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BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT OF MICROSTRIP

ANTENNA USING DEFECTED GROUND SRUCTURE (DGS)

Ike Yuni Wulandari


Jurusan Magister Teknik Elektro, Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Nurtanio
Jln Pajajaran 219 Lanud Husein Sastranegara Bandung
E-mail: ikeyunipp@gmail.com

Abstract In this paper, a compact design for II ANTENNA DESIGN


bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antenna is A rectangle microstrip antenna is chosen to
present. A basic rectangle microstrip is selected to study. It includes a radiating patch feeding by
research. The ground element of the proposed microstrip line and a ground plane which is in
antenna is taken in the form of Defected Ground opposite side. Microstrip antenna are designed with
Structure (DGS). A simple rectangular microstrip different types of substrate like FR4, RT Duroid 5880
patch antenna (RMPA) is design which work at 5 etc. The microstrip patch antenna are basically
GHz for WLAN application. This antenna has designed by etching the antenna structure on the
bandwidth of 245 MHz without DGS. In this substrate. Depending on the relative permittivity,
RMPA, DGS technique is developed by changing operating frequency, the width, length, feed distance
the width of the slot in the ground plane. The are decided. Here RT Duroid 5880 substrate of
antenna is based on substance RT Duroid 5880 thickness 1.58 mm and relative permittivity of 2.2 is
and is fed by feeding microstrip line. Sonnet used. The antenna parameter is show as a Table I.
software is used for simulation and analysis of the
proposed antenna. Parameter Value
Substrate RT Duroid 5880
Keywords : microstrip patch antenna, Dielectric constant 2.2
Defected Ground Structure (DGS), Sonnet Thickness (mm) 1.58
Loss Tangent 0.0009
I INTRODUCTION Feed Microstrip line
Nowadays, telecommunications plays an Size (mm) 35 x 40 x 1.58
important role in the worldwide, and Table 1. Antenna Parameter
telecommunications system are rapidly switching
from wired to wireless. Wireless technology Firstly, patch antenna is design. Main antenna
provides less expensive alternative and a flexible patch which is choose is rectangle patch. And the
way for communication. Antenna is one of the most typical microstrip antenna is show a Figure 1.
important elements of the wireless
telecommunication system. Thus, antenna design has
become an active field in the telecommunication
studies. The most attractive research of antenna are
microstrip patch antenna [1]. They are mainly
preferred over other antennas because of their
certain properties like light weight, low cost, better
performance, ease of installation and moreover
because of their low profile [2].
However, microstrip patch antenna inherently
have narrow bandwidth and bandwidth enhancement
is usually demanded for practical application, so for
extending the bandwidth, many approaches was
utilized. Defected Ground Structure is one of a
method which is used for this purpose.
DGS is realized by etching off a simple shape in
the ground plane, depending on the shape and Fig. 1. Typical Microstrip Antenna
dimensions of the defect, the shielded current
distribution in the ground plane is disturbed, Microstrip antennas found numerous applications
resulting a controlled excitation and propagation of because of light weight, less dimension, compactness
the electromagnetic waves through the substrate and ease of fabrication. Patch antennas can be design
layer. The shape of the defect may be changed from in various shapes like circular patch, rectangular
the simple shape to the complicated shape for the patch, and square patch. They are also can be
better performance [3]. designed depending upon their feeding mechanism
like inset feed, edge feed, probe feed [4]. In this
paper, the simple feeding technique is used, that is
feeding by microstrip line. Rectangular patches are
mostly used because they can easily analyzed by
cavity model and transmission line model [4]. Table 2. Values obtained after simulation of microstrip
To enhance the return loss and bandwidth, many antenna without slot in the ground plane
technique are used. One of them is modified square
slot antenna with modified radiating patch, for UWB Here the dimension of the DGS has been
applications. The proposed antenna consists of a optimized by changing the width of slot in the
square radiating patch with a double fed structure ground plane. The proposed antenna is design on the
and a ground plane with a pair of L-shaped slots. By RT Duroid 5888 substrate of thickness 1.58 mm and
optimizing the L-shaped slots dimensions and relative permittivity of 2.2. The physical dimensions
rectangular slot width, the total bandwidth of the of the proposed rectangular antenna are, width
antenna is improved [5]. W=30 mm, length L=30 mm, height h=1.58 mm.
Also, a proximity coupled microstrip antenna And length of patch antenna is 21 mm, width of
array for simultaneous improvement of bandwidth. patch is 16 mm, length of feeding is 5 mm, width of
The proximity coupled microstrip antenna with air- feeding is 2 mm, length of slot in the ground plane is
gap is used as the bandwidth enhancement 3 mm, and by changing the width of slot in the
technique. By using 4x1 proximity coupled ground plane will improve the bandwidth of the
microstrip antenna array technique, a bandwidth microstrip antenna.
enhancement of 57 MHz, 8 MHz and 117 MHz can
be achieved when compared to proximity coupled III SIMULATED RESULT OF PROPOSED
microstrip antenna, 2x1 and 4x1 microstrip array ANTENNA
case [6].
In this paper, to improve bandwidth, Defected The simulated result of the proposed antenna is
Ground Structure (DGS) is realized by etching off a given in Fig. 4, 6, 8 and 10. Fig. 13 show VSWR.
simple shape in the ground plane. Patch antenna is Fig. 12 show return loss rectangular microstrip
design, then DGS is added to ground of antenna by antenna. The proposed antenna is resonates at 5 GHz
optimizing width of the slot. and return loss is achieved. The VSWR value also
achieved at < 2. Here the result of simulation.

Fig. 4 Design of rectangular microstrip antenna


width of slot 1 mm in ground plane
Fig. 2 Design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna
(top view)

Fig. 3 Proposed Rectanguler Microstrip Antenna without Fig. 5 Return loss S11 rectangular microstrip antenna
modified in ground plane width of slot 1 mm
Fig. 9 Return loss S11 rectangular microstrip antenna
Fig. 6 Design of rectangular microstrip antenna width of width of slot 9 mm
slot 5 mm in ground plane

Fig. 7 Return loss S11 rectangular microstrip antenna Fig. 10 Design of rectangular microstrip antenna width of
width of slot 5 mm slot 13 mm in ground plane

Fig. 11 Return loss S11 rectangular microstrip antenna


width of slot 13 mm

Fig. 8 Design of rectangular microstrip antenna width of


slot 9 mm in ground plane
Fig. 14 Plot microstrip antenna with four slots each 2 mm
Fig. 12 Design of rectangular microstrip antenna width of
wide spaced 1 mm
slot 17 mm in ground plane

Fig. 13 Return loss S11 rectangular microstrip antenna


width of slot 17 mm
Fig. 15 Return loss microstrip antenna with four slots each
2 mm wide spaced 1 mm

Table 3. Values obtained after simulation of microstrip


antenna with different width of slot in the ground plane

From the results table above shows that the width of


the slot in the ground plane, the better the return loss.
VSWR meet the desired characteristics, and the largest
bandwidth obtained at the time of the widest slot is 17
mm. But the frequency shifted to 6.825 GHz
Furthermore, the iteration and optimization by
varying the width of the slot and by adding the number of Fig. 16 Plot microstrip antenna with four slots each 6 mm
slots into each of the two slots at the top and two slots wide spaced 1 mm
below are spaced 1 mm, while maintaining the high slot
and the distance between the top slot and a bottom slot,
then the results simulation is as follows
Fig. 20 Plot microstrip antenna with four slots each 10
Fig. 17 Return loss microstrip antenna with four slots each mm wide spaced 1 mm
6 mm wide spaced 1 mm

Fig. 21 Return loss microstrip antenna with four slots each


10 mm wide spaced 1 mm
Fig. 18 Plot microstrip antenna with four slots each 8 mm
wide spaced 1 mm

Table 4 The value parameter simulation of antenna


four slots are spaced 1 mm

In the second simulation, we can see from the


table that the resonant frequency into a dual band.
The wider the slot on the ground, the smaller the
value of return loss, VSWR has met the desired
criteria, and the largest bandwidth obtained from
Fig. 19 Return loss microstrip antenna with four slots each most slot width, 10 mm. But a shift in the resonance
8 mm wide spaced 1 mm frequency, which originally was around 9 GHz, then
the largest bandwidth obtained when the resonance
frequencies in the 7.35 GHz.
The antenna parameters are improved using
Defected Ground Structure (DGS) technique which
provides less return loss and higher operating
bandwidth. Therefore, the defect in ground plane can
be integrated of such antenna in order to improve its
bandwidth.

IV CONCLUSIONS
After conducting several iterations, it can be
concluded by expanding slot, can increase
bandwidth.
And slot width influential in terms of the frequency
shift. While the vast iterates patch antenna can be set
up by increasingly wide frequency patch antennas,
the frequency is getting smaller, and vice versa.
As for gain, is always proportional to the
dimensions of the antenna. The smaller dimensions
of the antenna, the gain will be smaller, and vice
versa. The width of the feeding and feeding positions
are also adjusted, because the location of feeding
effect on the size of the return loss.
In the future, the antenna model needs to be
optimized in order to have better result in term of the
gain. In addition, new material which has better
quality will be used to simulated and fabricated.

REFERENCES

[1] Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory


Analysis and Design, John Willey & Son, INC, third
Edition
[2] W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna
Theory and Design, 2nd ed, New York, 1998
[3] Ashwini K. Arya, M. V. Kartikeyan, A. Patnaik
Defected Ground Stucture in the perspective of
Microstrip Antennas: A REview
[4] Partha Kumar Deb, Tamasi Moyra and Pryansha
Bhowmik, Return Loss and Bandwidth
Enhancement of Microstrip Antenna Using Defected
Ground Structure (DGS), IEEE International
Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated
Network (SPIN), 2015
[5] L. Hadizafar and M. N. Azarmanesh, M.
Ojaroudi, Enhanced Bandwidth Double-Fed
Microstrip Slot Antenna With Pair of L-Shaped
Slots, PIER Progess In Electromagnetics Research
C, Vol. 18, 47-57, 2011
[6] Preeti Sharma and Shubhan Gupta, Bandwidth
and Gain Enhancement in Microstrip Antenna Array
for 8 GHz Frequency Applications IEEE
Engineering and System (SCES) Student
Conference, 2014