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Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

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Contents
Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Unit 1: The family ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Unit 2: Theory and methods ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
Unit 3: Education.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Unit 4: Global development .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Unit 5: Media........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Unit 6: Religion....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 2


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Overview
This scheme of work provides ideas about how to construct and deliver a course. The 2014 syllabus has been broken down into six teaching units with suggested
teaching activities and learning resources to use in the classroom.

Recommended prior knowledge


No prior knowledge is required for this course. However, a basic knowledge of nineteenth century social history and the process of industrialisation would be useful.

Outline
The units within this scheme of work are:

Unit 1: The family


Unit 2: Theory and methods
Unit 3: Education
Unit 4: Global development
Unit 5: Media
Unit 6: Religion

Teacher support
The up-to-date resource list for this syllabus can be found at www.cie.org.uk For access to secure online support go to Teacher Support at http://teachers.cie.org.uk for
specimen and past question papers, mark schemes and other support materials. We offer online and face-to-face training; details of forthcoming training opportunities
are posted on the website.

An editable version of this scheme of work is available on Teacher Support. Go to http://teachers.cie.org.uk. The scheme of work is in Word doc format and will open
in most word processors in most operating systems. If your word processor or operating system cannot open it, you can download Open Office for free at
www.openoffice.org

Resources

Textbooks:
Barnard, A, Burgess, T and Kirby, M. Sociology: AS Level and A Level Cambridge University Press, 2004 ISBN: 9780521532143
This book is endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations and is available to buy from the Cambridge International Examinations Publications Catalogue at
www.cie.org.uk/profiles/teachers/orderpub

Cho G. Trade, Aid and Global interdependence, Routledge 1995 ISBN: 9780415091596

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 3


Chrispin J and Jegede F. Landmark Geography - Population,Resources and Development, Collins 2000 ISBN: 9780003266511
Cole J. Development and underdevelopment, Routledge 2010 ISBN: 9780416920703
Desai V, and Potter R. The Companion to Development Studies, Hodder Arnold, 2008 ISBN: 9780340889145
Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. Sociology, Themes and Perspectives (Seventh Edition) Collins 2008 ISBN: 9780007245956
Haynes, J. Development Studies Polity Press, 2008 ISBN: 9780745638485

Websites:
www.sociologyexchange.co.uk
www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk
www.tes.co.uk/sociology-secondary-teaching-resources/
http://anthro.palomar.edu/marriage/default.htm
www.sociology.org.uk
http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/sociology/research/approaches.asp
www.youtube.com
www.theory.org.uk
www.sociology.org.uk
www.socioweb.com
www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/
www.sociologyresources.co.uk
www.le.ac.uk/education
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities
www.intute.ac.uk/sociology/
www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/series/student-resources
www.gd-impact.org/resources.html
www.uk.oneworld.net/
http://globalcommunitywebnet.com/globalcommunity/definitionsustainabledevelopment.htm
www.rrojasdatabank.info/agfrank.htm
www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/Teaching-resources/Lesson-plans/Migration
https://sites.google.com/site/globalmigrationresources/home
www.polity.co.uk/browne/students/summaries/A2chapter2/
www.multinationalmonitor.org
www.corporatewatch.org
www.guardian.co.uk/media
www.aber.ac.uk/media
www.mediaknowall.com
www.socresonline.org.uk/
www.theory.org.uk
www.mrthirkill.com
www.hartsem.edu
www.questia.com

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 4


www.has.vcu.edu/wrs/
http://fasnafan.tripod.com/religion.pdf

The Classic Collection video series - Classroom Video Education With Vision www.classroomvideo.co.uk

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 5


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 1: The family

Recommended prior knowledge


No prior knowledge is required for this unit. However, a basic knowledge of nineteenth century social history and the process of industrialisation would be
useful.

Context
This unit links with Unit 3 by providing illustrations of the contribution that social class, ethnicity and gender make to the constitution of modern industrial
societies. It may also be used to introduce the main sociological theories that will be covered in more detail in Unit 2.

Outline
The unit examines the family and how it has been affected by the processes of social change. It focuses on the diverse forms of family life and the role of
individuals within the family. The relationship between the family and wider society is also reviewed.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

1.1 The family and social change

Distinguish between households Begin the unit by distinguishing between households and families. Barnard, A et al, pages 121126,
and families, and between Emphasise the diversity in family forms and pay particular attention to distinguishes between households and
different types of family unit. the differences between the nuclear family and the extended family. families and provides examples of
different forms of family unit.

Invite the learners to devise a diagram showing the different types of Barnard, A et al, pages 132136
family/household units. Discuss the circumstances under which a person examines the relationship between
might live within different family types/household units during the course industrialisation and the changing
of their life. structure of the family.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 6


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Discuss changes and continuities Discuss the relationship between family/household diversity and the For a range of downloadable resources
in family and household structure. processes of industrialisation and urbanisation. Use historical studies, on the sociology of the family, see:
such as the work of Laslett and Anderson, to consider the impact of
industrialisation/urbanisation on family life. Also consider post-modernist www.sociologyexchange.co.uk/
views of family diversity and changes in family relationships.
www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/
Use photographs/video or extracts from novels or some other literary
source, to illustrate the differences between rural and urban life. Ask the www.tes.co.uk/sociology-secondary-
learners to suggest reasons why family forms and relationships may teaching-resources/
change with the transition from rural to urban life.

Consider diversity in family forms. Present information about the impact of social class and ethnicity in For a review of anthropological studies
producing diversity in family forms. Consider examples of family life from of marriage and family life, see:
different cultures and religions. http://anthro.palomar.edu/marriage/

Ask the learners to design a booklet which covers their learning to date. www.sociology.org.uk excellent
Encourage them to recall theoretical concepts on the family, and to resources/handouts on the family.
divide the booklet into the following sections: household structures,
different family units, changes in families, diverse families and request
that links are made to theory.

Recognise the debate about the Invite the class to use the internet and other sources to research the For more information on Parson's and
universality of the nuclear family. diversity of family forms globally. Use their findings to compile case his theory of the family:
studies that illustrate the different types of family unit and the cultural www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3uZrIYfoL
contrasts in family life within and between different societies. 0

Summarise the debate about the postulated universality of the nuclear


family, using this as a basis for introducing the learners to functionalist
theory through the ideas of Murdoch and Parsons.

Assess the relationship between Divide the class into three groups. One group researches and presents Log onto the Times Educational
the family and the economy. the case for the universality of the nuclear family, as if they are barristers Supplement pages for useful lesson
in a court of law. The other group research and present the case against plans, resources and activities on any
the universality of the nuclear family. The third group acts as the aspect of the family.

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Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

'judges'; they must discuss which case they find most convincing and http://info.tes.co.uk/
then give their verdict, justifying to the class their decision.

Provide examples to illustrate the importance of the family for the wider Different feminist views of the family are
economy. Consider different theories of the relationship between the considered on:
family and the economy, including Marxist, feminist and functionalist www.youtube.com/watch?v=kI_4ScWIx
views. mc

Compose a diagram with the class that summarises the main ways in
which the family can be linked to the economic life of a country.
Consider areas such as the supply of labour, production of goods,
demand for consumer items, advertising, education and training;
reproduction of the workforce.

1.2 Family roles, marriage and


changing relationships

Consider changes in family Outline the main functions of the family and how they are affected by the A useful introduction to the sociology of
functions. change from traditional to industrial society. Summarise the arguments the family:
for and against the 'loss of functions' thesis. Consider the relationship www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyPuSgT9
between the family and the state, using examples of family social vT4
policies from your own society or other countries.

Invite the learners to think about their own society. Distinguish between
functions that are carried out by the family and those functions which
other institutions carry out for the family. Ask the learners to reflect on
similarities and differences in this area to other societies.

Distinguish between different Quick fire recall. Ask the learners to recall ten facts based on their
family roles and relationships. knowledge of the family. Furthermore, encourage the learners to recall
ten sociologists who write about the family. This can be used as a
competition, with rewards for the most accurate ten. Adds fun to the
lesson.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 8


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Summarise the different family roles and relationships. Use video The concept of patriarchy and the
sources to illustrate aspects of family life and the roles that different nature of conjugal roles in the modern
members of the family perform. Consider examples of role conflict and family is discussed in Barnard, A et al,
role stain within the family. pages 136139.

Discuss conjugal roles and the Invite the learners to discuss the roles of parents, children and
division of labour within the grandparents. Draw mind maps to summarise these roles and the
family. relationships between each family member

Discuss the nature and extent of changes within the family, with
reference to gender roles, domestic labour and power relationships. Use
the work of Oakley and more recent studies to consider how far gender
inequality exists within the home.

Ask the learners to devise a plan for a research project designed to find
out the extent to which gender equality exists in conjugal roles in their
society. Discuss the possible strengths and limitations of each plan.

Summarise the difficulties in studying gender equality within the home.

Describe changing patterns of Encourage the learners to recap, rethink, recall and reproduce as many Barnard, A et al, pages 141143
marriage and divorce and discuss factors as possible that they believe they understand about the family. summarises the main changes in
the causes and consequences of Ask them to exchange these with another learner, discuss these and marriage and divorce and assesses
these changes. provide a comprehensive list of what they recall. whether the institution of marriage is
breaking down.

Use statistical sources to illustrate the changing patterns of marriage Sociological perspectives on
and evidence of the increase in divorce and marital breakdown. functionalism, new right are all included
Consider the causes and consequences of the rising divorce rate in in this site and offer a comprehensive
modern industrial societies. guide:
http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/sociology/re
search/approaches.asp

Assess the impact of family life on Divide the class into two groups. Ask one group to prepare a case based

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 9


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

individual members. on sociological evidence for the claim that marriage is in decline in
modern industrial societies. Invite the group to present a case for the
opposing view i.e. that marriage remains important and respected in
contemporary society.

Invite the learners to prepare a guidance leaflet, for social work


professionals, on the impact of family life on individual members.

Provide examples of positive/negative features of family. Include


references to evidence and theories about the psychological damage
that family life may cause for some family members.

Ask the learners to contribute ideas about the possible positive and
negative consequences of being part of a family. Encourage them to
reflect on whether some members of a family are more likely to have a
negative experience of family life than other members. Ask them to look
for examples from the media (newspapers, television, etc.) to illustrate
some of the issues that sociologists study when they examine the
negative/positive aspects of family life.

1.3 The social construction of age

Consider the social significance Provide examples of divisions based on age groups; include references Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
of divisions based on age groups. to some tribal societies. Consider different attitudes to age divisions with 746782, provides a good review of the
reference to particular cultures and ethnic groups. sociological literature on the social
construction of age.
Encourage the learners to reflect on age divisions within their own family
and community groups. Ask them to research and draw
comparisons/contrasts with age divisions in other societies.

Discuss the social construction of Examine changes in the status of children historically and use this to Barnard, A et al, pages 3641,
childhood. illustrate the socially constructed nature of childhood (reference to the investigates the sociology of childhood.
work of Philip Aries would be particularly relevant in this context).

Stimulate thinking by producing blank cards, postcard size and ask the

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Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

learners to prepare a journey on how childhood is constructed, which


they can develop as a game for professionals. References to theory
must support all ideas.

Recognise the factors that affect Ask the learners to reflect on ways in which they feel their lives are Childhood construction:
the experience of childhood. influenced by social forces. Encourage them to reflect on the extent to www.youtube.com/watch?v=maeXjey_
which their experience of childhood has been one of protection and FGA&feature
separation from the realities of adult life in their society?

Use video sources and other materials to illustrate the diversity in the
experiences of childhood globally. Specify the main social factors that
affect the experience of childhood.

Assess the social position of the Ask the learners to complete interviews with each other about Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
elderly in different societies. perceptions of childhood and what their experiences of childhood have 754756, is a useful source for this part
been. of the course.

Invite the learners to research and present findings about how class,
ethnicity and gender may impact the experience of childhood. Use
relevant examples from the sociological literature to challenge or
reinforce the learners' findings.

Ask the learners to use information from organisations that work with the
elderly (or supply it yourself) and get them to make a collage of the
social position of the elderly in society.

Conclude the unit by considering the way the status of the elderly varies
between different societies. Examine the extent to which differences in
the treatment of the elderly reflect contrasts in family forms and
relationship more widely.

Invite the learners to research and present findings about the position of
elderly people in one particular country, other than their own. Compare
and contrast with the position of elderly people in their own society.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 11


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 2: Theory and methods

Recommended prior knowledge


This unit provides a general introduction to the study of Sociology and so no specific prior knowledge is required. However, familiarity with scientific
methodology and awareness of the possible differences between science and subjects within the humanities would be helpful. Appreciation of cultural
diversity and the many different forms of society, both past and present, would also enhance the learning experience.

Context
The unit provides an introduction to many of the key concepts and theories on which contemporary sociological investigation is based. The content of the
unit is therefore closely linked to other parts of the syllabus. For example, the main sociological perspectives, which are discussed in Unit 2, appear again
as a major underlying theme in Units 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Outline
The unit examines the origins of Sociology as an academic subject and the different views about the value of studying society in a rigorous and systematic
way. The relationship between Sociology and scientific forms of investigation is reviewed and consideration is given to the differences between sociological
problems and social problems. The relationship between the individual and society is investigated from different sociological perspectives and the key
concepts of socialisation and social identity are introduced.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

2.1 The sociological perspective

Discuss the development of Outline the development of Sociology as an academic subject in the Barnard, A et al, pages 113 for overall
Sociology as a reasoned and nineteenth century. Emphasise the links to industrialisation and coverage of this part of the unit. The
systematic study. urbanisation and discuss the aims of the major thinkers: Comte, contribution of Durkheim, Marx and
Durkheim, Marx, Weber. Weber to the development of Sociology
is included as part of the discussion of
Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to research and write sociological perspectives, pages 1329.
a one-page summary of the main ideas of one of the classical thinkers in
sociology i.e. Comte, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Parsons.

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Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Understand the issues in the Consider different views about the scientific status of sociological Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
debate about the scientific status investigation. Introduce the positivist, interpretivist and postmodernist 1417, provides a clear introduction to
of Sociology. perspectives. Invite the class to reflect on the nature of science: its aims the debates about the scientific status
and methods of investigation, and the ethical and social responsibilities of sociology.
that scientists face.

Through discussion with the class, compile a checklist of the differences


and similarities between the scientific study of nature and the study of
society in the form of sociological investigation. Encourage the class to
reflect on the differences between physical nature (inanimate objects in
particular) and human behaviour.

Assess the role of values in Provide examples of the ways in which sociological knowledge has been For articles on a range of sociological
Sociology. used and consider links with different areas of social policy. Discuss theories, see:
different views of the role of values in sociology. www.theory.org.uk

Invite the learners to compile a list of values that a sociologist might or www.sociologyexchange.co.uk
should have. Consider how these values might help or hinder the
sociologist in their work. www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk

Ask learners to make explorative posters on their understanding of


values in society. Draw links with the way that sociologists define and
study values.

Analyse the relationship between Give examples to illustrate the differences between sociological For a concise range of information on
Sociology and social policy. problems and social problems. Discuss the nature of social policy and social policy and sociology visit:
the possible role of sociology in this field. www.sociology.org.uk

Ask the learners to write a short proposal outlining how sociological


research might be used to help resolve a particular social problem, such
as unemployment, homelessness, delinquency, poverty, domestic
violence. Discuss the arguments for and against using sociological
knowledge to help bring about changes and improvements in society.

Discuss the diversity of human Use videos and other sources to illustrate the diversity of human Cultural variations and human

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 13


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

behaviour and cultural variation behaviour within and between cultures. Discuss the social factors that behaviour are well sourced at:
may help shape diversity in human behaviour, paying particular attention www.sociology.org.uk
to social class, ethnicity, gender, age and religion.

Provide the class with examples of contrasting behaviour patterns in


different cultural groups. Invite discussion of the possible reasons for
such cultural diversity and consider similar examples from your own
society. Consider the importance of sociological analysis in
understanding the diversity of human behaviour.

Learners often enjoy a role play which exemplifies aspects of human


behaviour and which incorporates certain cultural characteristics.

Consider the nature of social Summarise the differences between the functionalist view of value Times educational supplement online
order, social control and social consensus and conflict theory in terms of understanding the nature of offers excellent resources on social
change. social control and social order. Discuss different sociological control.
explanations of social change, including the functionalist, Marxist and http://info.tes.co.uk/
Weberian perspectives.

'People follow the rules of society because they are afraid to do


otherwise'. Divide the learners into small groups and ask each group to
compile a list of arguments against this proposition. Ask each group to
summarise why they think people follow the rules of society. Relate the
answers back to established sociological theories of social order.

2.2 Socialisation and the creation


of social identity

Describe structuralist and Use basic examples to distinguish between structuralist and Barnard, A et al, pages 1314 provides
interactionist views of the interactionist views of the relationship between the individual and a summary of the structuralist and
relationship between the society. Point out the emphasis on social constraint and the determining interactionist perspectives.
individual and society. power of social forces in the structuralist perspective. Note the
emphasis on meaning and the creative role of the individual in the The Classic Collection video, Making
interactionist view of social construction. Sense of Sociological Theory, provides
an accessible introduction to the
Work with the learners to devise spider diagrams that illustrate the main different sociological perspectives.
claims of the structuralist and interactionist perspectives respectively. http://onlineclassroom.tv/

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 14


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Discuss the processes through Use the work of G.H. Mead to illustrate how the processes of learning Barnard, A et all, page 23 and pages
which the individual becomes a and socialisation are crucial in the development of a social self among 3237 discusses the process of
competent social actor. young children. Also review the arguments and evidence used by socialisation in general and also
sociologists to support the claim that human behaviour is determined includes material on childhood and the
largely by social factors. Consider counter-arguments, including the ideas of G.H. Mead.
contribution of biological and psychological studies of human behaviour.
Barnard, A et al, pages 3637
Invite the learners to imagine that it is their first day at a new school or summarises the evidence for the
college. Ask them to makes notes about how they would expect to make importance of socialisation. This theme
sense of the new environment; how would they understand the rules to is developed between pages
follow, the expectations of the other pupils and teachers, and the 3742.
unspoken codes that are followed by different groups within the school.
Relate their findings to sociological ideas about how people learn to
become competent social actors.

Describe the agencies of Distinguish between primary and secondary socialisation. Consider For various materials on sociological
socialisation. examples of the role of different agencies of socialisation, including theory and socialisation:
reference to the family, education, peer group, the media and religion. www.socioweb.com

Ask the learners to make a list of rewards and sanctions that may be
used to encourage social conformity among young people in their
society. Discuss how these rewards and sanctions are linked to different
agencies of socialisation.

Understand the nature of culture, Define what is meant by culture and use sources such as videos, Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
ideology and power. newspaper articles and photographs to illustrate different forms of 24 and 771782, provides a readable
cultural activity. Also discuss the role of ideology and power in the social account of different theories of culture,
construction of reality. Provide examples, such as propaganda, to show sub-culture and youth culture.
how ideology may operate in practice.

Invite the class to identify examples of cultural forms in their own society. For helpful revision guides and
Consider how cultures are influenced by factors such as social class, summary notes on sociological theory
ethnicity and age. Use the discussion to help the learners distinguish and the socialisation process. Search
between norms, values and beliefs. the website www.sociology.org.uk
using these and other relevant concepts
from the unit. See, in particular, the

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 15


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

material on Culture and Identity in the


Pathways section of the website.

Discuss the construction of social Consider how the identities of different groups in society are socially Barnard, A. et al, pages 3642
identities. constructed. Use the examples of childhood, adolescence and older examines the construction of social
age groups in particular. The study of childhood by Philippe Aris is identities, with reference to gender,
particularly useful for discussing the construction of social identities. children and other social groups.

Invite the class to prepare a presentation on gender differences in their


society. Different members of the class might focus on the roles that
society assigns to males and females at different points in the life cycle
i.e. infancy, adolescence, young adults, olderage groups, etc.
Compare the class findings with evidence about gender differences in
other societies. Use the activity to reinforce the learners' understanding
of the concept of the social construction of reality.

Distinguish between modernist Discuss differences between popular culture and high culture. Consider Barnard, A. et al, pages 2530 provides
and post-modernist theories of the contribution of post-modernist thinkers to sociological debates about an account of the postmodernist
culture and identity. culture and identity in contemporary societies. Contrast this with earlier analysis of culture and identity.
sociological theories of culture and identity.
For a helpful introduction to post
Invite the learners to gather images from the internet that illustrate the modernist theory reference the Classic
importance of consumerism in the life of many people in modern Collection video, From Modernity to
industrial societies today. Discuss the impact of consumerism on the Post-Modernity.
construction of social identities and relate this to key themes in the http://onlineclassroom.tv/sociology/
writings of the postmodernists. Ask the learners to compile arguments
for and against the postmodernist view of the factors influencing social
identity today.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 16


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

2.3 Methods of research

Distinguish between primary and Begin the work for this part of the unit by using examples to distinguish Barnard, A et al, pages 5461
secondary data and between between primary and secondary data and between quantitative and distinguishes between primary and
quantitative and qualitative data. qualitative data. Consider the strengths and limitations of each type of secondary data and describes the main
data. Ensure the learners are aware of the different types of secondary sociological research methods.
data, providing them with examples of each type and its uses in
sociological research. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
787853, provides a comprehensive
Provide the class with examples of qualitative secondary data from summary of the main research methods
different sources i.e. novels, historical records, newspapers, diaries. Ask and approaches.
them to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each source in terms
of usefulness in sociological research.

Encourage the class to design a piece of research, with half of the class
focusing on qualitative methods, whilst the other half focus on
quantitative methods. Discuss any issues arising in relation to the design
process and consider the strengths and limitations of each research
proposal.

Recognise the main features of Provide a summary of the main research methods used in sociological A good reference resource on research
different research methods. research. Ensure that the learners understand the strengths and methods is provided at;
limitations of each method. Distinguish between practical and theoretical www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/
strengths and limitations. Consider also ethical issues associated with
the use of each type of method.

Divide the class into small groups. Give each group a short description
of a research study, including details of the research method(s) used.
Ask the group to compile a list of reasons why the chosen research
method was appropriate for that particular study. Consider also any
potential drawbacks of that method in relation to the study.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 17


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Describe the stages of research Basing the lesson on a classic sociological study, identify the stages of Barnard, A et al, pages 6162
design. research design, as outlined in the syllabus document. summarises the stages in research
design.
Provide a list of research topics. Working alone or in small groups, ask
members of the class to choose a topic and prepare a research strategy
covering all stages of research design. Discuss the research strategies
with the class and reach conclusions about the strengths and limitations
of each design.

2.4 The relationship between


theory and methods

Assess positivist and anti- An understanding of positivism and its antithesis is central to the study of Barnard, A et al, pages 6264 reflects
positivist perspectives. Sociology. Take time to explain carefully the positivist and anti-positivist on the links between theory and
perspectives. Test learner understanding on this key part of the syllabus methods.
and use opportunities later in the course to reinforce knowledge about
each perspective.

Work with the learners to compile flow charts illustrating the differences
between the positivist and anti-positivist perspectives on the relationship
between theory and choice of research methods.

Discuss the factors affecting Describe the factors that influence choice of research design, paying Search 'research methods' at:
choice of research topic and particular attention to the relationship between theory and methods. www.sociology.org.uk for a range of
research method. Cover both the positivist and anti-positivist approaches. helpful learner resources

Invite the learners to consider a range of sociological studies and to


analyse the factors that influenced the choice of topic and research The Classic Collection video, Theory
methods in each case. Consider the learners findings in a class and Methods, provides an excellent
discussion. introduction to the topic.
http://onlineclassroom.tv/sociology/

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 18


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Assess the value of different Explain the concepts of validity, reliability, objectivity, representativeness Barnard, A et al, pages 6465
research methods. and show how these concepts are used in assessing the value of examines the concepts of validity,
particular research studies. reliability, objectivity and
representativeness.
Invite the learners to use the concepts of validity, reliability, objectivity
and representativeness in evaluating the strengths and limitations of
different sources of data and research methods.

Discuss triangulation and Conclude the unit by discussing situations in which triangulation and Barnard, A et al, pages 6566 provides
methodological pluralism. methodological pluralism might be useful in sociological research. a useful summary of triangulation and
methodological pluralism.
Ask the learners to research and produce a one-page summary of a
sociological study that demonstrates the use of triangulation.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 19


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 3: Education

Recommended prior knowledge


This unit draws heavily on the concepts of socialisation, social control and ideology, which were introduced in Unit 2. Understanding of the main sociological
theories, from Unit 2, also forms important prior knowledge for Unit 3.

Context
The unit includes material on labelling and sub-cultures that will be further developed in Unit 5. The discussion of the links between education and
intelligence has relevance for the nature/nurture debate that is considered in Unit 2. The themes of social class, gender and ethnicity in this unit extend the
discussion of these topics in other parts of the syllabus.

Outline
The unit investigates the main determinants of educational achievement. It also considers the functions of education and the links with social mobility and
the economy. The social construction of knowledge and learning is examined and particular emphasis is given to the role of teacher/pupil relationships in
affecting educational outcomes.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

3.1 Education in social context

Assess different theories of the Discuss the functions of education and the links with the economy. Barnard, A et al, pages 144151
links between education and the Contrast the functionalist, Marxist and feminist perspectives on these provides a useful introduction to the
economy. issues. Use this part of the course to reinforce learning about the functionalist and Marxist perspectives
general strengths and limitations of each theory. on education, and the links between
education and the economy.
Ask the learners to compile a list of the requirements of a typical modern
economy in relation to education. Discuss with the learners how far the Functionalist and Marxist perspectives
education system (in general or in a particular society) helps to fulfil on the functions of education are
these economic requirements for a trained, skilled, diligent and explored further at:
adaptable workforce. Relate the discussion back to particular www.sociologyresources.co.uk

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 20


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

sociological studies and theories of education.

Examine the relationship between Discuss with the class how far differences in educational achievement Barnard, A et al, pages 151169
educational achievement and can be explained in terms of differences in intelligence. discusses differential educational
intelligence. Explain to the class how IQ tests are carried out and the purposes they achievement in relation to social class,
are designed to serve. gender and ethnicity.

Invite the group to make criticisms of the effectiveness of IQ tests in Sources of statistical information about
measuring intelligence. Consider in particular the social factors that may gender and education are:
influence the outcome of IQ tests and widen the debate to reflect on how www.earlhamsociologypages.co.uk/gen
educational achievement can be measured and whether conventional ddata.htm
forms of assessment, such as public examinations, generate outcomes
that are a fair reflection of the individual ability of each learner.

Discuss the links between Identify ways in which education can contribute to social mobility. Education at Leicester:
education and social mobility. Discuss the obstacles to achieving social mobility through education. www.le.ac.uk/education
Consider the extent to which education systems offer free and equal
opportunity for all learners. Information about ethnicity and
educational achievement can be found
Ask the learners to mind map how social mobility links to education and at:
how education impacts upon the lives of those learners. www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsup
port/inclusionandlearnersupport/mea/a0
Provide statistical evidence for the class illustrating the relationship 013246/ethnic-minority-achievement
between educational achievement and social mobility. Invite the learners
to interpret the data and draw appropriate conclusions.

Recognise differences in Consider various sociological explanations of educational achievement, Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
educational achievement including the functionalist, Marxist and feminist approaches. Focus on 625638 and 643641 provides good
according to social class, gender, the links between social class, gender, ethnicity and region as factors coverage of the influence of social
ethnicity, and region. that may influence educational achievement. Consider the possible class, gender and ethnicity on
interrelationships between these factors. educational achievement.

Split the class into four groups and get them to brainstorm their

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 21


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

understanding of the respective areas for discussion, ensuring that each


group discusses a different topic. Ask them to present this as a group to
all of the learners.
Suggested assessment activities for the
Invite the learners to write a short proposal for how obstacles to sociology of education are available
educational achievement linked to social class or gender may be from:
overcome, or ameliorated. Discuss the proposals with the class and link www.tes.co.uk/taxonomySearchResults
to appropriate sociological studies and theories of educational .aspx?keywords=%22sociology+of+edu
achievement. cation%22

3.2 Structures and processes


within schools

Discuss the social construction of Provide examples to illustrate the social construction of knowledge and Barnard, A et al, pages 158164
knowledge and learning. learning. Draw on the work of writers such as Illich, Bourdieu, and focuses on the contribution of the
Althusser to show how social factors influence the content of the interactionist perspective to the study of
curriculum and what is defined as knowledge in the context of education. educational achievement.

Invite the learners to prepare a lesson on some aspect of the sociology The social construction of knowledge
of education and ask them to evaluate the learning and knowledge that and learning is clearly illustrated by
emanates from this lesson. following this link:
www.intute.ac.uk/sociology
Invite the learners to compile a list of ways in which knowledge and
learning may be influenced by those who exercise power in society.
Consider the means through which access to knowledge may be
controlled in a society. Discuss the part that access to knowledge may
play in the liberation/subordination of different groups in society.

Recognise the links between Introduce Bernstein's ideas about language codes and draw links with The Classic Collection video, Paul Willis
language, deprivation and the impact of social deprivation on learning. on Learning to Labour, is an excellent
learning. resource for illustrating some major
Invite the learners to consider the part that language use plays in the themes in this part of the syllabus.
learning process in their society. Are Bernstein's ideas relevant to their http://onlineclassroom.tv/sociology/
society?

Ask the learners to role play a situation where limited language is used
and where the language 'of the street' is shared and evaluated.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 22


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Assess the contribution of Discuss the interactionist perspective as a further contribution to the Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
teacher/pupil relationships to debate about what factors influence educational achievement. Focus on 638641, considers some interactionist
educational achievement. teacher/pupil relationships and explain the concepts of streaming, studies of teacher/pupil relationships.
labelling and the hidden curriculum. Conclude by reviewing work on
pupil subcultures and attitudes to education.
Teachings on different themes from the
Invite different members of the class to research and give a presentation sociology of education are available at:
on the extent to which key concepts in the sociology of education (e.g. www.sociologyexchange.co.uk
streaming, labelling, language codes, cultural capital, the hidden
curriculum, and educational underachievement) are helpful in
understanding the education system in their country. Ask the learners to
reflect on the usefulness of one concept each.

Describe studies of pupil sub Consider different studies of pupil sub-cultures and draw links to other
cultures. influences on educational performance, including social class, ethnicity,
gender and pupil/teacher relationships.

Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to research and
deliver a short presentation that summarises the findings from a
particular sociological study of pupil sub-cultures. Discuss the strengths
and limitations of each study with the class.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 23


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 4: Global development

Recommended prior knowledge


This unit builds on the understanding of the functionalist perspective and conflict theory from Unit 2. Basic knowledge of the history of colonisation and the
struggle for independence in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean would be useful background information.

Context
This unit links with other units in the syllabus by providing further illustrations of the importance of concepts such as power, ideology, social class, race and
ethnicity in understanding the dynamics of modern societies.

Outline
The unit examines the processes of global development and considers the nature of social inequality on an international scale. Different theories of
development are considered and this is linked to an analysis of the effects of globalisation. Coverage also includes the causes and consequences of poverty.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

4.1 Development and inequality

Understand different concepts of Introduce different concepts of development and invite the learners to Recommended reading for teachers for
development. consider the strengths and limitations of each concept. Consider this unit includes the following (see
examples of development in different countries and discuss the Overview for details):
difficulties in assessing the benefits and drawbacks of these changes.
Cho G. Trade, Aid and Global
Divide the class into groups and ask each group to formulate its own interdependence
definition of development. Discuss the different definitions with the class
and identify any common elements. Link the findings to sociological Cole J. Development and
contributions to understanding the nature of development. underdevelopment

Learners should be encouraged to work on blank world maps in small Desai V, and Potter R. A The
groups. This exercise allows for learners to list the countries of the world Companion to Development Studies

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 24


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

where they can identify development, under development and how


inequality is represented in these countries. They should also use this as Chrispin J and Jegede F Landmark
a group presentation, which offers a mutual exchange of ideas. Geography - Population, resources and
development

Haynes J. Development Studies

Analyse the links between Discuss the nature of population growth and the factors that influence Useful general resources for this topic
population growth and growth rates. Consider different views of the relationship between can be found at:
development. population growth and development. Use a range of visual and written www.guardian.co.uk/global
sources to reflect on the causes and consequences of population development/series/studentresources
growth.
The following website includes a range
Present the class with statistical data illustrating the trends in population of downloadable resources on the
growth. Invite the learners to interpret the data and draw appropriate sociology of development:
conclusions about the different trends. www.tes.co.uk/teaching
resources/sociology

Useful website for data and specific


information on growth and
development:
www.gdimpact.org/resources.html

Consider debates about aid and Summarise the main forms of aid and the agencies involved in providing
development. and distributing aid. Assess the impact of aid on development by
referring to different theoretical perspectives and explanations.

Invite the learners to research a particular aid programme and to assess


its possible impact on the individuals receiving the aid and the societies
within which the aid is distributed.

Be prepared and equipped. Bring in resources from Christian Aid,


Oxfam, Water Aid and use similar resources as methods to promote
discussion. The class could make a collage of ideas for aid and
development that can be displayed on the wall. The class should be split
into small groups and all learners should be asked to consider the ideas
in each collage in relation to different theories and explanations of

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 25


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

development.

Assess different theories of Use visual aids, such as mind maps For information about sustainable
development. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map) and flow charts development and human rights, see:
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowchart ), to communicate the main www.uk.oneworld.net/
features of each theory of development: modernisation theory,
underdevelopment theory, world systems theory. Work with the learners For information on differing theories of
to develop an assessment of each theory. development see:
http://globalcommunitywebnet.com/glob
Invite the learners to design a wall chart for the classroom that alcommunity/definitionsustainabledevel
summarises the main claims of the different theories of development. opment.htm
Include a summary of the strengths and limitations of each theory.
A range of study materials on theories
Ask the learners to make revision note type postcards, which outline the of development can be downloaded
differing theories of development, and to share and exchange these with from:
other learners. These cards should be used as the basis of a larger www.sociologyexchange.co.uk
group presentation.
Also:
www.rrojasdatabank.info/agfrank/

4.2 Global issues

Discuss the relationships Use newspaper articles and other media sources to illustrate some of Useful resources for teaching this
between migration, international the issues relating to migration and demographic change. Discuss the subject can be downloaded from:
employment patterns and causes and social consequences of current migration patterns in
demographic change. different societies. www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-
do/Teaching-resources/Lesson-
Present the class with statistical data to illustrate trends in migration, plans/Migration
international employment patterns and demographic change. Invite the

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 26


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

learners to interpret the data and draw appropriate conclusions about https://sites.google.com/site/globalmigr
the different trends. ationresources/home

Split the class into four groups and give them each a topic to research.
Can be an extended piece of work. The small groups should be
encouraged to present their data and information in a user friendly way.
They should be encouraged to offer a presentation on this and all four
presentations can form the basis of research, which links into their
research unit.

Examine the causes and Consider different concepts of poverty and review evidence about the Barnard, A et al, pages 113120,
consequences of poverty. extent of social deprivation in a range of developed and developing examines the causes and
societies today. Assess different explanations of poverty, distinguishing consequences of poverty in modern
between structural and cultural approaches. industrial societies.

Invite the learners to research the consequences of poverty for


individuals and society in a particular locality. Ask them to present their
findings to the class using a range of written and visual materials.
Compose a class list of the main consequences of poverty for individuals
and society.

Consider sociological theories of Define what is meant by globalisation and provide a range of visual For a comprehensive theory on
globalisation and its effects. examples of globalisation in practice. Invite the learners to discuss how globalisation and its effects visit:
globalisation is affecting their part of the world and the impact it is having http://globalcommunitywebnet.com/glob
on their lives. Consider different explanations of globalisation and its alcommunity/definitionsustainabledevel
effects. opment.htm

Invite the learners to research and present examples of how


globalisation is affecting their part of the world and the impact it is having
on their lives. Discuss how the impact of globalisation in the learners'
own society might differ from its impact in other societies and parts of
the world. Also consider any similarities.

Ask the learners to individually produce a newsletter on globalisation


and its sociological effects on society. Encourage them to be innovative
and creative in how they develop this newsletter. This can be linked into
the unit on the media.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 27


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Assess the role of transnational Use examples of particular transnational organisations to illustrate the Ken Browne offers useful arguments in
organisations in national impact of this type of enterprise on national economic and cultural this essay on the role of transnational
economic and cultural systems. systems. Link the analysis to a consideration of the different theories of organisations:
development. Discuss the impact of transnational organisations in the www.polity.co.uk/browne/students/sum
learners' own society. maries/A2chapter2/

Invite the learners to assess who benefits from the activities of Information about the activities of
transnational organisations. Also consider any groups and interests that transnational organisations can be
are adversely affected by these organisations. Produce spider diagrams found at:
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_diagram) to summarise the findings www.multinationalmonitor.org
of the discussion. and
www.corporatewatch.org

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 28


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 5: Media

Recommended prior knowledge


Background knowledge of the main global media organisations and structures would be helpful. Awareness of the different types of newspaper and the
contrasts between commercial and state ownership of the media also has particular relevance for this unit.

Context
Many of the themes in this unit amplify the discussion of socialisation and identity in Unit 2. This unit also builds on knowledge of the influences of social
class, gender and ethnicity examined in other units throughout the syllabus.

Outline
The unit examines the sources of power within the organisation and processes of the media. It considers how the media represent different issues and social
groups, and what affect these representations have on individuals and societies. The social impact of the growth of the 'new media' is a key theme in the unit.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

5.1 Ownership and control of the


media

Identify trends in the organisation Begin by distinguishing between different types of media and outline the Barnard, A et al, pages 273275,
and control of the media. main trends in the organisation and control of newspapers and examines the ownership and control of
television/radio in the modern industrial societies. Link the discussion to the mass media. For a discussion of
globalisation and the emergence of global media corporations. different perspectives on the
relationship between the ownership and
Invite the learners to compile a list of the sources of power exercised by control of the mass media, see pages
global media corporations. Consider what means exist to control or 269273. The role of the mass media in
restrict that power and how effective they are in practice. the political process is examined on
pages 276279.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 29


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Assess different perspectives on Make a list of the different individuals and groups who may exercise A good website for the latest news
the relationship between the control over the media. Discuss with the class how each social agent is about developments in the media world
ownership and control of the able to influence the media and what is, or might be, the source of their is:
media. power. Invite the class to draw charts to summarise the findings of the www.media.guardian.co.uk
discussion.
Useful resources on the sociology of
Encourage learners to prepare a set of posters, in small groups, on the the media:
owners of the media and how they control the media. Guidance of what, www.aber.ac.uk/media
why, where, how and when can be used as pointers for learners. www.mediaknowall.com
www.sociologyonline.co.uk
Ask members of the class to research and give a presentation on the www.sociologyexchange.co.uk
pattern of ownership and control of the media in their country.
Emphasise the importance of looking at the theme of globalisation and
the extent to which it is influencing the organisation and content of the
media in different parts of the world. Compare findings about the
ownership and control of the media in your country with evidence on the
same topic from other countries.

Discuss pluralist and Marxist Design a parliamentary type event where learners are asked to split into An introduction to the sociology of the
theories of the media. two groups, representing the pluralism and Marxist perspectives and media is provided on:
their purpose is to debate their respective theories of the media. www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0wyF5K3
Consider, in particular, whether the media represent the interests of all Mxk
groups in society or just those of the ruling elite.

Assess where power lies within the media and develop this through a
review of the pluralist and Marxist theories. Consider the role of the
mass media within the political process (both in relation to democracies
and authoritarian regimes).

Invite the learners to research and give a presentation on how the media
may influence the outcome of elections. Help the class identify links with
the pluralist and Marxist models of media power.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 30


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Recognise the factors that Consider examples of media content, such as news reports and Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
influence the selection and magazines, and analyse how that content is selected and presented by 712721, provides a summary of the
presentation of media content. journalists and editors. Also consider the influence of owners, factors influencing the selection and
advertisers, and governments on media content. presentation of media content.

Invite the class to plan the media coverage of an important national


event. Encourage them to discuss the factors that might influence the
selection and presentation of news reports during the event.

Analyse the relationship between Discuss state censorship and also the extent to which the media are A lecture on the impact of the new
the media and the State. able to influence the process of regime change in modern societies. media on political life is provided on:
Conclude by assessing the usefulness of the concept of ideology in www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6l5QGuH
understanding the influence of the media. qOY

Invite the class to discuss the reasons why the State may exercise
censorship over the media. Help the learners to link their ideas to
different sociological perspectives. Consider the effectiveness of
censorship as a means of controlling the media today.

Consider the impact of the 'new Outline the various forms of the new media and provide examples of the A useful video on the media and
media' on society. impact of the new media on the lives of different groups in society. politics:
Consider ways in which the new media might be replacing (or perhaps www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BFEU_0T
enhancing) the power of the traditional media. iIw

Invite the learners to discuss how their lives have been affected by the
new media. Ask them what they like about the new media and do they
have any concerns about its impact on their lives and on society
generally. Relate their contributions to ideas and evidence from the
sociological study of the new media.

5.2 Media representation and


effects

Discuss the representation of Use examples from newspapers, magazines and videos to discuss the Barnard, A et al, pages 280283,
different social groups within the representation of different social groups within the media. Emphasise considers the representation of different
media. the role of the media in the construction of gender identities and link to social groups within the media.
post-modernist contributions to the analysis of the mass media.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 31


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

The Classic Collection video, Stanley


Invite the learners to research and produce a montage of pictures from Cohen on Folk Devils and Moral
media sources that represent images of young people in their society Panics, is a helpful source for examine
and in other societies. Ask them to de-construct the images in order to the factors that influence the selection
provide a sociological analysis of how young people are being and presentation of media content.
represented and what this reflects about the position of young people www.classroomvideo.co.uk/
within the wider society.

Analyse social patterns in Use evidence from relevant surveys to identify social patterns in Barnard, A et al, pages 26769,
listening, viewing and reading. listening, viewing and reading. Consider changes in patterns of media identifies social patterns in listening,
use, particularly in relation to the growth of the new media. viewing and reading. Different theories
of the effects and uses of the media are
Ask the learners to produce their own Newsletters that depict their discussed on pages 283287. There is
understanding of how the media affects their daily lives. also a useful discussion of the links
between the media and violence on
pages 287290. This is followed by a
section on the problems of researching
the effects of the media on audiences,
pages 290291.

Discuss different theories of the Invite the class to consider how and in what ways people may be The links between popular culture and
effects and uses of the media. influenced by exposure to the media. Discuss whether the influence of the media are explored at:
the media has a positive or a negative impact on people's lives. Help the www.theory.org.uk
learners link their ideas to appropriate sociological evidence and theory
about the influence of the media. www.mrthirkill.com

Recount the different theories of the effects and uses of the media.
Include references to the hypodermic syringe model, the uses and
gratification theory and the cultural effects theory. Use visual
representations to help summarise the main features of each theory.

Divide the learners into groups and ask each group to produce a
diagram to summarise the main features of one theory/explanation of
how the media affects audiences. Invite the groups to comment on the
effectiveness of each other's diagrams and to suggest improvements.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 32


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Assess the impact of the media Use research evidence to assess the claim that the media may influence Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
on different aspects of human violent behaviour. Consider other forms of behaviour that may be 722728 provides a summary of the
behaviour. influenced by the media, including consumer behaviour, aspects of influence of the media on audiences
youth culture, and voting behaviour. and their responses.

Ask the learners to compile a list of reasons why it might be difficult to


prove that incidents of violent behaviour have been influenced by the
media. Also invite the learners to examine newspaper reports of violent
crime. Consider common features in the way violent crime is reported
and discuss whether these reports might influence more people to
behave in a violent way.

In small groups ask the learners to create a collage of how the media
affects audiences. (Old newspapers should be used for this exercise.)

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 33


Scheme of work Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699)

Unit 6: Religion

Recommended prior knowledge


Basic knowledge of the major world religions would be helpful in studying this unit. Knowledge of the main sociological perspectives, derived from Unit 2, is a
prerequisite for studying the unit.

Context
The unit amplifies the debates about ideology and social change that were introduced in Units 1 and 2. It also draws on the themes of modernity and post-
modernity that have relevance for all of the units in the syllabus. The discussion of secularisation provides an opportunity to illustrate some of the strengths
and limitations of quantitative forms of data, as reviewed in Unit 2.

Outline
The unit examines the nature of religious movements and their role in society. It also examines the relationship between religion and social change and asks
whether religious influence is declining in modern industrial societies.

Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

6.1 Religion and social change Barnard, A et al, pages 174176,


summarises the main theoretical
Discuss different theories of Begin by considering the role of religion in tribal societies, using perspectives on religion. There is a
religion and ideology. references to appropriate anthropological studies such as those by discussion of the concept of ideology on
Radcliffe Brown, Malinowski, and Durkheim. Help the learners draw pages 4748 and elsewhere in the
conclusions about the social roles of religious beliefs and practices. Link textbook see index for specific
this to an outline of the functionalist theory of religion and contrast with references.
the Weberian and Marxist perspectives. Introduce the concept of
ideology and discuss the uses of this concept in sociological studies and Some useful notes on the sociology of
theories of religion. religion can be downloaded from:
www.hartsem.edu
Write short sentences summarising a key theme or idea from particular
theories of religion. Cut the sentences up and paste onto the back of For information about Weber's

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 34


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

plain card. Make into a set of cards. Divide the class into groups and Sociology of Religion, see:
distribute the cards between each group. Ask the learners in the groups
to identify the theory to which each card relates. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Weber.htm

Assess the relationship between Encourage the group to design a religious newsletter about a religious Barnard, A et al, pages 186187
religion and social change. sect. This can be developed into a small group activity that leads to a discusses religious fundamentalism and
group presentation. This activity can address the issues of ideology, its links with post-modernity.
social change, and religious effectiveness within society. It can be an
extended activity, or used over a number of lessons.

Summarise the different views about the role of religion in relation to


social change. Use examples, such as liberation theology and theocratic
conservativism, to illustrate the debates. Explain the concept of ideology
and its use by conflict theorists to provide a critique of religious
influences.

Ask different members of the class to research and provide a


presentation on the part played by religion in a major historical event,
such as the rise of capitalism, the struggle for independence from
colonial rule, and the ending of communist rule in the former Eastern
Bloc countries. Invite them to consider whether religion acted as a
conservative force or a dynamic for change in the example under review.
Link the presentations to a summary of the main sociological
perspectives on religion and its relationship to social change.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 35


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

Discuss the relationships Use examples to illustrate the meaning of religious fundamentalism and Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
between religious consider the reasons for the apparent resurgence in this form of religious 451457, provides an excellent
fundamentalism, modernity and practice in both Christianity and Islam. Link to the discussion about the summary of recent contributions to the
post-modernity. transition from modernity to postmodernity and the processes of sociology of religion from a post
globalisation in particular. Analyse which theories of religion are of most modernist perspective.
use in understanding the rise of fundamentalist religious groups.
For extra resources on fundamentalism
Ask the learners to compile a list of what distinguishes fundamentalism check: www.questia.com
from other forms of religious belief and practice. Consider whether there
are particular types of community/society where fundamentalism
flourishes. Use media reports of fundamentalist groups to analyse how
these groups become established in communities and from what
sources they draw power.

6.2 Religious movements Barnard, A et al, pages 177180,


distinguishes between church,
Distinguish between cults, sects, Begin by defining the different forms of religious organisation, including denomination and sect. The arguments
denominations and churches. churches, denominations, sects and cults. Discuss the reasons for the for and against the secularisation thesis
growth of sects and new religious movements. are examined on pages 181186

Ask the learners to research and give short presentations on different An excellent source for information
cults or sects. Encourage them to use media sources to illustrate their about different religious movements is:
findings. Discuss with the class any similarities and differences between http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/
the cults and sects that the learners have researched.

Assess the secularisation thesis. Review the evidence for and against the idea that religious influence is The Classic Collection video, Eileen
declining in modern industrial societies. Point out the difficulty of defining Barker on The Making of a Moonie,
religion and the problems involved in measuring religious belief and provides an excellent case study for
commitment. Consider examples of religious revivalism, such as new discussing cults and their relationship to
wave Christianity in the USA and western Europe. established religious organisations.
www.classroomvideo.co.uk/
Invite the class to design a simple survey that could be used for
assessing the extent of religiosity in their society. Discuss the potential
problems in designing the survey and formulating appropriate questions. Barnard, A et al, pages 180181,
Link the discussion to an assessment of the strengths and limitations of examines the relationship between
the empirical data used by sociologists on both sides of the religion and different social groups.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 36


Syllabus ref Learning objectives Suggested teaching activities Learning resources

secularisation debate.
Haralambos, M and Holborn, M pages
Allocate religious roles to random members of the class, give them a 401405 offers a more detailed account
scripted account of their religious sect and ask them to argue and of the relationship between gender and
persuade other class members, that their sect is much superior to any religion.
other sect. Ask the other members of the class to evaluate the
sociological effectiveness of their argument.

Describe the relationships Consider the relationship between religious belief, organisations and For a very comprehensive article on
between religious belief, social groups, based on class, gender and ethnicity. In particular, organisations and social groups view
organisations and social groups. discuss the role of women in religious organisations and link to the this link:
feminist analysis of religion. Draw appropriate links with the main fasnafan.tripod.com/religion.pdf
sociological theories of religion.
Youtube provides learners with a
Set each learner the homework task of identifying three examples of chance to listen and watch the
how religious beliefs may help to justify or support social inequality. Ask sociology of religion and it explains
the learners to present their findings to the class. Consider whether Weber, Marx and Durkheims ideas:
these are good examples of how religious beliefs may justify or support www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2-
social inequality. Help the learners to link their findings to the main rnGiTFRU
sociological theories of religion.

Ask learners to design a poster on the relationships between religious


belief, organisation and social groups, which can be used as a teaching
tool. Discuss the strengths and limitations of each poster as a teaching
resource.

v1 Cambridge International AS & A Level Sociology (9699) 37