From First Person to Second Person


Marc Ruppel
Department of Textual and Department of Textual and Digital Studies, University of Maryland,
Digital Studies, 2107
Susquehanna Hall,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742,

Downloaded from at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23, 2017

First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, procedural, interactive, and simulative qualities of
and Game. Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin’s ‘new media’, and the related production and
(eds). Cambridge, MA/London: The MIT Press, 2004. incorporation of narrative content within these
331 pp. ISBN: 0-262-23232-4. £25.95 (hardback). objects. Obviously, since not all digital and electro-
Second Person: Role-playing and Story in Games nic media research centers around story, First Person
and Playable Media. Pat Harrigan and Noah and Second Person are clearly targeted towards those
Wardrip-Fruin’s (eds). Cambridge, MA/London: working in the humanities, particularly the fields of
The MIT Press, 2007. 408 pp. ISBN: 978-0-262- narratology, textual studies, and digital studies. The
08356-0. £29.95 (hardback). title First Person is, in many ways, positioned as an
First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, indicator of the content within—i.e. first person
and Game (2004) and Second Person: Role-playing video games, first person narration, first person
and Story in Games and Playable Media (2007) are interaction, just as Second Person claims that it is all
two compelling collections of essays that seek to about the ‘YOU’ of these objects. Neither really get
examine the enormous impact that electronic, close to examining either first or second person
digital, and, more broadly, interactive technologies perspectives, though, and these titles act as nothing
and practices have had on the production of literary more than placeholders for the content within. First
knowledge and narrative. Each collection manages Person and Second Person, however, are uniquely
in its own way to provide a snapshot or, perhaps related in that they are each meant to be read with
more fittingly, a screengrab of the state of the Electronic Book Review’s companion website
contemporary media studies and, consequently, where readers can find longer, more thoughtful
each possesses distinct albeit often implicit biases responses to the pieces in this collection. In short,
towards the means through which we begin to reviewing both First Person and Second Person—the
situate the proliferation of ‘new media’. Having the printed books—is to exclude the wide-range of
chance to review these texts together provides an valuable and ongoing discourse that accompanies
opportunity to address what might be a more these texts online, and omit any discussion of a
gripping angle of examination than a simple survey model for future academic publishing that is truly
of content—the possibility that the movement from multimedia in design. My review, however, will
First Person to Second Person represents a funda- unfortunately do exactly this, as there is too little
mental shift in our understanding of ‘new media’ space with which to discuss the more nuanced
and ‘new’ media, story, and play, and our methods arguments put forth online.
for studying these fields. In more ways than one, First Person exists as a
Although there are some obvious and important relic of sorts of the early years of new media studies.
differences between these two collections, one of the Even from an organizational and material stand-
more pronounced similarities is an overarching point, we can see the remnants of prior concerns.
concern about the relationship between the Unlike Second Person, each essay in First Person

Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2008. ß The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on 231
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org/ at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. As one of the more pro- literary meaning. media game-story relationships. Of course. characters. which outlines a case for why the what he calls the pervading ‘narrativism’ of game digital medium is well-suited to gaming activities. and. Echoing Murray. then. meanwhile. needs a refinement of the spaces in attention.) rather than the strength and weakness. but in another sense. but nonetheless. discussing electronic gaming. situation’ of having both a narrator and a narratee. the sheer scope of the First Person’s eight approach.e. studies. No. Ken addresses the unique representational properties of Perlin’s ‘Can There Be a Form Between a Game digital and electronic media. In both cases. echoes Perlin’s concerns. and hints at a more pronounced problem with the discusses the means through which narrative Downloaded from http://llc. In any agency as a notion through which video games given chapter. namely the fact that there is a becomes the constraints through which agency real tension between the immense scope of the text’s (formulated here as a balance between formal and proposed subject and the methodologies through material constraints) functions and prospers. and attributes the difficulties to studying First Person’s initial concerns are overwhelmingly games to questions pertaining to genre of the tailored toward exploring the dynamics of new hermeneutical paradigms of study (i. Still. paper that allows these media to ing. then. and semiotic) and of an electronic the player in relation to the development of story in game’s demands for a simulational hermeneutic that electronic environments. rules. there might be two or even depend and he argues that any visual narrative form. we are discussing systems of play. ning with Janet Murray’s ‘From Game-Story to Furthering this thought. three competing opinions clamoring for one’s especially games. control and dictate it. Ludology. with comments ranging from perceptive which agency is located. the essays in First Person the efficacy of studying games as narrative objects. their significant ways. etc. this is the both the text’s biggest procedurality. it seems. the the operating systems. Game Theories. Suitably begin. more generally speaking. Beyond Chat. 2. moves from agency to the structures in games that and/or reduce story and. Although ‘new ‘Cyberdrama’ as it is defined here. a 232 Literary and Linguistic Computing. induce. represent (or re-present) many of the concerns that with proponents of ludology advocating instead that the field continues to grapple with. a narrative. textual. and New Read. Michael Mateas’ ‘A to obstinate. Critical Simula. speaking about the text nounced points of contest within new media over some 4 years removed does make this claim a bit less the past few years. too often the user/player’s actions as well as their experience these hermeneutics are incomplete. in the wholly theoretical gray area that existed (and And in some sense. Espen Aarseth addresses Cyberdrama’. it Games’. software. of simulation. Hypertexts. story components (i. plot. seems to media’ studies as they existed in 2004 and exist now espouse a dialectic of enactment. as well as the role of narratological. makes the claim in his essay ‘Towards sections—Cyberdrama. the ludological debate addresses forceful. Computer Game Studies’ that ‘a story. 37) to qualify a game as The Pixel/The Line. in authors would argue that without this understand- some cases. a backstory tions. performance Eskelinen. 2008 . 23. or a plot is not enough’ (p. and Interactives. First Person is undeniably fixed with no human element whatsoever. that is exactly what we find in still exists) between the study of digital/electronic the next section. As such. function. this attempt at remediation is Preliminary Poetics for Interactive Drama and commendable (if intrusive). one of the earliest supporters of this and game’. where the shift in focus objects. Markku examination of ‘new media’ as ‘story. Vol. one that positions are undeniably hermeneutical in nature. And in it is the formal properties of video games (i. their contested ability to produce.oxfordjournals. hardware. as games often lack the ‘narrative ings—suggests a much wider focus. conflict) Although the subtitle of First Person purports the that should dominate one’s focus. ‘Ludology’.e. which these subjects is studied. and a Story’ introduces the concept of personal tors. Ruppel is coupled with responses from other commenta. objectives.M. Here. providing only of agency both within and outside of the game space an abstracted philosophical approach with little by as one of the most important elements when way of the nuts and bolts of the objects themselves. 2017 content of the book.e. not unlike a Weblog allows for now.

and the Ethics of Simulation’. it becomes apparent that while the first half of the tion of video games that reflect and tackle social. here. as its power is somewhat muted by its dist- Downloaded from http://llc. 2008 233 . an argument. and in highly ludological piece that centers on the doing so ratifies the editors’ implicit agreement differentiation of time-states in games (Juul even with both Aarseth and Eskelinen. Take Henry Jenkins’ under the subject of authorial choice and ‘reader’ Literary and Linguistic Computing. Though it does games simulations. while a push towards establishing game that it is space that is tantamount in games not studies as a wholly new field of study. Along with spot in contemporary game studies—that of the Jenkins’ essay. Vol. the second half is instead a potential for research into schizophrenia occurring much less coherent survey with no discernable build through the study of AI techniques (Sengers). Although remembers that every collection of this sort is. renowned hypertext theorist and producer Mark zling divisions in First Person. These consequences that came before it. Although the essays Bernstein’s collaboration with Diane Greco about present here are for the most part solid. presenting a very persuasive case moted. it is not so much when one seminal hypertext fiction Twelve Blue. hits the reset button quite Although Penny’s argument relies too heavily on literally and jettisons everything that was built the commentary of a retired Lieutenant-Colonel towards at this point. makes a game interesting. Games’. No. is not without con. collection was at least partially unified under the political. marks the first of several puz. Play and body and its reflexes in the course of gameplay. carry the same pedagogical power Theory of Game’ positions her arguments ludolog- as training simulators such as those in use by the ically but without explicit mention to the field. Eric military through their insistent implication of the Zimmerman’s ‘Narrative. Simon Penny’s essay ‘Representation. on the ways in which stories can be brought about the essay does point towards an interesting blind. in argument. a gesture that posits all Hargadon discussing the merits of a schema-based that occurred before should not be considered game approach to studying ‘interactives’. 2. through subsequent essays dealing with the crea. and narratology. even if it feels almost like a when divesting other means of research in favor of footnote following the heavy emphasis on ludology a simulational approach. From an organizational seem not only desirable but also necessary. and are reflected As we transition to ‘Hypertexts and Interactives’.oxfordjournals. meanwhile. of Harrigan and Wardrip-Fruin make the point that course. From First Person to Second Person resistance against what Aarseth calls the ‘theoretical essay ‘Game Design as Narrative Architecture’. standpoint. where the only simply for simulation purposes but also study of the formal properties of electronic games for narrative potential. we find essays ranging from ‘Game Theories’. argues that ‘interactive entertainments’. 2017 makes the move towards an incorporation of both ance from Aarseth and Eskelinen’s essays. ‘Critical Simulation’. in order to frame game experiences. just as Celia Pierce’s ‘Towards a Game as he calls them. the human and computational elements in a Jesper Juul’s ‘Introduction to Game Time’ is a discussion of socially situated gaming. 23. though. it is clear that Juul’s Enaction. extend outside of the body. for concerns are somewhat in-line with earlier sections example. colonialism’ (p. Although my position here might includes everything from Myst to Michael Joyce’s seem a bit nit-picky. of the text. not offer an insight into its own question of what at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. the next section. a term that theory (it is). Yellowlees Douglas and Andrew is at first a confusing one. Similarly. the the creation of alternative hypertextual systems to a designation of ‘Game Theories’ as a separate section later essay by J. and the philosophical consequences found to this point. 54) of the academy’s entrenched which deftly negotiates the divide between ludology positions—narrative and visual studies—is pro. Zimmerman’s piece offers a lucid physical ramifications of investing oneself in a alternative to the strictly ludological perspectives simulation. and cultural ills (Frasca) as well as the guise of game studies. it makes no sense to include this piece Fittingly. Here. Calling video runs a blog called ‘The Ludologist’). preferring to focus instead who used to work in the desensitization of soldiers. Interactivity. where what is not said is often these essays and others in the section are united as important as what is said.

It also. 2008 . focusing instead on the systems that create meaning points towards a direction that ‘new media’ studies (i. Instead. the content in this section is hypertext makes sense. ‘The Pixel/The Line’. The problem is that by versations taken from these spaces and makes mines the end of the section. we are no closer to them for (dis)connections. extended theoretical musings on the topics ranging That is.oxfordjournals. for much of the remainder of First technologies as well as the technical and sociological Person. agreement. recognition chips. 2017 chosen by each of the writers here. equally well-reasoned examination of interaction in In Warren Sack’s ‘What Does a Large-Scale new media objects positions hypertexts next to what Conversation Look Like?’. First Person opens itself up to a tangle of sation. forcing ‘new media’ studies’ often issues he experienced in designing his Conversation narrow view of hypertexts to undergo a reappraisal Map system. Strickland’s ‘Moving Through Me as I Move’. as a result. and that the inordinate emphasis that the interactive much in the same way that Bernstein and majority of these essays place on a theoretical Greco preface their essay with a treatise on why approach is only distancing us further in some ways many ‘interactives’ should be considered hypertext. The problem here is not in their media’ artifacts. looking for commonalities in the software/code and this book seldom travel. Although Can Talk to Things. Natalie Jeremijenko’s understanding what makes an object a hypertext ‘If Things Can Talk. for At the risk of repeating myself. Jeremijenko’s piece brings a much- identity and focus. I think that what we see welcome intrusion of ‘Beyond Chat’. which takes a here—and what plagues much of this collection—is much more materially grounded approach to the that in privileging the theoretical over the technical/ subject matter—interdisciplinary perspectives on material. 234 Literary and Linguistic Computing. theoretical dimensions of Sack’s examination of Perhaps the point here is to obfuscate easy Usenet groups. however. the editors’ relationship to text (i. one cannot help poetics.e.e. introduced needed breath of fresh air to this collection. Vol. provides several as much as it directs it towards a common goal. it is clear that this perspective textualities of the page cannot be used to describe hinders the discussion of hypertext and interactives the ‘new’ textualities of new media. 2. No. Rather as an examination of the means through which ‘old’ than concerning itself with voice recognition in. from the substrata and potentials of these ‘new and vise-versa. movements in electronic textual spaces ence sits uneasily alongside the examples that are (Utterback) to the recombinant possibilities of Downloaded from at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. works toward expanding but feel that by this stage. we find nothing of the sort in potentials for research in voice chips and speech this text. we find not only the we might more commonly call video games. it works. it is worth noting example.M. that while once again each of these essays are well- tions. Stephanie interactive text in a virtual environment (Seaman). In her essay. say. that is created for these objects) could begin to Jeremijenko thoroughly outlines the numerous rectify this problem. discusses the nature of word/image rela. the proposed focus of this section is from a refutation of Kittler’s position on our theoretical. but also the practical and empirical categorizations. as both make useful cases for the objects This feeling is somewhat vindicated by the of their studies. something crucial is the scope of what should be considered hypertext/ missing. What Do They Say? If We or interactive and another something else. letters/digits) in digital/ claim that hypertext perspectives lend themselves electronic environments (Cayley) to embodied naturally to an examination of the reading experi. Since so much of the first half of First Person mixed messages about what ‘new media’ objects is focused on the conditions under which story and should be classified as. which aggregates and correlates con- and in this regard. So while Bernstein and literary production is constrained and directed Greco’s appraisal of their Card Shark system as through new media. Documenting the history of these As a result. Ruppel comprehension. What Do We Say?’. 23. as acts as a survey of sorts of interactive crafted contributions to the field. Douglas and Hargadon’s jarring in a way that the rest of the book is not. we are left struggling to find the book’s bases for their. meanwhile. even with essays from the creators of such electronically enabled communication and conver- objects. not material and.

becoming more rampant but. the same rules that she might be while playing a muttering towards its vocabularies.oxfordjournals. electronic literature. narrow view of the field. as much as we might try. books. is clear quite early on that the category of ‘playable Narrative. searching for its shining examples. and Literary and Linguistic Computing. and hypertext the relationships between media. No. This is not simply to say that remediation is major blindspot in the field. Play in its most general sense In short. First Person represents to me a reflection of is open-ended. like limited space of focus of Second Person is purported to be ‘Role. and structures Downloaded from http://llc. but of world building. 2. story. procedurality. And even though not every not necessarily materially bound to. we are really discussing the dynamics ‘new’ modes of praxis that are influenced by. the sandbox is only But whereas First Person feeds too often into the so big. so to ably epicenters within the field’s growth. is infinite in its capacity for media’ is really a way of moving past the space. it is undeniable that the field has already structure that contrasts somewhat to the formal become over fixated on a small body of concerns. and it contains only so much at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. digital and essay in Second Person inherently deals with this electronic technologies. of an openness of media’. away from the simulative and procedural feel that there is a very real possibility for growth environments of the computer and into a territory within the field tied explicitly to the rapidly too often neglected by ‘new media’ studies. instead. To reiterate. although the objects discussed constraints and mechanisms through which infor- in Second Person have roots that can be traced back mation can be filtered and disseminated—the centuries (i. game of hide-and-seek. In short. Vol. its predominant focus on new media as links. worlds created through narrative are limited only mance). that the namely. Although a narrative functions much in the limitations that the term ‘new media’ brought to same way as a medium does—by providing First Person. In doing changing relationships between ‘old’ media and so. Similarly. the book remember that ‘new media’ studies is not all about provides us with a far better understanding of digital gaming. and need not have a beginning or a field still working with the definitions of its end. Still. although each of these subjects are undeni- instead chooses to take this discussion ‘offline’. cards. as a result. Although the as sandbox play. it material boundaries. 23. a shift media’ scholars look away from the flickering signi. 2008 235 . And here is where we find objects and practices they provide us with a one of the more interesting unspoken facets of different means through which to view ‘new’ Second Person: the possibility that when discussing media—that of the relational sense of the term. the dynamics of playable media. we cannot work outside of the medium’s Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media’. is never either. Indeed. This is not just ‘old’ media playing catch-up. A child at play in a sandbox is not subject to boundaries. I might add. however. and a much-needed one at that. a sandbox. she not only points toward what I believe is a ‘new’. but also in this text. improvised perfor. structures of games. Seldom do ‘new shift from First Person to Second Person. Rather. Jeremijenko links. role-playing. then. And while we may argue about whether some of Tied to the idea of a relational definition of ‘new’ these technologies should even be considered ‘new media is the concept of play. From First Person to Second Person video games and or online fictions. Just as Wardrip-Fruin and Harrigan are being interpreted through more traditional lament that hypertext is often too narrowly con. I speak. Second Person corrects play within a medium can be equally as open-ended this error by expanding its scope. from new media to playable media. networks. where ‘old’ media artifacts come into contact with and story. It is a redefinition on every level of the truly defined in this collection) is also too narrowly dynamics of a medial ecology. concept of ‘new media’ (which. 2017 only existing inside the space of computer-driven provided by digital and electronic technologies technologies. the majority do and. however. media as new means of communicating informa- ceived within the field. represents the fiers of their computer screens to focus instead on profound possibilities for a partial paradigm shift other means of digital and electronic expression. it helps to process. in the context of more ‘contemporary’ by one’s imagination. within the field. so too might we say that the tion. the conceived in its formulations.

The games (RPGs). What we get at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. this collection to active players and creators of the Although these examples are a somewhat standard objects of discussion. and design decisions that went As much as my criticisms about First Person into making a particular playable object (here we centered on its organization. The first section. it is a dynamic. Any discussion Fictions’.oxfordjournals. narrative is generated. Second Person to address the issue in the context of non-electronic invites us instead to dive right in and engage in the spaces. this makes Second Person far more distanced description and theorization of existing directed than First Person. Whereas the first thoroughly satisfied by a discussion of production? four sections of First Person might have been Because play is open-ended. which attempts itself. ‘Computational subsequently. In this sense. we find conclusions that are. Second Person contains only three thematic create the conditions with which role-playing and. the logic of First Person. or came to be. it is important to note Downloaded from http://llc. triumphs. after we move into a future. In this regard. where process provide a significant and necessary counterpoint to and record is more important than theorization. First Person struggles with the question of what a ‘Tabletop Systems’. combined into one coherent section called ‘Game and wholly subjective experience that can help to Theory’. such as in Dungeons & Dragons tabletop objects of discussion. then. In its place. It is worth noting that the world in which play happens built?’ First Person’s concerns about the relationship This is possibly best exemplified by the inclusion between games and stories are addressed here right in Second Person of three full role-playing or from the outset in Greg Costikyan’s ‘Games. 2017 might say that Second Person is much more ground. same problems by simply loosening the scope of So why is it that a discussion of play can be so each section to a sufficient scale. and very rarely any projections we might make with regards to its the opposite. This type of intent does not means of interrogating the story/game divide. 2. 23. more intimate collection that shifts our focus from Paradoxically. Vol. ‘storytelling’ games in the appendices of the book Storytelling and Breaking the String’. an interpretive gives us two access points to play: one based in framework) as it is a collection of first person narratives of a play space’s construction. struggles. Second Person discourse on preexisting worlds (i. Within each of these of the creation of a play space. allow for traditional new media hermeneutics such Costikyan.) role playing the question of how a game is. Second Person is less a theoretical produced within it. can we begin to objects. although there are a variety of question of ‘How is it played?’ is perhaps more perspectives here on objects that might not be fittingly repositioned for Second Person as ‘How is considered role-playing at all. mutable. we also find a much more varied set of that helps us to understand the conditions through essays—forty-seven in total as compared with the which play functions. focuses primarily on works game is (at least in regards to mechanics and story) that are more typically called traditional paper- while Second Person chooses instead to address based (in the form of books. then. 2008 . Costikyan’s ideas might call a ‘theory of the present’. inapplicable something much closer to what Lev Manovich to digital games. himself a noted RPG designer. cards. where most essays made the and the material object as-is is more important than case for something being new media. tenuous and subjective unifying element of ‘playable’ tion of the process involved in building these spaces. Julio Cortázar’s Hopscotch (1966) and the move here. draws as those found in First Person. is a discussion sections. one that takes us from passive readers of Choose Your Own Adventure books of the 1980’s. for the most part. media as an organizing principle. Ruppel our role as both creators and consumers of these process of creating a play space. Immediately. even with the somewhat spaces and the rules defining them to an examina. the other as accounts from authors and designers about the participants within this space.e. and ‘Real Worlds’. etc. Only through actively understanding the series of unusual and stimulating essays about the 236 Literary and Linguistic Computing.M. No. This is a small but crucial RPGs. from the outset that Second Person avoids these ed in first-person perspective than First Person is). Rather than simply discuss play. is a far twenty-five primary essays in First Person. understand the means through which meaning is Consequently. divisions: ‘Tabletop Systems’.

viously unchartered territory. but instead in the reconciliation story situations to be evident. Martin details the fascinating process of motivation and creation of his Flash piece Pax. Vol. ‘Computational Fictions’. space of the computer. in ‘My Life and Andrew Stern’s ‘Writing Façade’. Although Tynes’ case here is a themselves.R. Eric Zimmerman’s creator-authored nature of these pieces provides a ‘Creating a Meaning-Machine: The Deck of Stories multiplicity of viewpoints that cohere on several Called Life in the Garden’ describes the development important levels. Later. From First Person to Second Person creation of particular RPG systems and narrative ‘player-character’ in his own interactive fiction and worlds. and in several others on such spaces.oxfordjournals. each related to creating literary meaning in an electronic working separately within the constructs of a place. In George R. in turn. John Tynes. In short. the system of computer persuasive one. that ‘What makes computer games different than other ‘engagist’ media such as video games allow partici- games?’. Walker). 2. ranging from Jordan Mechner’s topics ranging from improvised theater (Uren) to description of the hurdles encountered when World of Warcraft (Mortensen. is that computer pants to acquire and question knowledge of the games take on the mechanics of game states world around them. of the boundaries of each particular world. creator of the Puppetland RPG. and Munchausen RPG. there is a defined emphasis on the plurality of ‘Real Worlds’ shifts this discussion into a pre- meanings resulting from structures that rise organi. in part. space and goals—function even definitions of ‘real’ to be found here. 23. that is. In these essays. what tethered to traditional media. In some instances. the primary being that within the of his ‘interactive paper book’. writes in ‘Prismatic cess. such as in Michael Mateas loosely established storyworld. the process of with Master: The Architecture of Protagonism’. is simply play given formal goals of reality and our heightened access to worlds and state-oriented structure. means a symbiosis between a computer mediation Gameplay. procedural or narrative. creating meaning within a simulated world becomes Downloaded from http://llc. Their answer. provides flattening of the organizing element—computa- guidance and freedom with which to play within a tional fictions—as well as the predominantly world. the fully: simplicity of design which. 2008 237 . it is but one of many of the games—its rules. No. What follows in this outside of this mediation. Whereas without a player’s complete understanding of them. building the universe of the Wild Cards book series as well as all the untidy issues of play and writing in collaboration with several other authors. Martin’s ‘On the Wild Cards Stuart Mouthrop’s playful description of the Series’. the majority of the essays in this section mediated world. for Ian Bogost and Gonzalo have less to do with the theoretical ramifications of Frasca in ‘Video Games Go to Washington: The such a statement and more to do with the creation Story Behind The Howard Dean for Iowa Game’ it of environments in which (game)play can happen. we witness acting as lead designer of Prince of Persia for the a shifting relationship to the ‘real’ as well as the Playstation 2. The essays here start some- games are. Jill Walker argues in ‘A Network of Quests Literary and Linguistic Computing. detail how a game can restructure and impact an Nick Montfort’s eloquent account of creating the election. follows a similar pro. and desks and into the spaces that we normally more importantly. after at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. with Harrigan and Wardrip-Fruin asking Play: Games as Windows on the Real World’. designer of the well-regarded Baron one where story meaning spurs game design. not goal oriented in the way that consider unmediated. these essays might seem somewhat disparate. namely the political section are first person accounts of the creation of process. stressing that a well. 2017 Paul Czege. Lee Sheldon’s discussion of the forces that structure it. In each case men. be they tioned here. and many others within the chapter. Breaking from RPGs. one of the more difficult established storyworld (in this case the Garden of aims of incorporating stories and games lies not in Eden) is necessary in order for coherent play within the programming. details the process through which not the opposite. although on the surface he feels story-making games function most success. away from our screens cally from a world whose design is open-ended and. While Bogost and Frasca process of adapting Agatha Christie as a PC game. reality for Tynes means anything outside of a Yet even so.

it must be said that just as I have computer. In some ways. In previous models. Mission. again. it is clear that the narrative is some combination of a medium’s field’s continuing maturation is a result of a much communicative capabilities and the imaginative less hermetically sealed approach to the potentially boundaries introduced in the story itself. an arrangement of elements that the chewing gum out of his mouth. code. both texts are essential to the park these words direct us to. particularly digital and electronic expression needs to first begin massively multiplayer online role playing games with these sorts of accounts. . when is that. reflected throughout the volume. Matthew G. sion. 23. Lev Manovich (2001) laments the loss of the structuring of this world. and other areas where they would be media of hard drives to the formal materialities of given small snippets of narrative information that. however. And in this regard. not each text’s corresponding websites—discussions media.’ (p. . 7).M. saved a short animation of stars Jane McGonigal’s important work in alternate moving across the night sky. individuals. the ongoing discussions facilitated by Narrative here becomes a unifying factor.oxfordjournals. not the ones and zeroes of basic binary. understanding of the unified role that hardware Although we might now more casually call these and software design plays in creative output. majority of contemporary ‘new’ and ‘new media’ sited narrative. which acts as a hub of and the Forensic Imagination (2008). The bottom line here moments of explosive creation in ‘new media’. In the course of her essay. what McGonigal and media’ production from the standpoint of the others like her are doing is redefining the limits of corporations. we are no longer tied to technologies. Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost’s when assembled online in chat rooms and on (eds) series Platform Studies seeks to come to an message boards. even one as expressive as a In the end. At the sorts of things ‘viral marketing’. 2. Ruppel in World of Warcraft’ that many games. In a important step for the field of ‘new media’ to take. We advocated for a more open discussion of production must then consider the possibility of a truly practices. play within mediated worlds is always ‘a twenty-something programmer at Netscape took a construction. what I call a cross. with complicated choices present for Media. This is no more clear than in small file size. for clues investigates and outlines an approach to the most and GPS locations that would direct them to parks. their impact is macro end of the spectrum. so too must we remember that the multiply mediated storyworld. (MMORPGs) are already wholly structured worlds In the introduction to The Language of New in themselves. that we. and cultural forces what literature and narrative can be through a responsible for transforming narrative and expres- digital model of distribution. with the advent of I Love Bees and cultural/economic orientations have on expressive other such phenomena. No. 2017 world of play itself. Vol. are encouraged to participate Any future idealizations about the potential of in—points towards what I think is the future of 238 Literary and Linguistic Computing. (at least that we know of yet). Similarly. this general concern is Based Gaming’. This is an the development of this rapidly growing field. 2008 . basic matter of ‘new media’. Henry Jenkins’ much more important than just a commercial Convergence Culture (2006) investigates ‘new endeavor. a book which communication and narrative aggregation. massive effects that both baseline materialities and Now. similar sense. finally satisfied with its Downloaded from http://llc. a single medium. and. from the magnetic phone booths. of textual/material studies that ‘new media’ research the lead-in component to the launch of Microsoft’s is currently undergoing. where the words on a computer interaction is done without knowledge of such screen comingle with the smell of freshly cut grass in things. in order to make narrative meaning. Although there reality games (ARGs). sipped warm allow for user agency both within and outside of the Coke out of a can . Regardless of the orientation. Recently. Halo 2 for the Xbox video game system that had Kirschenbaum published Mechanisms: New Media players scouring the at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. We might even McGonigal details the complex process of creating call it one component of the burgeoning swing and enacting the alternate reality game I Love Bees. would form a coherent story. recalled here in ‘The Puppet are not any moments of this scale in Second Person Master Problem: Design for Real-World. as readers.

org/ at Mihai Eminescu Central University Library of Iasi on January 23. H. 23. (2008). literature. adapted and become reflections of an ever-changing Jenkins. Downloaded from http://llc. and all those use New Media Intersect. L. Literary and Linguistic Computing. 2. our discuss- Manovich. Cambridge. MA/London: The MIT Press. G. (2001). 2017 them. Mechanisms. Vol. New Media our networks. and spread through Kirschenbaum. MA/London: resemble what they once were but instead have The MIT Press. From First Person to Second Person academic publishing. M. Cambridge. grow. 2008 239 .oxfordjournals. Convergence Culture: Where Old and landscape of media. No. Although the monograph is References still a valuable commodity in academia. New York: NYU Press. The Language of New Media. ions of a given topic need not end there. online and off. they should proliferate. until they no longer and the Forensic Imagination. Indeed. (2006).