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InvenSense Inc.

Document Number: AN-XX-XXXX-XX


1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, CA, 95110 U.S.A. Revision: 1.0
Tel: +1 (408) 501-2200 Fax: +1 (408) 988-7339 Release Date: 02/21/2014
Website: www.invensense.com

MPU Hardware Offset Registers


Application Note

A printed copy of this document is


NOT UNDER REVISION CONTROL
unless it is dated and stamped in red ink as,
REVISION CONTROLLED COPY.

This information furnished by InvenSense is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by InvenSense
for its use, or for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications are subject to
change without notice. InvenSense reserves the right to make changes to this product, including its circuits and software, in order to
improve its design and/or performance, without prior notice. InvenSense makes no warranties, neither expressed nor implied, regarding
the information and specifications contained in this document. InvenSense assumes no responsibility for any claims or damages arising
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Certain intellectual property owned by InvenSense and described in this document is patent protected. No license is granted by
implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of InvenSense. This publication supersedes and replaces all information
previously supplied. Trademarks that are registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies. InvenSense sensors
should not be used or sold in the development, storage, production or utilization of any conventional or mass-destructive weapons or for
any other weapons or life threatening applications, as well as in any other life critical applications such as medical equipment,
transportation, aerospace and nuclear instruments, undersea equipment, power plant equipment, disaster prevention and crime
prevention equipment.
Copyright 2011 InvenSense Corporation.
Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. REVISION HISTORY ...................................................................................................................................3
2. REFERENCE ...............................................................................................................................................3
3. PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................................................3
4. DATA SIGNAL DIAGRAM ..........................................................................................................................3
5. FINDING THE OFFSET BIASES FOR ACCEL AND GYRO ......................................................................4
5.1 EXAMPLE CODE FROM MOTION DRIVER 5.1.2 .......................................................................................4
6. GYRO OFFSET REGISTERS ......................................................................................................................5
6.1 REGISTER LOCATION ...........................................................................................................................5
6.2 REGISTER FORMAT AND DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................................5
6.3 EXAMPLE CODE FROM MOTION DRIVER 5.1.2 .......................................................................................6
7. ACCEL OFFSET REGISTERS ....................................................................................................................6
7.1 REGISTER LOCATIONS .........................................................................................................................6
7.2 REGISTER FORMAT AND DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................................7
7.3 EXAMPLE CODE FROM MOTION DRIVER 5.1.2 .......................................................................................7
8. MISC ............................................................................................................................................................8

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Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

1. Revision History

Revision Date Revision Description

02/21/2014 1.0 Document created

06/27/2014 1.1 Modified Set 6500 Accel Bias function

07/28/2014 1.2 Modified scale range for the accel bias from +-8G to +-16G

2. Reference
Please check the Register Map, EVB, and Production Specification of the relevant parts.
http://www.invensense.com/mems/gyro/catalog.html
3. Purpose
All MEMS sensors are highly recommended to calibrate either at factory or dynamically while in use to get
more accurate data. Invensense software and DMP has several algorithms dealing with calibration. However
if you are not using these algorithms, offset cancellation can still be achieved using the build in hardware
offset registers in the MPU device.
Several Invensense MPU and ICM devices contain offset cancellation registers for the Accelerometer and
gyroscope sensors. This document details those registers, a small example on how to get gyro and accel
offsets, and how to apply those offsets into these registers.
The MPU devices in which has been tested and confirmed for this documentation are MPU6050, MPU9150,
MPU6500, MPU6515, and MPU9250.
4. Data Signal Diagram
How these offset register works is that all data from the MEMS sensors will have these offsets applied before
outputting to the data registers for users to read. The offset application is also before all usage concerning
FIFO and DMP. Therefore the data in the FIFO, output registers, and used in the DMP will already have
these offsets included.

Gyro and Accel Gyro/Accel DMP


Gyro and Accel
ADCs Offset Output
MEMS
Registers Registers

FIFO

USER ACCESS

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Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

5. Finding the Offset Biases for Accel and Gyro


There are a number of ways to get the biases for the Accel and Gyro, but the general idea is that the device
is stationary in a known orientation typically with the MPU part faced up or down.
Because the device is stationary the expected gyro output of each axis is 0, 0, 0 and the accel output is 0, 0,
+1G. With this information if we take samples of each axis we will be able to determine the average offset
from the ideal values and those values will be the Offset Biases.
5.1 Example Code from Motion Driver 5.1.2
static int get_biases(long *gyro, long *accel)
{
unsigned char data[MAX_PACKET_LENGTH];
unsigned char packet_count, ii;
unsigned short fifo_count;

data[0] = 0x01;
data[1] = 0;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->pwr_mgmt_1, 2, data))
return -1;
delay_ms(200);
data[0] = 0;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->int_enable, 1, data))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->fifo_en, 1, data))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->pwr_mgmt_1, 1, data))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->i2c_mst, 1, data))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->user_ctrl, 1, data))
return -1;
data[0] = BIT_FIFO_RST | BIT_DMP_RST;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->user_ctrl, 1, data))
return -1;
delay_ms(15);
data[0] = st.test->reg_lpf;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->lpf, 1, data))
return -1;
data[0] = st.test->reg_rate_div;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->rate_div, 1, data))
return -1;
data[0] = st.test->reg_gyro_fsr;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->gyro_cfg, 1, data))
return -1;

if (hw_test)
data[0] = st.test->reg_accel_fsr | 0xE0;
else
data[0] = test.reg_accel_fsr;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->accel_cfg, 1, data))
return -1;
if (hw_test)
delay_ms(200);

/* Fill FIFO for test.wait_ms milliseconds. */


data[0] = BIT_FIFO_EN;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->user_ctrl, 1, data))
return -1;

data[0] = INV_XYZ_GYRO | INV_XYZ_ACCEL;


if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->fifo_en, 1, data))
return -1;
delay_ms(test.wait_ms);
data[0] = 0;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, st.reg->fifo_en, 1, data))
return -1;

if (i2c_read(st.hw->addr, st.reg->fifo_count_h, 2, data))


return -1;

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fifo_count = (data[0] << 8) | data[1];


packet_count = fifo_count / MAX_PACKET_LENGTH;
gyro[0] = gyro[1] = gyro[2] = 0;
accel[0] = accel[1] = accel[2] = 0;

for (ii = 0; ii < packet_count; ii++) {


short accel_cur[3], gyro_cur[3];
if (i2c_read(st.hw->addr, st.reg->fifo_r_w, MAX_PACKET_LENGTH, data))
return -1;
accel_cur[0] = ((short)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
accel_cur[1] = ((short)data[2] << 8) | data[3];
accel_cur[2] = ((short)data[4] << 8) | data[5];
accel[0] += (long)accel_cur[0];
accel[1] += (long)accel_cur[1];
accel[2] += (long)accel_cur[2];
gyro_cur[0] = (((short)data[6] << 8) | data[7]);
gyro_cur[1] = (((short)data[8] << 8) | data[9]);
gyro_cur[2] = (((short)data[10] << 8) | data[11]);
gyro[0] += (long)gyro_cur[0];
gyro[1] += (long)gyro_cur[1];
gyro[2] += (long)gyro_cur[2];
}
gyro[0] = (long)(((long long)gyro[0]) / test.gyro_sens / packet_count);
gyro[1] = (long)(((long long)gyro[1]) / test.gyro_sens / packet_count);
gyro[2] = (long)(((long long)gyro[2]) / test.gyro_sens / packet_count);
accel[0] = (long)(((long long)accel[0]) / test.accel_sens /
packet_count);
accel[1] = (long)(((long long)accel[1]) / test.accel_sens /
packet_count);
accel[2] = (long)(((long long)accel[2]) / test.accel_sens /
packet_count);
/* remove gravity from the accel Z */
if (accel[2] > 0L)
accel[2] -= test.accel_sens;
else
accel[2] += test.accel_sens;

return 0;
}

6. Gyro Offset Registers


6.1 Register Location
For MPU6050/MPU6500/MPU6515 and MPU9150/MPU9250, the gyro offset registers are located at
Addr Name Description
0x13 XG_OFFS_USRH Gyro X-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x14 XG_OFFS_USRL Gyro X-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x15 YG_OFFS_USRH Gyro Y-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x16 YG_OFFS_USRL Gyro Y-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x17 ZG_OFFS_USRH Gyro Z-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x18 ZG_OFFS_USRL Gyro Z-axis offset cancellation register low byte

6.2 Register Format and Descriptions


The Gyro registers at boot up will have a default value of 0. The value of the bias inputted needs to be in
+-1000dps sensitivity range. This means each 1 dps = 32.8 LSB

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Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

6.3 Example Code from Motion Driver 5.1.2


/**
* @brief Push biases to the gyro bias 6500/6050 registers.
* This function expects biases relative to the current sensor output, and
* these biases will be added to the factory-supplied values. Bias inputs are LSB
* in +-1000dps format.
* @param[in] gyro_bias New biases.
* @return 0 if successful.
*/
int mpu_set_gyro_bias_reg(long *gyro_bias)
{
unsigned char data[6] = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
int i=0;
for(i=0;i<3;i++) {
gyro_bias[i]= (-gyro_bias[i]);
}
data[0] = (gyro_bias[0] >> 8) & 0xff;
data[1] = (gyro_bias[0]) & 0xff;
data[2] = (gyro_bias[1] >> 8) & 0xff;
data[3] = (gyro_bias[1]) & 0xff;
data[4] = (gyro_bias[2] >> 8) & 0xff;
data[5] = (gyro_bias[2]) & 0xff;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x13, 2, &data[0]))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x15, 2, &data[2]))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x17, 2, &data[4]))
return -1;
return 0;
}

7. Accel Offset Registers


7.1 Register Locations
For MPU6050/MPU9150 the registers are located at the following address
Addr Name Description
0x06 XG_OFFS_USRH Accel X-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x07 XG_OFFS_USRL Accel X-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x08 YG_OFFS_USRH Accel Y-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x09 YG_OFFS_USRL Accel Y-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x0A ZG_OFFS_USRH Accel Z-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x0B ZG_OFFS_USRL Accel Z-axis offset cancellation register low byte
MPU6500/MPU6515/ and MPU9250 are located at the following
Addr Name Description
0x77 XG_OFFS_USRH Accel X-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x78 XG_OFFS_USRL Accel X-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x7A YG_OFFS_USRH Accel Y-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x7B YG_OFFS_USRL Accel Y-axis offset cancellation register low byte
0x7D ZG_OFFS_USRH Accel Z-axis offset cancellation register high byte
0x0E ZG_OFFS_USRL Accel Z-axis offset cancellation register low byte

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Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

7.2 Register Format and Descriptions


Unlike the Gyro, the accel offset registers are not as straight forward to use.
1. Initial values contain the OTP values of the Accel factory trim. Therefore at bootup there will be a
non-zero value in these registers. Users will need to first read the register and apply the biases to
that value.
2. Format is in +-16G in which 1mg = 2048 LSB
3. Bit 0 on the low byte of each axis is a reserved bit and needs to be preserved.
7.3 Example Code from Motion Driver 5.1.2
/**
* @brief Read biases to the accel bias 6500 registers.
* This function reads from the MPU6500 accel offset cancellations registers.
* The format are G in +-8G format. The register is initialized with OTP
* factory trim values.
* @param[in] accel_bias returned structure with the accel bias
* @return 0 if successful.
*/
int mpu_read_6500_accel_bias(long *accel_bias) {
unsigned char data[6];
if (i2c_read(st.hw->addr, 0x77, 2, &data[0]))
return -1;
if (i2c_read(st.hw->addr, 0x7A, 2, &data[2]))
return -1;
if (i2c_read(st.hw->addr, 0x7D, 2, &data[4]))
return -1;
accel_bias[0] = ((long)data[0]<<8) | data[1];
accel_bias[1] = ((long)data[2]<<8) | data[3];
accel_bias[2] = ((long)data[4]<<8) | data[5];
return 0;
}

/**
* @brief Push biases to the accel bias 6500 registers.
* This function expects biases relative to the current sensor output, and
* these biases will be added to the factory-supplied values. Bias inputs are LSB
* in +-8G format.
* @param[in] accel_bias New biases.
* @return 0 if successful.
*/
int mpu_set_accel_bias_6500_reg(const long *accel_bias) {
unsigned char data[6] = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
long accel_reg_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0};

if(mpu_read_6500_accel_bias(accel_reg_bias))
return -1;

// Preserve bit 0 of factory value (for temperature compensation)


accel_reg_bias[0] -= (accel_bias[0] & ~1);
accel_reg_bias[1] -= (accel_bias[1] & ~1);
accel_reg_bias[2] -= (accel_bias[2] & ~1);

data[0] = (accel_reg_bias[0] >> 8) & 0xff;


data[1] = (accel_reg_bias[0]) & 0xff;
data[2] = (accel_reg_bias[1] >> 8) & 0xff;
data[3] = (accel_reg_bias[1]) & 0xff;
data[4] = (accel_reg_bias[2] >> 8) & 0xff;
data[5] = (accel_reg_bias[2]) & 0xff;

if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x77, 2, &data[0]))


return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x7A, 2, &data[2]))
return -1;
if (i2c_write(st.hw->addr, 0x7D, 2, &data[4]))
return -1;

return 0;
}

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Version #: 1.0
MPU Hardware Offset Registers App Note Release Date: 02/21/2014

8. Misc
Bias offsets once inputted into the Offset Cancellation Registers will immediate take into effect. However
after power off and on the values will need to be reloaded back into these registers. It is recommended that
the bias values are saved so that can be easily reapplied after boot up.

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