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CONSTRUCTION OF A 3 BEDROOM BUNGALOW

STEP TO BE CONSIDER WHEN CONSTRUCTING A 3 BEDROOM BUNGALOW

1. SETTING OUT OF THE BUILDING


2. EXCAVATION OF FOUNDATION TRENCHES
3. FOUNDATION FOOTING (POPULARLY CALLED BLINDING )
4. SETTING OF FOUNDATION WALL OR SUBSTRUCTURES WALL
5. FILLING OF THE FOUNDATION
6. PREPARATION OF THE FILLED FOUNDATION DPC BY COMPACTION
7. FORMWORK FOR DPC
8. PLACEMENT OF OVERSITE CONCRETE PREPARED FOUNDATION
9. CONSTRUCTION OF LINTELS
10. CEILING(PVC,ALBESTORS)
1.2 SETTING OUT OF BUILDING
This involves transferring of information on the structural drawing, architectural drawing into
the ground construction of a house to be possible.
Setting out have two method
1. It can be done manually
2. It can be done using survey instrument like total station or theodolite.
For most bungalows with dimension building less than 20m in both with, length manual
method can safely be materials for a typical setting out.
Setting out equipment (manually).
MEASURING TAPES: Before setting out any work, the tape should be carefully checked for
accuracy.
LINE: When setting out a building it is an advantage if the lines can be secured so that they
are well clear of the building line. The trenches can then be dug without interfering with the
lines. The line is stretched above the ground level well clear of any obstruction and may
easily be checked for accuracy.
BUILDERS SQUARE: When setting out a building, builder square is highly needed to check
the angle.
NAIL: The need for it is for joining.
1.3 EXCAVATION OF THE FOUNDATION TRENCHE
This is the removal of top soilo along the path of building wall as drawn on the
architectural plans and structural plan as the case may be.
Width of foundation excavation -3*width of block to be use for the building .E.g For a
bungalow built with a 150(6)on relatively solid soil, width 150=450mm(9width
=225*3=675mm).
DEPTH OF FOUNDATION
In the construction of 3 bedroom bungalow the depth of the foundation depend on the
type of soil of which the building to be constructed. Due to the type of soil, orlu L.G.A of
IMO STATE have therefore it is advisable and applied to dug 2feet depth (600mm).
The soil remove in the process of digging of the soil is as follow
1. HORIZON A: This is the top soil or surface layer of the soil profile having much of organic
matter accumulations and maximum biological activities of plants and micro-organisms.
2. HORIZON B: Is the sub soil, a region of maximum accumulation of substance such as iron
and aluminum oxides as well as silicate
1.4 FOUNDATION FOOTING
This is the stage whereby the weight concrete is cast pretending to the measurement
which is always 3inches (75 mm by 600mm depth).Preparing a leveling for block to be
lay. It carry the building load and therefore a standardize measurement and materials is
required for the life span of the building.
i. THE MIXTURE: For bungalow a mix of 1:3:6 is sufficient sand this items is the volumetric
proportion of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate reprehensively. Sharp
sand is used for the construction, which should be free from Impurity or mix with the
underlying soil .For the stone; local stone is used for the construction of 3-bedroom
bungalow. The size is 5 inches for the foundation of 3-bedroom bungalow.
ii. WATER: The water used should be clean and free from impurity in solution. It should
be drinkable .The amount of Water for construction should not exit 30 liters to each
50kg of cement.
1.5 SETTING OUT OF FOUNDATION WALL OR STRUCTURAL WALL
A thin mortar screed is spread on the top of the concrete and the line of the wall is then
transferring from the building lines stretched between the profiles by means of a spirit
level.
The footing course is form with block from the footing level to the D.P.C (damp proof
course).And, which is always 600mm.
1.6 FILLING OF THE FOUNDATION
This is the process of filling the foundation with sharp sand or red mud sand. At this
level, the footing coarse is raise from footing coarse level to DPC, which is 600mm with
block. The essence of this is to kick the building from ground level to avoid flood and
water moisture.
1.7 PREPARATION OF THE FILLED FOUNDATION D.P.C BY COMPACTION
It takes place after the filling over, and then its compacted to ensure or close the
leveling. In some case, water is poured on the sand and it will sink inside a bit, so
ensuring/helping the worker to know it level.
1.8 FORMWORK OF D.P.C
The building Regulation require that no wall shall permit the passage of moisture from
the ground to the inner surface or any part of the building that would be harmfully
affected by such moisture.Therefore, a damp-proof course must be provided at a
height of not less than 150mm above the ground level adjoining the wall.The formwork
for d.p.c is carpentry form and comprises of joist materials of wood.
1.9 PLACEMENT OF OVERSITE CONCRETE PREPARED FOUNDATION
What is over site concrete?
This is a bed of concrete, which is laid over the whole of the area within the external
walls and is often called the site concrete.
This must be provided to prevent rising damp form the ground entering the building and
to exclude the growth of plant life underneath the floor. It should be covered with a layer
of concrete not less than 100mm thick, composed of cement and fine coarse aggregate.

1.91 CONSTRUCTION OF LINTELS (FORMWORK)


(Reinfporced cement conctere lintels r.c.c)
Reinforced cement concrete lintels These lintels consist of the reinforced cement and
they have replaced practically all other materials for the lintels.The R.C.C lintels are fire
proof , durable, strong, economical and easy to construct no reliving arches are
necessary when the R.C.C lintels are adopted .the plan concrete lintels. It can used puts
a span of about ..but some form of reinforcement is necessary in the
R.C.C lintels as plain concrete is weak in tension .The R.C.C lintels may be pre-cast or
cast-in-situ .The precast R.C.C lintels are convenient for small span up to 2 meters or so
and they are economical as the same mould can be used of prepare a number of lintels
.the pre-cast R.C.C lintels increase the speed of construction and allow sufficient time
for the coming before fixing.One precaution to be taken in case of pre-cast R.C.C lintels
is that the top of the lintels should be properly marked with tar or paint; this will help one
placing the lintels correctly.
FOR CAST-IN SITU R.C.C LINTELS
The centering is prepared reinforcement is placed and concreting is done as usual .When
finishing is to be done or where appearance is not of importance the surface of R.C.C
lintels can 2be kept exposed .Otherwise a rebate may be provided in the lintels and the
surface be suitably finished.
REINFORCING RODS
Reinforcing rods are usually of round section mild steel 10 or 12mm diameter for lintels up
to 1.8m span. an absolute essential for the construction industry. Without these, not
much building can be done. Here are the whys and wherefores about why theyre such a
vital tool for anyone working in this sector. Is typically formed from carbon steel and is
used to help strengthen concrete and absorb any tension that may be present. It is
typically used in reinforced masonry and concrete, and comes with ridges that help it to
bind to the concrete. Concrete structures used to be unreinforced but rebars have been in
use in the construction industry since around about the 15th century. While concrete itself
is quite strong in compression (the application of balanced pushing forces in varying
points on a structure or material), it is quite weak in comparison with regards to tension.
In order to compensate for this, rebar is cast into the concrete to help it carry the tensile
loads.Although rebar is usually used to either guarantee the resistance required by a
structure to support the loads or to provide resistance to help resist stresses and limit
cracking caused by temperature changes Mild steel rods:

This rod is suitable for construction because it has the suitable characteristics which are:
Ductility and malleability
Toughness and more elastic
It can withstand shocks and impacts well.
It is strong in tension, compression and shear.
Its specific gravity is 7.8

Luminous Ceilings with Translucent, Frosted and Clear Ceiling Panels

Ceilume's Luminous Ceiling Panels let the light shine in (literally), opening up a range of
creative lighting possibilities for your suspended ceiling. With three levels of transparency
from which to choose, you can create a soft white ceiling glow with our translucent
panels, a vibrant illuminated ceiling with frosted, or "go clear" with... clear! Imagine a
drop ceiling that adds a whole new dimension to your interior space - the dimension above
the grid. These panels don't create light, they transmit it, so use them in combination with
the above grid light source of your choice to achieve the desired effect. Below you'll find
the light transmittance of each material. The higher the number, the more clear the
material.

Translucent: 31.62%
Frosted: 76.81%
Clear: 87.67%

Both the translucent and frosted ceiling panels will obscure


the light fixtures above your lay-in ceiling grid, so inexpensive fluorescent units work well. Clear
ceiling tiles, while not "window pane" clear, provide full visibility to everything above them,
making them a favorite for daylighting applications, data centers, and daring designers who
want to push the boundaries and break through traditional opaque ceilings.

TRANSLUCENT
CEILING PANELS:31.62%
TransmittanceSoftandEvenLighting
Above Grid Area is Completely Hidden
FROSTED
CEILING PANELS:
76.81% Transmittance
Vibrant and Dramatic Light Effect
Above Grid Area is Partially Obscured

CLEAR
CEILING PANELS: 87.67% TransmittanceMaximum Clarity = Maximum Light
Above Grid Area is Clearly Visible

TRANSLUCENT CEILING TILES

ARISTOCRAT
CIRCLE STAR

CONVEX

DART

DORIC

FLORENTINE

MEDALLION
ORB

PETAL

POLYLINE

REGENCY

ROMAN CIRCLE
SOUTHLAND

STRATFORD

VICTORIAN

WESTMINSTER

TRANSLUCENT CEILING PANELS

ARISTOCRAT
POLYLINE

SOUTHLAND

CLEAR CEILING TILES AND PANELS

POLYLINE

SOUTHLAND: 76.81% Transmittance


Vibrant and Dramatic Light Effect
Above Grid Area is Partially Obscured
CLEAR
CEILING PANELS

87.67% Transmittance
Maximum Clarity = Maximum Light
Above Grid Area is Clearly Visible

TRANSLUCENT CEILING TILES

ARISTOCRAT

CIRCLE STAR

CONVEX DART