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INDEX __________________________________ Module 1

Module 3

Module 2

English Pack Level 2

Departamento de Inglés

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a
t
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-
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D
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INDEX ___________________ _______________ Module 1 Module 3 Module 2 English Pack Level 2 Departamento de Inglés
r e r r r w w e e e w w w w w w
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e
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.
V
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V
. .
.
d
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- - -
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t t t
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h
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r
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C
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a
a
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a
c
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X
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- - -
k
k
k
F
F
F
.
. .
k
-
c
c
c
D
D
D
.
F
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
o
o
o
P
P
P
c
D
Click to buy NOW!
m
m
m
o
P
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PAGE

4

6

8

10

CONTENT

Present Perfect: Verb to Be

Present Perfect: Other verbs

 

Present Perfect or Past Simple Vocabulary: The Media

INDEX ___________________ _______________ Module 1 Module 3 Module 2 English Pack Level 2 Departamento de Inglés
r r r e e e w w w e e e i i i V
r
r
r
e
e
e
w
w
w
e
e
e
i
i
i
V
V
V
w
w
w
e
e
e
g
g
g
w
w
w
n
n
n
w
w
w
a
a
a
h
h
h
.
. .
C
C
C
X
X
X
d
d
d
P
P
P
- - -
D
D
D
F
F
F
o
o
o
c
c
c
u
u
u
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
- - -
t t t
r
r
r
a
a
a
c
c
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k
k
k
. .
.
m
m
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PAGE

13

15

16

18

21

23

CONTENT

Future with Goin To

Present Continuous for Future Use

Will or Going To?

Comparative Adjectives

 

Superlative Adjectives Vocabulary: Global Problems

PAGE

26

30

33

35

37

41

43

CONTENT

Word Order: Asking Questions

Direct and Indirect Questions

Vocabulary: Crime

Master TOEFL Reading Skills

Finding Main Ideas and Supporting Details

 

Skimming for Specific Information Making Inferences

1) To talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t know

2) To talk about an action or state that started in the past and continues to the present.

or dont say exactly when the experience happened.

Present Perfect: Verb be

Has your brother been to a big sports event?

He’s been a teacher since last January.

No, I haven’t. I don’t like hot weather.

Use the present perfect in two situations:

How long has John been a teacher?

Has Diana been to a rock concert? Yes, many times!

How long have you been married?

Have you been to Rio de Janeiro?

Yes, I’ve been there three times.

I’ve been married for five years.

No, he hasn’t. He hates sports.

Have you been to Italy?

Examples:

Examples:

Module 1

r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
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. . . . . . .
.
V
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- - - - - - - -
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t t t t t t t t
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c
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D
D
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o
o
o
o
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P
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m
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~ 38 ~
~ 38 ~
r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
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. . . . . . .
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d
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- - - - - - - -
t t t t t t t t
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a
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k
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k
- - - - - - - -
.
. . . . . . .
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
1) To talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t know 2) To talk about
r r r e e e w w w w w w w w w e
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. .
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- - -
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k
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.
c
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o
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P
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m
m
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1) To talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t know 2) To talk about
1) To talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t know 2) To talk about

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r r r e e e w w w e e e i i i V
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a
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h
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.
. .
C
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P
- - -
D
D
D
F
F
F
o
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c
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u
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Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
- - -
t t t
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a
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a
c
c
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k
k
k
. .
.
m
m
m
o
o
o
c
c
c

Present Perfect: Other Verbs

Irregular verbs

Regular verbs

Present Perfect: Verb be

Negative

Question

Positive

r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
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. . . . . . .
.
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- - - - - - - -
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a
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t t t t t t t t
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r
r
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a
a
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a
a
a
a
a
C
C
C
C
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C
C
C
c
c
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c
c
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X
X
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k
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k
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- - - - - - - -
.
. . . . . . .
F
F
F
F
F
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c
c
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D
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D
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D
D
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o
o
o
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P
P
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P
P
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m
m
m
m
m
m
m
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. . . . . . .
d
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
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g
g
g
g
g
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c
c
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n
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n
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u
u
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a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
- - - - - - - -
t t t t t t t t
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
X
X
X
X
X
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X
X
- - - - - - - -
k
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F
F
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F
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F
F
F
.
. . . . . . .
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
r
r
r
r
r
r
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V
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V
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e
e
e
e
e
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w
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g
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a
a
a
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a
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P
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P
P
P
. . . . . . .
.
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
- - - - - - - -
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
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c
c
c
c
c
c
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u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
- - - - - - - -
t t t t t t t t
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
.
. . . . . . .
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
 

I’ve traveled to 15 countries in my life.

She hasn’t watched the movie yet.

We’ve passed our English test.

Have you tried restarting the computer?

They’ve recently stopped smoking.

Past Participle Example

traveled

watched

passed

tried

stopped

Verb

travel

watch

pass

try

stop

Past Participle

broken

bought

done

eaten

gotten

given

gone

known

left

made

met

seen

taken

told

thought

written

Past

broke

bought

did

ate

got

gave

went

knew

left

made

met

saw

took

told

thought

wrote

Verb

break

buy

do

eat

get

give

go

know

leave

make

meet

see

take

tell

think

write

Present Perfect: Other Verbs Irregular verbs Regular verbs Present Perfect: Verb be Negative Question Positive r
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www.espressoenglish.net
   

been to Paris.

been to Paris.

Short Form

I’ve

You’ve We’ve

They’ve

He’s / she’s / it’s

Full Form

have

You have

We have

They have

He / she / it has

I

   

been to Paris.

been to Paris.

Short Form

I haven’t

You haven’t

We haven’t

They haven’t

He / she / it hasn’t

Full Form

have not

You have not

We have not

They have not

He / she / it has not

I

 

been to Paris?

been to Paris?

Subject

I / you / we / they

he / she / it

Auxiliary Verb

Have

Has

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past. Use the past simple to talk about a specific moment in the past.

Present Perfect or Past Simple

Use the present perfect to talk about a general experience in the

future

future

?--------------|------------------------------------|

|------------------------- |-------|------------------------------------|

Have you seen the new Mission Impossible film?” “Yes, I have.” “When did you see it?” “I saw it last week.”

I saw the new Mission Impossible film last week.

Use the present perfect for “unspecified” time:

I’ve seen the new Mission Impossible film.

Use the past simple for “specified” time:

present

present

last week

  • |------------------- past

past

Present Perfect: Other Verbs

Have you ever thought about moving to another country?

We’ve written more than 100 e-mails in the past week.

We’ve thought about it, but we haven’t told our kids.

My cousin has met a lot of famous people in her life.

The teacher hasn’t given us any homework yet.

I can’t find my car keys. Have you seen them? No, I haven’t. Sorry.

www.espressoenglish.net

Camilo has made a lot of mistakes in his life.

Have you ever gotten lost while driving? No, I haven’t but my mother has !

Kristin has never taken singing classes.

Has she ever eaten Vietnamese food? No, she hasn’t.

Have you ever broken a bone? Yes, I have.

Examples:

r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
r
r
r
r
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. . . . . . .
.
V
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e
e
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o
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g
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c
c
c
c
u
u
u
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u
u
u
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n
n
n
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n
n
n
n
- - - - - - - -
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
t t t t t t t t
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
- - - - - - - -
.
. . . . . . .
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
Click to buy NOW!
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D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
m
m
m
m
m
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h
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r
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Click to buy NOW!
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o
o
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o
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P
P
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m
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m
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www.espressoenglish.net

past. Use the past simple to talk about a specific moment in the past. Present Perfect

Grammar Exercise: Present Perfect

past and continues to the present. Use the past simple to talk about

Present Perfect or Past Simple

I’ve lived in Brazil for three years.” (and I live in Brazil now)

Use the present perfect to talk about an action that started in the

Use the present perfect for “unfinished” time:

an action that started and finished in the past.

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r
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- - - - - - - -
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|---------------- |>>>>>>>>>>|------------------------------------| past 3 years ago present future Use the past simple for “finished” time: “I
|----------------
|>>>>>>>>>>|------------------------------------|
past
3 years ago
present
future
Use the past simple for “finished” time:
“I lived in Brazil for three years.” (and I don’t live in Brazil now)
|-------|>>>>>>>>>>|--------|-----------------------------------|
past
period of 3 years
present
future
Grammar Exercise: Present Perfect or Past Simple?
www.espressoenglish.net

Module 2

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c
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h
h
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c
c
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F
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Future with Going To

Question:

Negative:

In fast spoken English, going tooften sounds like gonna:

Use “going to” to talk about future plans and predictions.

www.espressoenglish.net

Future with Going To

Were gonna take a test tomorrow.

r r r r r r r r e e e e e e e e
r
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r
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. . . . . . .
.
V
V
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d
d
d
d
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g
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c
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c
c
c
c
u
u
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n
n
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n
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- - - - - - - -
a
a
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a
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a
a
a
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h
h
h
h
h
h
h
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C
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C
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X
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- - - - - - - -
.
. . . . . . .
F
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c
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D
D
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. . . . . . .
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- - - - - - - -
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h
h
h
h
h
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r
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- - - - - - - -
k
k
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F
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. . . . . . .
c
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~ 29 ~
~ 29 ~
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. . . . . . .
.
h
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h
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h
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D
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D
D
D
D
D
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
- - - - - - - -
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
o
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c
c
c
c
c
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c
c
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u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
- - - - - - - -
t t t t t t t t
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
o
o
o
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o
o
o
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
.
. . . . . . .
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
   

take a test

going to

tomorrow.

Contracted

Form 2

---

You aren’t

He / she isn’t

It isn’t

We aren’t

They aren’t

Contracted

Form 1

I’m not

You’re not

He’s / She’s not

It’s not

We’re not

They’re not

Full Form

 

I am not

You are not

He / she is not

It is not

We are not

They are not

 

going to take a test tomorrow?

 

I

you

he / she / it

we

they

Am

Are

Is

Are

Are

Don’t forget “am/is/are”! I going to buy some new shoes next week. I’m going to buy
Don’t forget “am/is/are”!
I going to buy some new shoes next week.
I’m going to buy some new shoes next week.
She not going to watch TV.
She’s not going to watch TV.
They going to get married in June.
They’re going to get married in June.
Grammar Exercise: Future with “Going to”
www.espressoenglish.net
It’s going to rain soon.
It’s going to rain soon.
She’s going to have a baby next month. Positive:
She’s going to have a baby
next month.
Positive:
   

going to take a test

tomorrow.

Contracted Form

I’m You’re He’s / She’s / It’s

We’re

They’re

Full Form

I am

You are

He / she / it is

We are

They are

Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases.

“Would you like potatoes or rice?” “I‘ll have the rice.” ”Which shirt do you like?” “Well, the red one is cheaper, but I prefer the color blue. I‘ll take the blue one.”

Peter and Paul are going to share an apartment when they move to New York.

They’re going to visit Amy next week. They made plans to meet up on Monday.

She’s going to look for a new job after her current contract ends.

On my next vacation, I’m going to stay in a nice hotel in Paris.

There are two additional ways to talk about the future in English:

On my next vacation, I’m staying at a nice hotel in Paris.

David’s going to meet me at the airport at 8:00.

I‘ll buy you a drink. My secretary will help you with the paperwork.

David’s meeting me at the airport at 8:00.

Use “will” for decisions made in that moment:

Use “going to” for plans and arrangements:

We’re going to get married next July.

We’re getting married next July.

I‘ll send you an e-mail. I won’t tell anyone your secret. He‘ll pay you back tomorrow. We won’t forget your birthday.

Will or Going To?

Use “will/won’t” for promises:

will/won’t and going to.

Use “will” for offers:

You can use the present continuous for future plans with these words:

Present Continuous For Future Use

Is Mary arriving at 7:00 or 8:00 tomorrow morning?

She’s meeting David at the train station tomorrow.

Talking about the future in English

continuous to talk about the future, in the case

We aren’t seeing our family this weekend.

order to talk about the future. However, it’s

I’m having dinner with friends tonight.

Many students use only will or going to in

of arrangements that are planned:

What are you doing on Saturday?

very common to use the present

He isn’t coming to the party.

+

+

?

  • - ?

-

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www.espressoenglish.net
www.espressoenglish.net
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
Note: You can also use the present continuous for the future in these cases. “Would you
tonight, tomorrow, this weekend next week/month/year this summer/fall/winter/spring on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc. next Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc. www.espressoenglish.net
tonight, tomorrow, this weekend
next week/month/year
this summer/fall/winter/spring
on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc.
next Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/etc.
www.espressoenglish.net

Traveling by bike takes longer than traveling by motorcycle.

Ben is younger than Phil.

Phil is older than Ben.

Comparative Adjectives

www.espressoenglish.net

Use comparatives to compare two things:

My new car is faster than my old car.

I'm older than my brother.

You can use either “will/won’t” or “going to” for predictions or general

My company‘s going to move its headquarters overseas next year.

My company will move its headquarters overseas next year.

Your wife’s going to love those flowers – they’re beautiful!

He’s not going to pass the test. He hasn’t studied at all.

The economy isn’t going to improve much this year.

Your wife will love those flowers – they’re beautiful!

He won’t pass the test. He hasn’t studied at all.

The economy won’t improve much this year.

statements about the future:

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Click to buy NOW!
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. . . . . . .
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- - - - - - - -
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- - - - - - - -
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. . . . . . .
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. . . . . . .
.
h
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D
D
D
D
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C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
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- - - - - - - -
X
X
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X
X
X
X
X
d
d
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Click to buy NOW!
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u
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- - - - - - - -
t t t t t t t t
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
m
m
m
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m
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m
m
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
o
o
o
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c
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. . . . . . .
k
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For One-Syllable Words Add –er
For One-Syllable Words
Add –er

Taller

Older

Faster

Longer

Newer

Tall

Old

Fast

Long

New

Traveling by bike takes longer than traveling by motorcycle. Ben is younger than Phil. Phil is
Traveling by bike takes longer than traveling by motorcycle. Ben is younger than Phil. Phil is
Use I think… will and I don’t think… will to express thoughts about the future. Don’t
Use I think… will and I don’t think… will to express thoughts
about the future.
Don’t use I think… won’t. (it doesn’t sound natural).
I think you won’t like this movie. It’s very violent.
I don’t think you’ll like this movie. It’s very violent.
Will/Won’t vs. Going to Quiz
Click here to take the quiz!
http://www.espressoenglish.net/grammar-in-use-willwont-vs-going-to#quiz
Linking Words: Reasons and Results
Image source: FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Linking words help you connect the ideas in a
sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn some
common linking words to
express reasons and results.
Linking Words: Reasons
www.espressoenglish.net

Watching a movie is more interesting than studying grammar.

Michael Jackson's music is more popular than country music.

Adjectives with Irregular Comparatives

Comparative Adjectives

A car is more expensive than a computer.

For Words with 3+ syllables

Add “more” before the adjective:

For Words that end in a vowel + consonant

Comparative Adjectives

For Words that end in consonant + y

People today are busier than in the past.

Reading English is easier than listening.

Double the last consonant and add er

An elephant is bigger than a cat.

Brazil is hotter than Sweden.

My sister is thinner than me.

Maria is happier than Dave.

Remove -y and add -ier.

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