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Learn English

A Beginners Guide for ESL Learners

By Jenna Swan

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Copyright 2015 by Jenna Swan - All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents
Section 1 Vocabulary and Useful Phrases
Chapter 1 The Alphabet
Chapter 2 Numbers
Chapter 3 Greetings
Chapter 4 Talking About Yourself
Chapter 5 Asking and Answering Questions
Chapter 6 Colours
Chapter 7 Countries, Continents and Cities
Chapter 8 Weather
Chapter 9 Travel
Chapter 10 Telling the Time
Chapter 11 Food and Drink
Chapter 12 Animals
Chapter 13 Body Parts
Chapter 14 Describing People
Chapter 15 Routine
Chapter 16 - Transport
Chapter 17 Hobbies
Chapter 18 Personality Types
Chapter 19 Sports
Chapter 20 Jobs
Chapter 21 Home

Section 2 Grammar Rules


Chapter 22 Verbs
Chapter 23 Subject Pronouns
Chapter 24 Object Pronouns
Chapter 25 Indefinite Articles
Chapter 26 Possessive Adjectives
Chapter 27 Possessive Pronouns
Chapter 28 Reflexive Pronouns
Chapter 29 Singular and Plural
Chapter 30 WH Questions
Chapter 31 Have Got, Has Got
Chapter 32 Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Chapter 33 Prepositions of Place
Chapter 34 Imperatives
Chapter 35 Past Tense
Chapter 36 Present Tense
Chapter 37 Sentences

Section 3 Fluency in English


Chapter 38 Top 10 Tips for Fluency in English

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Section 1 Vocabulary and Useful Phrases

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Chapter 1 The Alphabet

Vocabulary
The English alphabet has 26 letters. Its important to learn how each letter sounds. Practice saying the letters below.

Aa ay
Bb bee
Cc see
Dd - dee
Ee ee
Ff eff
Gg jee
Hh aich
Ii eye
Jj jay
Kk kay
Ll ell
Mm - emm
Nn enn
Oo oh
Pp pee
Qq cue
Rr arr
Ss ess
Tt tee
Uu yoo
Vv vee
Ww dubble-yoo
Xx ecks
Yy why
Zz zed

The alphabet is made up of vowels (a e i o u) and consonants (b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z). The vowels help us to
pronounce the consonants. It is important to practice saying the vowels as this will significantly affect your pronunciation.

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Practice saying the vowels over and over with a wide mouth. Try it in the mirror to see how it looks.
a (ay) e (ee) i (eye) o (oh) u (yoo)

Sentence Structure
Below are different words that begin with each letter of the alphabet. Try filling in your own words. (Exercise 1.)
Alphabet Exercise 1
A is for ant A is for -
B is for bee B is for -
C is for cat C is for -
D is for dog D is for -
E is for egg E is for -
F is for fish F is for -
G if for goat G is for -
H is for hot H is for -
I is for in I is for -
J is for jug J is for -
K is for kite K is for -
L is for look L is for -
M is for mice M is for -
N is for no N is for -
O is for on O is for -
P is for pink P is for -
Q is for queen Q is for -
R is for run R is for -
S is for song S is for -
T is for talk T is for -
U is for under U is for -
V is for van V is for -
W is for want W is for -
X is for x-ray X is for -
Z is for zebra Z is for

Assessment
1. Write down two words that have two consonants and two vowels. Example: look.
a) ______________________
b) ______________________

2. Underline the vowels in these words. Example: Animal


a) Police
b) Education

3) Write four words beginning with s.


a) ________________________
b) ________________________

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c) ________________________
d) ________________________

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Chapter 2 Numbers

Vocabulary

1 10 (One to ten)
1 - one
2 - two
3 three
4 four
5 five

6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten

11 19 (eleven to one hundred)

11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 twenty-one
22 twenty two
23 twenty three

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24 twenty four
25 twenty five
26 twenty six
27- twenty seven
28 twenty eight
29 twenty nine
30 thirty
31 thirty one
32- thirty two
33 thirty three
34 thirty four
35 thirty five
36 thirty six
37 thirty seven
38 thirty eight
39 thirty nine
40 forty
41 forty one
42 forty two
43 forty three
44 forty four
45 forty five
46 forty six
47 forty seven
48 forty eight
49 forty nine
50 fifty
51 fifty one
52 fifty two
53 fifty three
54 fifty four
55 fifty five
56 fifty six
57 fifty seven
58 fifty eight

10
59 fifty nine
60 sixty
61 sixty one
62 sixty two
63 sixty three
64 sixty four
65 sixty five
66 sixty six
67 sixty seven
68 sixty eight
69 sixty nine
70 seventy
71 seventy one
72 seventy two
73 seventy three
74 seventy four
75 seventy five
76 seventy six
77 seventy seven
78 seventy eight
79 seventy nine
80 eighty
81 eighty one
82 eighty two
83 eighty three
84 eighty four
85 eighty five
86 eighty six
87 eighty seven
88 eighty eight
89 eighty nine
90 ninety
91 ninety one
92 ninety two
93 ninety three

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94 ninety four
95 ninety five
96 ninety six
97 ninety seven
98 ninety eight
99 ninety nine
100 one hundred.

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Chapter 3 Greetings

Vocabulary
Hello Goodbye
How are you? What is your name?
See you again See you around
Take it easy Hows it going?
Are you ok? Nice to meet you

Remember!

Formal Informal
Hello Hi
Goodbye See you around
How are you? Take it easy
What is your name? Hows it going
Nice to meet you Are you ok?
See you again Bye bye
Pleased to meet you Bye

Remember!
Friend someone you know well.
Stranger someone who you dont know
Colleague someone you work with.
Acquaintance - Someone you dont know very well.

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
Hello, how are you? Im fine thank you.
Hello, what is your name? Hello, my name is Julian.
Nice to meet you. What is your name? Nice to meet you too. My name is
Sophie.
Hi, hows it going? Good thanks, and you?
Hi, how are you? Im very well thank you, and you?

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Person A Person B
Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you too.
See you again, goodbye. Ok, goodbye.
Pleased to meet you. Yes, you too.
Goodbye, see you around. See you.
Hi! Hi!
Goodbye, see you around. See you.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


Hello, my ____ is John.
Hi, what is your ____?
Hello, nice to ___ you.
Hows it _____.
Im ____ thank you, and you?

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Hello, how are you?
B: Im fine thank you, and you?
A: Yes, I am fine thank you.
B: What is your name?
A: My name is Jason. What is your name?
B: My name is Dina. Pleased to meet you Jason.
A: Yes, pleased to meet you Dina.

a) Is this a formal, or informal greeting? ______________________.


b) Is this the beginning, or the end of the conversation? _______________.
c) Have these two people met before? ________________________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Hi, hows it going?
B: Im good thanks, how are you?
A: Not bad thanks.
B: What have you been up to?
A: Not much, working a lot. And you?
B: Same really. Im going on holiday next week?
A: How exciting, where are you going?
B: To Barcelona in Spain.

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A: I hope you have a good time.
B: Thanks! Ok, Ive got to go. See you later.
A: Ok, see you later, bye.
B: Bye
a) Is this a formal, or informal greeting? ______________________.
b) Is this the beginning, the end, or the full conversation? _______________.
c) Have these two people met before? ________________________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Hello.
B: Hello.
A: Good to see you again.
B: And you. How are you?
A: Im very well thank you, how are you?
B: Im very well.
a) Is this a formal, or informal greeting? ______________________.
b) Is this the beginning, the end, or the full conversation? _______________.
c) Have these two people met before? ________________________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Its been great meeting you.
B: Yes, you too. I hope to see you again.
A: Yes, so do I.
B: See you.
A: Ok, see you, bye.
B: Bye.
a) Is this a formal, or informal greeting? ______________________.
b) Is this the beginning, the end, or the full conversation? _______________.
c) Have these two people met before? ________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) Greet a stranger informally.
_____________________________________________________.
b) Greet a stranger formally.
_____________________________________________________.
c) Greet a friend informally.
_____________________________________________________.
d) Greet a friend formally.

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_____________________________________________________?
e) Say goodbye to a friend.
_____________________________________________________.
f) Say goodbye to a stranger.
_____________________________________________________?
g) Hi, my _____ is Sarah. What is your name?

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Chapter 4 Talking About Yourself

Vocabulary
I am My
Id Im
I would I dont
I will

Remember!
Name My name is
Age I am years old
Address My address is / I live in/at
Job I am a
Siblings I have brothers and sisters. / I am an only child
Favourites My favourite is
Preferences I prefer
Hobbies My hobbies are
Background I am from England / China / Russia

Sentence Structure

Question Answer
What is your name? My name is Claire.
What is your job? I am a teacher.
Where do you live? I live in Maidstone, Kent.
How old are you? I am 33 years old.
What are your hobbies? My hobbies are swimming and
reading.
Where are you from? I am from China.
Are you English? No, I am French.
Do you prefer hot holidays or cold I prefer hot holidays. I dont like the
holidays? cold.
What did you study at university? I studied maths.
Where did you study? I studied at Derby University in the
UK.

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Fill in the gaps from the words above.
My ____ is Claire.
I am 30 ______ old.
I ____ two sisters.
I ____ in New York.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: What is your name?
B: My name is Rhiannon.
A: How old are you?
B: I am 28 years old.
A: Where do you live?
B: I live in Sydney, Australia.
A: Where are you from?
B: I am from Melbourne, Australia.
A: What is your favourite colour?
B: Its red.
A: Do you have any pets?
B: Yes, I have a cat.
a) Where does A live? ______________________.
b) Where does B live? _______________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Do you like rock music?
B: No, I prefer pop music.
A: Who is your favourite artist?
B: I think Katy Perry is my favourite.
A: What is your favourite Katy Perry song?
B: I like Roar. Who is your favourite artist?
A: My favourite band is U2.
B: What is your favourite song?
A: Probably Sunday Bloody Sunday.
a) Does B like rock music? __________________________.
b) What is Bs favourite song? ________________________.
c) What is As favourite song? ________________________.

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Read the conversation below and answer the questions.
A: Do you have any brothers and sisters?
B: Yes, I have one brother and two sisters.
A: What are their names?
B: My brother is called John, and my sisters are called Julia and Marianne.
A: What is your job?
B: I am a waitress in a restaurant.
A: Do you enjoy your job?
B: Its ok, but I would prefer to do something else.
A: What would you prefer to do?
B: I want to be an architect, so I will go to university next year.
A: Which university will you attend?
B: I would like to go to Westminster in London.
A: Great, good luck.
B: Thanks.

a) What does B do for a job? ______________________.


b) What is the name of Bs brother? _________________.
c) What will B study at University? __________________.
d) Do we know anything about A? Y/N

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Read paragraph below and answer the questions.
My name is Claire, and I am from the UK. I am 32 years old and I am an English teacher. I live in Vietnam, and I teach
English to Vietnamese children. I studied Theatre at university in the UK, and I used to work as an actress. I do not have
any brothers or sisters and I am not married. My favourite hobby is playing the guitar, and I write songs too. I also like
reading and travelling. I have a pet cat, called Shroedinger, and my best friend is called Kathryn. Kathryn lives in the UK. I
am 57 ft. tall and my favourite sport is tennis. Claire, UK.
a) What is Claires job? ____________________.
b) What did she study at University? _______________________.
c) She has a brother. True/False
d) How tall is Claire? ___________________________.

I am Ralf, and I am Austrian. I am a professional hairdresser and I work in a salon in Vienna. When I am not at work, I
enjoy keeping fit by playing football and going to the gym. I enjoy travelling and last year I went to Mexico for two months.
I really enjoyed the trip, and hope to go to Brazil next year. I have two sisters, who are both older than me, called Claudia
and Sarah. My dream is to one day travel all the way around the world, but I need to save some money first. I live in an
apartment with two friends. Ralf, Vienna, Austria
a) What is Ralfs job? ____________________.
b) His sisters are younger than him? T/F
c) He dreams to travel all around the world. T/F
d) How many people does he live with? ___________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is your name?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Where do you live?
____________________________________________________.
c) How old are you?
____________________________________________________.
d) What is your job?
_____________________________________________________.
e) What nationality are you?
_____________________________________________________.
f) How many brothers and sisters do you have?
_____________________________________________________.

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Chapter 5 Asking and Answering Questions

Vocabulary
What? When? Why? Where? How? Are you?
Is it? Can you? Could you? Which? Will you? Would you?

Remember!

Where? Asking about a location


When? Asking about time
Why? Asking the reason

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What is your name? My name is Claire.
When do you finish work? I finish work at 6pm.
Where do you live? I live in Maidstone, Kent.
How will you get to the party? I will get a taxi.
Why have you got a suitcase? Because I am going on holiday.
Are you coming to dinner with us? Yes, I am. / No I am not.
Is it cold in Paris? Yes, its very cold now.
When does it get hot in Paris? In the summer, May, June, July and
August.
Could you help me with my Yes, I can. / No I cant.
homework
Can you swim? Yes I can. / No, I cant.
Will you finish work by 10pm. Yes, I will. / No I wont.
Would you come with me to the party? Yes, I would. / No I wont
Why are you not at work? Because I am sick.
What do you study at university? I study maths.
When did you start university? I started two years ago.
Where is your university? Its in New York.
Which university do you go to? I go to Harvard.
Why did you choose to study English? Because its my favourite subject.
Are you good at maths? Yes I am. / No, Im not.
Is it your birthday today? Yes, it is. / No it isnt.
Which do you prefer, fish or chicken? I prefer fish.
Could you tell me the time? Yes, its 7pm.
Can you drive? Yes, I can. / No I cant.
Which way is the beach. That way, Turn left.

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Fill in the gaps from the words above.
_____ time shall we get to the party?
_____ do you live?
_____ are you not at work?
_____ dress do you prefer, the black or the white one?
_____ many people are coming to the show?
_____ will you arrive?
_____ you ski?

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Hello, how are you?
B: Im fine thank you, and you?
A: Yes, I am fine thank you.
B: What is your name?
A: My name is Donald. What is your name?
B: My name is Peter. Pleased to meet you Donald.
A: Yes, pleased to meet you Peter.
B: Where do you live?
A: I live on Maid Street.
B: Oh, I see. When did you move there?
A: In January. Where do you live?
B: I live on Seattle Road.

a) Where does A live? _______________.


b) Where does B live? _______________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: When will you arrive?
B: I will arrive at 5pm.
A: Will you want dinner?
B: No thank you. I will have eaten.
A: Are you coming alone?
B: No, I am bringing a friend. Is that ok?
A: Yes, that is ok. How long will you stay?

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B: I will stay for two days.
A: Do you want to hire a car?
B: No, I dont.
A: Can you please tell me your name?
B: My name is Winnie.
c) What time is B arriving? ______________________.
d) Is B coming alone? _______________.
d) How long is B staying for? ________________________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: How was the theatre?
B: It was good, I really enjoyed it.
A: Great. What did you see?
B: We saw Les Miserables. Have you seen it?
A: Yes, I have.
B: When did you see it?
A: I saw it five years ago.
B: Where did you see it?
A: I saw it in London.
B: Did you enjoy it?
A: No, I didnt like it.
B: Why not?
A: I didnt like the music.
B: Oh, I loved it!

e) Who went to the theatre recently, A or B? ______________________.


f) Who went to the theatre five years ago, A or B? _______________.
g) Where did A see the play? ________________________.
h) Did A enjoy the show? __________________________.

Read the conversation below and answer the questions.


A: Is Scotland in Ireland?
B: No, its in the UK.
A: Oh, where in the UK is it?
B: Its in the North.
a) Where is Scotland? ______________________.
b) Scotland is in the south? T/F

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Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is your name?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Where do you live?
____________________________________________________.
c) When do you wake up in the morning?
____________________________________________________.
d) Which sport do you prefer? Tennis or football?
_____________________________________________________.
e) Why do we dream?
_____________________________________________________.
f) How many brothers and sisters do you have?
_____________________________________________________.

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Chapter 6 Colours

Vocabulary
Red Yellow
Pink Green
Purple Orange
Blue Grey
Black White

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What colour eyes do you have? My eyes are blue.
What colour eyes does your father His eyes are brown.
have?
What colour is grass? Grass is green.
What colour are the leaves in the The leaves are green in the summer.
summer?
What colour are the leaves in the In the autumn, the leaves are orange
autumn? and brown.
When should you do when the traffic You should go.
lights turn green?
What should you do when the traffic You should stop.
lights are red?
What colour hair have you got? I have got red hair.
What is your favourite colour? My favourite colour is blue.
What is your least favourite colour? I dont like the colour green.
If you mix red and blue, what colour Purple.
do you get?
What is a primary colour? You can make new colours from
mixing primary colours.
What are the primary colours? Red, yellow and blue.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


The sea is ____.
The sky at night is _______.
The sun is ___________.
Trees are ____ and ____.
Girls normally prefer ___ and boys prefer ____.
My cheeks go ___ when I am embarrassed.
When the traffic lights turn ____, you can go.

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Read the paragraph and underline the colours. Then answer the questions.
I am a watercolour artist, and I spend my days mixing colours for my paintings. I paint many autumn scenes, for which I
use browns, oranges and reds. I like the way those colours look together. Kathryn, Derby UK.
a) What is Kathryns job? __________________________________.
b) Which season does she like painting? __________________
c) What colours does she use for her autumn pictures? ________________________________.
d) Why does she like using those colours? ________________________________.
Read the paragraph and underline the colours. Then answer the questions.
I have recently decorated my house and I have painted all of the rooms in different colours. My bedroom is painted pink,
and I have purple curtains. I painted the kitchen green because I its a relaxing colour. My living room is painted white
because I have a white sofa, and I painted the bathroom blue. I think my house looks great now. Sue, Melbourne, Australia.
a) Sue has recently decorated her house? True/False
b) What colour did she paint the kitchen? ______________________.
c) Why did she paint it that colour? ________________________________.
d) Why did she paint the living room white? __________________________.
e) She painted the bathroom black? True/False
f) Is she happy with the house? _____________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline the colours. Then answer the questions.
I am going to a party on Saturday night and I am really excited. It is Shonas birthday, (she is my best friend) and we are
going to a nightclub in London. I cant decide what to wear. I know that Shona is going to be wearing a black dress, so I
will have to wear a different colour. I have a lovely red dress, which I might wear, but Im worried it may be too long. I also
have a blue dress, but I am worried that it may be too short. I have a pretty yellow dress, but I dont think it will look good
in the winter. Help, what should I wear? Christine, Brighton, UK.

a) Why is Christine going to a party on Saturday? ______________________________.


b) Why cant she wear black? ______________________.
c) She think the blue dress is too long? True/False
d) Does she think yellow is a good colour for winter? ________________________________.
e) Why is she asking for help? ________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What colour do you get if you mix blue and red?
_____________________________________________________.
b) What colour do you get if you mix blue and yellow?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What is your favourite colour?
_____________________________________________________.
d) What is your least favourite colour?
_____________________________________________________?
e) What colour is your car?
_____________________________________________________.

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f) What colour are your favourite flowers?
_____________________________________________________?
g) The sun is ______, and the sky is ________.

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Chapter 7 Countries, Continents and Cities

Vocabulary
Countries

1. United States
2. Canada
3. United Kingdom
4. France
5. Germany
6. Italy
7. Spain
8. Thailand
9. China
10. Russia
11. Australia
12. New Zealand
13. Vietnam
14. South Africa
15. Poland
16. Brazil
17. Mexico
18. Japan
19. Singapore
20. Austria
21. Afghanistan
22. India
23. Pakistan
24. Colombia
25. Greece
26. Hong Kong
27. Jamaica
28. South Korea
29. Malaysia
30. Netherlands

Continents
1. Asia
2. Europe
3. North America
4. South America
5. Antarctica
6. Australia
7. Africa

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Sentence structure
Question Answer
Which country are you from? I am from China.
Where did you go on holiday last Last year we travelled to Europe. We
year? went to France, Germany and Italy.
Where are you going on holiday this In February, we are going to
year? Thailand. Ive never been to Asia
before.
What is the biggest city in the United The biggest city in the United
Kingdom? Kingdom is London. Its massive.
What language do they speak In Spain, they speak Spanish.
Spanish?

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Fill in the words to the sentences.
France Asia German North America
a) We are going to New York next week. Its in ___________.
b) I speak French. I am from __________.
c) Japan, China and Singapore are all countries in ___________.
d) I am ___________, I am from Germany.

Reading and writing


Read the following paragraph about the United Kingdom and answer the questions.
The United Kingdom (UK) is an island in Europe. Inside the UK there are four smaller countries; England, Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland. London is the capital city of England, and is home to the Royal Family. Most people who
live in the UK speak English, but not everybody. The UK is famous for its books and poems. Famous authors are William
Shakespeare, who wrote Romeo and Juliet and J.K Rowling, who wrote Harry Potter. Jarrod, London, UK.
a) What are the smaller countries within The United Kingdom called? ___________, ____________,
____________, ____________.
b) Who wrote Romeo and Juliet? ______________________.
c) Everyone speaks English in the United Kingdom. T/F

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) Which country are you from?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Which continent is your country in?
_____________________________________________________.
c) In which countries do they speak English? _____________________________________________________.
d) Name a two countries beginning with the letter a.
_____________________________________________________.

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Chapter 8 - Weather
Vocabulary
Sunny Windy
Rainy Snowy
Cloudy Stormy
Hot Cold
Mild Humid
Cool Climate

Sentence structure
Question Answer
What is the weather like today? Its sunny.
What is the weather like in Thailand? Its hot.
Do you want to go for a picnic? No, its raining.
Whats your favourite weather? My favourite weather is hot and sunny.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


The weather today is hot and ______.
We can build snowmen when it is ________.
Its far too wet and _______ to go to the park.
I love ________ weather. The thunder and lightning excites me.
I like _____ weather, but my boyfriend doesnt.
You cant see the stars when its _______.
I like riding my bicycle when its ____.

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Reading and writing
Read the following paragraph about the weather, and underline all the words that mean hot and cold, then answer the
questions.
In the summer, the weather is usually hot and sunny. Sometimes we have rainy days in the summer, but they are still warm
days. The summer is my favourite season. In the winter it can be very cold, wet and windy, and sometimes it even snows! I
love it when it snows, we get to make snowmen and have snowball fights. It can be difficult getting to work because the
roads are covered in ice. In the autumn, the leaves fall off the trees, and it starts to get cooler. Spring is beautiful, and
although there are warm days, its still cool. Phillipe, France.
a) What is the weather like in the summer? _________________________________.
b) What is the weather like in the winter? __________________________________.
c) What is the weather like in spring? ______________________________________.
d) What happens to the trees in the Autumn? ________________________________.
e) What can you do in the snow? ___________________________________________.
f) Why is it difficult to get to work? _________________________________________.
g) Its hot in spring. T/F
h) Autumn is Pierres favourite season. T/F

Write about your favourite season. What is the weather like? Why do you like it?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is the best weather for making snowmen?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Is your country a hot or cold country?
_____________________________________________________.
c) Name three countries that have cold weather.
_____________________________________________________.
d) What was the weather like yesterday?
_____________________________________________________.

32
Chapter 9 - Travel
Vocabulary
Holiday Train
Bus Coach
Trip Hotel
Plane Airport
Taxi Ferry
Car Motorbike

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
Where are you going on holiday this We are going to Barcelona in Spain.
year?
Excuse me, how do I get into town? You need to catch the number 88 bus.
How will you be getting to your hotel? I am getting a train at 2pm.
Where can I get a taxi from? On the high street. Walk straight and
then turn left.
What is the timetable for your trip? We are arriving in Singapore on
Tuesday, and we fly to Japan on
Saturday.
Can we walk to the museum from No, its quite far, you should catch a
here? bus or a taxi.
Is the whole office going on the trip to Yes, we are all going by coach.
Berlin?

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


You can catch a ____ over there? You need number 9a.
What time are you flying? Our ____ leaves at 5pm.
I wanted to get the _____, but the coach is cheaper.
We stayed in a beautiful ____. The food was delicious.
We have a very strict _________, but I hope we can still have some fun.
This is our first _______ together as a family.
Tell the ____ driver to take you to the city centre.

33
Reading and writing
Read the following paragraph about the travel and answer the questions.
I love to travel. I am lucky because my job means I get to travel all over the world. I am a journalist, and one week I might
travel to Iceland by plane, and the week after, I might travel to New York by train. My favourite way to travel is by boat,
because I enjoy being at sea. I stay in many different kinds of hotels, and some are nice, but some are not. I like hotels that
have a gym and a swimming pool, but they are not all like that. Sarah, Florida, US.
a) What is Sarahs job? _________________________________.
b) How does she travel to Iceland? __________________________________.
c) How does she travel to New York? ______________________________________.
d) What is her favourite way to travel? ________________________________.
e) In hotels, she likes a gym and a ___________________________________________?

Read the following paragraph about travel and answer the questions.
I am going to travel to India next year. I am very happy because I have never been to Asia before. I have written a
timetable so that I can travel around more easily. I am flying there from Sydney on February 10th, and the plane will land in
Mumbai. I am staying in a hotel called the Seashore Hotel, and then, on February 14th I am getting a coach to Goa. There
are beautiful beaches in Goa, and I will stay there for five days. After that I will get a train to Kerela, where I will stay for
one month. I will rent a motorbike whilst I am there. I will get a bus from Kerela to Chennai on March 2nd, and fly back to
Sydney on March 4th. I am very excited. Jacob, Sydney, Australia.
a) How does Jacob feel about going to India?_________________________________.
b) Where is he flying from? __________________________________.
c) How is he travelling to Goa? ______________________________________.
d) Where will he rent a motorbike? ________________________________.
e) What is the hotel called in Mumbai? ___________________________________________.

34
Write about your last trip. Where did you go? How did you get there?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) Do you prefer travelling by plane or train?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Where would you like to travel to on holiday?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What is a timetable? Choose 1 or 2.
1) A type of boat.
2) A plan for your trip.
_____________________________________________________.
d) Fill in the missing words.
Id like to book a room in your ____ . How much is it for a two night stay?
e) Fill in the missing words.
What time does your ______ land on Saturday? I will come and pick you up at the a______.

35
Chapter 10 Telling the Time

Vocabulary

In English, there are three different ways to say the time.


Oclock AM/PM 24 hour clock
One oclock in the afternoon 1pm 13:00
Half past one in the afternoon 1:30pm 13:30
Quarter past one 1:15pm 13:15
Quarter to two 1:45pm 13:45
Ten oclock in the morning 10am 10:00
Half past ten in the morning 10:30pm 10:30
Quarter past ten 10:15am 10:15
Quarter to eleven 10:45am 10:45

Remember!
12pm Midday
12am Midnight

Morning 00:00 12:00


Afternoon 12:00 17:00
Evening 17:00 20:00
Night 21:00 00:00

Dawn - when the sun rises (morning).


Dusk when the sun sets (evening)

36
Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What time do you wake up? I wake up at 8am.
What time do you finish school? We finish at four oclock.
Shall we meet at 7pm? Can we make it 7:30pm instead?
What time does the plane leave? It leaves at 21:30.
What time is 15:45? Quarter to four in the afternoon.
What time is 00:00? Its midnight.
Shall we meet at midday? How about a little earlier, like
11:30am?
Are you a morning person, or a night I am more of a night person, I dont
person? like mornings.
What time do you start and finish I start work at 8am and finish at 5pm.
work?
When will the party start? Try and arrive at seven oclock.
When will the food be ready? It should be ready at half past eight.
What time did you fall asleep last I fell asleep at 11pm.
night?
What time does the football match At 14:00.
start?

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


2 o____.
12:00 is _____.
00:00 is ______.
AM is the _______.
PM is the ________.
2pm is in the _________.

Read the paragraph and underline all the times. Then answer the questions.
I wake up at 7am and I have a shower. I eat my breakfast at 7:30am and leave at 7:55am. I walk to the train station, and I
get the 8:15am train to Central London. The train arrives in London at 8:45am. I walk into the coffee shop buy a coffee at
8:55am, and I get to my office for 9am. Kirsty, London, UK.
a) What time does Kirsty wake up? __________________________________
b) What time is her train? ______________________________________.
c) How long does the train take? ________________________________.
d) What time does she go to the coffee shop? ________________________________.

37
Read the paragraph and underline all the animals. Then answer the questions.
I work in a zoo and I have to feed all of the animals in the morning. At 07:00 I feed the penguins, and at 07:30 hours I feed
the birds. At 07:45, I feed the lions. This takes a lot longer. At 08:30 I take a break have my own breakfast. At 09:00 I feed
the giraffes, and at 09:30 I feed the goats and horses. Stephen, Chesterfield, UK.

a) What time does he feed the penguins? _________________________.


b) What time does he feed the lions? ______________________.
c) What time does he have breakfast? ________________________________.
d) What time does he feed the giraffes? ___________________________________________.
e) What time does he feed the horses? ________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline all the animals. Then answer the questions.
When I was a child, we used to go to the seaside every summer and we had a special routine. Me and my sister would
always wake up early, at six oclock in the morning and start packing our suitcases. At seven oclock my Mum and Dad
would make breakfast, and we would all get in the car to leave at eight oclock. It would take three hours to drive to the
beach, and so we would get there for about eleven oclock. We would then unpack our suitcases, and at midday we would
have lunch on the beach. We would stay on the beach until six oclock in the evening. April, Sheffield, UK.

a) What time did April and her sister wake up? ____________.
b) What time did they leave for the beach? ____________________________.
c) How long did the drive take? _____________________.
d) What time did they have lunch? ________________________________.
e) What time did they leave the beach? _______________________________.
f) What time do they have breakfast? ____________________.

38
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What time do you wake up?
_____________________________________________________.
b) What time do you go to bed?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What time do you get to work? _____________________________________________________.
d) What time is midday?
_____________________________________________________.
e) What time is midnight?
_____________________________________________________.
f) Is AM morning or afternoon?
_____________________________________________________.
g) Is PM morning or afternoon?
_____________________________________________________.
h) Write 15:00 another way.
_____________________________________________________.

39
Chapter 11 Food and Drink

Fruit Vegetables Meat Drink Dairy MealsJunk


Food
Banana Lettuce Chicken Water Yoghurt Rice Pizza
Apple Potato Beef Milk Milk Soup Burger
Cherries Peas Pork Juice Cheese Noodles Chips
Blueberries Broccoli Lamb Cola Cream Salad Fries
Pineapple Carrot Fish Lemonade Eggs Sandwich Pie
Mango Beans Shellfish Pasta Cake
Strawberries Corn Spaghetti Doughnut
Grapes Cabbage Curry Candy
Tomato Mushrooms

Sentence Structure
Q
uestion Answer
What is your favourite food? Pasta is my favourite food.
What would you like to eat? I would like a salad please.
Can I take your order? Yes, I would like to order some soup
and a sandwich.
Would you like a drink? Yes, I would like some water please.
Would you like some juice? Yes, can I have orange juice please?
How do you make salad? You add lettuce, tomato, cucumber,
peppers and onions.
What would you like with your burger? Can I have fries please?
Would you like cheese on your burger? No, thank you.
What flavour pizza would you like? I would like ham and pineapple
please.
Would you like a doughnut? No thank you. I am on a diet.
What food do you like to cook? I enjoy cooking chicken noodles.
What is your favourite sweet food? My favourite sweet food is chocolate.
Do you like milk? Sometimes.
Can I get you some water? Yes please.
What does your Mum want to eat? Anything but meat. She is a vegetarian.
Are you a vegetarian? No, I eat meat sometimes.
Is there any food you dont like? I dont like cabbage, it tastes horrible.
How do apples taste? They are sweet and sour.
What does curry taste of? Sometimes, its really hot and spicy.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


______can be spicy.
Lettuce is a ________.

40
I am thirsty. I would like some ______.
Can I have some fruit? How about a ________?
I am hungry, I would like some ___________.
I am a vegetarian, I dont eat ______.
I cant eat eggs, milk, cheese or cream. I am allergic to _____.

Read the paragraph and underline all the food. Then answer the questions.
I am a chef, and I use a lot of different food each day. I like making salads, because I enjoy cutting up the fresh vegetables.
People travel a long way to eat my salads. I add lettuce, cucumber, tomato, onion, pepper and spinach. I also cook noodles
in many different flavours. The most popular favours are chicken and beef. I love the smell of chicken noodles cooking.
Huan, Saigon, Vietnam.
e) What does Huan put in his salads? __________________________________.
f) He puts eggs in his salad? T/F
g) What are the most popular flavour noodles?________________________________.
h) He likes the smell of the beef noodles cooking? T/F

Read the paragraph and underline all of the food. Then answer the questions.
I like travelling and trying food in different countries. My favourite countries to eat in are Thailand and America. In
Thailand they serve lots of delicious noodle dishes and curries. The food is sometimes a little too spicy for me, but I still
enjoy it. My favourite Thai dish is Thai Green Curry, which is made from coconuts. In America, the food is simpler than
Thailand, but I enjoy it anyway. I like eating burgers and pizza, even though they are not good for your health. My
favourite American food is doughnuts. They are delicious. April, Toronto, Canada.

a) What are her favourite two countries cuisines? ____________________.


b) What does she like to eat in Thailand? ___________________________.
c) What does she like to eat in America? ________________________________.
d) She thinks American food is simpler than Thai food? T/F
e) She thinks American food is good for your health? T/F
f) What is her favourite American food? _____________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the food. Then answer the questions.
I am a doctor. I often have to tell my patients which foods are healthy and which are not. Most people should eat at least
five different fruit and vegetables each day. A salad is a great way to do this and is really healthy. Unhealthy foods are
foods that have too much sugar, or too much fat, and you shouldnt eat too much foods of it. Bad food include doughnuts
and burgers. Frederick, New York, US.

a) Which foods are healthy? _______________________________.


b) How many fruit and vegetables should we eat each day? ______________________.
c) Which foods are unhealthy? ________________________________

Assessment

41
Answer the questions.
d) Name three vegetables.
_____________________________________________________.
e) Name three meats.
_____________________________________________________.
f) Name three drinks.
_____________________________________________________.
g) What did you eat today?
_____________________________________________________?
h) Are you a vegetarian?
_____________________________________________________.
i) What is your favourite food?
_____________________________________________________?
j) What is your least favourite food?
_____________________________________________________.

42
Chapter 12 - Animals

Vocabulary
Mammals Birds Reptiles/Amphibians Insects
Cat Parrot Lizard Spider
Dog Chicken Frog Fly
Tiger Eagle Snake Beetle
Lion Owl Crocodile Mosquito
Whale Robin Turtle Scorpion
Giraffe Seagull Chameleons Butterfly
Elephant Toucan Alligator Moth
Monkey Flamingo Iguana Flea
Rat Pigeon
Bear Swan
Deer Goose
Dolphin Duck
Horse Falcon

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
Do you have any pets? Yes, I have a cat. She is called Sally.
Which bird lives in the jungle? A parrot.
Which bird cannot fly? A chicken.
Name three mammals. Dog, cat and a bear.
Name a dangerous mammal. A lion.
Name a dangerous reptile. A crocodile.
Name a dangerous insect. A scorpion.
Are you scared of spiders? Yes, I am scared of them.
Are you scared of rats? No, I like rats.
Where would you find a shark? You would find a shark in the sea.
What is the difference between a Birds have wings and they lay eggs,
mammal and a bird? mammals have live young.
What is the difference between a Fish breathe in water and reptiles
reptile and a fish. breathe air.
Are lions and tigers the same. No, they are not the same, but they are
both cats.

43
Fill in the gaps from the words above.
Lions and _____ are both cats.
Chickens and eagles are both ___.
____ swim in the sea.
The most popular pets in the world are ____ and ___.
_____ are the biggest mammal in the world.
___________ live in Africa and Asia.

Read the paragraph and underline all the animals. Then answer the questions.
I work in a zoo, and I really enjoy my job. In the morning, I feed the birds. We have lots of beautiful birds in the zoo, but
my favourites are the parrots, they are so colourful. After I feed the birds, I go and clean out the elephants. The elephants
are huge, and they also very clever. Gina, London, UK.
e) Where does Gina work? __________________________________
f) She doesnt enjoy her job? T/F
g) Why are the parrots his favourite birds? ________________________________.
h) What does he do after he feeds the birds? ________________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline all the animals. Then answer the questions.
My family and I really like animals, and we have a lot of pets. We have two cats, one dog, and three rabbits. My brother
has a goldfish, and I have a hamster. My hamster is called Simon, and my brothers goldfish is called Trevor. The cats like
each other, but they dont like the dog. They always run away from him when they see him. The rabbits are called Trixie,
Dixie and Celine. My favourite rabbit is Dixie. She loves carrots. Albi, Sydney, Australia

a) His family like animals? T/F


b) How many animals does Albis have? ______________________.
c) What do the cats do when they see the dog? ________________________________.
d) What is the goldfish called? ___________________________________________.
e) What does Trixie like to eat? ________________________.

44
Read the paragraph and underline all the animals. Then answer the questions.
I am terribly frightened of spiders. I cant be in the same room as one. If there is a spider in a room, I have to ask my
husband to throw it out of the window. I dont know why I am so scared of spiders, but I think it is their legs. I am also
scared of snakes, I could never touch one. My husband is scared of rats, but I quite like rats. He doesnt like their tails. My
Mum is really scared of dogs, which is why I cant get one as a pet. Helen, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

a) What does scared mean? Like/love or frightened/dislike ____________.


b) What two animals is Helen scared of? ____________________________.
c) What animal is her husband scared of? _____________________.
d) What animal is her Mother scared of? ________________________________.
e) Helen is frightened of rats? T/F
f) What does Helens husband dislike about rats? ____________________?

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) Name three mammals.
_____________________________________________________.
b) Name three insects.
_____________________________________________________.
c) Name two common pets. _____________________________________________________.
d) Name an animal that you would find in the sea.
_____________________________________________________.
e) Is a spider an insect or a mammal?
_____________________________________________________.
f) Name two different types of cat.
_____________________________________________________.
g) What is your favourite animal?
_____________________________________________________.
h) What is your least favourite animal?
_____________________________________________________.

45
Chapter 13 Body Parts

Vocabulary
arms hands legs body head
neck fingers toes feet eyes
nose ears mouth chin hair

Remember! One foot, two feet.

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
How many legs have you got? Ive got two legs.
How many heads have you got Ive only got one head.
What colour eyes have you got? Ive got blue eyes.
What does she look like? Shes got brown hair and green eyes.
Where does it hurt? On my big toe, I dropped a book on it.
On which hand should you wear your On the left hand.
wedding ring?
Are you ok? No, the music is so loud, its hurting
my ears.
What is your nose for? To smell things with.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


You have two __ and two ___.
I can clap my ______.
I walk around on my ____.
I can smell my dinner cooking using my _____.
She had blue _____.
He has long brown _______.
The hat is too small. He has a big_____.
My ______ gets cold in the winter. I need to wear a scarf.
I am learning to play guitar, but it hurts my _______.

46
Reading and writing
Read the paragraph about the body and underline all the body parts, then answer the questions.
In biology class today, we learnt about the body. I learnt that every person has two eyes, two ears, two legs, two arms, two
hands and two feet. Each person has one head, one neck, one body, one nose and one mouth. We all have 10 fingers and 10
toes. Each person can have a different colour hair, eyes and skin. I have black hair, brown eyes and brown skin. My best
friend Susie has brown hair, blue eyes and white skin. I have strong arms and legs because I play netball. My eyes are not
very good, so I wear glasses to make them better. Nina, aged 8, Pretoria, South Africa.
a) How many fingers do people have? __________________________________.
b) What colour hair has Nina got? ______________________________________.
c) What colour eyes has Susie got? ________________________________.
d) Why does Nina have strong arms and legs?____________________________________.
e) Why does Nina have to wear glasses? ________________________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) How many fingers and toes do you have?
_____________________________________________________.
a) What colour is your hair?
_____________________________________________________.
b) What colour eyes does your best friend have?
_____________________________________________________.
f) Fill in the missing words.
I have two ____ and two a _____.
g) What is the plural of foot?
_____________________________________________________.

47
Chapter 14 Describing People

Remember! Our looks are the way we look. Are we tall, small, fat or thin? Our personality is what kind of person we
are, such as whether we are funny, clever or shy.
Vocabulary
Big Small Tall Small
Short Fat Thin Long
Blonde Strong Weak Bald

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What do you look like? I have long brown hair and blue eyes. I
am tall and thin.
What does your Mum look like? She is small and thin. She has grey
hair.
What does your best friend look like? He has black hair, he is tall, and he is a
little bit fat.
Can you describe what the criminal Yes, he was small, with blonde hair. I
looked like? couldnt see the colour of his eyes.
What did you look like as a child? When I was a child, I had long blonde
hair. I was a lot smaller then too!
What does David Beckham look like? He is blonde and he has brown eyes.
He is tall and strong too.

Remember!

A giraffe is tall, a cat is short.


A whale is big, a mouse is small.
A hippopotamus is fat, a hyena is thin.
A snake is long, a beetle is short.
A rabbit has fur, a worm is bald.

48
Read the paragraph about describing looks and underline all the describing words, then answer the questions.
In my office there are five men and two women. Sheila is 30 years old, and she has long blonde hair and a big nose. There
is Rob, who is really tall and has brown hair and brown eyes. Julie is small, and not thin. She has big eyes and a big mouth.
Simon is medium sized, so he is not tall and not short either. He doesnt have any hair, he is bald. Tim and Tony are brothers
and they both look the same. They are tall and thin, and they have brown hair. Tony wears glasses, and Tim doesnt. Danny,
Dublin, Ireland.
a) How many men work in Dannys office? __________________________________.
b) What colour hair has Shelia got? ______________________________________.
c) What size is Simon? ________________________________.
d) What does being bald mean?____________________________________.
e) What is the difference between Tim and Tony? ________________________________________.
f) Is Julie fat?
_________________________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
b) Are you tall or short?
_____________________________________________________.
c) Are you fat, thin, or medium?
_____________________________________________________.
d) Describe your best friends looks?
_____________________________________________________.
e) Describe someone elses looks?
_____________________________________________________?

49
Chapter 15 Routine

Vocabulary
Wake up Brush your Have breakfast Catch the train Catch the bus
teeth
Get to work See my friends Have dinner Go to the gym

Sentence structure
Question Answer
What time do you get the train? I get the train at 8am.
What do you do first in the morning? I brush my teeth first thing in the
morning.
What time do you have dinner? We normally have dinner around 6pm.
What do you normally do after I normally go to the gym.
work?

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


First thing in the morning I ____ my teeth.
I ______ go to the gym after work.
I often go out with my ______ on Saturday night.
I _____ the bus at 8am.
I arrive at ______ for 9am.
I try and go to bed for 10am.
Reading and writing
Read the following paragraph about routine and underline all the routine words, then answer the questions.
I wake up at 7:30am and I jump straight in the shower. I dry myself off and brush my teeth for 7:35am. At 7:40am, I have
breakfast, which is normally eggs on toast. At 8am I walk to the train station and I catch my train at 8:15am. I get to work
for 9am. After work, I usually got to the gym, and I stay there until 7pm. After the gym, I go home, and I have dinner. At
11pm I go to bed. Simon, London, UK.
a) What time does Simon wake up?_________________________________.
b) What time is his train? __________________________________.
c) What does he do after work? ______________________________________.
d) What time does he go to bed? ________________________________.
e) Does Simon like to keep fit? ___________________________________________.
f) What does he have for breakfast usually? _________________________________________.
g) Simon goes out with his friends after work T/F

Write about your morning routine.


______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Assessment
Answer the questions.

50
a) What time do you wake up?
_____________________________________________________.
b) What do you normally do on Saturdays?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What do you normally do in the evenings? _____________________________________________________.
d) What do you normally eat for breakfast?
_____________________________________________________.

51
Chapter 16 - Transport

Vocabulary
Train Aeroplane Car Bicycle
Motorbike Scooter Van Lorry
Helicopter Bus Boat Ship

LAND AIR RAIL WATER


Car Aeroplane Train Ship
Bicycle Helicopter Boat
Motorbike
Scooter
Van
Lorry
Bus

Sentence structure
Question Answer
What is the quickest way to get from Catch the train. It only takes one and a
London to Manchester? half hours.
How shall I get into town? Catch the number 56 bus
How are you getting to Spain? We are flying on an aeroplane.
What is the usual mode of transport in Most people drive a scooter or a
Vietnam? motorbike.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


I drive a _____ to work.
I got the 7am ______ from Paris.
I cant drive a car, but I have a _______.
We got a _____ from Calais to Dover.
We were rescued from the mountain by a _________.
I flew from Delhi to Mumbai on an ______________.

52
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) Name three modes of transport that use land.
_______________________________________________________________________.
b) Name two modes of transport that use water.
_______________________________________________________________________.
c) Names two modes of transport that use the air.
_______________________________________________________________________.
d) Where do you catch a train?
_______________________________________________________________________.

53
Chapter 17 Hobbies

Vocabulary
Music Sport Fishing Cooking Travelling
Video Games Crafts Photography Writing Concerts
Art Baking Playing an instrument Movies Walking

Remember!

Listening to music Watching/playing sport


Playing video games Going to concerts
Playing guitar/piano Going travelling

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
Do you have any hobbies? Yes, I play guitar.
What is your favourite hobby? My favourite hobby is photography.
What do you do on your spare time? In my spare time, I like to bake.
Do you like travelling? Yes, but I prefer fishing.
Can you play an instrument? Yes, I play piano.
What do you like to do to relax? I like watching movies to relax.
Do you like going to restaurants? Yes, but I prefer cooking.
Can you sing? No, Im a bad singer.
Would you like to play video games Yes I would. What time would you like
with me? to meet?
Do you enjoy arts and crafts? Yes, I do. I enjoy making tiny models
of cars
What do you like to do when you are I like playing sport.
not at school?
What do you like to do after work? I like to go to music concerts with my
friends.
Apart from your work, what interests I am interested in photography.
you?
What are you interested in? I am interested in reading and writing.

54
Fill in the gaps from the words above.
I like playing _________.
I like listening to _____________.
I like taking photos. My hobby is ___________.
I like _______. I make cakes and cookies.
In my spare time I like _______. I write stories and poems.
I play the _______.
Outside of work, I like to go ________.
I like ________. I like sitting by the water, it relaxes me.

Read the paragraph and underline all the hobbies. Then answer the questions.
I really enjoy travelling. Last year I went to Malaysia and went on lots of walking trips. I like learning about new cultures.
I also like photography. I always take lots of photos when I am travelling. I like writing blogs about my trip, it helps me to
remember how I felt. Marleen, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
k) What does Marleen enjoy? __________________________________.
l) Marleen doesnt like photography? T/F
m) What does she write while she is travelling? ________________________________.
n) Why does she write while she is travelling? ________________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline all the hobbies. Then answer the questions.
I have lots of different interests, so I have lots of hobbies. I like to watch sport, so every Saturday I either watch the
football or the cricket. I like playing Tennis, but I am not very good. I also enjoy going to concerts and listening to music.
My favourite genre of music is rock, although I do like some pop also. I can play guitar, but I cant play the piano. Frankl,
Helsinki, Finland.

a) He doesnt have many interests? T/F


b) Which sports does he like to watch? ______________________.
c) Which sport does he like to play? ________________________________.
d) He isnt very good at tennis? T/F
e) What is his favourite genre of music? ________________________.
f) What instruments can he play? _____________________________.

Read the paragraph and underline all the hobbies. Then answer the questions.
In my spare time I like cooking. I like to cook for my family and friends. We have lots of dinner parties at my house. I am
Italian, so I like to cook lots of pasta and pizza. My favourite dish is spaghetti carbonara. Its delicious! My Mum taught
me to cook when I was a little girl, and I have always enjoyed it as a hobby. One day, I would like to turn my hobby into a
career and open a restaurant. Its my dream. Bianca, Perugia, Italy.

a) What is Biancas hobby? _______________________________.


b) What is her favourite dish? ______________________.

55
c) Which country is she from? ________________________________.
d) Who taught her to cook? ________________________________.
e) What is her dream? ________________________.
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What are your hobbies?
_____________________________________________________.
b) What is your favourite hobby?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What do you like to do in your free time?
_____________________________________________________.
d) What is photography?
_____________________________________________________?
e) What is traveling?
_____________________________________________________
f) Where have you travelled to?
_____________________________________________________?
g) My favourite hobby is _______ to music.

56
Chapter 18 Personality Types

Vocabulary
Funny Serious Grumpy Clever
Quiet Shy Loud Outgoing

Sentence structure
Question Answer
Can you describe your personality I am quite shy, but I can be quite funny
too.
Describe your teachers personality She is strict and serious.
What is your doctor like? He is really clever and funny. I like
him a lot.
Do you like your neighbour? No, she is not very friendly and she
doesnt smile very much.
Were you a shy child? No, I was really loud and outgoing.
What type of personality do you I prefer happy people.
prefer?

Reading and writing


Read the paragraph about describing personality, underline all the describing words, and then answer the questions.
I have a big group of friends, and we are all different. Johnny is always making us laugh, he is very funny. Sophie is also
funny and she is very loud too. Amy is shy and doesnt always come to parties. Peter is very clever, he knows lots about
history. I am outgoing, I love talking to people. I can also be quite grumpy, especially when I am tired. Jessica,
Queensland, New Zealand.
a) Why does Johnny make them laugh? __________________________________.
b) Sophie is a quiet person. T/F
c) Why does Amy not go to parties often? ________________________________.
d) What does Peter know a lot about? ____________________________________
e) When does Jessica get grumpy? ______________________________________

57
Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What personality do you have?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Describe your best friends personality?
_____________________________________________________.
c) Describe someone elses personality?
_____________________________________________________.
d) Describe someone elses looks?
_____________________________________________________?

58
Chapter 19 - Sports

Vocabulary
Football Tennis Rugby Running Badminton Swimming Golf
Cricket Baseball Basketball Cycling Skiing Judo

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What sport do you play? I play football
What is your favourite sport? My favourite sport is swimming.
What sport do you like to watch? I like watching cricket
Do you play more than one sport? Yes I play basketball and football.
What football team do you support? I support Manchester United.
Do you need a bat to play cricket? Yes. A bat and a ball.
Are you good at running? No, Im really slow. I enjoy it though.
Do you go swimming? Yes, I go every week.
What are you favourite sports? My favourite sports are golf, judo and
tennis.
Do you prefer tennis or badminton? I prefer tennis because you can play
outside.
Shall we go skiing in February? Yes, if there is enough snow.
Do they play baseball in the UK? No, its an American sport.

Reading and writing


Read the paragraph, underline all of the sports and then answer the questions.
I started to play football when I was about seven years old. I was always better than the other kids in the school, and my
parents paid for private lessons. When I was 14 years old I joined the junior league in my town. When I was 17 I was
selected to play for a national team it was a dream come true. I really enjoy my job. Fabrice, Rome, Italy.
a) How old was Fabrice when he started to learn football?___________________________.
b) Why was he selected to play for the national team?
c) Does he play for an intentional team? ________________________________.
d) He doesnt like his job? T/F

59
Read the paragraph, underline all of the sports and then answer the questions.
I like to keep fit and so I play lots of sports. On Sundays I run 10km. On Mondays I play badminton with my one of my
friends. On Wednesdays I go swimming, and on Saturdays I play football. My favourite day is Saturday as I get to see all
my friends. Chavez, Madrid, Spain.
a) How many sports does Chavez play? ______________________________.
b) Chavez is unfit. T/F _____________________________________________.
c) Why is Saturday his favourite day? ________________________________.
d) What does he do on Mondays? _______________________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is your favourite sport?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Why?
_____________________________________________________.
c) Do you think you are a sporty person and why?
_____________________________________________________.
d) What sports can you play with a racquet?
_____________________________________.
e) Which sports can you play with a ball?
____________________________________.
f) Which sport do you need snow?
______________________________________.
g) Which sport do you need a bicycle?
____________________________________.

60
Chapter 20 - Jobs

Vocabulary
Postman Builder Nurse Doctor Painter
Teacher Chef Dentist Waiter Gardener
Hairdresser Shopkeeper Firefighter Accountant Singer
Actor Driver Dancer Businessman Chemist

Remember!
Actor/Actress. M/F
Businessman/Businesswoman M/F
Postman/Postwoman M/F

Where do they work?


Postman post office
Nurse hospital
Doctor doctors surgery/hospital
Painter - studio
Teacher school
Chef kitchen
Dentist dentist surgery
Waiter restaurant/caf
Driver in a vehicle
Hairdresser hairdressing salon
Shopkeeper shop
Firefighter fire station
Accountant accounting office
Singer stage/studio
Actor stage/tv/film set
Dancer stage
Businessman office
Pharmacist - pharmacy

Remember!
Questions:
What is your job?

61
What do you do?
Where do you work?
Answers:
I am a builder.
I work as a builder.
My job is building.
My career is building.
I work at a building site.
Or
I am a teacher.
I work as a teacher.
My job is teaching.
May career is teaching.
I work in a school.

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What is your job I am a teacher.
What job would you like to do? I would like to be a singer.
What job does your Mum have? Shes a nurse
Where do you work? I work in the hospital, Im a doctor.
Where do you work? I am a chef, and I work in a restaurant.
My tooth hurts, what should I do? You need to go to the dentist.
Are you performing in the show? Yes, I am a dancer.
What do you do in your working I am a gardener, so I plant flowers and
day? look after trees and grass.

Fill in the gaps from the words above.


I am a ______, I fix teeth.
I cook for people, I am a ____.
I use a taxi all day, I am a ______.
One day, I want to act in a film. I am an _______.
If people are ill or sick, they come to me. I am a ________.
I am an ______, I make art.
I work in a small shop. I am a _____________.
My career is styling peoples hair. I am a ___________.

Reading and writing

62
Read the paragraph, underline all the different jobs, and then answer the questions.
I have had a few different jobs in my life. When I was young I worked as a shopkeeper. In the shop, we used to sell candy
and newspapers. I liked that job because we used to speak with lots of people. After that, I went to university to study
nursing. While I was at university I worked as a waitress. I worked in a beautiful restaurant in Paris, and we had lots of
famous people coming in. I once met a famous actor! After university, I started working at the hospital as a nurse. I love
nursing, because I really enjoy helping people, and I like working in the hospital. Lucy, Paris, France.
a) What was Lucys first job? __________________________________.
b) Why did Lucy enjoy working as a shopkeeper______________________________________.
c) Who did Lucy meet in the restaurant? ________________________________.
d) Why does she enjoy nursing? ____________________________________.
e) Where does she work as a nurse? ________________________________________.

63
Read the paragraph, underline all the different jobs, and then answer the questions.
I have wanted to be a teacher since I was young. I have always enjoyed helping people. I now work in a school, and I teach
children aged 11 years 18 years. I teach English, drama and history. I particularly like teaching drama, because my
students are brilliant. We get six weeks off in the summer, so I normally go on a long holiday in the sun. That is another
reason why I love teaching. Jeremy, Manchester, UK.
a) What is Jeremys job? __________________________________.
b) Where does he work? ______________________________________.
c) Why does he like teaching? ________________________________.
d) What subject does he like teaching the most? ____________________________________.
e) What age group does Jeremy teach? _______________________________________.

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is your job?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Where do you work?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What job does your best friend have?
_______________________________________________________.
d) Where does your best friend work?
_____________________________________________________.
e) Where does a nurse work?
_____________________________________________________.
f) Where does a firefighter work?
_____________________________________________________.

64
Chapter 21 Home

Vocabulary
House Home Address Garden Living Room
Bathroom Garage Dining Room Hall Basement
Apartment Balcony Bedroom Kitchen

Sentence Structure
Question Answer
What is your address? My address is 5 Hall Walk, Templeton,
Florida, US.
Do you live in a house? No, I live in an apartment?
Do you have a garden? No, but we do have a balcony.
Where do you watch television? We watch it in the living room.
Where do you cook food? We cook food in the kitchen.
Where is the basement? Its underneath the house.
Where do you eat meals? We eat in the dining room.
Where do you sleep? I sleep in the bedroom.
Shall we stay inside? No, its sunny, lets go into the garden.
Where do have a shower? I shower in the bathroom.
Do you still live on Broad Street? No, we moved from there.
Have you moved house? Yes, we moved outside of the city.

Read the paragraph about home, underline all the rooms and then answer the questions.
My house is in the middle of the street. We are number 75. We have lived here for five years. The house has seven rooms.
There are three bedrooms, and a bathroom. We have a kitchen, a living room and a dining room. My favourite place is the
living room. My Mum is often in the kitchen, and my brother is always in his bedroom. We also have a garden where the dog
lives. Macy, Prague, Czech Republic.
a) How long has Macy lived in the house? __________________________________.
b) What is her favourite room?
c) What is her brothers favourite room? ________________________________.
d) What room will you find Macys mum?
e) How many rooms does the house have? _______________________________________
f) Do they have a balcony or a garden?_________________________________________.

65
Read the paragraph about a home, underline all the rooms and then answer the questions.
I have lived in many homes over the years. When I was a child, we lived in an apartment in Warsaw. It was very small and
we only had three rooms. When I was 21, I moved to an apartment in Krakow, and it was much larger. I now live in a big
house in Krakow with my children. We have a big garden and a basement. We love it here. Aron, Krakow, Poland.
a) Where did Aron live as a child? __________________________________.
b) How many rooms did they have in their first house? ______________________.
c) Which city did Aron move to? ________________________________.
d) Who does he live with? ______________________________________.
e) How old was Aron when he moved to Krakow? ________________________
f) They dont have a basement? T/F

Assessment
Answer the questions.
a) What is your address?
_____________________________________________________.
b) Is your home a house or an apartment?
_____________________________________________________.
c) What rooms do you have in your house?
_____________________________________________________.
d) What kind of home did you live in as a child?
_____________________________________________________?
e) Which room do you make food?
_____________________________________________________.
f) Which room do you go to sleep?
_____________________________________________________?

66
Section 2 Grammar Rules

67
Chapter 22 Verbs

Grammar rule
A verb is a word that is used to describe an action. Actions are something we do. Verbs are doing words.
A verb is one of the most important parts of a question or sentence in English.
A verb can also signify an occurrence.
Please see below for some useful verbs.

Act
Apologise
Answer
Arrive
Ask

Bat
Beat
Bring
Believe
Bump

Carry
Call
Come
Cry
Cycle

Dance
Dive
Dream
Drink
Drown

Eat
Embarrass
Escape
Explain

68
Explode

Feed
Feel
Fish
Fly
Freeze

Get
Greet
Growl
Guard
Guess

Help
Heat
Hear
Have
Hug

Imagine
Infect
Insist
Invite
Interrupt

Jog
Join
Judge
Juggle
Jump

Keep
Kick
Knit

69
Kill
Know

Laugh
Lean
Let
Light
Lift

Make
Matter
Meet
Move
Mug

Nag
Name
Need
Notice
Number

Offer
Object
Open
Order
Own

Pack
Play
Practice
Perform
Phone

Question
Quit

70
Quiz
Quote

Race
Receive
Remember
Reply
Read

Sit
Scare
Shiver
Smell
Speak

Talk
Test
Time
Train
Think

Understand
Unpack
Use
Undress
Utter
Urge

Vanish
Visit
Volunteer
Voice
Vote

Whisper

71
Work
Wait
Want
Win
Watch

Yawn
Yell
Yelp

Zip
Zoom

72
Applying the rule
Can you come on Saturday?
I need to tell you something.
Sit down.
Let me apologise.
I fell asleep and started to dream.
Wake up and smell the coffee.

Read the paragraph below and underline the verbs.


I went on a day trip with my family last week. We drove to the shopping mall, and walked around the shops. I tried on lots
of nice clothes and bought a pair of trousers and a t-shirt. We drove back from the shopping mall and ate dinner at home.
After dinner, I put on some music and started to get dressed into my new clothes for a party that night. I wore my new
trousers and my new t-shirt. I caught the bus into town and I arrived at the party at 10pm. I danced with my friends, and
had a drink. I eventually got a taxi home at 2am. I had a great day. Simon, Berkeley, US.

Assessment
Write sentences using the following verbs.
a) Run - ____________________________________________________.
b) Hold - ___________________________________________________.
c) Seen - _______________________________________________________.
d) Smiled - _____________________________________________________.

73
Chapter 23 Subject Pronouns

Grammar rule
Subject pronouns replace nouns that are the subject of the passage.
Remember!
We use 3rd person subject pronouns to avoid using a persons name over and over.
Example:
Claire had planned to go to a party and Claire wanted a nice new dress to wear. Claire went shopping and Claire bought a red
dress and some shoes.
Instead we use:
Claire had planned to go to a party and she wanted a nice new dress to wear. She went shopping and she bought a red dress
and some shoes.

Singular 1st person I


Singular 2nd person You
Singular 3rd person male He
Singular 3rd person female She
Singular 3rd person neutral It
Plural 1st person We
Plural 2nd person You
Plural 3rd person They

Applying the rule


I am a hairdresser.
I am 29 years old.

You will be working with Sheila today.


You do not have to attend the meeting.

He is not coming to the party with us.


It wasnt until this morning that he said he wasnt coming.

She is my best friend.


I called her and she said that Dad will pick us up.

The bus is late. I hope that it is coming.


There is a spider in my bedroom. It is really big.

74
We have had a chat, and we dont think we will buy the car.
We would love to come to your dinner party.

You dont have to come, either of you.


You are both welcome.

They are not coming.


They will be driving their cars to the wedding.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the subject pronouns.


My friend Gina and I went travelling to Spain last month. We had a great time, and we plan to go again next year. Whilst
we were there we met a couple called John and Rachel. They were really nice people. He was a doctor and she was a
teacher. I got on really well with Rachel, and Gina got on really well with John. We were really sad when they left to go
home. Talia, Darmstadt, Germany.

75
Read the paragraph and underline all of the subject pronouns.
It was a cold day, and I wore my gloves and hat to walk into town. All of a sudden, a big wind came and took my hat and I
lost it. I was sad because I really liked it. I walked into town and met my friends. They were all waiting for me in a coffee
shop. We all had hot chocolates and talked about university. We are all looking forward to finishing next year. Carly,
Leicester, UK.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using I
_____________________________________________________.
b) Write a sentence using you
_____________________________________________________.
c) Write a sentence using we
_____________________________________________________.
d) Write a sentence using they
_____________________________________________________.
e) Write a sentence using she
_____________________________________________________.
f) Write a sentence using he
_____________________________________________________.

76
Chapter 24 Object Pronouns

Grammar rule
Object pronouns replace nouns that are the indirect or direct object of the passage.

Singular 1st person Me


Singular 2nd person You
Singular 3rd person male Him
Singular 3rd person female Her
Singular 3rd person neutral It
Plural 1st person Us
Plural 2nd person You
Plural 3rd person Them

Applying the rule


Is it me you are looking for?
Let me drive.

The boss wants you to go to the marketing event


You do not have to attend the meeting.

John is bringing Katie with him.


I dont think I will tell him about my promotion.

What is her name?


I dont think it was her fault.

She doesnt know where it is.


It was a delicious cake.

Are you coming with us?


It will be just us, and the cat.

You dont have to come, either of you.


You are both welcome.

I think it will be them against us.

77
Ask them what they would like to eat.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the object pronouns.


Dear Johnny, I hope you are well and having a great time. Sally misses you. It was her birthday yesterday. She had a huge
cake with lots of candles on it. David misses you too. He took his driving test the other day and he passed! I am so proud of
both of them. I cant wait till all of us are together again. Julia, Berlin, Germany.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the object pronouns.


Hi Sarah, its Tracy. Can you please call all of your class and ask them if they will be coming on the school trip on
Tuesday? I already spoke to Jamie and asked him, and I also called Selina and asked her. They said yes. Jade,
Northampton, UK.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using me
_____________________________________________________.
b) Write a sentence using you
_____________________________________________________.
c) Write a sentence using him
_____________________________________________________.
d) Write a sentence using her
_____________________________________________________.
e) Write a sentence using it
_____________________________________________________.
f) Write a sentence using us
_____________________________________________________.
g) Write a sentence using you
_____________________________________________________.
h) Write a sentence using them
_____________________________________________________.

78
Chapter 25 Indefinite Articles

Grammar rule
There are two indefinite articles in English, a and an. We use a if a word begins with a consonant, and an if the word begins
with a vowel.
Applying the rule
A cat An egg
A house An elephant
A car An apple
A bird An angle
A calculator An octopus
A girl An eagle
A man An igloo
A feeling An umbrella

Assessment
a) Write four words with a
_______________________________________________________________________.
b) Write four words with an
________________________________________________________________________.

79
Chapter 26 Possessive Adjectives

Grammar rule
Possessive adjectives do not replace the noun, but they are determiners. For example, to determine what or who something
belongs to.

Singular 1st person My


Singular 2nd person Your
Singular 3rd person male His
Singular 3rd person female Her
Singular 3rd person neutral Its
Plural 1st person Our
Plural 2nd person Your
Plural 3rd person Their

Applying the rule


Do you know where my glasses are?
My Mum and I will be joining you.

Where is your handbag?


What did you have for your dinner?

Is that painting his?


I think that is his newspaper.

That is her dog.


I dont think that its her drink.

The dog ate its dinner.


The pigeon hurt its wing.

That is our classroom.


I would like to do it our way.

That is your handbag.


Is that your drink?

80
Is that their football team.
Its their recipe.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the possessive adjectives.


We are cleaning out the office and we need to do it quickly. Johnny, is this your book? Rachel, is this your printer? I think
this chair is Palinas, could you please ask her? This book is Jamess, so we need to ask him. These papers are Freds and
Micks, and I think this is their computer. This jumper is mine. Saskia, Birmingham, UK.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the possessive adjectives.


I work in a vets and we see lots of sick animals. Yesterday, I saw a huge dog that had broken its leg. Last week we had a cat
that had cut its head. The cat kept trying to touch the wound with its paw, so we had to put a neck protector on. Adam,
Sydney, Australia.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using my
_____________________________________________________.
b) Write a sentence using your
_____________________________________________________.
c) Write a sentence using his
_____________________________________________________.
d) Write a sentence using her
_____________________________________________________.
e) Write a sentence using its
_____________________________________________________.
f) Write a sentence using our
_____________________________________________________.
g) Write a sentence using their
_____________________________________________________.
h) Write a sentence using our
_____________________________________________________.

81
Chapter 27 Possessive Pronouns

Grammar rule
Possessive pronouns are words that communicate ownership.

Singular 1st person Mine


Singular 2nd person Yours
Singular 3rd person male His
Singular 3rd person female Hers
Plural 1st person Ours
Plural 2nd person Yours
Plural 3rd person Theirs

Applying the rule


Those glasses are mine.
I think that drink is mine.

Are those sunglasses yours?


Yours is the small one.

I think that painting is his.


I think that is his newspaper.

I think the dog is hers.


I dont think that drink is hers.

I think that classroom is ours.


Its not yours, its ours.

The one on the left is yours.


Is that yours?

That house is theirs.


Its not mine, its theirs.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the possessive pronouns.


This cardigan is mine, and this dress is hers. I think this tie is his. Those jackets are theirs. Are these trousers yours? Ask

82
Johnny, but I think this is his. Sophie, Derby, UK.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the possessive pronouns.


Its not mine, I thought it must be yours. If its not yours then it might be Davids. If its not his, then it might be Sarahs. If
its not hers, then its none of ours. Go and ask next door, it may be theirs. Adam, Sydney, Australia.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using mine
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using yours
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using his
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using hers
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using ours
__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using theirs
_________________________________________________________________________

83
Chapter 28 Reflexive Pronouns

Grammar rule
Singular 1st person Myself
Singular 2nd person Yourself
Singular 3rd person male Himself
Singular 3rd person female Herself
Singular 3rd person neutral Itself
Plural 1st person Ourselves
Plural 2nd person Yourselves
Plural 3rd person Themselves

Applying the rule


I cooked myself dinner.
I willed myself to try it.

Can you drive yourself home?


Did you cook yourself dinner?

He found the answer himself.


He hurt himself.

She hurt herself.


She cooked it herself.

The cat licks itself clean.


The dog hurt itself.

We did this to ourselves.


We only have ourselves to blame.

They only have themselves to blame.


Its themselves they have to answer to.

84
Read the paragraph and underline all of the reflexive pronouns.
When the car crashed, I hurt myself when I hit the steering wheel. Jane hurt herself too. It wasnt my fault, it was the car
in front. They cant blame me, they can only blame themselves. Jim, Cornwall, UK.
Read the paragraph and underline all of the reflexive pronouns.
The dog is always hurting itself. Last year it ran out into the road and was hit by a car. I felt bad and blamed myself for
the accident because I let the dog out. The driver of the car blamed themselves. Robin, Sydney, Australia.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using myself
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using yourself
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using himself
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using herself
_________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using itself
_________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using ourselves
__________________________________________________________________________
g) Write a sentence using themselves
_________________________________________________________________________
h) Write a sentence using ourselves
_________________________________________________________________________

85
Chapter 29 Singular and Plural

Grammar rule
Singular noun one
Example: One bed / a bed
Plural noun: more than one
Example: Two beds
You can make most singular nouns plural by simply adding an s.

Singular Plural
Car Cars
Book Books
Shop Shops
Face Faces
Shoe Shoes
Night Nights
Gate Gates

For nouns ending in ch, sh, x, y, z we need to add an es.


Singular Plural
Witch Witches
Box Boxes
Kiss Kisses

There are a small number of nouns that have irregular plural forms. They are as follows.
Singular Plural
Foot Feet
Goose Geese
Man Men
Woman Women
Mouse Mice
Fish Fish
Deer Deer

86
I work at an animal sanctuary. At the sanctuary we have 15 birds, 23 rabbits and one badger. We have four deer, and one
fox. Wendy, Shropshire, UK
A person has two eyes, two ears, two arms and two legs. They have one nose, one mouth and one head. They have 10
fingers and 10 toes.

Assessment
Write the plural form of the following words.
a) Table ____________________.
b) Television _________________.
c) Foot ____________________.
d) Shoe _____________________.

87
Chapter 30 WH Questions

Grammar rule
What Asking for information about a thing / something. Asking for a
reason.
Where Asking about a place or location.
Why Asking for a reason.
When Asking about time.
Who Asking about people.
Which Asking about choices.
Whose Asking about ownership.
How Asking about method/manner.

Applying the rule


What do you want to do tonight?
What is two times two?

Where do you live?


Where did you leave your sunglasses?

Why are you at work so early?


Why is the man wearing yellow?

When will you get here?


When does the match start?

Who is coming to the party?


Who do you think will win?

Which one do you want to take?


Which is your favourite one?

Whose cat is it?


Whose dinner party will you attend?

88
Read the paragraphs and underline all of the WH questions.
What do you think Mum will say when she knows we are going to be here for Christmas? When shall we tell her?
Whose handbag is this? I cant find mine. Do anybody know where it is?

Assessment
a) Write a question using what
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a question using where
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a question using which
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a question using when
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a question using why
__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a question using whose
_________________________________________________________________________

89
Chapter 31 Have Got, Has Got

Grammar rule
Affirmative sentences
Has got is used in the singular 3rd person. Have got and have are used for all other persons.
Long form Contracted form
I have got a blue car. Ive got a blue car.
I have a cat. Ive got a cat.
I have a girlfriend. Ive got a girlfriend.
I have a big nose. Ive got a big nose.
She has got a new job. Shes got a new job.
He has got a red car. Hes got a red car.
It has got new wheels. Its got new wheels.
You have a good college degree. Youve got a good college degree.
They have got a nice house. Theyve got a nice house.

Negative sentences
Hasnt got is used in the singular 3rd person. Havent got and havent are used for all other persons.
Long form Contracted form
I have not got a blue car. I havent got a blue car.
I have not got a cat. I havent got a cat.
I have not got a girlfriend. I havent got a girlfriend.
I have not got a big nose. Ive not got a big nose.
She has not got a new job. She hasnt got a new job.
He has not got a red car. He hasnt got a red car.
It has not got new wheels. Its not got new wheels.
You have not got a good college You havent got a good college
degree. degree.
They have not got a nice house. They havent got a nice house.

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Applying the rule Affirmative sentences
I have got red hair.
Ive got a blue bicycle.

He has got a sickness bug.


Hes got a black belt in karate.

She has got a white blouse.


Shes got a good job?

You have got a really nice house.


Youve got a lot of work to do for tomorrow.

We have got 100 people coming to the wedding.


Weve got three rabbits.

They have got two boats.


Theyve got a lot of money.

It has got 12 gears.


Its got pink flowers.

Applying the rule Negative sentences


I havent got red hair.
Ive not got a blue bicycle.

He hasnt got a sickness bug.


Hes not got a black belt in karate.

She hasnt got a white blouse.


Shes not got a good job?

You havent got a really nice house.


Youve not got a lot of work to do for tomorrow.

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We havent got 100 people coming to the wedding.
Weve not got three rabbits.

They havent got two boats.


Theyve not got a lot of money.

It hasnt got 12 gears.


Its not got pink flowers.

Questions.
Question: Do you have a mobile phone? Answer: Yes I have.
Question: Do you have a necklace? Answer: No I havent.

Question: Does she have a mobile phone? Answer: Yes she has.
Question: Does he have a necklace? Answer: No he hasnt.

Question: Do they have a mobile phone? Answer: Yes they have.


Question: Do they have a necklace? Answer: No they havent.

Question: Does it have bluetooth? Answer: Yes it has.


Question: Does it have a camera? Answer: No it hasnt.

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Assessment
a) Write a sentence using I have

_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using I havent
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using She hasnt
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using It has
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using They have

__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using We havent
_________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 32 - Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Grammar rule
A countable noun can be used in either the singular or plural form.
Example: One/a tree, two trees.
Uncountable nouns cannot be counted with numbers. These are normally substances and concepts.
Example: Some milk
We cant use a number, nor a, or an for uncountable nouns. Instead we can use the following;

Some
A bit of
A lot of
Much
A handful
A pinch
A teaspoon

Examples of uncountable nouns

Love
Music
Money
Happiness
Advice
Sugar
Rice
Water
Milk
Juice
Pasta
Soup

Applying the rule


Some music
A lot of love
A bit of happiness

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Some soup
Some pasta
A little bit of milk
A bit of advice
Much money

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Read the paragraphs and underline all of the uncountable nouns.
To make the cake, you will need three eggs, 1oz sugar and some milk. You will need to put it in the oven for one hour.
All you need in this life is some good music, a couple of good friendships and some happiness.

Assessment
a) Write three uncountable nouns.
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write three countable nouns.
_______________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 33 Prepositions of Place

Grammar rule
Prepositions of place describe where things are.

In
At
On
By
Next to
Beside
Near
Between
Behind
In front of
Under
Below
Over
Above
Across
Through
To
Into
Towards
Onto
From

Applying the rule

I am in the kitchen.
The girl is in the house.

He saw her at the supermarket.


She was at the cinema.

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The vase is on the table.
The picture is on the wall.
The doctors is on the right hand side.
The camera is on the phone.
There is a good film on at the cinema.

The man is next to me.


The man is beside me.
The house is by the river.
The doctors is near the pharmacy.

The shop is in between the bank and the restaurant.


I stood between them.

The shed is behind the house.


He is stood behind the woman.

The tree is in front of the house.


I am in front of my Mum in the photo.

The dog is under the table.


The table is under the window.

The table is below the window.


The chair is below the painting.

I held the umbrella over us.


It is over there.
The TV is above the table.
The sky is above my head.

The lake is across from the forest.


The dog is across the room.

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I walked through the city.
I ran through the streets.

I went to Spain on holiday.


I will go to work at 8am.

We walked into the restaurant.


Shall we go into the shopping mall?

The man started walking towards her.


The car started coming towards me.

She walked onto the podium.


He ran onto the pitch.

Where is he coming from?


Nobody knew where the tiger had come from.

Read the paragraph and underline all of the prepositions of place.


'In my house there are five rooms. The living room is next to the kitchen, the bathroom is beside my parents bedroom and
my bedroom is above the living room. In the living room, the TV is under the window, and the sofa is opposite the TV. The
plant is next to the shelf, and the fish tank is behind the sofa. In my bedroom, my computer is on the table, and my dog
sleeps under the table. I have posters above my bed and the window is across from the door. Jerry, Northampton, UK.

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Assessment
a) Write a sentence using in

_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using on
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using above
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using below
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using under

__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using across from
_________________________________________________________________________
g) Write a sentence using beside
__________________________________________________________________________
h) Write a sentence using through

__________________________________________________________________________
i) Write a sentence using over
_________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 34 Imperatives

Grammar rule
We can use imperatives to give orders, instructions, make invitations, make signs, and to give advice.

To give orders.
Stop playing the piano.
Be quiet.
Come here.
Close your mouth while you eat.

To give instructions.
Follow the road to the left.
Hold the babys head whilst you hold her.
Turn it off and on again.
Call him John.

To make an invitation.
Please come in. Would you like a cup of tea?
Wait there please, I will be a moment.
Please call me Jeremy.
Please wait in the waiting room.

To make signs.
Dont smoke.
Dont swear.
Take a ticket.
Remove your shoes.

To give advice.
Ask him for a pay rise, I am sure hell understand.
You need to ask her how she feels.
You should call in sick, you are not well.
Dont drive home, you are too tired.

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Applying the rule
Join up the sentences.
1. You cant smoke 1. on the left hand side
2. I think you should tell 2. on the bridge
3. Dont walk 3. you are sorry
4. Please drive your car 4. in here
5. Do come in, Ill 5. immediately
6. Call him and say 6. her the truth
7. Dont do that in 7. a restaurant
8. Sit down 8. be there in a moment

Read the paragraph and underline all of the prepositions of place.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence giving an order.

_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence giving instruction.
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence giving advice.
________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 35 Past Tense

Grammar rule
We use past tense to talk about past events or actions

Past simple I walked


Past continuous I was walking
Past perfect I had walked
Past perfect continuous I had been walking

Past simple I spoke


Past continuous I was speaking
Past perfect I had spoken
Past perfect continuous I had been speaking

Past simple I ate


Past continuous I was eating
Past perfect I had eaten
Past perfect continuous I had been eating.

Past simple I thought


Past continuous I was thinking
Past perfect I had thought
Past perfect continuous I had been thinking

Past simple I sang


Past continuous I was singing
Past perfect I had sang
Past perfect continuous I had been singing

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Applying the rule
Read the paragraph and underline all the past tenses.
Yesterday I went to the shops and I bought some vegetables. Whilst I was buying them, I saw a man running by the window.
I thought I recognised him so I shouted him over. It was my old friend John. We talked for five minutes and he told me all
about his wife and baby. We were talking for a long time, when I realised I hadnt paid for my food. Once I had paid, John
and I went for dinner to have a catch up. Lorna, Barcelona, Spain.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using the past tense of shouting
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using the past tense of running
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using the past tense of knitting
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using the past tense of knowing
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using the past tense of seeing
__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using the past tense of loving
_________________________________________________________________________
g) Write a sentence using the past tense of cooking
__________________________________________________________________________
h) Write a sentence using the past tense of crying
__________________________________________________________________________
i) Write a sentence using the past tense of ironing
_________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 36 Present Tense

Grammar rule
We use present tense to talk about past events or actions

Present simple I walk


Present continuous I am walking
Present perfect I have walked
Present perfect continuous I have been walking

Present simple I speak


Present continuous I am speaking
Present perfect I have spoken
Present perfect continuous I have been speaking

Present simple I eat


Present continuous I am eating
Present perfect I have eaten
Present perfect continuous I have been eating

Present simple I sing


Present continuous I am singing
Present perfect I have sang
Present perfect continuous I have been singing

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Applying the rule
Read the paragraph and underline all the present tenses.
Today I am singing with the church choir. We have been practising for weeks and now we are finally getting to perform. I
am very excited because when I sing, I feel like I could rule the world. Its the best feeling. Talia, Aberdeen, UK.

Assessment
a) Write a sentence using the present tense of shouted
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a sentence using the present tense of ran
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a sentence using the present tense of knitted
_________________________________________________________________________
d) Write a sentence using the present tense of known
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Write a sentence using the present tense of seen
__________________________________________________________________________
f) Write a sentence using the present tense of loved
_________________________________________________________________________
g) Write a sentence using the present tense of cooked
__________________________________________________________________________
h) Write a sentence using the present tense of cried
__________________________________________________________________________
i) Write a sentence using the present tense of ironed
__________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 37 Sentences

Grammar rule
We use different sentence style to make our writing more interesting. We can use simple sentences, compound sentences or
complex sentences.
Simple sentences.
Simple sentences have the basic sentence elements, such as; a verb, a subject, and a finalised thought.
Examples:
I went to the park.
Sarah bought some bananas.
They went on holiday to Spain.
The bird sat in the tree.
I thought about my Mum today.
I am going to the university.
I am not interested in History.

Compound sentences.
Compound sentences are made up of two completed sentences. They are joined together using a coordinating conjunction,
such as;
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So

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Examples:
I went to the park, but I went home because it was raining
Sarah bought some bananas, and ate them on the way home.
They went on holiday to Spain, yet they didnt get together.
The bird sat in the tree, so it didnt fly that day.
I thought about my Mum today, so I called her.
I am not going to the university, nor am I going to work.
I am not interested in History, yet I enjoy learning about WW2.

Complex sentences.
Complex sentences are made up of one independent clause and then one or more dependent clauses. Dependent clauses cannot
exist alone in a sentence, but they can be added to an independent clause. This makes a complex sentence. You have to use a
subordinating conjunction to begin a dependant clause, such as;

While
Wherever
Whereas
Whenever
When
Until
Unless
Though
Since
If
Even though
Before
Because
As
Although
After

Examples:
Because it was raining in the park, I did not stay there.
While Sarah walked home, she ate her bananas.
Even though they went on holiday, they did not get together.

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Since the bird sat in the tree, it didnt fly that day.
After I thought about my Mum today, I called her.

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Assessment
a) Write a simple sentence
_______________________________________________________________________
b) Write a complex sentence
________________________________________________________________________
c) Write a compound sentence
_________________________________________________________________________

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Section 3 Fluency in English

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Chapter 38 Top 10 Tips for Fluency in English

1. Immerse yourself.
Try to use English every day. If you are stood in line in a grocery shop, try and think of the English words for all of the items
you can see. Do the same whilst you are driving through town.
Listen to lots of English music and try to truly understand the meaning of the songs. You are sure to find a style that you like.
You dont have to listen to English hip hop if you prefer rock music. It sounds obvious, but make English relevant for you.
Watch films without the subtitles, and make sure to watch the body language of the actors. Often you will understand what they
are trying to convey though their facial expression and movements. This will make a big difference to your own pronunciation
and fluency. Soon enough, the language will begin to unravel and meaning will be revealed to you.
If you find certain words difficult, try saying them to yourself in the shower, or whilst walking home. The more you say them,
your brain will absorb the shape of the word. After a while, you wont even have to think about it.

2. Youre only human.


Its ok to get things wrong from time to time. It will be difficult to progress if you are too scared to try new things out.
Everybody makes mistakes, even native speakers. The most important thing is that you attempt to express what you want to say.
Over time, the correct use of the word or phrase will become clear to you, but it wont happen if you are too afraid to try.

3. Dont worry about the small stuff.


All of those grammar rules are so confusing and scary right? Remember, the most important thing is communication. You may
be tempted to learn your grammar perfectly before going out into the English speaking world, but its not necessarily going to
speed up the process. Learning a language is first and foremost about communicating a message to the other person. If you are
able to verbally communicate a message, then you are most of the way there. Grammar ties the whole thing together, but it isnt
the central body of the language.

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4. But why?!
English has some curious rules, and they dont always follow a formula. Why one foot and two feet? Is it there, their or
theyre? Its confusing and strange, and unfortunately its just the way it is. If you spend all of your time asking why, youll tie
yourself up in knots. If you are more of a structured learner, then you can draw a graph like the one below and memorise the
irregular grammar rules. If you learn the strange occurrences in English, the regular grammar will come much easier.

Singular Plural Irregular plurals


(MEMORISE)
Cat Cats
Dog Dogs
Foot Feet
Goose Geese

5. What kind of learner are you?


Although you may hear information to the contrary, there is no easy road to fluency. This is because all people learn differently.
Some people help their English fluency by listening to lots of English music, and some watch lots English films without the
subtitles. Some people make friends with people who they only speak English to, and many fluent speakers simply studied
really hard.
What kind of learner are you? Studies say that there are four types of learning personalities. If you can identify yourself as one
of them, it might help you with your English fluency.
Type A Introverts
An introverted personality type is a person who usually prefers to work alone and can be shy around other people.
As a learner, they may find it easier to work unaccompanied, so that they can process information more easily. Often,
introverts tend to trust themselves rather than depending on a group. If you are an introverted learner, you can find
lots of great tools online to help with your listening and reading. Do remember however, if you are an introverted
learner, learning a language is all about communication. Of course, do all the work you need to do alone, but be sure
to speak with other people. It will be difficult to improve your speaking and pronunciation without actually talking.
Type B Extroverts
An extrovert is a personality type that enjoy the company of other people, and are generally confident in a crowd. An
extroverted learner is more likely to learn effectively in the presence of other people, and will enjoy sharing ideas
and knowledge. If you are an extroverted learner, you may find English clubs effective for fluency. If there are no
English clubs where you live, go online and search for online clubs. You should be able to set up skype
conversations with people from all over the world that enjoy learning in the same way that you do.
Type C Intuitive
Intuitive learners are concerned with big ideas, concepts and possibilities. They are able to use their imagination to
see the bigger picture, rather than looking at the smaller parts of the problem. An intuitive learner is more concerned
with communicating a message, than to worry unduly about the skeleton of the message. If you think you are an
intuitive learner, it could be a great idea to write stories in English, or write a plan for an imaginary business. With a
story, or a business pitch, the most important thing you will want to communicate is the concept. This will help you
to express yourself, and the fluency will follow with practice. Try telling other English learners your story or
business plan, and ask for their input. What would they change, what did they like? Think big, and the small will
follow.
Type D Sequential
Sequential learners approach problems in a systematic way. They will follow a sequence of steps in order to

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process the information. If you are a sequential learner, it may be useful to get a true handle on sentence structure and
certain grammar rules. Having said that, beware spending too much time worrying about structure. Language fluency
is just as much about intuition as it is about rigid rules.

It isnt important to box yourself into one of the personality types above, but it is useful to know that there are a great number of
ways to be practice and become fluent in English. Regardless of what kind of learner you are, it is important that you practice a
lot and immerse yourself in English whenever possible.

6. Accent
A lot of English learners are overly concerned about their accent. You may desire to speak with an American accent, because
you are used to hearing it in films, or you may wish to speak with an English accent to sound authentic. The truth is that your
accent is personal to you and your own identity. It is possible to speak fluently with a Chinese accent, a Mexican accent or a
Russian accent. Work on your pronunciation, but dont worry about your accent. If you wind up living in America, the UK, or
Australia, its likely that you will pick up elements of that accent, but it isnt something you should be aiming for. Be yourself,
not someone else.

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7. Be creative
One of the wonderful things about the English language is the ability to mix it up. English has a famous and historic history in
literature, music, poetry and theatre, mainly because it allows for considerable expression. There are many different ways to
get a message across in English.
Hello, how are you?
or
Hey, hows it going?
or
Hi, are you ok?
or
Yo, whats up?
Lets try something a little different.
I knew that I loved her, but I couldnt find the words to tell her.
or
Although I didnt know how to say it to her, I knew that I felt love.

From time to time, you will likely forget the correct noun that you are looking for. All native speakers do this too. For example,
you might walk into a shop and completely forget the word milk. In that case, it would be perfectly acceptable to say, the
white drink that comes from cows. You will still get the meaning across. If you forget a word, dont freeze up, keep trying.

8. Talking to yourself
Its important to talk to yourself in English whenever you can. You might feel a little bit silly doing it, but it will really help you
when you are speaking to somebody else. Think of a subject that interests you and try talking about it as if you were talking to
somebody else. You can even answer your own questions if you want. You can try this is in the shower, whilst you are driving,
or whilst you are walking. You may even try thinking in English. It may be difficult at first, but if you try it for short periods,
you will find that you are thinking in English more and more. Start with topics that interest you at first, and then you can try
solving your everyday problems in English. It will probably even give you a whole new perspective on the issue!

9. Communication
The English language is a communication tool, and communication comes in a number of different guises, which are listening,
speaking, reading and writing. With most English speakers, they are very capable in one area, and less so in another. You may
find listening easy, but find it difficult to reply. You may find reading problematic, but you enjoy writing your down your ideas.
If you find listening tough, it is important that you practice that area just as much as the areas that you find easy. Try and
discover why you find it to be difficult. Do you find writing difficult? Try and write about something you like. If thats football,
write about your favourite players. If you like music, write about the meaning of your favourite song. You have to make English
relevant to you.

10. Questions
Remember that answering questions neednt be difficult, and answer is hiding away in there. Look at the questions below.

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Can you help me?
Yes I can.
Or
Is your name Jack?
Yes, it is.
Or
Does your dog like chocolate?
No, he doesnt.

If you feel unsure how to answer, you can always ask the other person to repeat the question. Feel free to ask them to speak
more slowly if you need them to. Most native English speakers talk pretty fast, and often wont realise that they are speaking
too fast for you to understand. They will be very happy to slow down if you ask. Remember, learning English is all about
communicating with other people, that includes communicating that you need some help. Dont ever be afraid to ask for that.

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Good luck on your English language journey. Remember to keep learning in a way that works for you. Practice, practice,
practice and have fun along the way.
Keep going we believe in you!

Id appreciate it if you could leave a review on Amazon. Thank you!

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