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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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IEEE P1250 ™/D11

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Draft Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage

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Quality in Power Systems

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Prepared by the Voltage Quality Working Group of the

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Power Quality Subcommittee of the Transmission and Distribution Committee

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Copyright © 2010 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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Abstract: The use of some electrical equipment attached to typical power systems creates voltage quality

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concerns. There is an increasing awareness that some equipment is not designed to withstand the surges,

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faults, distortion, and reclosing duty present on typical utility distribution systems. Traditional concerns

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about steady-state voltage levels and light flicker due to voltage fluctuation also remain. This guide

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addresses these concerns by documenting typical levels of these aspects of voltage quality and indicating

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how to improve them. Other documents that treat these subjects in more detail are referenced.

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Keywords: benchmarking, disturbance analyzers, faults, harmonic distortion, light flicker, momentary

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voltage disturbances, noise, performance, power conditioners, susceptible equipment, surge protection,

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surges, voltage fluctuation, voltage quality

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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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Introduction

 

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(This introduction is not part of IEEE P1250/D11

 

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Draft Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems.)

 

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This guide was developed out of an increasing awareness of the incompatibility of some modern electronics

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equipment with a normal power system environment. Simply put, much new user equipment is not

 

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designed to withstand the surges, faults, distortion, and reclosing duty present on typical electric utility

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distribution systems or within the user’s facility.

 

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Notice to users

 

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Laws and regulations

 

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Interpretations

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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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Current interpretations can be accessed at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/interp/

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Patents

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IEEE 1250 /D11 May 2010

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Participants

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At the time this draft guide was submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for approval, the Voltage

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Quality Working Group had the following membership:

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Dennis Hansen, Chair

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Russ Ehrlich, Vice-chair

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Fred Hensley, Secretary

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Art Arneson

12 Richard Bingham

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Math Bollen

Reuben Burch

Gary Chang

Randy Collins

Russ Ehrlich

Bill Garlatz

Erich Gunther

Mark Halpin

Dennis Hansen

Fred Hensley

Paul Hodges

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Randy Horton

Bill Howe

John Kennedy

Albert Keri

Scott Lacy

Kevin Little

David Luprek

Bill Moncrief

Mark McGranaghan

David Mueller

Marty Page

Dean Philips

Paulo Ribeiro

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Dan Sabin

Andrew Sagl

Bob Saint

Ken Sedziol

Mark Stephens

42 Mike Swearingen

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Rao Thallam

Tim Unruh

James Wikston

46 Charlie Williams

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Brian Wong

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The following members of the balloting committee voted on this guide. Balloters may have voted for

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approval, disapproval, or abstention.

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(to be supplied by IEEE)

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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CONTENTS

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1. Overview

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1.1 Scope

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1.2 Purpose

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2. Normative references

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3. Definitions

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4. The power system

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4.1 Introduction

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4.2 Overview of power systems

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5. Identifying voltage quality in power systems

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5.1 Introduction

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5.2 Basic types of voltage quality variations

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5.3 Disturbances

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5.4 Conclusions

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6. Electric Utilities and Voltage Quality

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6.1 Introduction

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6.2 Steady State Voltage Quality in Utilities

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6.3 Utility System Disturbances

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6.4 Conclusions

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7. Susceptibility of power system loads

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7.1 Types of susceptible loads

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7.2 Ride-through capability

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8. Power Quality Improvements for End Users

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8.1 End user wiring and grounding

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8.2 Premium Power Solutions

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8.3 End User Power Conditioning (Within the Facility)

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8.4 Controlling Harmonics

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8.5 Surge Protective Devices (SPDs)

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8.6 Special Considerations for VFDs

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8.7 Special Considerations for Residential Loads

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8.8 Economic Analysis of Power Conditioning Alternatives

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Table 7Example Results from Cost/Benefit Analysis

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Annex A

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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A.1 Glossary

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A.2 Bibliography

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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Draft Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage

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Quality in Power Systems

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IMPORTANT NOTICE: This standard is not intended to assure safety, security, health, or

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environmental protection in all circumstances. Implementers of the standard are responsible for

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determining appropriate safety, security, environmental, and health practices or regulatory

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requirements.

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This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These

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notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the

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heading “Important Notice” or “Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning IEEE Documents.”

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They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html.

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1. Overview

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1.1 Scope

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The reader of this Guide will find discussions of ways to identify and improve voltage quality in power

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systems, and references to publications in this area. More specifically this Guide includes:

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1. Voltage quality levels from benchmarking studies

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2. Factors that affect power system performance

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3. Mitigation measures that improve power system performance

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4. References to current relevant in-depth IEEE standards and other documents

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This Guide only addresses subjects in depth where no other power quality reference does so. It is a

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"gateway" document for power quality which points the way to other documents in this field.

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1.2 Purpose

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The primary purpose in writing this Guide is to assist power delivery system designers and operators in

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delivering power with voltage quality that is compatible with electrical end-use equipment. Another

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purpose is to point utility system customers toward power quality solutions that may exist in the power

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utilization system and equipment.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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2. Normative references

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The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

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references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

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document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

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There are no normative references for this guide.

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3. Definitions

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For the purposes of this draft guide, the following terms and definitions apply. The Authoritative Dictionary

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of IEEE Standards, Seventh Edition, should be referenced for terms not defined in this clause.

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4. The power system

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4.1 Introduction

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This section describes typical utility power systems. Understanding the basics of power system design and

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operation is helpful in understanding the voltage quality characteristics described in Clause 5. Voltage

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quality characteristics can be affected at various levels of a power system. In Europe the electricity is

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typically generated and provided at 50Hz whereas in North America 60Hz is the most common frequency.

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4.2 Overview of power systems

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Power systems are typically thought of as having three main divisions: generation, transmission, and

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distribution. Figure 1 below is an over-simplified diagram of the electric power system. In reality, there

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are many exceptions such as the fact that some large industrial customers are actually served by substations

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directly from the transmission system and some small generators may feed directly into the distribution

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system.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 2 Figure 1 —The electric power system 3 Interconnection of the generation, transmission, and
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Figure 1 —The electric power system
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Interconnection of the generation, transmission, and distribution systems takes place in an electrical
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substation. Substations may include transformers that convert voltages from low to high or high to low,
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depending on the need. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing
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the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for
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distribution. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plants and
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consumers, and may be changed in voltage several times.
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The generation and transmission components are typically connected in an interconnected grid fashion.
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Within the “grid” the transmission lines transport bulk power for long distances that typically cross
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multiple service territories and multiple utilities. Figure 2 shows a simple transmission system, referred to
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as a network, illustrating how most of the substation buses have more than one source. In most
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circumstances the loss of a single line or generator should not cause overloads within the remaining
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network. This offers a high degree of reliability because power can be maintained to most buses even with
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the loss of a line or source.
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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

C C H H E E D D B B G G J J F
C
C
H
H
E
E
D
D
B
B
G
G
J J
F
F
A
A
Breaker
Breaker
K
K
Bus
Bus
Line
Line
GEN
GEN
GENGEN
GEN

Figure 2 Transmission network, showing generators, substations, and line sections

Distribution lines (commonly called primaries) are usually not interconnected but are designed in a radial

fashion except in some cities that use a mesh distribution scheme. Radial distribution systems consist of a

source originating at a substation in which the transmission system voltage is stepped down with a

transformer that serves a distribution bus. See Figure 3. The distribution bus has breakers that feed lines

which carry the power to many customers in an area. There are usually line protective components

(reclosers and fuses) downstream of the substation breaker on distribution lines. These components create

situations in which only a portion of the distribution line may need to be de-energized to clear a fault (short

circuit), thereby saving many of the customers on the line from experiencing interruptions unnecessarily.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

To Transmission Grid

To Transmission Grid

Distribution substation with transformers (T1 & T2) Distribution substation with transformers (T1 & T2) and
Distribution substation with transformers (T1 & T2)
Distribution substation with transformers (T1 & T2)
and 3 distribution feeders (1, 2, &3)
and 3 distribution feeders (1, 2, &3)
T1
T1
T2
T2
1 1
2
2
3 3
Recloser
Recloser
Fuse
Fuse
R
R
Feeder Feeder 2 2
Three phase
Three phase
Loads
customers
customers
Single phase tap
Single phase tap
for residential
for residential
Feeder 1
Feeder 1

Figure 3 Distribution substation and example of recloser and fuses along line

Power system voltages are typically expressed in line-to-line kV. The line-to-line voltage is 1.732 times

the lineto-neutral voltage. Practically all generation and transmission is three-phase. Distribution lines

typically leave the substation as three-phase and may proceed that way for several miles. But they may

also have lateral tap lines that are only providing two phases or even a single phase, depending on the loads

being served. Rural lines serving residential loads are commonly single phase.

the various components and typical voltage ranges of the utility system:

Table 1, below describes

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 2 Table 1—Common Parts of the Power System 3 4 A significant goal related
1
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Table 1—Common Parts of the Power System
3
4
A significant goal related to the operation of the utility power system is to provide reliable power with a
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minimum number of interruptions. As such, the utility systems are designed to isolate problem areas
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quickly and to interrupt as few customers as possible. For this to happen, the system protection schemes
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must quickly identify a faulted line section and then trip or open the proper isolating component to cause
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the fewest number of customers to experience the loss of power.
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10
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12
13
14
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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1

5. Identifying voltage quality in power systems

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5.1 Introduction

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This section describes expected voltage quality characteristics at various levels of a power system.

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Methods of describing the voltage quality characteristics are presented along with example benchmarking

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results. Important characteristics that may impact the voltage quality characteristics are also described.

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5.2 Basic types of voltage quality variations

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It is useful to divide voltage quality characteristics into two basic categories:

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Steady state (continuous) voltage quality characteristics. This refers to the quality of the normal voltage

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supplied to a facility. How much can the voltage magnitude vary from the nominal value? How distorted

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is the voltage? What is the unbalance (imbalance) among the three-phase voltages? What is the

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magnitude, frequency, and angle of each phase. All of these characteristics can be quantified and limits for

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the variations can be developed.

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Disturbances (including reliability). This refers to voltage quality variations that occur at random

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intervals and are not associated with the continuous characteristics of the voltage. The variations include

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sustained interruptions (reliability), momentary interruptions, voltage sags (and swells), and transients. All

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of these disturbances can impact a facility, depending on the equipment susceptibility and investments that

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have been made in power conditioning.

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Indices provide the foundation for characterizing the supply system voltage quality levels in a consistent

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manner. Indices can be used to establish baselines of performance as a function of system characteristics.

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The following sections describe indices that can be used to describe voltage quality levels in both of these

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major categories along with example benchmarking results that can provide the basis for establishing

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targets and limits.

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5.2.1 Steady state (continuous) voltage quality characteristics

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Steady state power quality characteristics must meet minimum requirements to assure the proper operation

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of equipment. The basic concepts of compatibility levels are established in IEC 61000-2-2 [A8]. This

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concept applies to all steady state types of power quality. It is not as applicable to disturbances, such as

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voltage sags (dips), interruptions, and transients. The normal variations of steady state power quality

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characteristics allow them to be characterized with trends over time and with statistical distributions. The

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statistical nature of these characteristics lends them to being represented by specific statistical levels. For

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instance, the limits in EN 50160 [A1] for steady state power quality are evaluated at the 95% probability

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level. Recent discussions have indicated that other probability levels may also be appropriate for fully

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characterizing performance (see most recent edition of European Regulator document).

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Figure 4 illustrates the concept that applies for steady state power quality characteristics. The power

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quality performance of the supply system is characterized statistically and this can be compared with the

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statistical characteristics of the equipment immunity to determine the likelihood that equipment will be

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affected by the voltage quality variations. The objective is to define a voltage quality level that can be

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achieved with reasonable investment in the power system and will also have a low probability of causing

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equipment problems. This level is called the “compatibility level”. It is defined with statistics. As

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indicated above, a typical way of defining the compatibility level for performance evaluations is the level

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that can be exceeded only 5% of the time (95% probability that the level will not be exceeded).

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 Figure 5 illustrates the concept of the “compatibility level” compared to a time trend
1
Figure 5 illustrates the concept of the “compatibility level” compared to a time trend of a steady state
2
voltage quality characteristic (for example, harmonic distortion). Other important voltage quality levels are
3
also shown in both Figure 4 and Figure 5:
4
5
Equipment damage level – this is the level of quality that may pose a threat to equipment health if it is
6
exceeded. Such conditions are important to identify when they occur, and prevent if possible. Examples
7
may include harmonic resonance, ferro-resonance, high neutral currents, conditions that may cause over-
8
heating, etc. There should be some margin between the compatibility level for the supply and the
9
equipment damage level.
10
11
Equipment immunity level – this is the level of quality that may affect equipment performance if it is
12
exceeded. It is also defined statistically. There should be some margin between the compatibility level for
13
the supply and the equipment immunity level.
14
15
Alarm level – this is the level of quality at which notification will occur, i.e. the level at which an
16
investigation or other response may be warranted. The alarm level should be above the planning level, but
17
below equipment immunity, equipment damage, and safety levels.
18
19
Planning level – this is the level of quality that the electric utility establishes as their design objective.
20
Usually, the planning level is defined at some level below the compatibility level to help assure that the
21
actual compatibility level will not be exceeded. For instance, the compatibility level for harmonic voltage
22
distortion might be 8% but the planning level might be 5% to help make sure that the 8% level is not
23
exceeded.
24
25
Assessed level – this is the actual level existing on the system, usually based on measurements. For
26
instance, the evaluation of performance for the European standards requires measurements over a one week
27
period and then the assessed level for comparison with the minimum performance requirements (based on
28
the compatibility levels) is the level that is exceeded for 5% of the measurements (one measured value
29
every ten minutes).
30
31
32
33
Figure 4 —Concept of compatibility levels for the electric supply system and the immunity
characteristics of equipment.

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Disturbance magnitude

IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

Equipment immunity test levels Compatibility level Utility planning levels Assessed level
Equipment immunity test levels
Compatibility level
Utility planning levels
Assessed level

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time

Figure 5 Important concepts for evaluation of the steady state voltage quality

characteristics of the supply system.

We are interested in defining the steady state power quality levels that should allow proper operation of

virtually all customer equipment. Thus, if these power quality levels are met at the supply point, the steady

state quality should be considered acceptable and should not result in customer problems. There is little

value to providing even better power quality if these levels are not likely to cause problems. Extremely

susceptible equipment that requires even better quality justifies special power conditioning and should not

be the basis of the overall system requirements.

Recommendations for these minimum requirements for the steady state characteristics are developed in the

following sections. Important standards and references that are the basis of the recommendations are cited

and described as appropriate. In addition, typical levels of these steady state characteristics are provided

from two important sources

The EPRI Distribution Power Quality (DPQ) project [A7]. Steady state power qualitycharacteristics are provided from two important sources characteristics were described for distribution systems in

characteristics were described for distribution systems in the United States. Note that these

statistics are based on evaluation of single cycle samples of the three-phase voltages. These

samples are then analyzed to determine the rms voltage magnitudes, the unbalance, and the

harmonic distortion levels. Flicker levels were not characterized in the DPQ project. This method

of evaluating steady state power quality characteristics is different than the method recommended

in IEC 61000-4-30 [A2] and related standards. These methods use 10 minute rms values as the

basis for characterizing the steady state power quality. The 10 minute calculations can involve

smoothing compared to the single cycle samples.

CIGRE C4.07 Working Group Report [A58]. This working group gathered survey informationcan involve smoothing compared to the single cycle samples. describing both steady state power quality and

describing both steady state power quality and disturbances from systems around the world. In

general, the surveys referenced in this report used IEC methods for characterizing performance.

The steady state power quality levels should be evaluated using the measurement procedures outlined in

IEC 61000-4-30. This standard provides a convenient reference to make sure that all systems are being

evaluated in the same manner. The IEEE Std 1159 working group has developed a similar set of

recommended characterization procedures [A3] that are consistent with the methods in the IEC standard.

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5.2.2 Voltage Regulation

IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

The ability of equipment to handle steady state voltage variations varies from equipment to equipment.

The steady state voltage variation limits for equipment are usually part of equipment specifications. The

Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) specifies equipment withstand recommendations for IT

equipment according to the ITIC Curve (formerly the CBEMA curve). The 1996 ITIC Curve specifies that

equipment should be able to withstand voltage variations within +/- 10% (variations that last longer than 10

seconds).

5.2.2.1 Example limits

Voltage regulation standards in North America vary from state to state and utility to utility. The most

commonly applied standard in the United States is ANSI C84.1. Voltage regulation requirements are

defined in two categories:

Range A is for normal conditions and the required regulation is +/- 5% on a 120 volt base at the regulation is +/- 5% on a 120 volt base at the

service entrance (for services above 600 volts, the required regulation is -2.5% to +5%).

Range B is for short durations or unusual conditions. The allowable range for these conditions is -above 600 volts, th e required regulation is -2.5% to +5%). 8.3% to +5.8%. A specific

8.3% to +5.8%. A specific definition of these conditions is not provided.

RANGE A RANGE B 128 (b) 124 120 116 112 (a) 108 (a) 104 Base)V(120Voltage
RANGE A
RANGE B
128
(b)
124
120
116
112
(a)
108
(a)
104
Base)V(120Voltage
VoltageUtilization
V120-600VoltageService
V600>VoltageService
VoltageUtilization
V120-600VoltageService
V600>VoltageService

Figure 6 Voltage regulation requirements from ANSI C84.1.

IEC 61000-2-2 mentions that the normal operational tolerances are +/- 10% of the declared voltage. This is

the basis of requirements for voltage regulation in EN 50160 for the European Community. EN 50160

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

requires that voltage regulation (at the LV PCC) be within +/- 10% for 95% of the 10 minute samples in a

one week period. All 10 minute samples should be within -15% to +10%, excluding voltage dips.

5.2.2.2 Survey results

Figure 7 illustrates the statistics of voltage regulation levels obtained in the DPQ project. Voltage

regulation is described in this case as the range of voltage over the period of the day expressed as a percent

of nominal. The voltage regulation was not described in terms plus or minus from nominal due to

difficulties of defining the nominal voltage at different points on the distribution system. However, the

results illustrate that almost all sites achieve a total variation level within 10%. The 95% for the entire

sample of sites is a voltage regulation range of 8.5%.

Distribution of Daily Range of RMS Voltage

40% 120% 35% 100% 30% 80% 25% 20% 60% 15% 40% 10% 20% 5% 0%
40%
120%
35%
100%
30%
80%
25%
20%
60%
15%
40%
10%
20%
5%
0%
0%
Frequency
Cumulative Frequency
60% 15% 40% 10% 20% 5% 0% 0% Frequency Cumulative Frequency Daily RMS Voltage Range (%

Daily RMS Voltage Range (% of Site Average Voltage)

Figure 7

Voltage regulation statistics (total daily voltage variation range) from DPQ project (6/1/93-6/1/95).

5.2.2.3 Recommended limit and assessment method

Since the objective is to define minimum acceptable requirements based on an evaluation at point of

common coupling (realizing that the voltage variations inside a facility may be greater than the voltage

variations on the system or at the supply point), the recommended level is +/- 5% with an evaluation at the

95% probability level.

5.2.3 Voltage Unbalance

Voltage unbalance causes increased heating in motors and can result in unbalanced currents and non-

characteristic harmonics for electronic equipment like adjustable speed drives. High efficiency motors can

be more susceptible to problems with unbalanced voltages due to lower negative sequence reactance

values.

Voltage unbalance measured as the negative sequence component of the voltage divided by the positive

sequence component is most important for motor loads and is the basis of most international standards for

unbalance.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 5.2.3.1 Example limits 2 ANSI C84.1 recommends that voltage unbalance be limited to 3%.
1
5.2.3.1 Example limits
2
ANSI C84.1 recommends that voltage unbalance be limited to 3%. It is measured as the maximum
3
deviation divided by the average of the three phases. This value can be influenced by the zero sequence
4
voltage as well as the negative sequence voltage. When using this method, line to line voltage
5
measurements should be used to improve the accuracy and more closely match the sequence component
6
method of voltage unbalance determination.
7
8
IEC 61000-2-2 specifies a compatibility level of 2% for voltage unbalance, recognizing that systems with
9
large single phase loads may have voltage unbalance levels as high as 3%.
10
11
EN 50160 requires that utilities maintain voltage unbalance less than 2% for 95% of the 10 minute samples
12
in one week. For systems with significant single phase loads, the unbalance can be as high as 3%.
13
14
5.2.3.2 Survey results
15
Negative sequence voltage unbalance statistics from the DPQ project are given in Figure 8. It shows that
16
the 95% level for negative sequence unbalance over all the sites in the project was about 1.3%.
17
18
19
Figure 8
—Voltage unbalance statistics (entire data set for all sites) from DPQ project –
20
(6/1/93-6/1/95).
21
22
The CIGRE C4.07/CIRED Working Group gathered survey data from around the world. Only a few
23
surveys actually compiled information about unbalance but the results are still informative for developing a
24
recommended minimum performance level. Figure 9 illustrates the results (95% probability level over one
25
week of measurements at each site) for the different system voltage levels. The MV results are most
26
interesting. In this case, none of the sites had an unbalance level exceeding 2% at the 95% probability
27
level.
28
29

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

30% 25% MV : 99 sites HV : 76 sites 20% EHV: 25 sites 15%
30%
25%
MV : 99 sites
HV : 76 sites
20%
EHV: 25 sites
15%
10%
5%
0%
Percentage of sites per voltage level
0-0,1
0,2-0,3
0,4-0,5
0,6-0,7
0,8-0,9
1-1,1
1,2-1,3
1,4-1,5
1,6-1,7
1,8-1,9
2-2,1

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Uneg.sh95 weekly values

Figure 9 Measurement Data for Voltage Unbalance

at MV, HV and EHV All Sites (CIGRE

C4.07/CIRED Report).

5.2.3.3 Recommended limit and assessment method

The CIGRE working group recommends that the 95% value for weekly measurements of the 10 minute

unbalance values be used for comparison with recommended unbalance limits (voltage characteristics).

The most commonly used value for this characteristic is 2%. It seems to be a value that is very achievable

and also has minimal consequences for customer equipment.

5.2.4 Voltage Distortion

Harmonic distortion in the supply voltage results in increased heating in transformers, motors, capacitors,

and conductors. This increased heating is usually the most important effect. However, voltage distortion in

the supply system can excite resonances and overload customer power factor correction equipment.

Sensitivity of customer equipment to voltage distortion may be dependent on both the magnitude of the

distortion levels and the specific harmonic components. For instance, transformer eddy current losses

increase with approximately the square of the frequency.

Very short term effects of harmonics can include mis-operation of electronic controls or operation of

uninterruptible power supplies. There may be a need for limits on the short term harmonics as well as the

long term levels that cause heating.

5.2.4.1 Example limits

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

IEEE Std 519 [A4] recommends voltage distortion limits of 5% for the total harmonic distortion (THD) and

3% for individual harmonic components. Measurement procedures for evaluation of performance with

respect to these limits are not provided but it is generally considered that these limits would be applied at

the 95% probability level.

IEC 61000-2-2 specifies harmonic distortion compatibility levels that are dependent on the harmonic order.

The compatibility level for the voltage THD is 8%. Compatibility levels for individual harmonic voltages

in low voltage networks (rms values as percent of the rms value of the fundamental component) from IEC

61000-2-2 are shown in Table 2.

component) – from IEC 61000-2-2 are shown in Table 2. Table 2 — Harmonic compatibility levels

Table 2Harmonic compatibility levels

These compatibility levels were used to develop the requirements for EN 50160. The EN 50160

requirements are applied for 95% of the 10 minute samples in a one week period with measurements

according to IEC 61000-4-7. The EN50160 limit for voltage THD is 8%.

Individual harmonic voltage distortion limits from EN 50160.

 

ODD HARMONICS

 

EVEN HARMONICS

not multiple of 3

multiples of 3

 
 

Relative

 

Relative

 

Relative

Order h

Voltage

Order h

Voltage

Order h

Voltage

5

6.0%

3

5.0%

2

2.0%

7

5.0%

9

1.5%

4

1.0%

11

3.5%

15

0.5%

6-24

0.5%

13

3.0%

21

0.5%

 

17

2.0%

 

19

1.5%

23

1.5%

25

1.5%

Table 3Individual harmonic voltage limits

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 Comparison of the IEEE Std 519 limits with the limits from EN 50160 show that the harmonic distortion

2 limits in Europe are considerably relaxed compared to the IEEE limits. New revisions to IEEE Std 519 are

3 addressing this compatibility issue, at least at low voltage interface points. Even with the less severe limits

4 in Europe, few problems related to harmonics are reported.

5

6 5.2.4.2 Survey results

7 Harmonic levels were monitored in the DPQ project based on single cycle samples rather than 10 minute

8 values. However, the statistics for large numbers of samples is likely to be similar to the statistics obtained

9 with 10 minute values at the system level because the changes in harmonic levels are gradual. Larger

10 differences could occur at individual locations with dynamic loads, such as arc furnaces.

11

12 Most of the DPQ results are reported as average harmonic levels. For instance, Figure 10 gives the

13 distribution of average voltage distortion levels for all the sites in the DPQ project. The average distortion

14 level across all the sites is 1.57%. No sites had an average voltage distortion level exceeding 5%.

15 However, this can be misleading because the voltage distortion limits are meant to be compared with the

16 95% probability level for the harmonic distortion, not the average value. Figure 11 gives the distribution of

17 95% probability level voltage distortion (CP95) values for all the sites in the DPQ project. In this case,

18 about 3% of the sites have distortion levels exceeding 5%. These cases usually involve resonance

19 conditions associated with power factor correction on the distribution system.

20

Average Voltage THD at Each Monitoring Site

18% 100% 16% Mean (SATHD): 1.57% Standard Deviation: 0.0714% 95% Confidence Interval: 80% 14% 12%
18%
100%
16%
Mean (SATHD): 1.57%
Standard Deviation: 0.0714%
95% Confidence Interval:
80%
14%
12%
1.43% to 1.71%
60%
10%
8%
40%
6%
4%
20%
2%
0%
0%
Frequency of Sites
0.0
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0
3.6
4.2
4.8
5.4
6.0
6.6
Cumulative Frequency

V THD (%)

21

22

23 Figure 10

24

Distribution of average voltage distortion levels for all sites in the DPQ project.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

CP95 Voltage THD at Each Monitoring Site

14% 100% 90% 12% 80% Mean: 2.18% 10% 70% CP95 (STHD95): 4.03% Standard Deviation: 0.101%
14%
100%
90%
12%
80%
Mean:
2.18%
10%
70%
CP95 (STHD95):
4.03%
Standard Deviation:
0.101%
60%
8%
95% Confidence Interval:
1.99% to 2.38%
50%
6%
40%
30%
4%
20%
2%
10%
0%
0%
Frequency of Sites
0.0
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0
3.6
4.2
4.8
5.4
6.0
6.6
Cumulative Frequency

V THD (%)

Figure 11

Distribution of CP95 voltage distortion values (level not exceeded 95% of the

time) for all sites in the DPQ project.

Limited survey results were collected from MV systems in the CIGRE C4.07/CIRED effort. The results

from two surveys are summarized in Table 3. These give the most important individual harmonic

distortion levels and are very consistent with the DPQ survey results.

MV harmonic survey results from two surveys totaling 178 sites reported in CIGRE C4.07/CIRED

Working Group Report, are shown in Table 4.

 

Measurement Results 95%-Site for U h,sh95

Measurement Results Max-Site for U h,sh95

Planning

 

Harmonic Order

Levels

 

Min

Max

Mean

Min

 

Max

 

Mean

 

3

1,5

2,8

2,15

2

 

3,7

 

2,85

4

5

2,56

4,5

3,53

4,2

 

5

 

4,6

5

7

1,3

1,5

1,4

1,5

 

3,4

 

2,4

4

11

0,5

0,95

0,75

1

 

3,8

 

2,4

3

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Table 4CIGRE/C4.07 Survey Results

A survey of harmonic levels was conducted at residential locations in eight (8) different countries in

Europe [A59]. Figure 12 gives the consolidated results from all 74 sites combined from this survey. Note

that the results are actually very consistent with the results from the DPQ project. The 95% probability

level for voltage THD across all the sites in the European survey project was 3.8%. This compares to a

voltage THD level of 4.0% at the aggregate 95% level in the EPRI DPQ project. Overall harmonic

distortion levels are very similar in the United States and Europe.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 2 Figure 12 —Results of harmonic survey at European residential locations. 3 4 5.2.4.3
1
2
Figure 12
—Results of harmonic survey at European residential locations.
3
4
5.2.4.3 Recommended limits and assessment method
5
The IEEE Std 519 recommended limit for harmonic voltage distortion levels at medium voltage is 5% for
6
the total harmonic distortion. Problems are not expected when voltage distortion levels are below 6%. At
7
low voltage IEEE Std 519 recommends a limit of 8% for total harmonic distortion.
8
9
Individual harmonic limits are also important, especially at higher frequencies. Higher frequency voltage
10
harmonic components need to be limited to lower levels because of the potential duty on capacitor banks
11
(both on the utility distribution system and in customer systems). Also, higher voltage harmonic
12
components can cause mis-operations of customer equipment because of the tendency to introduce multiple
13
zero crossings into the voltage waveform. Specific limits for higher voltage components are not proposed
14
here – these will be addressed in future revisions of IEEE Std 519. The individual harmonic limits in IEEE
15
Std 519 and in IEC Standards provide some guidance.
16
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The recommended limit is compared to the 95% probability level of the 10 minute voltage distortion values
18
measured over at least a one week period.
19
20
5.2.5 Voltage Fluctuations
21
Humans can be very susceptible to light flicker that is caused by voltage fluctuations. Human perception of
22
light flicker is almost always the limiting criteria for controlling small voltage fluctuations. Figure 13
23
illustrates the level of perception of light flicker from an incandescent bulb for rectangular variations. The
24
sensitivity is a function of the frequency of the fluctuations and it is also dependent on the voltage level of
25
the lighting.
26
27
Perception of flicker depends on the physiology of the eye-brain of the person subjected to the luminance
28
fluctuation (flicker is a subjective perception).
29
30
Flicker was originally related to the behavior of a 230 V, 60 W incandescent light bulb when subjected to
31
voltage fluctuations. Other types of lighting may provide different fluctuation of the luminance and flicker
32
perception problems when subjected to the same voltage fluctuations. EPRI PEAC testing illustrated the

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 different characteristics of other types of lighting and developed the concept of a gain
1
different characteristics of other types of lighting and developed the concept of a gain factor for the lighting
2
for comparison of susceptibility with that of a 60 W incandescent bulb. In this context, a lower gain factor
3
means that the fluctuation of light output from a light source is less susceptible to a given voltage
4
fluctuation. See Figure 14 for an example.
5
6
Figure 13
—Curves illustrating the level of rectangular voltage
7
fluctuations that will result in a Pst value of 1.0 when measured with the IEC flickermeter.
8
9
10
11
Figure 14 —Lamp Gain Versus Flicker Frequency for Fluorescent Electronic and
Incandescent Lamps

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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2

5.2.5.1 Basic EMC concepts related to voltage fluctuations

3

Flicker levels in IEC standards and IEEE Standard 1453 [A10] are characterized by two parameters which

4

are:

5

10-minute “short -term flicker severity - Pst . This value is obtained from a statistical minute “short-term flicker severity - Pst. This value is obtained from a statistical analysis of

6

the “instantaneous flicker value” in a way which models incandescent lamps and the observation

7

of light intensity variations.

8

2-hour “long -term flicker severity - Plt. This is calculated by combining 12 successive Pst hour “long-term flicker severity - Plt. This is calculated by combining 12 successive Pst

9

measurements using a cubic relationship.

10

11

Both of these parameters are defined along with the equipment to measure them in IEC 61000-4-15 [A9].

12

A human observer can tolerate a certain amount of light flicker before becoming annoyed. IEC 61000-2-2

13

defines this level of flicker as the compatibility level. It is important to note that compatibility levels are

14

defined for LV systems only [A16] where:

15

16

short term flicker level (Pst) is 1.0, and

17

long term flicker level (Plt) is 0.8.

18

19

Flicker planning levels are utilized so that the overall flicker level at MV, HV and EHV buses due to all

20

global flicker emissions does not result in an LV flicker level that is above the compatibility level; thereby,

21

greatly reducing the probability of having customer complaints. Suggested planning levels for flicker are

22

provided in [A16] and [A10]. In order to maintain proper coordination, it is suggested that flicker planning

23

levels be based on 99th percentile values.

24

25

Note that individual step changes in the voltage, such as would be caused by motor starting or switching a

26

capacitor bank, are often limited separately from the continuous flicker limits. IEC 61000-2-2 specifies a

27

compatibility level of 3% for the individual voltage variations. EN 50160 specifies a limit of 5% for these

28

variations but mentions that more significant variations (up to 10%) can occur for some switching events.

29

Specific recommendations are not provided in IEEE but individual utilities usually have their own

30

guidelines in the range 4-7%.

31

32

5.2.5.2 Survey results

33

Survey results for flicker are very limited. Most measurement campaigns evaluating flicker are performed

34

when there is a specific problem and the results are, therefore, not representative of the power system in

35

general (most sites have very low flicker levels).

36

37

Survey results suggest that flicker levels in excess of the compatibility level have been measured at MV,

38

HV and EHV without corresponding customer complaints. Research [A61-A63] has shown that when

39

flicker is transferred from the point of emission (i.e. flicker source) to other parts of a network the flicker

40

level tends to be reduced when going from HV or EHV towards MV; thus, explaining why EHV and HV

41

flicker levels above 1.0 do not necessarily correspond to customer complaints. Great care should be

42

exercised whenever flicker planning levels in excess of those specified in [A16] are used. To determine

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such planning levels, the effects of flicker transfer coefficients should be carefully taken into account [A61,

44

A62].

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5.2.5.3 Recommended limits and assessment method

47

The recommended limit for flicker is Pst=1.0 at the 95% probability level. This is consistent with the

48

compatibility levels in IEC 61000-2-2 and is based on the actual design of the flicker meter. In other

49

words, this flicker limit should prevent customer complaints associated with light flicker.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

The limit is lower than the limit specified in EN50160. However, it is an appropriate limit when

considering the philosophy of establishing a limit to prevent customer complaints rather than a limit that is

a legal requirement for the utility to meet.

The Pst level is measured with a flicker meter that complies with IEC 61000-4-15 requirements. The Pst

values are calculated for 10 minute intervals. 95% of these values should be below the limit in a one week

measurement period.

5.2.6 Voltage frequency

Frequency of the voltage experienced in interconnected power systems in developed nations is tightly

controlled. Because of historic dependency of power system synchronized clocks (such as common alarm

clocks) on frequency, small deviations in this frequency are accumulated, and this accumulation is

periodically balanced back to zero. For example, at all times except during disturbances the frequency

deviation of the voltage in the Western United States has been found to not exceed 0.015 Hertz.

5.2.7 Summary of Steady State Voltage Quality Performance Levels

Table 4 summarizes the recommended steady state power quality characteristics (planning levels). All of

these are based on 10 minute samples calculated according to IEC Standard 61000-4-30. They are

evaluated based on the 95% probability level. In other words, the system should be designed so that these

levels are expected to be exceeded less than 5% of the time. Ideally, all locations on the power system

should meet these power quality levels. However, there will always be some locations that have power

quality characteristics that may exceed these levels in one or more categories. When a situation such as this

is identified, the utility should work to solve the problem (that may be caused by one or more customers or

may be related to a system condition).

It is important to remember that the voltage quality levels indicated in Table 5 can be considered normal.

A customer should not assume that the voltage quality levels will be significantly better than the levels

indicated. For instance, when applying power factor correction, it is reasonable to assume that the

background harmonic distortion levels on the supply system could be as high as 3% for individual

harmonics and 5% for the total distortion. This could influence the design requirements for power factor

correction equipment within a facility.

Power Quality

Category

Voltage Regulation

Voltage Unbalance

Voltage Distortion

Voltage

Fluctuation/Flicker

Voltage Frequency

Planning Levels

+/- 5% of nominal for normal conditions

+/- 10% of nominal for unusual* conditions

2% negative sequence

5% total harmonic distortion

3% individual harmonic components

Pst ** less than 1.0

individual step changes less than 4%

+/- 0.015 Hz***

* Unusual conditions are conditions of abnormal stress for the electric supplier such as when an essential transmission line is out of

service during a period of exceptionally heavy system loading. Such conditions are typically unplanned, rare and brief.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

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** Pst is a measure of flicker where a value of 1.0 indicates that 50% of the people are likely to be able to notice flicker in a 60W

2

3

incandescent lamp. Measurement procedures are defined in IEC Standard 61000-4-15 and have been adopted by IEEE 1453.

4

*** Typical steady-state maximum frequency deviation in an interconnected power system in North America.

5

Table 5Summary of Typical Voltage Quality Performance Expectations (e.g. Planning

6

Levels) at the Point of Common Coupling with Customer Facilities (note that minimum

7

requirements can vary significantly from one location to another and minimum

8

requirements may not be defined for many of these voltage quality characteristics).

9

10

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5.3 Disturbances

12

Disturbances are voltage quality variations that cannot be characterized with the same time trends and

13

statistical distributions that are used for the steady state voltage quality characteristics. These are variations

14

that occur randomly and each event could have an effect on customer facilities.

15

16

5.3.1 Reliability

17

The most commonly discussed type of disturbance is the interruption. Most utilities around the world

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report on the reliability performance of the power system. A common index used to track reliability for

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power systems is the System Average Interruption Frequency Index, or SAIFI. For power systems in most

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developed countries (like the United States), average SAIFI levels are in the range of 0.5-5.0 interruptions

21

per year (depending on factors such as weather, underground vs. overhead systems, networked systems vs.

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radial systems, etc.). This is the number of times that customers experience an actual power interruption

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each year (usually defined as an interruption lasting more than five minutes). The average SAIFI across the

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US is about 1.3 interruptions per year. Typically, this index is also adjusted so that it does not include

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“major events” that affect a significant portion of the system (the index is used to evaluate the performance

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of the system for events that could possibly be avoided through system investments, maintenance, etc.).

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While reliability indices are useful for regulators and for establishing company goals they have limited use

29

to a specific customer because these are based on the entire system. It would be much more important to

30

get information about the expected number of interruptions where that specific customer is actually

31

connected to the system. The utility may be able to provide location-specific historical data about

32

reliability that would be more useful for evaluating the need for UPS or backup generation to protect

33

critical operations.

34

35

Detailed information about calculating reliability indices and characterizing reliability performance are

36

provided in the IEEE 1366 standard [A11].

37

5.3.2 Voltage sags and momentary interruptions

38

Facility operations can be affected by more than just long duration interruptions. Momentary voltage sags,

39

lasting less than 100 msec, are often sufficient to cause disruptions to susceptible equipment and operations

40

(see example in Figure 15). Even though the effect of these disturbances can be the same as long duration

41

interruptions, they can be more important because they occur much more frequently. These disturbances

42

are caused by faults on distribution circuits and transmission circuits. The interconnected nature of the

43

system means that faults remote from a facility can still cause a momentary voltage sag that could be

44

sufficient to affect operations.

45

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

Example of Short Duration Voltage Sag Affecting One Phase

Va Vb Vc 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Va
Vb
Vc
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
T ime ( s)
1
Electrotek Concepts®
T OP, The Output Processor®
2
3
Figure 15
—Example of a short duration voltage sag caused by a remote fault. This
V
o
lta
g
e
(
V
)

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voltage sag caused tripping of a plastics production line.

Many utilities cannot provide information to customers about the expected number of voltage sags that a

customer is likely to experience. EPRI conducted a benchmarking project that provided an estimate for the

average number of voltage sags that customers experience on distribution systems across the US. In order

to present the results of this extensive benchmarking project, a new index to describe voltage sag

performance was developed. It is called SARFI, or the System Average RMS (Variation) Frequency Index.

This index represents the average number of voltage sags experienced by a customer each year with a

specified characteristic. For SARFI

the index would include all of the voltage dips where the minimum

70 represents the expected number of voltage sags where the

voltage was less than x. For example, SARFI

minimum voltage is less than 70% of nominal.

x,

SARFI indices become a very important consideration for many process industry customers because the

indices represent events that impact the reliability of the process. There are typically very few actual

interruptions. Therefore, voltage sags represent the most important power quality variation affecting

industrial and commercial customers. The IEEE Gold Book (IEEE Standard 493) describes how to

consider the impact of voltage sags as part of the economic evaluation of plant reliability:

“Economic evaluation of reliability begins with the establishment of an interruption definition. Such a

definition specifies the magnitude of the voltage sag and the minimum duration of such a reduced- voltage

period that results in a loss of production or other function of the plant process.”

The SARFI index that is appropriate for a facility will depend on the sensitivity of the equipment in the

facility to these voltage variations. This information may not be available without extensive monitoring

and evaluation of equipment response to actual disturbances. Figure 16, from the EPRI benchmarking

project, illustrates how the voltage sag performance is dependent on the minimum voltage level being

considered. For instance, the average for the number of voltage sags per year with a minimum voltage less

than 70% is about 18 events per year in the United States. However, if equipment could be affected by a

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 voltage sag with a minimum voltage of 90% (very minor voltage sag), then the
1
voltage sag with a minimum voltage of 90% (very minor voltage sag), then the number of events per year is
2
about 50. Obviously, the equipment sensitivity is a critical factor in the importance of these disturbances.
3
4
5
Average Voltage Sag Statistics for US Distribution Systems - EPRI DPQ Project
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
SARFI-70
SARFI-80
SARFI-90
6
7
Figure 16 — Average SARFI statistics from nationwide EPRI benchmarking project. These
8
show the average number of voltage sags that can be expected for a distribution system
9
10
customer in the United States as a function of the voltage sag severity (minimum voltage
magnitude).
11
Another way to use the SARFI index is to count all the voltage sag events that are below a specified
12
compatibility curve. This is referred to as the SARFI-curve approach. For example SARFI-CBEMA
13
considers voltage sags and interruptions that are below the lower CBEMA curve. SARF-ITIC considers
14
voltage sags and interruptions that are below the lower ITIC curve. SARFI-SEMI considers voltage sags
15
and interruptions that are below the lower SEMI F47 curve. An example is shown in Figure 17, where each
16
recorded sag is indicated as one point in the magnitude-duration plot (note that “magnitude” is used here as
17
a synonym to retained voltage). The SARFI-90 value is 87 in this case; SARFI-CBEMA is 43; SARFI-ITIC
18
is 26 and SARFI-SEMI is 12.
Average Number of Events per Year

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

1 2 3 Figure 17 —Scatter plot of voltage sag events superimposed with compatibility curves
1
2
3
Figure 17 —Scatter plot of voltage sag events superimposed with compatibility curves for
calculation of SARFI indices.
4
5
Time aggregation is important with voltage sag events (and momentary interruption events). Time
6
aggregation avoids counting multiple events that are associated with the same physical event (fault). The
7
procedures for time aggregation and for other approaches for characterizing system voltage sag
8
performance are described in draft IEEE Standard P1564 [A14].
9
10
Again, the average statistics (especially nationwide statistics) are not very useful for an individual facility
11
trying to determine if investment in power conditioning is needed or economically justified. Expected
12
voltage sag performance at the individual plant location is needed. Some utilities calculate the expected
13
voltage sag performance throughout its system. UI monitors at all of its substations and maintains
14
performance statistics for all substations that are updated quarterly. Figure 18 is an example of the voltage
15
sag performance (SARFI-70) across all of its substations [A64]. The chart shows the three year average
16
voltage sag performance compared with the voltage sag performance in the last year. This helps identify
17
systems with significant changes that could warrant investigation. The voltage sag performance is also
18
broken down into events caused by distribution faults and events caused by transmission faults because the
19
transmission faults cannot be prevented by maintenance and improvements on the distribution system and
20
have to be addressed separately. This information can be provided to any customer to help them
21
understand the power quality that can be expected where they are connected to the system.
22

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Comparison of UI Substation's SARFI 70 performance of the last 12 months vs. their 3 year average

 

16

 

14

 

Number of times when Substation's Bus Voltage was less than 70% of Nominal per 365 days

12

 
 

10

 

8

   

6

4

   

2

   
 

ALLINGS CROSSING

CONGRESS

ANSONIA

BARNUM

ASH CREEK

BROADWAY

0

BAIRDB NEW

MILVON

EAST SHORE

BAIRDA

AVENUE

SACKETT

ELMWEST

PEQUONNOCK

HAVEN

TOWN

2

QUINNIPIAC

INDIAN WELL

WOODMONT

FALLS

1

HAWTHORNE

ST. RIVER

ST.

RIVER

JUNE MILL

TRAP WATER

CONGRESS

OLD

NORTH

MILL

MIX

SARFI70 from Distribution Events 3 years averageSubstation Name SARFI70 from Trasmission Events 3 years average

Substation Name

SARFI70 from Distribution Events 3 years average Substation Name SARFI70 from Trasmission Events 3 years average

SARFI70 from Trasmission Events 3 years average

SARFI70 from Distribution Events during the last four QuartersSARFI70 from Trasmission Events during the last four Quarters

from Distribution Events during the last four Quarters SARFI70 from Trasmission Events during the last four

SARFI70 from Trasmission Events during the last four Quarters

Figure 18 Example voltage sag statistics (SARFI-70) at utility substations.

5.3.3 Capacitor Switching Transients

Voltage transients can also be an important consideration for the quality of supply.

caused by lightning during storms or by almost any switching event on the power system.

practice to include surge protection for a facility or at least critical equipment to avoid failures due to

excessive transient voltages, such as the transients that can be caused by lightning strokes on the supply

system.

Transients can be

It is a good

Even with transient protection for high magnitude transients, there can still be transient voltages that may

affect equipment. For instance, adjustable speed drives can sometimes be affected by capacitor switching

transients (see Figure 19) because these transients can have enough energy to charge up the dc capacitor in

the drives to levels that will cause tripping on the dc overvoltage setting. Capacitor switching transients

can also cause problems with low voltage power factor correction equipment, electronic ballasts for

fluorescent lighting, and other electronic equipment. Understanding that transients like the one in Figure

17 are a normal part of the supply can help in developing appropriate specifications for adjustable speed

drives and other critical equipment.

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IEEE P1250 /D11, May 2010

Capacitor Switching Transient 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Capacitor Switching Transient
2
1
0
-1
-2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Voltage(Vpu)

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