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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS

Road Works Safety Manual

_____________________________________

Temporary Signing and Traffic Management for

Maintenance and Construction Works on

Roads and Bridges

January 2004
Road Works Safety Manual
___________________________________________________________________

Foreword

This Road Works Safety Manual is issued by the Department of Public Works and
Highways to establish and maintain a standardized system of signs and traffic
management for maintenance and construction works on roads within the
Philippines.

The manual is to be used as the primary reference for defining the road signs and
traffic devices to be used on the road network, as well as the circumstances under
which these devices should be arranged to provide appropriate warning and
guidance for various types of works and in various road environments.

The safe and effective control of road users through or around a roadwork site is an
essential component of road construction works, road maintenance activities or
works relating to utilities within the road right of way. It is also essential to provide for
the safety of workers at a roadworks site.

To maximize safety and provide appropriate and necessary advice to drivers


encountering unexpected works on the road network, it is important to maintain a
consistent standard for signs and traffic control devices. In the interests of uniformity,
Local Government, City traffic authorities and Utility providers are requested to apply
the requirements of this manual to roadworks under their control.

The Manual supersedes information relating to roadworks signs and devices included
in the 1982 Philippine Road Signs Manual previously issued and revised by the
DPWH. The standards in this Manual are based on the previous Manual with
consideration of best international practice and traffic management principles
applicable to the Philippines.

The manual is to be used by all roadworks managers and supervisors in the planning
or undertaking of works and be the source of reference during works, whether these
are by contract or direct management.

The principles contained in this manual should also be used in the training of workers
involved with roadworks so they become familiar with the requirements and so they
are aware of the dangers and the need for safety when working near traffic.

The use of this manual will contribute to maximizing road safety on the road network
in the Philippines.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways (i)


Road Works Safety Manual
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Contents

1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 STRUCTURE OF THE MANUAL .................................................................................... 1
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF WORKSITE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ................................................ 3
1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES ...................................................................................................... 3
1.5 DRIVER AND VEHICLE CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................. 4

2. PRINCIPLES OF WORKSITE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ................................... 6


2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 PLANNING .................................................................................................................. 6
2.3 DESIGN OF THE SIGNAGE AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME ............................. 7
2.4 INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................... 8
2.5 OPERATION ................................................................................................................ 8
2.6 REMOVAL .................................................................................................................. 9
2.7 DOCUMENTATION ...................................................................................................... 9

3. WORKSITE LAYOUT OF SIGNAGES AND DEVICES ........................................ 10


3.1 COMPONENT AREAS OF A ROADWORK SITE ........................................................... 10
3.1.1 Definition of Terms.......................................................................................... 10
3.1.2 Advance Warning Area.................................................................................... 11
3.1.3 Transition Area................................................................................................ 11
3.1.4 Approach Clearance Area for Workers........................................................... 12
3.1.5 Adjacent Clearance Area for Workers ............................................................ 12
3.1.6 Work Area........................................................................................................ 13
3.1.7 Termination Area............................................................................................. 13
3.2 LAYOUT OF SIGNS AND TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ............................................. 13
3.2.1 Roadwork Traffic Management Guides........................................................... 13
3.2.2 Sign Storage, Maintenance and Availability ................................................... 13

4. SIGNS FOR WORKSITES .......................................................................................... 14


4.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................. 14
4.2 SIGN CLASSIFICATION AND NUMBERING ................................................................ 14
4.3 SIGNS DIMENSIONS AND LAYOUT SPECIFICATIONS ................................................ 14
4.4 SIGNS FOR ADVANCE WARNING ............................................................................. 15
4.4.1 ROADWORK AHEAD (T1-1, T1-31) .............................................................. 15
4.4.2 BRIDGEWORK AHEAD (T1-2) ...................................................................... 15
4.4.3 ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD (T1-3).............................................................. 15
4.4.4 GRADER AHEAD (T1-4) ................................................................................ 15
4.4.5 WORKMEN AHEAD (Symbolic) (T1-5).......................................................... 16
4.4.6 ROADWORK NEXT km (T1-24) ................................................................. 16
4.4.7 ROADWORK ON SIDE ROAD (T1-25) .......................................................... 16
4.4.8 NEXT 2 km (T1-28) ......................................................................................... 17
4.4.9 END ROADWORK (T2-16, T2-17) ................................................................. 17

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Road Works Safety Manual
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4.5 SIGNS FOR REGULATORY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC .................................................... 18


4.5.1 General ............................................................................................................ 18
4.5.2 STOP / SLOW Hand Held Signs (R6-8, T7-1)................................................. 18
4.5.3 STOP / GO Flags............................................................................................. 18
4.5.4 PREPARE TO STOP (T1-18) .......................................................................... 19
4.5.5 SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-1)........................................................................ 19
4.5.6 ROAD WORK (R4-3)....................................................................................... 19
4.5.7 END SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-12, R4-2) ................................................... 20
4.6 SIGNS FOR DETOURS ................................................................................................ 21
4.6.1 DETOUR AHEAD (T1-6) ................................................................................ 21
4.6.2 DETOUR (Left or Right) (T5-1) ...................................................................... 21
4.6.3 Detour Marker (T5-6)...................................................................................... 21
4.6.4 LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY (G9-40-2)................................................................ 22
4.6.5 END DETOUR (T2-23) ................................................................................... 22
4.7 SIGNS FOR ROAD CONDITIONS AND HAZARDS ........................................................ 23
4.7.1 Wet Tar (T3-1)................................................................................................. 23
4.7.2 Slippery (T3-3)................................................................................................. 23
4.7.3 Soft Edges (T3-6)............................................................................................. 23
4.7.4 Rough Surface (T3-7) ...................................................................................... 24
4.7.5 Loose Stones (T3-9) ......................................................................................... 24
4.7.6 Gravel Road (T3-13) ....................................................................................... 24
4.7.7 Loose Surface (T3-14) ..................................................................................... 24
4.7.8 No Lines Do Not Overtake Unless Safe (T3-12).............................................. 24
4.7.9 Traffic Hazard Ahead (T1-10)......................................................................... 24
4.7.10 Trucks Entering (T2-25) .................................................................................. 25
4.7.11 Power Line Works In Progress (T4-5) ............................................................ 25
4.8 SIGNS FOR LANE AND ROAD CLOSURES .................................................................. 26
4.8.1 ROAD CLOSED (T2-4) ................................................................................... 26
4.8.2 LANE STATUS (T2-6-1 and T2-6-2) ............................................................... 26
4.9 SIGNS FOR BLASTING............................................................................................... 27
4.9.1 Blasting Area Switch Off Radio Transmitters (T4-2) ...................................... 27
4.9.2 End Blasting Area (T4-3) ................................................................................ 27
4.10 SIGNS FOR PEDESTRIAN CONTROL .......................................................................... 28
4.10.1 Pedestrians Watch Your Step (T8-1) ............................................................... 28
4.10.2 Pedestrians (T8-2 L or R)................................................................................ 28
4.10.3 Use Other Footpath (T8-3).............................................................................. 28

5. TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ............................................................................... 29


5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................. 29
5.2 TRAFFIC CONES ....................................................................................................... 29
5.3 TEMPORARY BOLLARDS .......................................................................................... 29
5.4 TEMPORARY HAZARD MARKERS (T5-4 AND T5-5) ................................................ 30
5.5 BARRIER BOARDS .................................................................................................... 31
5.6 SAFETY BARRIERS ................................................................................................... 31
5.7 TEMPORARY CRASH CUSHION ................................................................................ 32
5.8 CONTAINMENT FENCES ........................................................................................... 32
5.8.1 Lightweight Plastic Units ................................................................................ 32
5.8.2 Tapes................................................................................................................ 33
5.8.3 Mesh Fencing .................................................................................................. 33
5.9 ANTIGLARE SCREEN ................................................................................................ 33
5.10 FLASHING LAMPS .................................................................................................... 33
5.11 TEMPORARY PAVEMENT MARKINGS ....................................................................... 34
5.12 TEMPORARY CURB .................................................................................................. 34

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways (iii)


Road Works Safety Manual
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5.13 VEHICLE MOUNTED EQUIPMENT ............................................................................. 34


5.13.1 WORKERS sign ............................................................................................... 34
5.13.2 Rotating Lights ................................................................................................ 34
5.13.3 Flashing Arrow Board..................................................................................... 35
5.14 VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGNS (VMS)......................................................................... 35
5.15 PORTABLE TRAFFIC SIGNALS .................................................................................. 36

6. HIGH VISIBILITY CLOTHING ................................................................................ 37


6.1 TRAFFIC SAFETY VEST ............................................................................................ 37

7. TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS (FLAGMEN)................................................................ 38


7.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 38
7.2 GENERAL ................................................................................................................. 38
7.3 USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS .............................................................................. 38
7.4 CORRECT CLOTHING................................................................................................ 39
7.5 STOP / SLOW SIGN ................................................................................................ 39
7.6 OTHER WORKSITE SIGNS ......................................................................................... 39
7.7 LOCATION OF THE TRAFFIC CONTROLLER .............................................................. 40
7.8 CONTROLLING TRAFFIC - TO STOP AND RELEASE THE TRAFFIC ............................ 40
7.9 CONTROLLING TRAFFIC - TO SLOW THE TRAFFIC .................................................. 41
7.10 ATTITUDE ................................................................................................................ 41
7.11 SAFETY .................................................................................................................... 41
7.12 TWO-WAY RADIOS................................................................................................... 41
7.13 SUPERVISORS RESPONSIBILITY .............................................................................. 42
7.14 REDUCED VISIBILITY ............................................................................................... 42
7.15 CONTROLLING TRAFFIC AT NIGHT .......................................................................... 42
7.16 CONTROLLING TRAFFIC IF AN ACCIDENT OCCURS AT THE WORKSITE................... 42
7.17 SUMMARY OF TRAFFIC CONTROLLER INSTRUCTIONS ............................................. 43
7.18 USING STOP/GO FLAGS TO CONTROL TRAFFIC ....................................................... 45
7.18.1 General ............................................................................................................ 45
7.18.2 Controlling Traffic........................................................................................... 45

APPENDIX 1 - TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT GUIDES FOR ROADWORKS AND


BRIDGEWORKS

APPENDIX 2 - TYPICAL INVENTORY OF SIGNS AND DEVICES FOR


MAINTENANCE OR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

APPENDIX 3 - TRAFFIC SAFETY VEST SPECIFICATION

APPENDIX 4 - SIGN DIMENSIONS AND LAYOUT SPECIFICATIONS

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways (iv)


Road Works Safety Manual Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) provides this Road Works
Safety Manual for use throughout the Philippines. It shall be used at roadwork and
bridgework sites when providing signage and traffic management to warn, guide and
control traffic. The principles in the manual aim to maximize the safety of workers
and the public.

The Manual establishes the principles, rules and practices involved in signing
roadworks and bridgeworks. Use of the Manual will provide a uniform approach to
worksite traffic management through the use of standard signs and layouts that can
be applied to most roadwork situations.

Where specific site requirements require modification to the signing arrangements


provided or provision of special signs, these traffic arrangements should consider the
principles outlined in the Manual. In the interests of consistency of signing on the
road network, standard arrangements should be adopted where possible, with
variations being kept to a minimum.

1.2 Structure of the Manual

The Road Works Safety Manual provides detailed guidance relating to planning and
operation of worksite traffic management, signages and traffic control. The Manual is
structured as follows:

Section 1 Introduction

Section 2 Principles of worksite traffic management

Section 3 Worksite layout of signages and devices

Section 4 Signs for worksites

Section 5 Traffic control devices

Section 6 High visibility clothing

Section 7 Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

Appendices provide easy reference traffic management and signage guides for
various worksite situations, as well as more detailed information as follows:

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Road Works Safety Manual Introduction

Appendix 1 Traffic Management Guides for Roadworks and Bridgeworks.

These guides demonstrate the following typical layouts of signs and other traffic
control devices for various roadwork and bridgework situations:

Short Term Works

Layout 1 Closure of Sidewalk 2 Lane 2 Way Road, Low Speed, Short Term
Layout 2 Road Condition Signing - Low Speed, Short Term
Layout 3 - Part Lane Closure - 2 Lane 2 Way Road, Low Speed, Low Volume, Short
Term
Layout 4 - Part Lane Closure 2 Lane, 2 Way Road, High Speed, Short Term
Layout 5 - Closure of Outer Lane Multilane Road, Low Speed, Short Term
Layout 6 - Closure of Center Lane Multilane Road, Low Speed, Short Term

Long Term Works

Layout 7 - Part Lane Closure 2 Lane, 2 Way Road, High Speed, Long Term
Layout 8 - Road Condition Signing, High Speed, Long Term
Layout 9 - Closure of Inner Lane Multilane Road, High Speed, Long Term

Detours and Side Tracks

Layout 10 - Detour via the Existing Road Network Low or High Speed, Short or
Long Term
Layout 11 Detour via a Side Track Low Speed, Long Term
Layout 12 Detour via Side Track - High Speed, Long Term

Intersection Works

Layout 13 - Works at an Intersection - Low Speed, Short or Long Term


Layout 14 - Works at an Intersection - High Speed, Short or Long Term

Pavement Marking Works

Layout 15 Lane Marking of Centerline 2 Lane, 2 Way Road


Layout 16 Lane Marking of Centerline Multilane Road
Layout 17 Lane Marking of Edgeline

Works on Gravel Roads

Layout 18 Gravel Road Works Adjacent to the Road


Layout 19 Gravel Road Maintenance Grading
Layout 20 Gravel Road Overnight Obstruction not affecting Traffic Path

Appendix 2 Typical inventory of signs and devices for maintenance or


emergency response

Appendix 3 Traffic Safety Vest Specification

Appendix 4 Sign Dimensions and Layout Specifications

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 2


Road Works Safety Manual Introduction

1.3 Objectives of Worksite Traffic Management

The objectives of safe and effective worksite signing and traffic management are to:

Warn approaching road users and pedestrians of unexpected roadworks


Guide road users through or around the worksite safely
Provide a safe working environment for workers on the site
Provide minimum inconvenience for the public
Provide minimum inconvenience for the efficiency of the worksite

1.4 Responsibilities

There is a responsibility for employers to create a safe working environment for their
employees. Employers also have a responsibility for the safety of any other person
moving through or around work areas under their control. This highlights the need
for proper training of supervisors and workers and the provision of equipment,
protective clothing and adequate resources for the performance of their work in a
manner that is safe and that minimizes risks. Employers and workers also have
responsibilities towards the public and to avoid damage to private property.

In summary, supervisors and workers have the following responsibilities:

Supervisors shall:

Be aware of their own responsibility to provide, as much as possible, safe and


convenient travelling conditions for the public, safe working conditions for
personnel and machinery under their control and to avoid damage to private
property.

Remember that they and their road workers should always be courteous to the
public, and not be provoked.

Ensure that personnel involved in signing and traffic control, are aware of what is
needed and of their responsibilities.

Be familiar with the provisions of this Manual and act accordingly.

Workers shall:

Take care of their own safety by looking out for danger and being observant, as
well as the safety of other personnel and visitors to the worksite.

Wear protective clothing provided for their own safety

Only engage in work practices that do not put themselves or any other person in
danger or at risk.

Follow the lawful instructions of the employer in carrying out the requirements of
this Manual.

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Road Works Safety Manual Introduction

1.5 Driver and Vehicle Considerations

a) Vehicle Speeds

Despite the speed limits that may apply, many drivers travel much faster than
they should or that circumstances permit. At 100 kph a vehicle travels at
approximately 28 meters each second, and can take over 200 meters to stop.

Therefore advance warning signs must be positioned at appropriate distances in


advance of the work area.

b) Driver Reaction

Drivers take time to react once they notice something in their path, this time can
vary from 1 to 3 seconds, during which time the vehicle may have travelled up to
80 meters. Therefore the lengths of advanced warning that are required allow for
reaction time as well as stopping distance.

Drivers have many other things to concentrate on, both inside and outside of the
vehicle. Signs must be positioned so that they are visible and conspicuous.
Consideration should be given to signs not being obscured by vegetation or other
objects and being visible against the background.

c) Drivers Eyesight

The driver of a vehicle needs to be able to read a sign while driving, therefore
signs must be designed to be legible from a distance, with minimum letter height
of 150mm. Symbol type signs have a much higher recognition rate than word
type signs and should be used whenever possible. Signs should be mounted so
they are at or about the drivers eye height of approximately 1 meter, with a
minimum mounting height of 200 mm from the ground.

d) Vehicle Dynamics

Even at relatively low speeds vehicles can have difficulty turning or maneuvering
sharply. Therefore allow adequate space for maneuvering and check the layout
by physically driving through it at the proposed speed.

e) Driver Expectation

Drivers do not always expect the presence of roadworks. This lack of expectancy
when drivers are making other decisions in the normal course of driving means
an accident may occur if the driver is faced with a sudden situation without
warning.

Advance warning of roadworks creates an expectancy of changed traffic


arrangements so that drivers can modify their driving and look for appropriate
guidance. The advance signs should be obvious and the layout of the worksite
management scheme should be clear and unambiguous, allowing only one
course of action from the driver.

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Road Works Safety Manual Introduction

f) Credibility of Signs

People are more likely to take notice of signs if they continue to see them used
correctly. For example, if there were only roadworks on the road shoulder, Road
Closed signs would be inappropriate. Similarly, if the Workmen Ahead sign is
left out after work hours when no workmen are present on the site, this creates a
lack of credibility.

Therefore signs must be used appropriately and consistently so that they mean
what they say.

g) Worker Visibility

Although drivers would generally be watching for obstacles or pedestrians on the


roadway, the alert driver may be more likely to avoid an inattentive or careless
worker who is visible. However, we cannot rely on the vigilance of drivers to
protect road workers.

Road workers have a responsibility to look out for moving traffic although the
dangers of working near traffic can be forgotten. Road workers should wear high
visibility traffic safety vests and adopt work methods and traffic management to
increase worksite safety and road worker visibility.

h) Night Conditions

The above factors are more critical during darkness when the wider environment
cannot be seen and visibility is limited to areas illuminated by the vehicles
headlights. The worksite layout may need special consideration with attention to
clear reflectorized delineation of traffic paths.

i) Provision for Pedestrians and Bicycles

Where pedestrians, including people with disabilities, have to move through or


around a work site, they shall be provided with suitably constructed temporary
footpaths and crossing points. Temporary constructed paths shall have an
alignment and surface condition suitable for pedestrians (including wheelchairs)
and/or bicycles.

If clearance of 1.2 meters between the traffic and pedestrians cannot be achieved
and the approach speed of vehicles is above 60kph, a safety barrier should be
considered to provide appropriate protection.

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Road Works Safety Manual Principles of Worksite Traffic Management

2. PRINCIPLES OF WORKSITE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

2.1 General

The principles of signing a worksite relate to good communication between the road
worker and the road user. Provision of good communication requires that:

Signs are erected before work starts;


Signs are regularly checked for effectiveness e.g. maintained in position and
kept clean so they remain readable;
Signs are removed when no longer required or when the work is finished.

Effective and efficient traffic management of a worksite includes the following stages:

Planning
Design
Installation
Operation
Removal

2.2 Planning

This is one of the most critical elements of good worksite traffic management.
When proper thought is put into the layout and planning of any worksite the
potential for an accident decreases. This is achieved because correct
equipment, personnel and associated safety issues are taken into account prior
to the work commencing. This leads to greater productivity and greater safety,
as action on site is planned and issues have already been resolved. There is
also increased awareness because works personnel are actively thinking about
the worksite and methods to improve existing layouts.

When planning roadworks consideration has to be given to the management of


vehicular and pedestrian traffic. This planning needs to consider the volumes
as well as the speed of vehicles.

Subject to the nature of works being undertaken, traffic can generally be


managed in one of the following ways:

Through the work site


Adjacent to the work site
Via a detour or sidetrack (temporary road) around the work site.

The main aim in planning is to minimize disruption to traffic as well as to the


progress of the roadworks, while providing a safe environment for both.

The safest approach may be to move traffic around the worksite via a sidetrack
(temporary road) or detour. This method may also be the most expensive but
would generally be considered on large projects.

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Road Works Safety Manual Principles of Worksite Traffic Management

If the work is short term, then generally the traffic will be managed adjacent to
or through the worksite. Taking traffic through the worksite is usually the most
hazardous. If traffic will be travelling through the worksite, care must be taken
by all works personnel to ensure the safety of people entering, leaving or in the
worksite.

2.3 Design of the Signage and Traffic Management Scheme

Detailed design of the layout, including the choice of signs to be used, is


required to provide clear communication with road users.

Five communication principles for good signage and markings are:

CONSPICUOUS the sign has to be seen. (e.g. placing a sign behind a


tree or bridge pier is not acceptable).

CLEAR the size and color of the letters and symbols, need to be legible
and of sufficient size that can be easily read at an appropriate distance.

COMPREHENSIBLE the sign needs to be understood (e.g. too many


words on the sign may prevent the whole message being read by an
approaching motorist).

CREDIBLE the message conveyed by the sign has to be believable to


drivers, otherwise they will tend to ignore it (e.g. a Carabao warning sign
in a highly urbanized area would probably be ignored).

CONSISTENT similar traffic situations should use standard signs that


are consistent with the Manual. If signs have consistent colour, shape
symbols and words, this will reduce driver reaction times, improve driver
understanding and increase the level of safety.

The signs need to convey the appropriate message and be placed to provide
sufficient advanced warning to give drivers adequate time to read the signs and
react. The following sequence is required:

Provide advanced warning e.g. Roadwork Ahead


Provide information e.g. Lane Closed
Give instructions on action required e.g. Keep Left
Guide drivers where to go e.g. Traffic cones

Confusion can occur by using excessive signs so this needs to be avoided.


Use only the number of signs necessary.

The signage layout and traffic management needs to ensure that there is no
doubt in the drivers mind regarding the information given and the actions
required.

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Road Works Safety Manual Principles of Worksite Traffic Management

2.4 Installation

Signs should be placed where drivers can see them and where they will not be
obstructed from view by vegetation or parked cars. They should also:

Not cause a hazard to traffic


Not adversely affect pedestrian traffic
Not obscure a drivers vision
Not adversely affect adjacent properties or businesses
Not cause confusion or interfere with any other permanent signing in some
situations permanent signs may need to be temporarily removed or covered

They should also be erected at appropriate locations and longitudinal spacing


within and approaching the worksite so they are meaningful and where drivers
can relate the signs to the work (refer to Section 3).

Signs that are erected on posts shall generally be at the following heights
(measured from the underside of the sign):

Rural 1.5 meters above the level of the roadway


Urban 2.2 meters above the level of curb or footpath

Where signs are erected on portable supports or stands, the mounting height of
the lower edge of the sign should be a minimum of 200mm.

Signs shall be installed approximately 1.0 meter offset from the edge of the road
or from the remaining width of roadway used by traffic.

Signs shall be installed before work starts and in the following sequence:

1. Advance warning signs


2. Other warning signs
3. Driver instruction signs

After signs are erected the supervisor, or another qualified person not
associated with designing or installing the sign layout, should drive-through the
site at normal traffic speed to inspect the signage scheme to ensure adequacy
of the scheme and to identify adjustments, if necessary. Where the signage is
used at night an inspection should be done after dark with dipped headlights.

2.5 Operation

Regular inspection, cleaning and replacing of damaged signs, as appropriate,


must be carried out to ensure continued effectiveness.

With changing circumstances on the worksite, there may also be a need for
modifying and removing of a sign or a series of signs. This may be either
temporary or permanent removal or covering of the signs involved. For
example the Workmen sign at the end of the day should be removed or
covered, and then displayed again when work recommences.

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Road Works Safety Manual Principles of Worksite Traffic Management

The road surface on which traffic is travelling through or around the worksite
also needs inspection and possible maintenance to ensure it is kept in a
satisfactory operational condition.

The layout should be driven through again periodically to check that signs are
still in place and still appropriate.

2.6 Removal

Upon completion of works, signs shall be removed from the worksite and
approaches to the site.

To maintain adequate protection for workers signs are removed by starting from
the worksite then moving out to the advance warning signs in the following
sequence:

1. Driving instruction signs


2. Other warning signs
3. Advanced warning signs

2.7 Documentation

Supervisors shall document roadwork signs and other devices used and their
positions at the worksite for future reference. In the case of traffic accidents,
legal requests for such information may arise well after a job is finished.

This documentation, including times of inspections or changes to worksite


arrangements, should be updated regularly.

A photographic record of the layout of signages and traffic control devices can
be valuable additional information in the documentation.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 9


Road Works Safety Manual Worksite Layout of Signages and Devices

3. WORKSITE LAYOUT OF SIGNAGES AND DEVICES

3.1 Component Areas of a Roadwork Site

The component areas of a worksite traffic management area are shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1 Components of a Typical Roadwork Site

Adjacent Clearance
Area for Workers

Direction of Travel

Advance Transition Work Termination


Warning Area Area Area
Area

Approach
Clearance
Area
for Workers

3.1.1 Definition of Terms

The following definitions are used throughout this Manual:

Dimension D - The dimension D relates to distances for signage locations and


taper lengths for different vehicle approach speeds. D is a distance expressed in
meters equal to the approach speed of traffic in kilometers per hour. For
example, if the approach speed of traffic is 60 kph then the dimension D is 60
meters.

Short Term Works Works completed within a day and not needing to be
signed overnight
Long Term Works - Works taking longer than a day and needing to be signed
overnight

Low Speed Road Traffic approach speed is less than 60 kph


High Speed Road Traffic approach speed is between 60 kph and 80 kph
Very High Speed Road - Traffic approach speed is greater than 80 kph

Low Volume Road Less than 1,500 vehicles per day


High Volume Road 1,500 or more vehicles per day

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Road Works Safety Manual Worksite Layout of Signages and Devices

3.1.2 Advance Warning Area

The advance warning area is the section of roadway where drivers are informed about
the approaching work area and what to expect ahead.

Signs to provide advanced warning, guidance or instruction are provided in this area.
These signs are described in Section 4. The type and spacing of signs to be used in
this area depend on the nature of the works and the speed of approaching traffic.

The first advanced warning sign seen by drivers is generally ROADWORS AHEAD.
This sign should be located a minimum distance of 2D meters before the start of the
works, or if there is a transition area, the start of the taper. For example, if the approach
speed of traffic is 60 kph then the ROADWORKS AHEAD sign should be a minimum of
120 meters before the taper or works area.

Other signs in the advance warning area provide additional warning for road users or
inform drivers of specific action that may be required ahead. In these situations the sign
closest to the work should be at a distance of 2D with other signs generally spaced D
meters apart. Therefore, if two or more signs are provided in the advance warning area,
the ROADWORKS AHEAD sign may need to be a distance of 3D or more prior to the
works. However, where visibility is good and there are more than two advanced signs,
the spacing of signs may be reduced to a minimum of 0.5D.

For short term partial road closures in low speed, low traffic volume roads, or where
there is room for two-way traffic adjacent to the work area, advance signs may be
positioned closer to the work area if no Traffic Controller is required (D meters would
generally be satisfactory). Signs may be omitted in these situations if a vehicle mounted
warning device can be seen by approaching drivers for a distance of 2D meters.

3.1.3 Transition Area

The transition area is the area where drivers are redirected out of their normal path of
travel. If a roadway needs to be partially closed the taper that guides drivers to the new
travel path clear of the worksite is provided within the transition area. Desirably the full
length of the taper should be visible to the approaching motorists. Taper layouts are
shown in Figure 3.2.

A Lateral Shift Taper shifts a line of traffic sideways when it does not need to merge with
another line of traffic traveling in the same direction. This type of taper is sometimes
referred to as a diverge taper.

Lateral shift tapers should be at least D meters long. For example if the approach speed
of traffic is 50 kph the lateral shift taper should be 50 meters. However, when a Traffic
Controller is being used a 30 meter taper is adopted as the traffic would be approaching
the taper at a slower speed. This taper length also enables the Traffic Controller to
stand at the start of the taper 30 meters in advance of the work area.

A Merge Taper shifts a line of traffic sideways where the traffic must join with another
line of traffic traveling in the same direction. Merge tapers should be at least 2D meters
long. For example, if traffic is traveling at a speed of 70 kph the merge taper should be
140 meters. A merge taper requires a longer distance because drivers are required to
merge into common road space.

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Road Works Safety Manual Worksite Layout of Signages and Devices

Devices used for forming tapers may be temporary hazard markers, Traffic Cones or
Temporary Bollards. These devices are described in Section 5.

Figure 3.2 Tapers


Lateral Shift with
Lateral Shift Traffic Controller Merge

D 30 2D

3.1.4 Approach Clearance Area for Workers

The Approach Clearance Area is a longitudinal safety buffer immediately in advance of


the work area that increases protection and safety for workers. This clearance area
would generally be 20 to 30 meters long but can be extended if the work area is hidden
from approaching road users e.g. by a curve or crest.

The clearance area should be kept clear of workers, vehicles, machinery or other
activity.

3.1.5 Adjacent Clearance Area for Workers

The Adjacent Clearance Area is a lateral safety buffer beside the work area that
increases protection and safety for workers.

The adjacent clearance area in low speed areas would generally be a minimum of 1.2
meters. In high speed areas a larger adjacent clearance area is desirable or
consideration given to providing a roadworks speed limit. In high volume and very high
speed locations such as expressways, a safety barrier adjacent to the work area should
be considered to provide protection and safety for workers.

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Road Works Safety Manual Worksite Layout of Signages and Devices

3.1.6 Work Area

The Work Area is the area where works are physically being carried out and is set aside
for workers, machinery, equipment and storage of materials.

3.1.7 Termination Area

The Termination Area is the area where traffic resumes normal operations after passing
the worksite. The signs that would be located in this area may include END
ROADWORK, END DETOUR, or end speed limit as applicable.

3.2 Layout of Signs and Traffic Control Devices

3.2.1 Roadwork Traffic Management Guides

The Roadwork Traffic Management Guides in Appendix 1 demonstrate typical layouts of


signs and other traffic control devices for various roadwork situations.

The layouts may need to be modified in some situations to suit particular worksites or
conditions. However, the underlying principles of worksite traffic management in this
Manual should still be applied with consideration also given to the following:

Sign locations and spacing may need adjustment to suit road alignment, visibility,
traffic speeds etc.
Lane tapers using cones, bollards or temporary hazard markers should be gradual
and reinforced with appropriate signs
All layouts should be driven at the expected traffic speed and adjustments made if
necessary.

3.2.2 Sign Storage, Maintenance and Availability

To maintain signs in an effective working condition attention should be given to:

Correct storage under cover, preferably standing upright in catalogued racks


Careful transport the reflective facing is easily damaged in the back of a truck
Good installation ensure that sign supports allow for stability and visibility and do
not damage the face of sign
Regular maintenance cleaning of signs and repairing bent or damaged signs

Maintenance or emergency response work groups should have ready access to


commonly used signs to deal with emergency situations such as flooding, landslides or
major accidents. A typical list of signs and devices is in Appendix 2. Additional signs
and devices may be required to cater for other local or specific situations.

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4. SIGNS FOR WORKSITES

4.1 General

Worksite traffic management uses temporary signage that


provides warning, guidance, instructions and information to
road users.

The standard signs in this Manual cater for most roadwork


situations and shall be used for consistency in signing all
worksites on the road network. Other specially designed
signs should only be considered in a situation where the
use of a standard sign is not applicable.

4.2 Sign Classification and Numbering

Signs used in this Manual have been classified and


numbered to be consistent with similar international
standards, if appropriate. Where signs that are proposed
for temporary use are also used for permanent signing
situations on the road network, the numbering of those
signs is consistent with the Philippines Road Signs and
Pavement Markings Manual.

The signs in the Manual are numbered according to the


following categories:

Temporary signs (Type T)


Regulatory signs (Type R)
Guide signs (Type G)
Signs for special purposes (Type S)
Warning signs (Type W)

Where the size of a sign described in this manual is


indicated as a specific size (e.g. size B), this refers to the
size grouping as specified in the Philippines Road Signs
and Pavement Markings Manual.

Roadwork signs shall be fluorescent or reflectorized as


specified, to be effective during the day and night as
appropriate.

4.3 Signs Dimensions and Layout Specifications

The size of signs, letter sizes and colours are summarized


in this part of the Manual. Further details are provided in
Appendix 4 - Signs Dimensions and Layout Specifications.

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.4 Signs for Advance Warning

4.4.1 ROADWORK AHEAD (T1-1, T1-31)

The ROADWORK AHEAD sign is used to give advance


warning of any roadwork that creates a temporary hazard
where works are left overnight.

The sign is generally not necessary at short term works, T1-1


but may be desirable for short term works in high speed
roads or where additional advance warning is considered
necessary.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T1-1 1800 x 600 Line 1- Black 200 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized

4.4.2 BRIDGEWORK AHEAD (T1-2)

The BRIDGEWORK AHEAD sign shall be used to give


advance warning of any bridge construction or repair that
creates a temporary hazard where works are left overnight.
This is used instead of sign T1-1 if working on a bridge. T1-2
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T1-2 1800 x 600 Line 1- Black 200 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized

4.4.3 ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD (T1-3)

The ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD sign shall be used where


machinery working on or adjacent to the roadway, may ROA D
create a hazard. MA C H IN E R Y
A HEA D
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T1-3 1200 x 600 Line 1- Black 100 EM Yellow T1-3
Line 2- Black 120 DM Reflectorized
Line 3- Black 100 EM

4.4.4 GRADER AHEAD (T1-4)

Where a grader alone is engaged in shoulder or roadside


maintenance, the alternative sign GRADER AHEAD may
be used.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background T1-4


T1-4 900 x 600 Black 140 DN Yellow
Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.4.5 WORKMEN AHEAD (Symbolic) (T1-5)

The WORKMEN AHEAD (Symbolic) sign shall be used to


give advance warning for the protection of workers on or
adjacent to the path of traffic.

On low speed gravel roads the signs may not be required if


vehicle mounted rotating lamps on the works vehicle can
be seen for at least a distance of 2D, or if the works area is
well clear of the roadway. T1-5

The sign shall always be used when a Traffic Controller is


controlling traffic.

Note: This symbolic sign replaces an older style sign that used words.

Sign No. Size (mm) Symbol Background


T1-5 900 x 600 Black Red / Orange
- Fluorescent
for day use
- Reflectorized
for night use

4.4.6 ROADWORK NEXT km (T1-24)

The sign ROADWORKS NEXT... km shall be used to give


advance warning of any general roadworks that extend
over a number of kilometres in more than one work area.
T1-24
The signs ROADWORKS AHEAD (T1-1) or
BRIDGEWORK AHEAD (T1-2), as appropriate, together
with other appropriate advance signs, shall be erected at
the first and any successive separate section of the road
on which works are in progress.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T1-24 1800 x 600 Line 1- Black 200 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized

4.4.7 ROADWORK ON SIDE ROAD (T1-25)

The ROADWORK ON SIDE ROAD sign is used in


advance of an intersection to warn of roadwork activities
on the side road.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background T1-25


T1-25 1800 x 600 Line 1- Black 160 EN Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DN Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.4.8 NEXT 2 km (T1-28)

The NEXT 2km sign shall be used in conjunction with


either the WORKMEN AHEAD (T1-5) sign, the ROAD
MACHINERY AHEAD (T1-3) or the GRADER AHEAD (T1-
4) signs where they are used to warn of a frequently
changing work area.
T1-28
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T1-28 600 x 600 Line 1- Black 150 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 150 DN Reflectorized
& 100 LC

4.4.9 END ROADWORK (T2-16, T2-17)

The END ROADWORK (T2-16) sign is used at the


departure end of a work area. The sign is not necessary
on short term works, mobile works or where an END
DETOUR (T2-23) sign is used.
T2-16
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T2-16 1800 x 600 Line 1- Black 200 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.5 Signs for Regulatory Control of Traffic

4.5.1 General

The signs in this section are used for regulatory control of


traffic at worksites. Other regulatory signs, as defined in
the Philippines Road Signs Manual, may also be used, as
appropriate, for particular site and traffic control situations.

4.5.2 STOP / SLOW Hand Held Signs (R6-8, T7-1)

The STOP / SLOW signs should be used by a roadwork


Traffic Controller to provide temporary traffic control. This
may include situations where there is a temporary
obstruction, where traffic needs to be stopped for
machinery to cross or enter a road, where one lane of a R6-8
two-way road or bridge is closed, or where traffic needs to
be stopped temporarily for blasting.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


R6-8 450 Dia. White 140 CN Red
Reflectorized Reflectorized
(including border) T7-1
T7-1 450 Dia. Black 135 CN Yellow
(including border) Reflectorized

4.5.3 STOP / GO Flags

Red and green flags are used by a roadwork Traffic


Controller to provide temporary traffic control. They may be
suitable in low traffic volume situations, generally in rural
areas, in situations where there is a temporary obstruction,
where traffic needs to be stopped for machinery to cross or
enter a road, where one lane of a two-way road or bridge is
closed, or where traffic needs to be stopped temporarily for
blasting.

The red flag is used to stop traffic and the green flag to
allow traffic to proceed.

Flags shall be a minimum of 600mm square and made of


material securely fastened to a handle approximately
900mm long. Flags shall be retroreflective when used at
night. The free edge of the flag may need to be weighted
so the flag will hang vertically, even in strong wind.

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.5.4 PREPARE TO STOP (T1-18)

The PREPARE TO STOP sign should be used to give


advance warning where traffic may need to comply with the
directions of a roadwork Traffic Controller or where portable
temporary traffic signals are being used at a worksite.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T1-18 900 x 600 Line 1- White 120 DM Red
Line 2- White 120 DM Reflectorized
T1-18
Line 3- White 120 EM
Reflectorized

4.5.5 SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-1)

The SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-1) sign may be used to


create a temporary roadworks speed limit where this is
warranted by traffic and site conditions.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


R4-1 600 x 800 Black 240 DN White
(size B) Circle 600 dia. Red Reflectorized
Red circle -
Reflectorized

If a speed restriction sign is installed for roadworks it shall


be either:
Accompanied by a supplementary ROAD WORK (R4-
13) sign, or R4-1
Be installed at the advance warning ROADWORK
AHEAD (T1-1) sign.

4.5.6 ROAD WORK (R4-3)

The supplementary ROAD WORK (R4-3) sign is used with


a SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-1) sign.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


R4-3 600 x 400 Line 1- Black 100 EM White
(size B) Line 2- Black 100 EM Reflectorized R4-3

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.5.7 END SPEED RESTRICTION (R4-12, R4-2)

The end of a temporary speed limit shall be indicated by


either:
a Speed Restriction (R4-1) sign applicable to the
continuing road beyond the works, or
an End Speed Restriction (R4-12) sign, or
a De-restriction sign (R4-2).

A Speed Restriction (R4-1) sign would be used if the road


currently has a signed speed limit e.g. an expressway.
R4-12
The End Speed Restriction (R4-12) sign would be used if
the road does not have a speed limit signed and it may be
unsafe to travel at a high speed e.g. a gravel road.

The De-restriction (R4-2) sign would be used if the road did


not have a speed limit signed and it is reasonably safe to
travel at a higher speed e.g. a high standard rural road.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


R4-12 600 x 1000 Line 1 - Black 160 EM White R4-2
(size B) Line 2 - Black 240 DN Reflectorized
Circle 600 dia. Red Red circle -
Reflectorized
R4-2 600 x 800 Symbol 600 dia. White
(size B) Black Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.6 Signs for Detours

4.6.1 DETOUR AHEAD (T1-6)

The DETOUR AHEAD sign shall be used to give advance


warning of a detour from the normal alignment for a section
of the road where works are being carried out. The detour
may use other roads or a side track especially constructed
for the purpose.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background T1-6


T1-6 1200 X 600 Line 1- Black 160 EN Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 EN Reflectorized

4.6.2 DETOUR (Left or Right) (T5-1)

The DETOUR sign T5-1(R) or T5-1(L) shall be used to


indicate the direction and point at which traffic should leave
the through route to detour via existing roads or a side
track which by-pass the worksite or an obstruction in the T5-1(R)
main route. On roads carrying fast or heavy traffic, or
where sight distance is limited, it will usually be necessary
to use the advance sign, DETOUR AHEAD (T1-6) in
conjunction with this sign.
T5-1(L)
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T5-1 1200 X 300 Black 120 EN Yellow
Reflectorized

4.6.3 Detour Marker (T5-6)

The Detour Marker should be used to guide and reassure


detoured drivers travelling on a detour route.

Sign No. Size (mm) Arrow Background


T5-6A 450 X 450 Black 300 High Yellow
Reflectorized T5-6

The DETOUR signs T5-1(R) or T5-1(L) can also be used


for this purpose but can cause confusion for drivers not
following the detour route.

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.6.4 LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY (G9-40-2)

The LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY sign may be used at detours


where local traffic is permitted to enter the work area.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


G9-40-2 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 100 EN Yellow
Line 1- Black 100 EN Reflectorized G9-40-2
Line 2- Black 100 EN

4.6.5 END DETOUR (T2-23)

The END DETOUR sign shall be used to indicate that a


detour has ended.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T2-23 1200 X 600 Line 1- Black 160 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized T2-23

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.7 Signs for Road Conditions and Hazards

Road condition signs are used to warn drivers of the


condition of the road or edges, and to inform them of the
nature of the temporary hazard.

The signs should not be used where drivers need to be


warned about a permanent hazard. In this situation the
appropriate permanent warning sign should be used refer
to the Philippines Road Signs Manual

The road condition signs may be used as part of an overall


signing scheme at an active worksite. They may also be
used at an isolated location to warn drivers of a temporary
hazard.

When used to warn drivers of an isolated hazard, separate


advance warning signs are generally not required.
However, the signs shall be erected at least 30m before the
beginning of the hazard, or at a greater distance if required.

The signs shall be repeated at regular intervals if the


hazardous conditions extend over a considerable distance.

On low speed gravel roads the signs may not be required if


works do not affect the traffic path and the works can be
seen for at least a distance of 2D.

4.7.1 Wet Tar (T3-1)

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-1 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 160 FM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 FM Reflectorized

T3-1

4.7.2 Slippery (T3-3)

Sign No. Size (mm) Symbol Background


T3-3 900 x 600 Black Yellow
Reflectorized
Note: This symbolic sign replaces an older style sign that used words.
T3-3

4.7.3 Soft Edges (T3-6)

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-6 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 160 DN Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DN Reflectorized
T3-6

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.7.4 Rough Surface (T3-7)

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-7 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 120 EN Yellow
Line 2- Black 120 DN Reflectorized
T3-7

4.7.5 Loose Stones (T3-9)

Sign No. Size (mm) Symbol Background


T3-9 900 x 600 Black Yellow
Reflectorized
Note: This symbolic sign replaces an older style sign that used words.
T3-9

4.7.6 Gravel Road (T3-13)

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-13 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 140 DN Yellow
Line 2- Black 140 DN Reflectorized

T3-13

4.7.7 Loose Surface (T3-14)

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-14 900 x 600 Line 1- Black 140 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 140 CM Reflectorized

T3-14

4.7.8 No Lines Do Not Overtake Unless Safe (T3-12)

The No Lines Do Not Overtake Unless Safe (T3-12) signs


should be used at locations on two way roads where barrier
lines would normally be installed or where it may be
hazardous to overtake due to limited visibility.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T3-12 1500 x 900 Line 1- Black 140 EM Yellow T3-12
Line 2- Black 140 EM Reflectorized
Line 3- Black 140 EM
Line 4- Black 120 DM

4.7.9 Traffic Hazard Ahead (T1-10)

The Traffic Hazard Ahead sign is a non-specific warning


sign to be used in an emergency such as an accident
ahead or a hazard on the roadway. It would usually be the
first sign used when a hazard is first detected if a specific
sign was not available. T1-10

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

Should the hazard remain, this sign should be replaced with


signs appropriate to the situation giving more specific
advice about the nature of the hazard if such signs were
available e.g. Rough Surface.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T1-10 1200 x 900 Line 1- Black 160 DM Yellow
Line 2- Black 160 DM Reflectorized
Line 3- Black 160 DM

4.7.10 Trucks Entering (T2-25)

The Trucks Entering sign is used to warn of trucks entering


or crossing at a frequency that could cause a hazard.

Sign No. Size (mm) Symbol Background


T2-25 900 x 600 Black Yellow T2-25
Reflectorized

4.7.11 Power Line Works In Progress (T4-5)

This sign is an example of signs that may be used to


describe specialized works carried out by utility companies
working on or adjacent to the roadway.
T4-5
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T4-5 1800 x 900 Line 1- Black 140 EM Yellow
Line 2- Black 140 EM Reflectorized
Line 3- Black 140 EM

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.8 Signs for Lane and Road Closures

4.8.1 ROAD CLOSED (T2-4)

The ROAD CLOSED sign is used to completely close a


road to traffic. Barrier boards would generally be used with
the sign to stop access.
T2-4
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T2-4 1800 X 300 Black 140 EN Yellow
Reflectorized

DETOUR signs may also need to be used in association


with this sign to indicate the alternative route for traffic.

4.8.2 LANE STATUS (T2-6-1 and T2-6-2)

The lane status signs are used to give advance warning of


where a lane or lanes are closed on a multilane roadway.
T2-6-1(L)
The arrowheads indicate the lanes open to traffic and the
bars indicate the lane or lanes that are closed to traffic.

The signs can be manufactured with removable or


reversible symbols so that the sign can be varied to suit a T2-6-1(R)
range of different lane closure or lane arrangement
situations.

Sign No. Size (mm) Arrow Background


T2-6-1 1200 X 900 Black 600 High Yellow
Reflectorized
T2-6-2(L1)
T2-6-2 1800 X 900 Black 600 High

Lane closures which require complex driving maneuvers


may require special signs incorporating curved arrows.
T2-6-2(L2)

T2-6-2(R1)

T2-6-2(R2)

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.9 Signs for Blasting

Blasting at a roadworks requires specific signs to supplement


other signs approaching and leaving a worksite. Traffic at
these sites would be stopped using Traffic Controllers and
STOP signs.

4.9.1 Blasting Area Switch Off Radio Transmitters (T4-2)

The Blasting Area Switch Off Radio Transmitters (T4-2) sign


shall be used when electronic detonators are to be handled or
used within 100m of a road. It shall be displayed at the edge of
the roadway on all road approaches at a distance of not less
than 200m from the handling or blasting site. T4-2

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T4-2 1200 X 600 Line 1 - White 120 CM Red
Line 2 - White 100 CM Reflectorized
Line 3 - White 100 CM
Reflectorized

4.9.2 End Blasting Area (T4-3)

The End Blasting Area (T4-3) sign shall be used a minimum of


200m beyond the blasting or handling area to indicate where
transmitters can again be used.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T4-3
T4-3 1200 X 450 Line 1 - White 120 DM Red
Line 2 - White 120 CM Reflectorized
Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Signs for Worksites

4.10 Signs for Pedestrian Control

4.10.1 Pedestrians Watch Your Step (T8-1)

The Pedestrians Watch your Step sign is used where works


could be hazardous for pedestrians because of roughness,
level difference, or loose or other surface material.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background


T8-1 900 X 600 Line 1 - Black 100 CN Yellow
Line 2 - Black 100 CN Reflectorized
T8-1
Line 3 - Black 100 CN

4.10.2 Pedestrians (T8-2 L or R)

The Pedestrians sign is used to direct pedestrians around


the worksite or via a particular path.
T8-2L
Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background
T8-2 1200 X 300 Black 100 CM Yellow
L or R Arrow 140 Reflectorized
T8-2R

4.10.3 Use Other Footpath (T8-3)

The Use Other Footpath sign is used where works make it


necessary to deny use of the footpath on one side of the
road. The Pedestrians (T8-2 L or R) sign shall be used as
necessary in conjunction with this sign.

Sign No. Size (mm) Letters Background T8-3


T8-3 900 X 600 Line 1 - Black 100 DN Yellow
Line 2 - Black 100 DN Reflectorized

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Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

5. TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

5.1 General

Traffic control devices are used in conjunction with worksite


signs to define the traffic path, to inhibit access into the
work area or to act as a barrier to protect workers.

5.2 Traffic Cones

Traffic cones are used to indicate the path that traffic


should follow around the worksite. They are useful for
delineation of tapers, merges, lane separation, or similar
temporary measures.

Traffic cones shall be fluorescent red or orange plastic that


is resilient to impact and will not damage vehicles when hit
at low speed. The height of traffic cones varies from
450mm up to 750 mm for use on expressways or in very
high speed situations. They shall be designed to be stable
in wind and the air turbulence from passing traffic.

For night time operation the cones must be fitted with


reflective tape with a minimum bandwidth of 150mm.

Traffic cones are generally spaced as follows:

5 to 10 meters apart on tapers.


10 to 20 meters apart to provide longitudinal
separation between opposing traffic flows
10 to 20 meters apart to provide longitudinal
separation of traffic from the worksite or a closed
lane. This spacing may be increased to 50 meters
where the length of cones exceeds 1 km.
5 to 10 meters apart around small work sites. This
may need to be reduced to 3 meters to guide
pedestrians or to prevent traffic taking a wrong turn
through a gap in the line of cones.

Traffic cones must be checked on a regular basis as they


can be easily knocked out of position by passing vehicles.

5.3 Temporary Bollards

Temporary traffic bollards are used to define the path that


traffic should follow or around the worksite. They are
useful in place of traffic cones if greater stability is required
when delineating tapers, merges, lane separation, or
longitudinal separation and delineation between traffic and
the outer edge of a widening excavation or worksite.

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Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

Temporary bollards shall be fluorescent red or orange


plastic that is resilient to impact and will not damage
vehicles when hit at low speed. The height of bollards is up
to 1 meter.

For night time operation the bollards must be fitted with


reflective tape with a minimum bandwidth of 250mm.

Temporary bollards are generally spaced as follows:

5 to 10 meters apart on tapers.


10 to 20 meters apart to provide longitudinal
separation between opposing traffic flows
10 to 20 meters apart to provide longitudinal
separation of traffic from the worksite or a closed
lane. This spacing may be increased to 50 meters
where the length of bollards exceeds 1 km.
5 to 10 meters apart around small work sites. This
may need to be reduced to 3 meters to guide
pedestrians or to prevent traffic taking a wrong turn
through a gap in the line of bollards.

Bollards must be checked on a regular basis as they can be


easily knocked out of position by passing vehicles. Bollards
may be fixed to the roadway to keep them in position.
Alternatively they may be stabilized with a bag of sand or
gravel on the base.

5.4 Temporary Hazard Markers (T5-4 and T5-5)

Temporary hazard markers shall be used to indicate a


lateral change in direction of the travelled path through the
worksite.

Temporary hazard markers shall also be used to warn road T5-4


users of an adjacent hazard or closed area or length of
road or shoulder along which it is hazardous for vehicles to
travel.

The signs shall be installed approximately 1.0 meter clear


of the edge of the remaining width of road used by traffic.
The chevrons should point to the side to which traffic must
pass.

A single temporary hazard markers may be used at the


start of a taper marked with traffic cones. Alternatively they
may be spaced along the taper in conjunction with the
traffic cones or temporary bollards. Subject to the length of
the taper, up to 3 or 4 markers would be evenly spaced
along the taper. Temporary hazard markers may also be T5-5
used instead of traffic cones or temporary bollards to
indicate a taper.

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Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

Temporary hazard markers should not be used on both


sides of a taper or travelled path as two lines of markers
facing opposite directions may cause confusion. In this
situation hazard markers would be used on the side to
direct traffic laterally and cones or bollards would be used
on the other side.

When used to provide longitudinal delineation of the outer


edge of a closed shoulder or widening excavation they shall
be repeated at 50 to 100 m intervals.

Sign No. Size (mm) Chevrons Background


T5-4 1500 X 450 Black 177 wide at 45o Yellow
T5-5 600 X 600 Black 194 wide at 45o Reflectorized

5.5 Barrier Boards

A barrier board mounted on a trestle is a useful device for


inhibiting access to a worksite.

The boards may be up to 4 meters long and 150mm to


200mm wide with diagonal black and reflective yellow
stripes, preferably terminating in yellow at each end.

Barrier boards are mounted at a height of approximately 1


meter using trestles. Barrier boards should be erected
perpendicular to the direction of traffic flow.

Barrier boards can be a spearing hazard if the end is struck


by an errant vehicle, so they shall not be used for
delineation purposes or installed parallel to vehicular traffic
unless there is an offset of at least 4 meters from the
travelled path.

5.6 Safety Barriers

Safety barriers may be used for the separation of traffic and


the protection of workers in high speed areas or in
vulnerable situations where lateral clearance between
workers and moving traffic would be insufficient for
adequate safety. Safety barriers may also be used for
protection at a severe hazard such as a deep excavation or
bridge pier.

Safety barriers physically separating traffic from the work


area shall be designed to restrict penetration by an out of
control vehicle, and as far as practicable, to redirect errant
vehicles away from the works area and back onto the traffic
path.

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Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

Concrete barriers need to be continuous or secured


together (generally using steel pins and eyelets) with a
maximum 100mm gap to ensure they perform satisfactorily.
If hit by a vehicle, unconnected units are not able to restrict
penetration and can also be hazardous as an unprotected
roadside object.

Lightweight plastic units that may or may not be filled with


water generally do not meet AASHTO safety barrier
performance criteria. However, some plastic units that are
reinforced and secured together with cabling may be
suitable as a safety barrier.

The end of a safety barrier shall be tapered away to provide


an offset from approaching traffic. Where an approach
taper cannot be provided, a temporary crash cushion
should be considered as an energy absorbing device to
reduce the severity of a collision by an out of control
vehicle.

Steel guardrail may also be used as a safety barrier in long


term worksite situations.

5.7 Temporary Crash Cushion

A temporary crash cushion should be provided at


hazardous fixed objects such as the end of a safety barrier
or an unprotected bridge pier. The crash cushion acts as
an energy absorbing device to reduce the severity of a
collision by an out of control vehicle.

5.8 Containment Fences

Containment fences may be used to provide separation


between traffic and workers in situations where physical
protection using a safety barrier is not warranted.
Containment fences may also be used to separate
pedestrians from the work area.

5.8.1 Lightweight Plastic Units

Lightweight plastic units, that may or may not be filled with


water, may be used to provide delineation or a physical
separation adjacent to the work area. These units should
be connected together to provide a continuous barrier and
to avoid the possibility of units being knocked out of
position.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 32


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

Generally, lightweight plastic units are not suitable as a


safety barrier for high speed areas or in vulnerable
situations as they do not meet safety barrier performance
criteria. Therefore, they should not be used for the purpose
of protecting workers where traffic speed is likely to exceed
20kph. However, plastic units that are reinforced and
secured together with cabling may be suitable as a safety
barrier.

5.8.2 Tapes

Containment tapes may be used to contain workers within


the work area. The tape shall be tied or supported
approximately 1 meter high. The tape shall be 100 mm
wide with alternating black and yellow stripes.

5.8.3 Mesh Fencing

Mesh fencing may be used adjacent to the works area to


contain workers within the work area or to separate passing
pedestrians from the work area. Mesh fencing is not
suitable for control of vehicles or protection of workers from
vehicles.

Mesh fencing would generally be red or orange plastic


mesh approximately 1 meter high. It shall be securely tied
or supported in place.

5.9 Antiglare Screen

An antiglare screen reduces excessive headlight glare to an


acceptable level. These should be considered where a
temporary diversion results in directly opposing traffic.
Screens should be provided where oncoming headlights
could mislead or dazzle drivers regarding their correct
travel path.

5.10 Flashing Lamps

Battery operated flashing yellow lamps may be used at long


term worksites to draw attention to advance signs such as
the ROADWORK AHEAD or BRIDGEWORK AHEAD signs.

Their use would usually be confined to situations where the


effectiveness of standard reflectorized signs is a concern
and it is considered that further measures may be required
to make the signs more conspicuous.

Flashing lamps should not be used for delineation


purposes.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 33


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

5.11 Temporary Pavement Markings

In some situations temporary pavement markings may


need to be used to guide road users through or a worksite.
Modified lane markings may be necessary where existing
pavement marking is not appropriate or is misleading. In
this situation the previous markings should be removed to
avoid confusion.

Reflective Pavement Studs may also be used at long term


worksites in conjunction with changed pavement markings
to provide improved guidance at night.

5.12 Temporary Curb

Temporary curb consisting of precast curb units or


interlocking blocks are used to form temporary medians,
traffic islands or pavement edges during long term works.

5.13 Vehicle Mounted Equipment

5.13.1 WORKERS sign

This double-sided folding warning device is mounted on the


top of a works vehicle. It would be folded into the upright
position and made visible to motorists when moving slowly
or when stopped to carry out works. This device would be
suitable for use on low volume roads.
T1-5

5.13.2 Rotating Lights

Yellow rotating lights are generally mounted on the top of


the works or inspection vehicle and activated when moving
slowly or when stopped to carry out works.

A single portable rotating light may be used for emergency


or mobile inspections on a vehicle not usually used for
roadwork purposes.

Two flashing lamps mounted on either side on the top of a


mobile maintenance vehicle would generally be a suitable
warning device for use on low speed roads.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 34


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

5.13.3 Flashing Arrow Board

Flashing arrow board signs are generally mounted on the


top of the works vehicle and activated when moving slowly
or when stopped to carry out works.

The board comprises a set of lamps to form an arrow to


direct approaching traffic. It can also be used as a warning
device by flashing the bar only. Alternatively the four
corner lights at the extremities of the barbs may be flashed
as diagonal pairs.

The flashing arrow board is the preferred warning device for


works on high speed roads.

5.14 Variable Message Signs (VMS)

Portable electronic Variable Message Signs (VMS) may be


used to provide long range warning to road users of
roadworks, road conditions or traffic hazards on the road
ahead. Normal use would be on high speed or high volume
roads where conventional signage may be ineffective, or in
an emergency where normal signs cannot be arranged.

Portable VMS signs should be installed in a location clearly


visible to motorists and according to the signing layout
principles in Section 3. In addition, portable VMS should be
located as follows:

In urban areas behind the curb if visible to oncoming


traffic. Otherwise on the roadway as near as
practicable to the curb with appropriate taper and signs
to guide motorists past the sign.

On expressways beyond the shoulder if possible,


otherwise on the shoulder.

Portable VMS shall be aimed at a 90 angle to the line of


sight at the following aiming distance.

Speed (kph) Desirable Aiming


Distance (m)
40 50
60 70
80 100
100 150

Visibility of a VMS can be affected by shade, direction of


the sun, background conditions (including lighting) or
oncoming headlights. These factors should be considered
when positioning the signs.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 35


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Control Devices

Messages should be kept to a maximum of three lines per


frame and the message text centred. Messages shall be
concise and unambiguous for driver comprehension.

Messages should comprise a maximum of two frames. The


number of frames used for the VMS message affects the
motorists ability to read and understand the entire
message. It can also create a hazard as a motorists
attention may become focused on reading the message
and not on the road ahead.

The message update shall be scrolled. Flashing or


blinking of messages is undesirable. Message update
rates should be set as follows:

Message frames: 1.2 - 2 sec


Pause between frames: 0.5 - 1 sec

5.15 Portable Traffic Signals

Portable traffic signals may be used instead of Traffic


Controllers to control traffic at a worksite.

The red, yellow and green traffic lights provide regulatory


control of traffic in a similar manner as permanent traffic
signal installations. The signals would be connected and
operated by cable or by radio. Traffic signals would
generally be considered for use at sites with high traffic
volumes or where reliable continuous traffic control may be
needed over an extended period.

A battery or generator would usually power portable traffic


signals. They would generally be used at worksites where
the width of a bridge or roadway available to traffic has
been narrowed to a single lane that must be used
alternately by traffic from opposite directions. Portable
signals may also be used where construction traffic or STOP
machinery crosses a roadway between different sections of
a worksite. HERE3

ON RED
The STOP HERE ON RED SIGNAL (R6-6) sign shall be S IG N A L
used in association with portable signals to indicate where
traffic must stop. This sign detail is included in the S2-2
Philippines Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual.

If the roadway is paved a stop line shall also be provided.

The Signals Ahead (W3-3) sign shall also be used to give


advance warning of the traffic signals. This sign detail is
included in the Philippines Road Signs and Pavement
Markings Manual. W3-1

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 36


Road Works Safety Manual High Visibility Clothing

6. HIGH VISIBILITY CLOTHING

6.1 Traffic Safety Vest

All personnel working on or adjacent to a roadwork site


shall wear appropriate high visibility clothing. The traffic
safety vest is designed to make workers more conspicuous
and to warn road users of their presence.

The vest shall be worn over normal clothing and properly


fastened so that the entire available area of high visibility
material can be seen in any direction. To maximize
effectiveness the vest should be kept clean and in good Front View
condition.

The traffic safety vest shall be made from fluorescent


red/orange material. The vest shall also have at least two
strips of yellow retroreflective material front and back. This
safety vest maximizes flexibility in use and visibility for
works during day and night. The safety vest should have a
secure fastening, preferably a zip.

The jacket may be worn over wet weather clothing. Rear View
Alternatively, wet weather high visibility clothing shall be
made from water proof material matching those properties
indicated above for colour and retroreflectivity.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 37


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7. TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS (FLAGMEN)

7.1 Introduction

A Traffic Controller (Flagman) is a person whose duty is to control traffic at a


roadworks site. The Traffic Controller uses a portable STOP / SLOW hand held sign
or red and green Stop / Go flags to control the traffic.

These instructions detail the procedures to be followed and the equipment required
by Traffic Controllers to control the flow of traffic.

7.2 General

The objectives of traffic control are: -

To ensure the safety of road workers


To ensure the roadworks machinery has a clear path
To ensure the safety for the road user
To ensure good public relations
To ensure the safety of the Traffic Controller

7.3 Use of Traffic Controllers

Traffic Controllers would need to control the movement of traffic at a worksite in the
following situations: -

Where one lane of a two-lane way road or bridge is closed,


Where there is a need to slow the traffic down to an acceptable speed,
Where construction machinery regularly crosses or enters a road,
Where sight distance to the work site is limited.

At sites with high traffic volumes, the following factors must be considered: -

Safety of the workers at the site,


Safety of the public at the site,
The duration of the work,
Site conditions and layout,
Personnel available.

If there is the need to work on a section of road with high traffic volumes, then a
review should be undertaken to consider likely delays and congestion and decide if
this work could be completed at a different time when traffic volumes are lower.

A Traffic Controller is not a Policeman and should not demand a motorists name and
address if instructions have not been obeyed. A Traffic Controller should not direct
traffic through red traffic signals. If works at a site requires that traffic is directed
through red signals an authorized person should be engaged to control the traffic.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 38


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7.4 Correct Clothing

The basic clothing item for day use is a fluorescent red/orange vest that is worn over
normal clothing. The vest should be fastened at the front to make the wearer
conspicuous. It should be clean and in good condition, not faded and display the
organization identification. A fluorescent red/orange cap or hat may also be worn.

To maximize safety, it is essential that the Traffic Controller wear the fluorescent
red/orange vest at all times while on Traffic Controller duty. The clothing is designed
to make personnel more conspicuous and to warn road users of their presence.

Fluorescent material does not give adequate conspicuity at night. The basic dress
item for night use should include retroreflective material, capable of reflecting in wet
or dry conditions.

In wet conditions, conspicuous wet weather clothing should be worn.

7.5 STOP / SLOW Sign

The STOP / SLOW sign is a double-sided hand held sign 450mm in diameter with a
STOP sign on one side and a SLOW sign on the other. The STOP sign (R6-8)
comprises a white reflectorized legend and border with a red reflectorized
background. The SLOW sign (T7-1) has a black legend and border with a yellow
reflectorized background.

Traffic control signs shall be clean and in good condition. Damaged or defaced signs
shall be repaired or replaced.

7.6 Other Worksite Signs

When controlling traffic a Traffic Controller should ensure that a symbolic


WORKMAN sign and a PREPARE TO STOP sign are in place to provide advance
warning and information to road users. Additional signs and devices are also
required for the overall worksite traffic management scheme.

The PREPARE TO STOP sign should be placed a distance of approximately D


meters from the Traffic Controller. The WORKMAN (symbolic) sign should then be
placed a further D meters from the PREPARE TO STOP sign. Dimension D is a
distance expressed in meters equal to the approach speed of traffic in kilometers per
hour. For example, if the approach speed of traffic is 60 kph the PREPARE TO
STOP sign should be 60 meters in advance of the Traffic Controller.

When using a Traffic Controller in a very high speed area (where speed may be 80 to
100 kph), worksite traffic management may require slowing the approaching traffic
down to 60 kph by the use of regulatory speed restriction signs. End speed
restriction signs would then be erected in the termination area to allow traffic to return
back to normal driving conditions. The minimum length of the 80 kph speed
restriction should be 2D meters.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 39


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7.7 Location of the Traffic Controller

The Traffic Controller should stand approximately 30 meters in advance of the work
area. This distance allows the Traffic Controller to be close to the worksite to monitor
the situation. This clearance distance also allows for a vehicle that may not stop in
time room to stop before it enters the work area.

The Traffic Controller should be visible to the approaching road user and stand on
the curb side or shoulder clear of the travelled path to view both the worksite and
oncoming traffic. The Traffic Controller should remain standing while carrying out
their duties to ensure mobility in the event of an errant vehicle. Traffic Controllers
should not control traffic while seated.

The Traffic Controller should stand where the approaching traffic can be seen for a
distance of at least 1.5D (where D is a distance expressed in meters equal to the
approach speed of traffic in kilometers per hour). Where sight distance is limited it
may be necessary to use an extra Traffic Controller in advance of the traffic control
position to slow down or stop traffic approaching the end of the queue.

The Traffic Controller should always stand where a clear escape path is available.

Once traffic has stopped, the Traffic Controller may change position to be more
visible to other approaching traffic. The Traffic Controller should then stay at the
head of the traffic queue and not permit vehicles proceed until required.

The drivers visibility of a Traffic Controller can be affected by the direction of the
sunlight, the background conditions (including lighting), the location of the controller
in shade and oncoming headlights. These factors should be considered when
positioning to control the traffic.

The Traffic Controller should also stand where the other Traffic Controller is visible.
Alternatively, the use of two-way radios should be considered for communication.

For a lane closure the normal length for a diverge taper is D. However, when a
Traffic Controller is being used a 30 meter taper is adopted as the traffic would be
approaching the taper at a slower speed. This enables the Traffic Controller to stand
at the start of the taper 30 meters in advance of the work area.

7.8 Controlling Traffic - To Stop and Release the Traffic

To stop traffic, the Traffic Controller should watch for a suitable gap in the traffic. The
STOP sign should then be extended high over the roadway at an angle of about 45
so that STOP is facing the approaching motorists. When the first vehicle has
stopped, and with the STOP sign still extended and visible to approaching drivers,
the Traffic Controller may step onto the roadway and walk to a position in front of the
first vehicle with the palm of the free hand indicating a stop signal.

To allow traffic to proceed, the Traffic Controller should check that all traffic has
passed from the other end of the work, move to the side of the road then turn the
sign to SLOW. The Traffic controller should then turn side on to the traffic and with
the free hand extended horizontally, motion with a deliberate motion across the body
for the traffic to proceed.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 40


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7.9 Controlling Traffic - To Slow the Traffic

To alert or slow traffic the Traffic Controller must stay at the curb or shoulder of the
road and have the SLOW sign facing the oncoming traffic. While facing the traffic,
the Traffic Controller then extends the free hand below shoulder level and motions up
and down slowly, with the palm down

The sign should be held away from the body so that the SLOW sign is clearly visible
to approaching traffic.

7.10 Attitude

Only personnel who can reasonably deal with the traveling public should be selected
as Traffic Controllers. They should have a sound temperament and not allow
themselves to be provoked by members of the public. Correct appearance is
essential so that motorists will recognize them as a form of authority and will react
accordingly.

7.11 Safety

Hazards confronting the Traffic Controller include vehicles that fail to stop or fail to
slow down. Traffic Controllers should not assume that motorists will reduce their
speed to a speed consistent with the safety desired at the work site and should
always stand where a clear escape path is available.

Traffic Controllers should ensure that the signing on the approach to the worksite
gives an accurate warning of the situation facing the motorists. If this is not the case,
the motorist may not slow down, be alert to the presence of a Traffic Controller or be
ready to stop.

The Traffic Controller needs to stay alert during the time they act in that position. In
addition to looking after their own safety and the road workers in a hazardous
environment, they also have the responsibility of ensuring the safety of motorists
through or around the work area. Therefore, only competent persons should be
appointed as Traffic Controllers. It is essential that they be given instruction and
shown how to control traffic properly.

Caution should also be exercised when standing close to the path traveled by
vehicles, as protruding loads can present a hazard.

7.12 Two-way Radios

Situations will arise at work sites where Traffic Controllers will need to use two-way
radios to ensure adequate communication over long distances or where there is
limited visibility.
The use of hand-held radios can affect the Traffic Controllers ability to give the
appropriate hand signals. Therefore, it will be necessary to carry the radio by a neck
or shoulder strap to keep the signalling hand free.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 41


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

When using two-way radios ensure the radio frequency does not cause interruptions
or interference caused by other operators using a similar frequency. If the work is
over a lengthy period of time the capacity of the radio battery needs to be monitored,
with regular recharging or replacement of batteries.

7.13 Supervisors Responsibility

Supervisory personnel should ensure that all signs and devices at the worksite have
been erected to ensure safe operation for the road worker and the road user.
Supervisors should ensure that the personnel assigned to place, maintain and
remove signs and devices are aware of their responsibilities.

Supervisors should ensure that Traffic Controllers are properly trained and informed
of their specific duties for controlling traffic at that site.

Supervisors should ensure that employees are courteous to the travelling public.
When lengthy delays may be caused by roadworks, the supervisor should inform the
Traffic Controller of the estimated time delay so this information can be relayed to the
waiting motorists.

7.14 Reduced Visibility

Reduced visibility on roads can be caused by dust, heavy rain, fog or smoke. Traffic
Controllers and supervisors should be aware of the additional danger facing road
workers from such hazards. At 60 kph the stopping distance for a vehicle is up to
100 meters and at 100 kph the distance increases up to 220 meters on good flat
roads. Therefore, when hazards affecting visibility are experienced, the supervisor
should consider if work should be stopped until conditions have improved.

7.15 Controlling Traffic at Night

When controlling traffic at night Traffic Controllers should wear a day/night traffic
jacket fitted with retroreflective bands. Where additional conspicuity is required
under night conditions white clothing fitted with retroreflective bands could be worn.
All worksite signs and devices should be retroreflective for night time works.

In wet conditions wet weather red/orange clothing fitted with retroreflective bands
should be worn.

7.16 Controlling Traffic if an Accident Occurs at the Worksite

In the event of a traffic accident occurring at the worksite, the Traffic Controllers
primary responsibility is to maintain control of the traffic for the protection of the
workers and the public. While steps are taken to notify appropriate emergency
authorities such as police, ambulance or fire brigade, others should then provide
assistance to those involved.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 42


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7.17 Summary of Traffic Controller Instructions

Controlling Traffic:

o Stand on the curb side or shoulder to view both the worksite and the
oncoming vehicles.

o When about to stop the traffic wait for a suitable break in the traffic.

o When a suitable break is found extend the STOP sign across the carriageway
at an angle of 45 degrees with the STOP facing the oncoming traffic.

o When approaching traffic has stopped, you may move from the curb or
shoulder to the centre of the carriageway with the STOP still facing the traffic
and the sign extended at 45 degrees.

o When it is clear to move the traffic on, walk off the carriageway the same way
as you walked on, still with the sign on STOP facing the traffic.

o When the Traffic Controller is back at the curb or shoulder, turn the sign to
SLOW and indicate to the first driver to proceed using the proceed motion
hand signal.

Using Two Traffic Controllers:

The controller displaying


SLOW has control
of the site

Work Area

Make sure the other bat has STOP


facing the oncoming traffic.
Ensure the travel path is clear
before allowing traffic to proceed.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 43


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

Using One Traffic Controller:

Use only on lightly trafficked low speed roads, with good visibility in both directions.

STOP traffic
in obstructed
Work Area lane.

Traffic approaching has


right of way at all times.

Allow traffic in
the obstructed
lane to proceed
after checking
Work Area
the other travel
path is clear.

No Approaching Traffic

Key Points:

o Be visible to the road user.


o Do not stand on the carriageway until approaching traffic has stopped.
o Do not turn your back to traffic.
o Give clear instructions to road users.
o Always be ready for the unexpected.
o Always have a clear escape path.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 44


Road Works Safety Manual Traffic Controllers (Flagmen)

7.18 Using Stop/Go Flags to Control Traffic

7.18.1 General

The use of red and green flags to control traffic may be suitable in low traffic volume
situations, generally in rural areas.

Flags shall be a minimum of 600mm square and made of material securely fastened
to a handle approximately 900mm long. The flag to stop traffic shall be red and the
flag to allow traffic to proceed shall be green.

When used at night time, flags shall be retroreflective. The free edge of the flag may
need to be weighted so the flag will hang vertically, even in strong wind.

The earlier requirements in Section 6 above relating to the location of the Traffic
Controller, other worksite signs, attitude, safety etc. shall also apply to controlling
traffic with the use of flags.

7.18.2 Controlling Traffic

To stop vehicles the Traffic Controller (Flagman) shall face the traffic and extend the
flag horizontally across the road in a stationary position so that the full area of the red
flag is visibly hanging down facing the approaching driver. The free arm shall be held
with the palm of the hand above the shoulder level making a stop signal toward
approaching traffic.

To allow stopped road users to proceed, the Traffic Controller (Flagman) shall drop
the red flag from the road users view and then raise the green flag so that the full
area of the green flag is visibly hanging down facing the approaching driver. The
Traffic Controller shall motion with the free hand extended horizontally across the
body for road users to proceed.

January 2004 Department of Public Works and Highways Page 45

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