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INTEGRATED BRAIN IMPLANT USING NANO MEMORY

A SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted by

SAYOOJ VINOD
(LYANEEC037)

In partial fulfilment for the award of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

of the University of Calicut

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

AHALIA SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


PALAKKAD

APRIL 2017
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report titled Integrated Brain Implant Using Nano
Memory is a bonafide record of the work related to EC09 805(P): SEMINAR done
by Sayooj Vinod (LYANEEC037) of Eighth Semester B.Tech in Electronics and
Communication Engineering of Ahalia School of Engineering and Technology,
Palakkad in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology of University of Calicut.

Guide/Supervisor Head of Department


Mrs. Akhila Krishnan Dr. V. Balamurugan
Assistant Professor Professor
Department of ECE Department of ECE
Signature:.. Signature:.
Date: Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank the God Almighty for his
infinite grace and help without which this seminar would not have reached its
completion.
I would like to express my thanks to the Management of Ahalia School
of Engineering and Technology for their support for the completion of this
seminar.

I wish to place my sincere thanks to Dr. P. Sankarankutty, Director,


Ahalia School of Engineering and Technology, for the valuable help and
support given to me for my seminar.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. B. G. Vishnuram,


the Honorable Principal for his timely support extended throughout the
completion of the seminar.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to our HoD Prof. Dr. V.


Balamurugan for his help and guidance throughout.

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Ajin R. Nair, Ms.


Akhila Krishnan and Mr. Sujith P. S., Seminar Coordinators for their
instruction and guidance

Any work would not be successful if it does not rely on the reference
material. In this context I wish to express profound sense of gratitude to all
teaching and non-teaching staff of my college for giving us a supportive
environment in the college.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT i
LIST OF FIGURES ii
LIST OF TABLES iii
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS iv
CHAPTER 1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 3
LITERATURE REVIEW 3
CHAPTER 3 7
INTEGRATED BRAIN IMPLANT USING NANO MEMORY 7
3.1 DEVICE THEORY ON BRAIN 7
3.2 ELECTRODE AND NANO MEMORY USED IN THE SYSTEM 9
3.2.1 CNT contact 10
3.2.2 NRAM FABRICATION 11
3.3 DEVICE DESCRIPTION 12
3.4 SIMULATION 12
3.4.1 INPUT 13
3.4.2 INTERPRETATION 13
3.4.3 OUTPUT 13
3.4.4 MEMORY 13
3.4.5 PROCESSING 13
3.5 WORKING PRINCIPLES 14
CHAPTER 4 18
SOME COMMON AWARENESS 18
CHAPTER 5 19
APPLICATIONS 19
CHAPTER 6 20
CONCLUSION 20
REFERENCES 21
ABSTRACT

The main aim of this paper is to make the human to use their intelligence and
the memory which the computer works with. This bio medical document is the live
aspects that make the human to target everything with this tiny memory device,
connected to the human brain. Internet is ruling the world for many years, like that
this brain memory integrated technology will have the same effect among every
people. The vast world is really our memory, we circle every minute of our thinking
around it. This device makes it possible to recollect the memories simply as the same
way you felt during that moment.This device makes a revolution in the thinking of a
human.It is a mini-device, compatible to the size as similar to the phase maker and it
has some extra features as follows: (1) placed inside of human body, (2) connected to
our Neurons and works with the help of battery, and (3) consist of Nano memory
(CNT) having vast storage. So now we can see the intelligence of this great device.
This memory is processed through voice and optical support signal that travel through
nervous system of neurons. Every nerve in our body produces electrical pulse that
carries information and these information are processed as fast as the device can.
Hence this device is called intellectual chip. Using this device, humans will be free of
memorizing things because this device stores everything they have been encountered
in the Nano memory.

i
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 3.1: A Single Neuron In The Brain 7


Fig. 3.2: Chemical Energy To Spike Formation 8
Fig. 3.3: Carbon Nanotube (Cnt) Logic Conditions 10
Fig. 3.4: Nano Memory Structure 11
Fig. 3.5: Simulation 12
Fig. 3.6: Data Transfer From Human Memory To Nano Memory 14
Fig. 3.7: Unsupervised Learning Cluster Formation 15
Fig. 3.8: Data Retrieval From Nano Memory To Human Brain 16

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 3.1: Comparison between Natural Memory and Implanted Memory 7

iii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CNT Carbon Nano Tube


NRAM Nano Random Access Memory
WL Word Line
BL Bit Line
SL Select Line
MLP Multilayer Perceptron
DGNN Dynamic growing Neural Network
DRAM Data Random Access Memory

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Brain is the most complex system in our body. Brain makes a man to be an
intellectual individual. Many researches are undergoing to create an artificial brain to
make use of a robot, which functions with the intelligence of a human, but this paper
lets the human to make use of their intelligence and the memory which the robot
works with. Thus instead of using the intelligence of human brain to the robot, the
memory that is being used by robot is made to be used by the human. The usage of
brain varies with every individual. This brain memory is a confined storage device,
where humans can withstand their memories for a longer period. Sometimes they can
be even accurate about the year, date and time at which the incident has happened.
These things can also be remembered by the proposed device and can process these
memories in a fraction of seconds like functions of our normal brain. This device will
eliminate the mug up process and the functionality of the device makes tremendous
change in human future.
The neural network becomes stronger by experiencing same kind of things
which have been already encountered. Thus the strengthening of neurons helps us in
securing our memory. Humans spend more time for memorizing things and they
follow several methods to remember. Even certain wearable equipments are present
for increasing concentration. The proposed device will provide a solution to all. The
proposed device will store things which are studied by humans. This device makes it
possible to recollect the memories simply as the same way you felt during that
moment. This device makes a revolution in the thinking of a human. Not only
studying, he can store the things which are seen by him and heard by him. The device
is placed beneath the surface of the brain. It is placed in the grey matter. It

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collects the electrical signal from the neural network and stores them in the processor
through machine learning algorithms. This memory is processed through voice and
optical support signal that travel through nervous system of neurons. Every nerve in
our body produces electrical pulse that carries information and these information are
processed as fast as the device can. Hence this device is called intellectual chip. Nano
memory is used in this system. Thus the device can be placed in the brain for a long
period without replacement. During retrieval, the signal is passed from the processor
to the brain.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Brain implants, often referred to as neural implants, are technological devices


that connect directly to a biological subject usually placed on the surface of the brain,
or attached to the brain's cortex. Many researches are undergoing to create an
artificial brain to make use of a robot, which functions with the intelligence of a
human. This technology has found large possibilities in the future science. It open ups
a bottom up approach towards building thinking machine. The ideas about this
technology has been collected from varies areas.
In the paper Blue Brain Technology: A Sub Way to Artificial Intelligence
published by Swati Sharma on 2014 Fourth International Conference on
Communication Systems and Network Technologies says Blue Brain is the name of
the worlds first virtual brain. A Virtual machine is one that can function as, a very
appropriate application of an Artificial Intelligence human brain. Reverse engineering
is a foremost concept of implementing the human brain and recreates it at the cellular
level inside a complete simulation. The four major motivations behind the Blue Brain
Technology are treatment of brain disfunctioning, scientific curiosity about
consciousness and human mind, a bottom up approach towards building thinking
machine and databases of all neuroscientific research results and related past stories.
There are three main steps 2to build the virtual brain are data acquisition, simulation
and visualization of results .The mission is undertaking the Blue Brain technology is
to gather all existing knowledge of the brain, raise the global research efficiency of
reverse engineering and to build a complete theoretical framework.

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T. W. Huang published a paper Brain waves reflect your memories on 2013
Fourth Global Congress on Intelligent Systems says that the brain activities for short-
term and long-term memory were verified by event-related potentials of the brain. In
addition, long-term memory had a proactive interference to short-term memory that
could be found by observing the changes of potentials in the brain. In clinical trials,
subjects randomly selected a poker card (target) to be memorized. Subsequently, they
were tested by the recognition task that was comprised of a target card and two
different cards. The changes of ERPs during card presentation reflected the retrieval
process of memory in the brain. Experimental results revealed that the amplitude of
P300 of ERPs was related to the short-term memory and could be used to identify
whether the presented card was in ones memory or not. The card that was
memorized in the short-term memory elicited a larger P300 than other cards without
memorization. However, experimental results also found that some meaningful cards,
for example spade-2, existed in ones long-term memory and elicited larger P300
amplitude than memorized cards in short term memory, achieving significant levels.
Thus, long-term memory affected the recognition task of short-term memory. The
electrophysiological changes are an indicator to memory process and reflect the
degree of meaning of objects in the memory. The research provided valuable results
that support theories about memory in psychology.
In the paper Implementing Brain-Like Systems Using Nano Functional
Devices by Tadashi SHIBATA tells about developing a new-paradigm computing
system most suited to such human-like intelligent information processing by best
utilizing the state of- the-art silicon technology. For this end, we have developed a
series of VLSI chips dedicated to specific brain-mimicking processing using digital,
analog as well as mixed-signal circuit technologies. In this paper, we will discuss how
nano devices could be utilized in this context. Such a brain-like system could be build
by a vast-scale integration of nono functional devices having a simple correlation
function arising from the resonance-type I-V characteristics along with a primitive
memory function. Thanks to the majority-voting decision making principle, such a

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system could be made tolerable to device-level errors, thus presenting a promising
opportunity for system applications of nano devices in the beyond CMOS era.
Taghi M. Khoshgoftaars IEEE Transactions On Neural Networks, VOL. 21,
NO. 5, MAY 2010 Supervised Neural Network Modeling: An Empirical
Investigation into Learning from Imbalanced Data with Labeling Errors. It say that
Neural network algorithms such as multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis
function networks (RBFNets) have been used to construct learners which exhibit
strong predictive performance. Two data related issues that can have a detrimental
impact on supervised learning initiatives are class imbalance and labeling errors (or
class noise). Imbalanced data can make it more difficult for the neural network
learning algorithms to distinguish between examples of the various classes, and class
noise can lead to the formulation of incorrect hypotheses. Both class imbalance and
labeling errors are pervasive problems encountered in a wide variety of application
domains. Many studies have been performed to investigate these problems in
isolation, but few have focused on their combined effects. This study presents a
comprehensive empirical investigation using neural network algorithms to learn from
imbalanced data with labeling errors. In particular, the first component of our study
investigates the impact of class noise and class imbalance on two common neural
network learning algorithms, while the second component considers the ability of
data sampling (which is commonly used to address the issue of class imbalance) to
improve their performances.
Ravinder Rathee published a paper Supervised Learning for Neural network
Using Ant Colony Optimization on 2014 International Conference on Reliability,
Optimization and Information Technology. It describe the approach of real-world
activities we have proposed an idea of SLNA algorithm and its diagram. In this paper
we are using supervised learning to train the network. In supervised learning desire
response is provided by the teacher in correspondence to the particular input. To
explain the concept of SLNNA algorithm we have used a real-world example of
travel agency (make my trip agency). To optimize the path in the search space, we
have used ATSP algorithm.

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The paper A Dynamic Growing Neural Network for Supervised or
Unsupervised Learning published by Daxin Tian says that A Dynamic Growing
Neural Network (DGNN) for supervised learning of pattern recognition or
unsupervised learning of clustering is presented. The main ideas included in DGNN
are Growing, Resonance, and Post-prune. DGNN is called Dynamic Growing because
it is based on the Hebbian learning rule and adds new neurons under certain
conditions. When DGNN performs supervised learning, resonance will happen if the
winner cant match the training example; this rule combines the ART/ ARTMAP
neural network and WTA learning rule. When DGNN performs unsupervised
learning, post-prune is carried out to prevent over fitting the training data just like
decision tree learning. DGNNs prune rule is based on the distance threshold.

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CHAPTER 3
INTEGRATED BRAIN IMPLANT USING NANO MEMORY

3.1 DEVICE THEORY ON BRAIN

Fig 3.1: a single Neuron in the brain

Neurons are the cells that pass chemical and electrical signals along the
pathways of the brain. Normally a neuron have three major parts-cell body, dendrite,
and axon. Dendrites receive input from other neuron and does some calculation and
gives output via axon. After this, the axon transmits the output to the neighboring
neurons through other neurons dendrites. Normally the neurons communicate to each
other with little pulses of electricitys which are commonly called spikes.

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Our senses and muscles work in this way. If you want to do some action, the
way it works is that a neuron send these pulses of electricitys to your muscle and
makes it to contract and if your eye wants to transmit a message to your brain, what it
does is it sends its pulses of electricity to a neuron in your brain. Size and Shape
differ from every neuron. Controlling muscle movements and storing memories are
functions of neurons. These functions are carried out by the connections and shapes
of neurons.

Fig 3.2: chemical energy to spike formation

In Fig 3.2, the chemical energy to spike formation process (chemical energy to
electrical energy) is displayed. This is an example of Hodgkin-Huxley cycle. The
resting potential of neuron is -70mV. The human brain has both sodium ions and

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potassium ions. This attains three stages of process such as Hyperpolarization,
depolarization and threshold of excitation are as follows. When the negative charge
inside the axon increases hyperpolarization occurs (e.g. -70mV to 80mV). This
hyperpolarization is due to the Na and K ions in the brain. Depolarization occurs
when the negative charge inside the axon decreases (e.g. -70mV becomes +50mV).
The threshold of excitation is the level that a depolarization must reach for an action
potential to occur. When the action potential (potential greater than threshold of
excitation) reaches high considerable amount of voltage difference is obtained.
Signals cause ionic fluctuations in the neurons plasma membrane which creates an
electrical current flow in the neuron. This is sensed by the electrode at the synapse
region and the signals are sent to the system.

3.2 ELECTRODE AND NANO MEMORY USED IN THE SYSTEM

The hat pin electrode is an electrophysiological device that is used to record


signals from multiple neurons with array of micro electrodes .This device can easily
capture signals from the neural structure. It is designed to be chronically implanted to
isolate the neural unit and local field potentials that are recorded over a several
minutes or times.
The memory used here is Nano RAM (NRAM).It is a non-volatile RAM
which is based on the position of the carbon Nano tubes (CNTs) deposited like a
substrate to that of a chip. A three terminal NRAM semiconductor device is used in
the first generation. Some extra features has been added to it in the second generation.
The cell size is small and a better scalability to sub-20 mm nodes .During fabrication
the memory cell is protected which is the main feature it. Each NRAM cell consists of
interlinked network of CNTS (carbon Nano tubes) located between two electrodes.
Photolithography process is used for CNT fabrication. NRAM serves as a resistive
non-volatile memory.

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3.2.1 CNT contact

The NRAM is placed in two or more resistive modes depending upon the
resistive state of CNT fabric. When there is no contact between the CNTs due to the
stiffness of the CNTs, the resistance state of the fabric goes high, represented as OFF
or 0, resulting in low current measurement state between the top and bottom
electrodes. when the CNTs are in contact due to Van der Waals force between the
CNTs, the resistance state of the fabric goes low which is represented as ON or 1,
resulting in a high current measurement state between the top and bottom electrodes.
Since the two resistive states are stable NRAM acts as a memory.

Fig 3.3: Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Logic Conditions

A small voltage greater than the read voltage is applied between top and
bottom electrodes when switching NRAM between the states. The voltage applied
will cause an electrostatic attraction between the CNTs together resulting a SET
operation, when the NRAM is in the state 0. When the NRAM is in the state 1, the
applied voltage which is greater than read voltage will generate CNT photons

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excitations which tends to separate the CNT junctions which resulting a RESET
operation. The activation energy for the physical attraction is 5ev in state 1 and the
activation energy for the separation of CNTs due to stiffness of CNTs is greater than
5ev in state 0. Due to the high activation energy (>5ev) required for switching
between the states, the NRAM switch can able to resist the outside interference like
radiation and operating temperature which can erase or flip conventional memories
like DRAM.

3.2.2 NRAM FABRICATION

Fig 3.4: Nano Memory Structure

By depositing a uniform layer of CNTs onto a prefabricated array of drivers is


used for the fabrication of NRAM. The bottom electrode of the NRAM cell is in
contact with underlying via which is used to connect the cell to the driver. The photo-
lithography is used to fabricate the bottom electrode. Before the cell is photo
lithographically etched the top electrode is deposited as a metal film onto the CNT

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layer so that the top electrode will get etched. A single cell can be selected by
applying the proper voltages to the word line (WL), bit line (BL), and select lines
(SL) without disturbing the other cells in the array

3.3 DEVICE DESCRIPTION

This a small device that has Nano memory, a mini battery (lithium
battery),processor and finally a transmitter to transmitted data from our memory to
the desired place . As this is implantable, it does not corrode when reacting with
blood and it can be placed outside the body like pacemaker, and other added feature is
that it is liquid proof. Neurons are cells specialized for the integration and
propagation of electrical events. The visual size of this device is of approximately
49mm x 46mm x 6mm/47mm x 41mm x 7mm/45mm x 52mm x 7mm based on the
IBM neuro synaptic system. These dimensions vary from one model to other so that
the memory can also be increased according to the needs.

3.4 SIMULATION

Fig 3.5 Simulation

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3.4.1 INPUT

In the nervous system of our body, neurons are responsible for message
passing. Sensory cells convey the input to our body. Electric impulses are produced
by sensory cells which are received by the neurons. Further, electric impulses
(through the silicon chips of artificial neurons) are transferred to the brain by neurons.

3.4.2 INTERPRETATION

Brain receives the electric impulses from the neurons which are interpreted by
means of registers. Different states of brain can be accomplished by the different
values in these registers.

3.4.3 OUTPUT

On the basis of the states of the registers, the electric impulses are sending by
the brain representing the responses which are then received by the sensory cells to
respond .The sensory cells of which part of our body is going to receive that, it
depends on the state of the neurons in the brain at that time.

3.4.4 MEMORY

We can store certain information (states) permanently in the implanted Nano


memory by help of certain neurons impulses .On the basis of our requirement, the
brain interprets those states and thus past things can be gathered.

3.4.5 PROCESSING

By the use of some stored states, computation will be performed by the


computer. Logical and arithmetic calculations are done in our neural circuitry. To
produce the output stored past experiences and current input received are used.

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3.5 WORKING PRINCIPLES

Brain takes input in the form of images, audio, sensing etc. The complex
portion of the system is how to recognize the incoming signals. The incoming signals
are not known by the processor initially. Hence in this system, machine learning
algorithms such as Supervised and Unsupervised algorithms are used.

Fig 3.6: Data Transfer from Human Memory to Nano Memory

For supervised learning algorithms, algorithms are trained by examples. Each


example contains both training set data and their desired output value. Hence
algorithm learns from the examples and then predicts the output for the unknown
examples. Unsupervised learning algorithm is used to draw conclusions from datasets
(examples) consisting of input data without labeled responses. It tries to find the
hidden structure in an unlabeled data or from various groups of similar datasets. The
incoming electrical pulses are formed as separate groups called clusters. Clusters are
formed for same kind of signals (i.e.) under each cluster same kind of signals are
allocated. If a person is studying, some signals are generated and while he tries to
retrieve those information that he studied, different kind of signals are generated. The
signals generated while studying forms clusters and the signals generated while

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retrieving forms another cluster. For taking those signals, the device is placed on the
skull and the signals are analysed. Even though the signals having less power and
frequency, it can be amplified afterwards. Thus by experiencing a person to learn and
retrieve, the input signals are analysed and stored. These signals are used as reference
for a person whether he is studying or retrieving (thinking). In this device, initially
unsupervised algorithm is used to separate the electrical signals resulting from the
electrode and hence grouping of signals is done between the signals generated while
studying and the signals generated while retrieving it. The resultant output cluster
data is given to supervised algorithm. Supervised algorithm learns about the signals
generated while studying and the signals generated while retrieving based on the
information given by the unsupervised algorithm. After taking decision as studying,
the unsupervised algorithm again plays a major role. While studying, the signal
generated at the synapse portion is obtained by the device and amplifies it and then
stores it as clusters. Thus while retrieving those clusters are again feed to the
particular region.

Fig 3.7: Unsupervised Learning Cluster Formation

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After training these algorithms programming certain conditions are made as
follows. If unsupervised algorithm detects the input as studying signal 1161. This full
text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET
2016 conference. Human memory content is stored in Nano memory else If it detects
the input as retrieving signal Nano memory passes information to human memory.
After studying, if we think about the information that we had read, the
supervisor algorithm takes the information signal from the Nano memory and pass it
to the brain and brain respond to the signal. In programming part, while retrieving
based on keywords whole content is provided from Nano memory to brain. Consider
you are studying a book about cricket, then each information you gather will be send
as a signal with a key provided. So if you try to remember the thing you read after a
long time and you remember only a line in 10 lines. Here the keyword plays a major
role and it helps to retrieve the related information quickly which makes time
consumption lesser. Supervised algorithm makes use of these signals as inputs.

Fig 3.8: Data Retrieval from Nano Memory to Human Brain

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Natural memory Implanted memory
In natural memory some neurons are used In implanted memory (NRAM), we can
to represent the states permanently. When store the information by secondary
the information is required these states memory. Here the stored information can
are represented by the brain so we can be received and used by the states of the
remember the past things that are stored registers permanently.
in brain.

While processing the memory, the While processing the memory , the stored
decision making, thinking ideas, states of the registers are used to process
computing solutions can be done by the input to give the certain output and all
neural circuitry and the input which is other processes like decision making,
given to memory is stored and then computing etc.
processed and the output representation
are done by the neuron states.

The processing speed of the memory is Here the processing speed and storage
varied with persons. And Information capacity is same to all persons.
stored is depending upon the persons
memory capacity and IQ.

Table 3.1: Comparison between Natural Memory and Implanted Memory

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CHAPTER 4
SOME COMMON AWARENESS

This device is not recommended for the children below 18 years. This is for
their security. This cannot be disposed easily and the internal crystal is used to
recharge the battery. Since it is a device which is implanted in the brain this device
must connected to the brain in such a way that it cannot affect other organs. Small
damage can even cause severe problems.
Complications of surgery may include:
Bleeding in the brain
Stroke
Infection

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CHAPTER 5
APPLICATIONS

The application of these devices is very wide. Even though they are currently
used only for limited applications, it can be enhanced for in future and its application
may become very large. Some of them are:
Can be used to save our memories.
This device makes it possible to recollect the memories simply as the same
way you felt during that moment. This device makes a revolution in the
thinking of a human
Used for Amnesia patients.
Brain implants, also called neuroprosthetics, are available for medical patients
with specific conditions like Amnesia will helps the patients to recollect their
memory.
Implanted for scientists
Brain implants using for Scientists can make a great achievements for the
future.

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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

Brain is the most complex system in our body. Many researches are
undergoing to create an artificial brain to make use of a robot, which functions with
the intelligence of a human. This device makes it possible to recollect the memories
simply as the same way you felt during that moment. This device makes a revolution
in the thinking of a human. Thus this device can help the humans to take a step
forward in their achievements. In future, solutions for many current problems can find
with the help of this device. Also this device can bring great achievements to future
innovations and it can bring drastic changes in human efforts.

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REFERENCES

[1] Huang, T.W. ; Tainan, Taiwan ; Tian, Y.J. ; Tai, Y.H. ; Sun, K.T, IEEE Paper
:Brain Waves Reflect Your Memories

[2] Sharma, S. ; Dept. of IT, MIET, Meerut, India ; Payal, N. ; Kaushik, A. ;


Goel, N, IEEE Paper: Blue Brain Technology: A Subway to Artificial
Intelligence

[3] Shibata, T. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Inf. Syst., Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo,IEEE
Paper: Implementing brain-like systems using nano functional devices

[4] Real-time supervised structure/parameter learning for fuzzy neural network


Authors: Lin, C.T. ; Sch. of Electr. Eng., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN,
USA ; Lee, C.S.G. Presented on IEEE International Conference 1992

[5] Supervised Neural Network Modeling: An Empirical Investigation Into


Learning From Imbalanced Data With Labeling Errors Authors:
Khoshgoftaar, T.M. ; Dept. of Comput. & Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci.,
Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL, USA ; Van Hulse, J. ; Napolitano,
Presented on Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:21 , Issue: 5 )

[6] Supervised learning for Neural Network using Ant Colony Optimization
Authors: Rathee, R. ; C.R. Polytech., Rohtak, India ; Rani, S. ; Dagar, A.
Presented on International Conference on Optimization, Reliabilty, and
Information Technology (ICROIT), 2014.

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