteria for the selection of ground motions for
time history analysis. To study the procedure for the proper scaling of ground motions. By
studying the effect of scaling the ground motions on time history analysis. And by using IDA
result, the development of fragility curves for scaled ground motions are done and results will be
concluded. A parametric study will be carried out after the validation of results to studying
correlation between the parameters. The validation will made to show up the conclusion of the
study.

16. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

The present project work aims to study the procedure for the proper scaling of ground motions &
to study the effect of scaling the ground motions on time history analysis. Under the effect of
different ground motions, the yielding and collapse capacity of the buildings will be find out.
These capacities will be then evaluated by statistical methods to develop the fragility curves.

17. OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT WORK

The thesis will consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 will highlight the entire research work,
statement of problem, objectives of study, methodology adopted etc. Chapter 2 elaborates the
details of topics by reviewing related literature available. The development of nonlinear model of
RC framed structure for time history analysis is the content of Chapter 3. Whereas Chapter 4
will include performance incremental dynamic analysis using 20 scaled and unscaled ground
motions & the validation of model by comparing it with previous literature & also results
obtained from various analytical tools. Chapter 5 includes the study of effects of parameters i.e.
development of fragility curves from IDA results. Chapter 6 covers the discussion of result,
conclusion of the study and also the future scope of study.

REFERENCE

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

1. Vamvatsikos D and Cornell C.A. 2003. Incremental dynamic analysis, Earthquake


Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31(3).

2. Azarbakht A and Dolsek M. 2010. Progressive Incremental Dynamic Analysis. Journal of


Structural Engineering (ASCE),137(3).

3. Kurama, Y., and Farrow, K. (2003). Ground motion scaling methods for different site
conditions and structure characteristics, Eq. Eng. and Str. Dyn., Vol. 32, No. 15, pp.
2425-2450
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4. Reyes JC, Kalkan E. How many records should be used in ASCE/SEI-7 ground motion
scaling procedure. Earthquake Spectra 2011; (in-press).

5. Cimellaro GP, Reinhorn AM, DAmbrisi A, De Stefano M. Fragility analysis and seismic
record selection. Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE) 2011; 137(3):379390.

6. Watson-Lamprey J, Abrahamson N. Selection of ground motion time series and limits on


scaling. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2006; 26:477482.

7. Krl, M.S. and Polat, Z. (2006). Fragility analysis of midrise RC frame buildings,
Engineering Structures 28 (2006) 13351345.

8. Jun Ji,Amr S. Elnashai. (2007). An analytical framework for seismic fragility analysis of
RC high-rise building. Engineering Structures, 3197-3209.

9. Murat Serdar Kircil and Zekeriya Polat. (2006). Fragility analysis of mid-rise R/C frame
buildings. Engineering Structures, 1335-1345.

10. Naeim, F., Alimorandi, A., and Pezeshk, S. (2004). Selection and scaling of ground
motion time histories for structural design using genetic algorithms. Earthquake Spectra,
20(2), 413426.

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

11. Naumoski, N., Saatcioglu, M., and Amiri-Hormozaki, K. (2004). Effects of scaling of
earthquake excitations on the dynamic response of reinforced concrete frame buildings.
Proc., 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper 2917, WCEE,
Vancouver, Canada.

12. Kurama, Y., and Farrow, K. (2003). Ground motion scaling methods for different site
conditions and structure characteristics, Eq. Eng. and Str. Dyn., Vol. 32, No. 15, pp.
2425-2450.

13. Nau, J., and Hall, W. (1984). Scaling methods for earthquake response spectra, J. of Str.
Eng. (ASCE), Vol. 110, No. 91-109.

14. Kappos AJ, Kyriakakis P. A re-evaluation of scaling techniques for natural records. Soil
Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2000; 20:111123.

15. Watson-Lamprey J, Abrahamson N. Selection of ground motion time series and limits on
scaling. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2006; 26:477482.

16. Vamvatsikos D, Cornell AC. Incremental dynamic analysis. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn
2002;31(3):49151.

17. Akkar S, Sucuoglu H, Yakut A. Displacement-based fragility functions for low- and mid-
rise ordinary concrete buildings, Earthquake Spectra, No. 4, 21(2005) 901-27.

18. Kunnath, S., and Ahmadi, A. (2013). "Selection of Ground Motions for Performance-
Based Seismic Assessment of Structures." Advances in Civil Infrastructure Engineering,
Pts 1 and 2, X. Y. Zhou and G. J. He, eds., 111-117.

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016
S. S. D. G. C. T.s Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Kolhapur.

Sign: Sign:
Name of Student: Ms. Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil

Sign: Sign:
P. G. Coordinator: Prof. V.G. Khurd Head of Department: Dr.S.M.Shiyekar

Date: 13/08/2016
Place: SGI, Atigre.

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Name of Student: Ms.Prajaktta M. Gobade Name of Guide: Prof. V.S. Patil
Date: 10/08/2016