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Support Tutorial Step 1 3-1

Support Tutorial Step 1

12 MPa 8 MPa

-35

external boundary expansion factor = 3

InthisfirststepoftheSupporttutorial,theabovemodelwillbecreated
andanalyzedwithoutsupport.Bothelasticandplasticanalyseswillbe
carriedout.Support(boltsandshotcrete)willbeaddedinStep2ofthe
SupportTutorial.

Ifyouwishtoskipthemodelprocess,thefinishedproductofStep1ofthe
SupportTutorial(withplasticmaterialparameters)canbefoundinthe
Tutorial03Support1.fezdatafile.AlltutorialfilesinstalledwithRS2
9.0canbeaccessedbyselectingFile>RecentFolders>TutorialsFolder
fromtheRS2mainmenu.

Model

Thismodelrepresentsahorseshoeshapedtunnelofabout5meterspan,
tobeexcavatedinheavilyjointedrock.Therockisdescribedas
blocky/seamy,ofpoorquality,andwillrequiresupporttoprevent
collapse.

Ifyouhavenotalreadydoneso,runtheRS2Modelprogrambydouble
clickingontheRS2iconinyourinstallationfolder.OrfromtheStart
menu,selectPrograms Rocscience RS29.0 RS2.

RS2 v.9.0 Tutorial Manual


Entering Boundaries
Forthisexample,thecoordinatesdefiningthetunnelcrosssectionhave
alreadybeensavedinDXFformat,becauseofthelargenumberof
verticeswhichwereusedtoaccuratelydefinethecrosssection.Therefore
ratherthanentercoordinatesmanually,wewillsimplyreadinaDXF
filecontainingtheexcavationgeometry.

Select: File Import Import DXF

NavigatetotheRS29.0Examples>Tutorialsfolderandopenthe
Tutorial03Tunnel.dxffile.NOTE:thefilepathdependsonyour
operatingsystem,forexample:

Windows7/8:C:\Users\Public\Public
Documents\Rocscience\RS29.0Examples\Tutorials

WindowsXP:C:\DocumentsandSettings\AllUsers\Shared
Documents\Rocscience\RS29.0Examples\Tutorials

TheDXFimportdialogshouldshowapreviewofthetunnel(excavation)
coordinatesintheDXFfile.SelectOK.

YouwillnowseetheGeometryCleanupdialog.SelectOKandyouwill
seeamessagedialogwiththeresultsofthecleanup.SelectOK(theDXF
filewehaveimporteddidnotrequireanycleanup).Ingeneral,running
GeometryCleanupisrecommendedafterDXFimport.SeetheRS2help
formoreinformationaboutGeometryCleanup.

Theexcavationboundaryisnowdisplayedonthescreen.Nowaddthe
externalboundary.

Select: Boundaries Add External


Wewillusethedefaultparameters,sojustselectOKtoautomatically
createaBOXexternalboundarywithanexpansionfactorof3.

Thiscompletestheentryofboundariesforthisexample,sowewill
proceedtothemeshing.

Meshing
Forthismodel,wewillusethedefaultMeshSetupparameters.Sincewe
donotneedtocustomizethediscretizationoftheboundaries,wewilluse
theDiscretizeandMeshshortcut,whichautomaticallydiscretizesthe
boundariesandgeneratesthemeshwithasinglemouseclick.

SelecttheMeshworkflowtab,thenselectDiscretizeandMeshfrom
thetoolbarortheMeshmenu.

Select: Mesh Discretize & Mesh


Themeshwillbegeneratedandthestatusbarwillshowthenumberof
nodesandelementsinthemesh.

Boundary Conditions
Forthistutorial,noboundaryconditionsneedtobespecifiedbytheuser.
Thedefaultboundaryconditionwillthereforebeineffect,whichisa
fixed(i.e.zerodisplacement)conditionfortheexternalboundary.

Field Stress
Forthistutorialwewilluseaconstantfieldstress.SelecttheLoads&
Restraintsworkflowtab,thenselectFieldStressfromthetoolbaror
theLoadingmenu.

Select: Loading Field Stress


IntheFieldStressdialogenterSigma1=12MPa,Sigma3=8,SigmaZ
=10,andenteranAngleof35degrees(notetheminussign!)

Noticethatthestressblockindicatestherelativemagnitudeand
directionoftheinplaneprincipalstressesyouentered.Notethatthe
angleyouenteristhecounterclockwiseangleofSigma1fromthe
horizontalaxis.Anegativecounterclockwiseangleisequivalenttoa
positiveclockwiseangle(+35degreesinthiscase),ascanbeseenfromthe
stressblock.

Properties
Fortheinitialanalysis,wewillbedefiningtherockmassaselastic.
SelecttheMaterials&Stagingworkflowtab,thenselectDefine
MaterialsfromthetoolbarorthePropertiesmenu.

Select: Properties Define Materials

WiththefirstmaterialselectedinthelistattheleftoftheDefine
MaterialPropertiesdialog,enterthefollowingrockmassproperties.

EnterName=phyllite.UndertheStrengthtabenterthefollowing
parameters:

FailureCriterion=GeneralizedHoekBrown
MaterialType=Elastic
Comp.Strength=50
mb(peak)=0.43
s(peak)=0.00006
a(peak)=0.5
UndertheStiffnesstabenter:

YoungsModulus=1120
PoissonsRatio=0.3

Sincewedefinedthepropertieswiththefirstmaterialselected,wedonot
havetoassignthemtothemodel.RS2automaticallyassignsthe
propertiesofthefirstmaterialtoallfiniteelementsofthemodel.
(PropertyassignmentiscoveredindetailintheMaterialsandStaging
tutorial).

However,westillhavetoexcavatetheelementsinsidetheexcavation
boundary.ThiscanbedonewiththeAssignPropertiesdialog.

Select: Properties Assign Properties


1. SelecttheExcavatebuttonintheAssigndialog.

2. Clickthemouseinsidetheexcavation(tunnel)boundary.The
elementswilldisappear,indicatingthatthetunnelis
excavated.

3. NowclosetheAssigndialog.

TIP:excavationandmaterialassignmentcanalsobedoneusingthe
rightclickshortcutasillustratedbelow.

Rightclickshortcutformaterial/excavationassignment
Wearefinishedwiththemodelingandcanruntheanalysis.Yourmodel
shouldappearasshowninthefollowingfigure.

FinishedmodelRS2SupportTutorial(Step1).

Compute

Beforeyouanalyzeyourmodel,saveitasafilecalledsupport1.fez.

Select: File Save


UsetheSaveAsdialogtosavethefile.Youarenowreadytorunthe
analysis.

Select: Analysis Compute


TheRS2Computeenginewillproceedinrunningtheanalysis.When
completed,youwillbereadytoviewtheresultsinInterpret.
Interpret

StarttheRS2Interpretprogram:

Select: Analysis Interpret


Letsfirstviewthestrengthfactorcontours.SelectStrengthFactorfrom
thetoolbardatalist.

Select:
Letscustomizethecontoursandaddsomecontourlabels.Rightclickand
selectContourOptions.IntheContourOptionsdialog,enterNumberof
Intervals=7,Mode=Filled(withLines),selectDone.AddsomeContour
Labelsasshowninthefigurebelow.

Support Tutorial
Elastic Analysis

StrengthFactorContours,afterelasticanalysis.

Strengthfactorrepresentstheratioofavailablerockmassstrengthto
inducedstress,atagivenpoint.Youwillimmediatelynoticethelarge
zoneofoverstresssurroundingthetunnel.Alloftherockcontained
withinthecontourmarked1,hasastrengthfactor(basedontheelastic
analysisresults)lessthan1,andwillfailifleftunsupported.

DeletetheContourLabelsusingTools DeleteAllTools.

Nowletsviewthedisplacements.

Select:
Noticethemaximumdisplacementdisplayedinthestatusbar.

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.03829 m

Zoomin,andtogglethedisplacementvectorson.

Select: View Zoom Zoom Excavation


Select: View Display Options

IntheDisplayOptionsdialog,toggleDeformationVectorson,entera
ScaleFactorof10,andselectDone.

Displacementcontoursandvectorsaroundexcavation(elasticanalysis).

Theelasticdisplacementsshowaninwarddisplacementofthetunnel
walls,aswellasasignificantfloorheave.

Nowthatwehavedetermined,fromtheelasticanalysis,thattheregion
ofoverstressissignificant,wewillmoveontotheplasticanalysisofthis
problem.

Model

FromInterpret,switchbacktotheRS2Modelprogram:

Select: Analysis Model

Wewillnowdefinetherockmasstobeplastic,andreruntheanalysis.

Select: Properties Define Materials


IntheDefineMaterialPropertiesdialog,toggletheMaterialTypeto
Plastic,andenterresidualmb,sandaparametersequaltothepeak
parameters.Thisdefinesthematerialasideallyelasticplastic(i.e.no
strengthdroponceyieldisreached).SelectOK.

Wearenowreadytoreruntheanalysis.

Compute

Beforeyouanalyzeyourmodel,letssavethisasanewfilecalled
support2.fez.(MakesureyouselectSaveAsandnotSave,oryouwill
overwritethesupport1.fezfile).

Select: File Save As

Savethefileassupport2.fez.

Select: Analysis Compute


TheRS2Computeenginewillproceedinrunningtheanalysis.When
completed,youwillbereadytoviewtheresultsinInterpret.

Interpret

FromModel,switchbacktoInterpret.

Select: Analysis Interpret


Letsviewthestrengthfactorcontours.
Select:

Noticetheentireregionaroundtheexcavationhasstrengthfactor
approximatelyequalto1.Foraplasticanalysis,whenfailure(yielding)
occurs,thestrengthfactorisbydefinitionequaltoone.(Inanelastic
analysisthestrengthfactorcangobelowone,asahypotheticalmeasure
ofoverstress).

Toviewthefailurezoneinaplasticmaterial,togglethedisplayof
yieldedelementson,byselectingtheYieldedElementsbuttoninthe
toolbar.Thenumberofyieldedelementswillbedisplayedinthestatus
bar.

888 Yielded finite elements


Observethezoneofplasticyielding( =shearfailure, =tensilefailure)
aroundtheexcavation(zoominasnecessary).Noticethattheyielded
zonecorrespondsroughlywiththezoneofstrengthfactor<1fromthe
elasticanalysis,withadditionalpropagationbeyondthislimit,aswould
beexpectedfromaplasticanalysis.

Support Tutorial
Plastic Analysis

Strengthfactorcontoursandyieldedelements,afterplasticanalysisof
unsupportedexcavation.

Togglethedisplayofyieldedelementsoff,byreselectingtheYielded
Elementsbuttoninthetoolbar.

Letslookattheplasticdisplacements.

Select:
Notethemaximumdisplacementindicatedinthestatusbar.

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.150 m

Thisisnearlyfourtimesthemaximumdisplacementfromtheelastic
analysis.Fromthedisplacementcontours,itcanbeseenthattheoverall
maximumdisplacementisoccurringinthefloorofthetunnel.

Togglethedeformationvectorson.

Select: View Display Options


IntheDisplayOptionsdialog,toggleDeformationVectorson,entera
ScaleFactorof5,andselectDone.

Letszoomin.

Select: View Zoom Zoom Excavation

Youshouldseethefollowingfigure.
Displacementcontoursandvectorsaroundexcavation(plasticanalysis).

YouarenowfinishedthefirststepintheSupportTutorial.Itsabout
timeweaddedsomesupport!ContinueontoStep2ofthistutorial.
Support Tutorial Step 2 3-13

Support Tutorial Step 2

12 MPa 8 MPa

-35

external boundary expansion factor = 3

InthefirststepoftheSupporttutorial,weanalyzedtheabovemodel
withoutsupport,usingbothelasticandplasticmaterialparameters.We
willnowproceedtoanalyzethesamemodelafteradding:

1. Boltsonly
2. Boltsandshotcrete
3. Boltsandshotcreteinconjunctionwithloadsplitting.

Thefinishedproductofthistutorial(withboltsandshotcrete,butbefore
theloadsplitting)canbefoundintheTutorial03Support2.fezdata
fileintheExamples>TutorialsfolderofyourRS2installationfolder.

Model

IfyouhavebeenfollowingthistutorialfromStep1,thenjustcontinue
on.IfyouquittheprogramafterdoingStep1,andwishtocontinuenow,
starttheRS2Modelprogram,andopenthesupport2.fezfileyou
createdinStep1.

Select: File Open


Openthesupport2.fezfile.
Adding Pattern Bolts
Letsnowaddsomeboltstothismodel.Wewillbeinstallingaradial
arrayof5meterlongpatternbolts,ona1x1metergridspacing.

Beforeaddingourboltpattern,letszoominontheexcavation,sothatwe
canaccuratelyselectthestartingandendingpointsoftheboltpattern.
PresstheF6functionkeytoZoomExcavation.

Select: View Zoom Zoom Excavation

Select: Support Add Bolt Pattern

EntertheaboveparametersandselectOK.Sinceyouareenteringa
Radialboltpattern,youwillthenbeprompted:

Enter drilling point [esc=cancel]: 100 100

Thisisthepointfromwhichtheradialpatternwillbegenerated.Usethe
keyboardtoentertheexactpoint(100,100)asindicatedintheprompt
above.Youcanusethemousetographicallyenterthepoint,butitisbest
tousethekeyboardwhenanexactpointisdesired.

Nextyouwillbepromptedtoenterstartingandendingverticesforthe
pattern.Becauseofthepoorqualityoftherockandextensiveyieldingall
aroundthetunnel,wewillbolttheentirecircumferenceofthetunnel,
includingthefloor.Wecandothisasfollows:

1. YouwillbepromptedtoPickstartingvertex.Youcanstartat
anyvertex,butwewillstartattheuppermostvertexatthe
midpointofthetunnelroof.Usethecursortoselectthisvertex,
locatedatabout100.0,102.3.
2. Nowsweepthecursoraroundtheexcavationboundary.Asyou
movethecursor,youwillseetheradialboltpatterndisplayed.
Sinceweareboltingaroundtheentiretunnel,youcancreatethe
patterninaclockwiseorcounterclockwisedirection,itdoesnt
matter.

3. YouwillbepromptedtoPickendingvertex.Whenyouseethe
completeboltpatternaroundthetunnel,clickagainonthesame
vertexasinStep1.

4. Whentheendvertexhasbeenentered,theradialboltpattern
willbegeneratedandaddedtothemodel,andyouwillexitthe
AddBoltPatternoption.

Ifyoumakeamistakeandtheboltpatternisnotcorrect,thenjustselect
Undoandrepeattheabovestepstoaddtheboltpattern.

NowuseZoomAlltobringeverythingbackintoview.Ashortcuttozoom
allistopresstheF2functionkey.

Bolt Properties
Nowthattheboltgeometryisdefined,letsdefinetheboltproperties.
Theboltpropertiesweenterwillcorrespondtofullygrouted,untensioned
steeldowels,withamaximumloadcapacityof20tonnes(0.2MN).

Select: Properties Define Bolts

Enterthefollowingboltproperties.
Sinceyouenteredtheboltpropertieswiththefirstbolttypeselected,you
donothavetoAssignthesepropertiestothebolts,theyareautomatically
assignedtotheboltpattern.

Wearenowreadytoreruntheanalysis.

Compute

Beforeyouanalyzeyourmodel,letssavethisasanewfilecalled
support3.fez.(MakesureyouselectSaveAsandnotSave,oryouwill
overwritethesupport2.fezfile).

Select: File Save As

Savethefileassupport3.fez.

Select: Analysis Compute


TheRS2Computeenginewillproceedinrunningtheanalysis.When
completed,youwillbereadytoviewtheresultsinInterpret.

Interpret

FromModel,switchbacktoInterpret.

Select: Analysis Interpret


Letsviewthestrengthfactorcontours.

Select:

TogglethedisplayofyieldedelementsonbyselectingtheYielded
Elementsbuttoninthetoolbar.Thenumberofyieldedelementswillbe
displayedinthestatusbar.

794 Yielded finite elements

Theyieldedzone,basedontheextentandlocationoftheyielded
elements,isnotdiscerniblydifferentfromtheunsupportedyieldzone.
However,thenumberofyieldedfiniteelementsdecreasedfrom888
(unsupported)to794(boltsupport).

Letscheckforyieldinginthebolts.SelecttheYieldedBoltsbuttoninthe
Displaytoolbar.Theyieldedboltelementswillbehighlightedinred,and
thenumberofyieldedelementswillbedisplayedinthestatusbar.

289 Yielded bolt elements

Support Tutorial
Plastic Analysis + Bolts
Strengthfactorcontoursandyieldedelements,forexcavationwithpattern
boltsupportonly.

Almostalloftheboltshaveyielded,asshownbytheboltsections
highlightedinyellow.Thisindicatestensilefailureofaboltelement.
Rememberthatboltelementsforfullybondedboltsaredefinedbythe
intersectionsofboltswiththefiniteelements.(Boltelementscanbe
displayedwiththeDisplayOptionsdialog.Thisisleftasanoptional
step.)

Recallthatwhenwedefinedtheboltproperties,weenteredaresidual
boltcapacityequaltothepeakboltcapacity.Therefore,eventhoughthe
boltshavereachedtheiryieldcapacity,theystillprovidesupport.

Letslookattheeffectoftheboltsonthedisplacement.

Select:

Themaximumdisplacementindicatedinthestatusbarisnow:

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.114 m

Comparedtotheunsupportedexcavation,thedisplacementshavebeen
slightlyreduced,butnotbymuch.(Maximumunsupporteddisplacement
=.150m).Wellhavetoaddshotcretetoreallysupportthistunnel.
Model

FromInterpret,switchbacktoModel.

Select: Analysis Model


Note:thefinishedproductofthemodelingsectionofthistutorial,with
boltsandshotcrete,butbeforetheloadsplitting,canbefoundinthe
Tutorial03Support2.fezdatafilelocatedintheExamplesfolderin
yourRS2installationfolder,ifyouwishtoskipthemodelprocess.

Adding a Liner
Wewillnowlinethetunnelwithshotcrete.Firstletszoominsothatwe
canseewhatwearedoing.

Select: View Zoom Zoom Excavation

Select: Support Add Liner


1. YouwillseetheAddLinerdialog.JustselectOK.

2. Clickandholdtheleftmousebutton,anddragaselection
windowwhichenclosestheentireexcavation.Releasetheleft
mousebutton.Noticethatallexcavationlinesegmentsare
selected.

3. RightclickthemouseandselectDoneSelection,orjustpressthe
Enterkey.Theentiretunnelwillnowbelined,asindicatedby
thethickbluelinesegmentsaroundtheexcavationboundary.

Anytimeyouwanttolinemultipleadjacentboundarysegments,itis
alwaysbesttouseaselectionwindow,toensurealldesiredsegmentsare
selected.
Liner Properties
Nowdefinethelinerproperties.Thepropertiesweenterwillcorrespond
toa200mmthicklayerofsteelfibrereinforcedshotcrete.

Select: Properties Define Liners

Enterthelinerpropertieswiththefirstlinertypeselected.

Sinceyouenteredthelinerpropertieswiththefirstlinertypeselected,
youdonothavetoAssignthesepropertiestotheliner,theyare
automaticallyassignedtothelinerelements.

Wearenowreadytoreruntheanalysis.

Compute

Beforeyouanalyzeyourmodel,letssavethisasanewfilecalled
support4.fez.(MakesureyouselectSaveAsandnotSave,oryouwill
overwritethesupport3.fezfile).

Select: File Save As

Savethefileassupport4.fez.

Select: Analysis Compute


TheRS2Computeenginewillproceedinrunningtheanalysis.When
completed,youwillbereadytoviewtheresultsinInterpret.
Interpret

FromModel,switchbacktoInterpret.

Select: Analysis Interpret

Nowletsseehowtheadditionoftheshotcretelineraffectedthestrength
factorandyielding.

Select:

Theextentoftheregionencompassedbythecontourofstrengthfactor=
2isnowconsiderablyreduced.Letsdoadirectcomparisonofthethree
filesonthesamescreen,asdescribedbelow.

1. IfyouhavebeenfollowingtheSupporttutorialfromthe
beginning,thenyoushouldhavefourfilesopeninInterpret
support1,support2,support3andsupport4.Ifthisisthe
case,thenCLOSEthesupport1file,andleavetheotherthree
open.

2. Ifyouhavebeenclosingfilesasyouwentalong,thenreopenthe
support2andsupport3files.

3. Nowtilethethreeviews(usetheTileVerticallybuttoninthe
toolbar).

4. DisplaytheStrengthFactorineachview.

5. SelectZoomExcavationineachview(usetheF6key).

6. SelectZoomOutapproximately5or6times,ineachview(use
theF4key).

7. Displaytheyieldedelementsineachview.

8. Ifthelegendsaredisplayed,togglethemoff(youcanrightclick
onaLegendandselectHideLegend).

9. Yourscreenshouldappearasbelow.

Strength Factor
Unsupported (left)
Bolts only (middle)
Bolts + Shotcrete (right)
Strengthfactorcontoursandyieldedelements,forsupport2,support3and
support4files.

Note:iftheorderofthethreeviewsisnotasshownintheabovefigure,
thenclickconsecutivelyinthesupport4,support3andsupport2views,
andretiletheview.

Observetheeffectofsupportonthestrengthfactorcontours,andthe
yieldedelementzone.Itcanbeseenthatthepatternboltingalonedid
nothavemucheffect,buttheapplicationofashotcreteliner,in
conjunctionwiththepatternbolting,hasbeeneffectiveinreducing
failurearoundthetunnel.

Thenumberofyieldedfiniteelementsforeachmodelissummarized
below(thenumberofyieldedelementsisdisplayedinthestatusbar
whenevertheyieldedelementsaredisplayed):

Support1 (elastic analysis)


Support2 (plastic, no support)
Support3 (bolts only)
Support4 (bolts + shotcrete)

Nowmaximizetheviewofthesupport4file,sothatwecanviewitfull
screenagain.

Togglethedisplayofyieldedelementsoff,byreselectingtheYielded
Elementsbuttoninthetoolbar.

Letscheckforyieldinginthebolts.SelecttheYieldedBoltsbuttoninthe
toolbar.
Again,mostoftheboltshaveyielded,asshownbytheboltsections
highlightedinyellow.Thestatusbarindicatesthetotalnumberof
yieldedboltelements.

260 Yielded bolt elements

Thenumberofyieldedboltelementswasdecreasedfrom289to260by
thepresenceoftheliner.Toggleoffthedisplayofyieldedboltelements
byreselectingtheYieldedBoltsbuttoninthetoolbar.

Wecanlookatyieldinginthelinerinthesamemannerasyieldinginthe
boltsisdisplayed.SelecttheYieldedLinersbuttonintheDisplaytoolbar.
Thestatusbarwillindicate:

47 Yielded liner elements

Zoominsothatyoucanseetheyieldedlinerelements.

Select: View Zoom Zoom Excavation


Theyieldedlinerelements,highlightedinred,areconcentratedatthe
upperright,lowerleft,andfloorofthetunnel.Toggletheyieldedliner
elementsoffbyreselectingtheYieldedLinersbuttoninthetoolbar.

Finally,letslookatthedisplacementsafteraddingtheliner.

Select:

Themaximumtotaldisplacementindicatedinthestatusbarisnow:

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.077 m

Thecombinationofboltsandshotcretehasreducedthemaximum
displacementtoabouthalfoftheunsupportedvalue(0.150m).Togglethe
deformationvectorson.

Select: View Display Options

IntheDisplayOptionsdialog,toggleDeformationVectorson,entera
ScaleFactorof10,andselectDone.

Ascanbeseenfromthecontoursandthedisplacementvectors,the
maximumdisplacementisstilloccurringinthefloorofthetunnel.This
suggeststhecastingofathickerconcreteslabonthetunnelfloor,
however,wewillnotbeexploringthisfurtherinthistutorial.Youmay
wanttoexperimentwithchangingthethicknessofthelineronthefloor
ofthetunnel(tosay,300mm),aftercompletingtherestofthistutorial.
ItisleftasanoptionalexercisetodisplaytheTotalDisplacement
contoursandDeformationVectorsforthesupport2,support3and
support4files,toobtainthefigurebelow.

Totaldisplacementcontoursandvectorsforsupport2,support3and
support4files.

Hints:

1. Tileandzoomtheviewsasdescribedearlierforthestrengthfactor
contours.

2. Whendisplayingthedeformationvectorsforeachview,useaScale
Factorof5(intheDisplayOptionsdialog).

Show Values
WewillnowdemonstrateanotherveryusefulfeatureofRS2,theShow
Valuesoption,whichallowsyoutodisplayanalysisresultsforbolts,
linersandjoints,graphicallyornumerically,directlyonthemodel.

Ifyouareviewingtheresultsformultiplefiles,firstmaximizetheviewof
thesupport4file.PressF6toZoomExcavation.ThenselectShow
ValuesfromthetoolbarortheAnalysismenu.

Select: Analysis Show Values Show Values


IntheShowValuesdialog,selecttheLinerscheckbox,andAxialForce.
Selectotheroptionsinthedialog,asshownabove.SelectOK.

Youshouldnowseegraphicalbarsrepresentingtheaxialforceineach
linerelement,displayeddirectlyonthemodel,asshowninthefigure
below.TheMinandMaxvaluesofAxialForcearealsodisplayed.

AxialforceinlinerdisplayedwithShowValuesoption.

Notethefollowingadditionalstepswereusedtoobtainthefigure
above:

1. InContourOptions,setthecontourModetoOff.
2. InDisplayOptions,turnOffExcavationboundariesandBolts.

Itisleftasanoptionalexercisefortheusertoexperimentwiththemany
differentdisplaypossibilitieswhicharepossiblewiththeShowValues
option.

NOTE:theShowValuesoptionsarealsoaccessiblethroughtheright
clickmenu.Ifyourightclickonaliner,boltorjoint,thepopupmenuwill
provideaShowValuessubmenu,withdirectaccesstoallofthedataand
displayoptionswhichareapplicable.

AsthefinalstepintheSupporttutorial,wewillexamineonemore
featureofRS2,calledloadsplitting,usingthissameexample.
Model

IfyouareviewingmultiplefilesinInterpret,makesurethesupport4
viewisselected,beforeyouswitchbacktoModel.

Select: Analysis Model

Load Splitting
ThepreviousanalysesinStep2ofthistutorial(i.e.patternboltsupport
only,andcombinedpatternbolt/shotcretesupport),implicitlyassume
thatthesupportisinstalledimmediatelyafterexcavation,andthatno
displacementtakesplacepriortotheinstallationofsupport.

Ofcoursethisisnotrealistic,andacertainamountofdeformationwill
alwaysoccurbeforethesupportcanbeinstalled.TheLoadSplitoptionin
RS2allowstheusertosplitthefieldstressinducedload,betweenany
stagesofthemodel,ratherthanapplyingtheentirefieldstressloadin
thefirststage.Loadsplittingcanthereforebeusedtosimulatethe
delayedinstallationofsupport.Inthissimpleexample,itwillbedoneas
follows:

1. AstagedmodelisrequiredinordertoenableLoadSplitting,
thereforewewillfirstsettheNumberofStages=2inProject
Settings.

2. UsingtheLoadSplittingoption,theLoadSplitwillbedefinedas
30%inStage1and70%inStage2.

3. Thesupport(boltsandliner)willthenbeinstalledinStage2,
ratherthanStage1.

Effectively,thisallowssomedeformationtotakeplaceinStage1(before
supportisinstalled),andthenthesupportinstalledinStage2can
respondtotheremainderofthefieldstressinducedload.

Thefirststeptowardsincludingloadsplittinginamodel,istosetthe
NumberofStagesinProjectSettings.

Select: Analysis Project Settings


SettheNumberofStages=2andselectOK.

NowwecanentertheLoadSplitinformation.

Select: Loading Load Split

IntheLoadSplitdialog,selecttheEnableLoadSplitcheckbox,andthen
enterSplitFactor=0.3forStage1andSplitFactor=0.7forStage2.
SelectOK.

The0.3/0.7loadsplitassumesthat30%ofthefieldstressinducedload
hasbeenrelievedbydisplacementoftheexcavationboundariesbefore
thesupportisinstalled.Theseloadsplitfactorscanbeestimatedfroma
plotsuchasshownintheRS2AxisymmetryTutorial,basedonhowclose
thesupportcanbeinstalledtotheadvancingfaceofthetunnel.
Installing the Support
Nowwehavetoinstallthesupport(boltsandliner)inStage2,andwe
willbefinishedwiththemodeling.

SelecttheMaterialsandStagingworkflowtab.

Select: Properties Assign Properties


ToinstallthesupportatStage2:

1. MakesuretheStage2tabisselected(atthebottomleftofthe
view).

2. IntheAssigndialog,selectBoltsfromthelistatthetopofthe
dialog,andthenselecttheInstallbutton.

3. PressF2toZoomAll(ifthemodelisnotfullyzoomed).

4. Usethemousetoclickanddragaselectionwindowwhich
enclosesalloftheboltsinthemodel.

5. Theboltsshouldnowbeselected.Rightclickthemouseand
selectDoneSelection,orpressEnter.Theboltsarenowinstalled
inStage2.

6. NowselectLinersfromthelistintheAssigndialog,andselect
theInstallbutton.

7. PressF6toZoomExcavation.

8. Usethemousetoclickanddragawindowwhichenclosesthe
entireexcavation.Allofthelinerelementsontheexcavation
boundaryshouldnowbeselected.

9. RightclickthemouseandselectDoneSelection,orpressEnter.
TheentirelinerisnowinstalledinStage2.

10. ClosetheAssigndialogbyselectingtheXinthedialog,orpress
Escapetwice(oncetoexittheInstallmode,andoncetoclosethe
dialog).

Nowverifythestagingofthesupport.SelecttheStage1tab.Thebolts
andlinershouldappearinalightbluecolour,indicatingthattheyare
NOTINSTALLEDinStage1.SelecttheStage2tab.Theboltsandliner
shouldappearinthedarkbluecolour,indicatingthattheyareinstalled
inStage2.

Nowwewillreruntheanalysis.
Compute

Beforeyouanalyzeyourmodel,letssavethisasanewfilecalled
support5.fez.(MakesureyouselectSaveAsandnotSave,oryouwill
overwritethesupport4.fezfile).

Select: File Save As

Savethefileassupport5.fez.

Select: Analysis Compute


TheRS2Computeenginewillproceedinrunningtheanalysis.When
completed,youwillbereadytoviewtheresultsinInterpret.

Interpret

FromModel,switchbacktoInterpret.

Select: Analysis Interpret


Wewillnowseewhateffecttheloadsplittinghadontheresultsofthe
analysis.SelecttheStage2tab,sincewewanttoviewthefinalstage
resultsaftertheinstallationofthesupport.

Letsfirstlookatthestrengthfactor.

Select:

TogglethedisplayofyieldedelementsonbyselectingtheYielded
Elementsbuttoninthetoolbar.Thenumberofyieldedelementsisnow:

658 Yielded finite elements

Thiscompareswith604yieldedfiniteelementsbeforetheloadsplit.

Itislefttotheusertoverifythatthestrengthfactorcontoursandyielded
zoneareessentiallythesameaspriortotheloadsplit.Thisisnot
surprising,aswedidnotexpecttheloadsplittohavemucheffectonthe
strengthfactor.Togglethedisplayofyieldedelementsoff,byreselecting
theYieldedElementsbutton.

Ofmoreinterestisthestateofyieldinginthebolts.SelecttheYielded
BoltsbuttonintheDisplaytoolbar.Thestatusbarnowindicates:

200 Yielded bolt elements


Thenumberofyieldedboltelementsissubstantiallyreducedasaresult
oftheloadsplit,from260beforetheloadsplit,to200.Thisistheprimary
resultofinterestfromtheloadsplittinganalysis.

Similarly,checktheyieldingintheliner,byselectingtheYieldedLiner
optioninthetoolbar.Youshouldseethatthenumberofyieldedliner
elementsisonly6,comparedto47beforetheloadsplit.Theloadsplit
hasalmostcompletelyeliminatedyieldingintheliner.

Togglethedisplayofyieldedboltsandlinersoff,byreselectingthe
YieldedBoltsandYieldedLinersoptions.

Letscheckthedisplacements.

Select:

Themaximumdisplacementshowninthestatusbarisnow:

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.067 m

Thiscomparestothemaximumdisplacementbeforetheloadsplit,of.077
m.

Itislefttotheusertoverifythatthedisplacementcontoursand
deformationvectorsareessentiallythesameaspriortotheloadsplit.

Insummary,itshouldbeemphasizedthattheprimaryeffectoftheload
splitting,forthisexample,wastodecreaseyieldinginthelinerandthe
bolts,andthusimprovethemodelingofsupport.Byallowingsome
unsupporteddeformationtotakeplaceinthefirststage,wehavetraded
offsomeincreasedyieldoftherockmass,fordecreasedyieldinthe
support.

Letslookatonemorething.SelecttheStage1tab,andcheckthefirst
stagedisplacements.

Select:

Themaximumdisplacementindicatedinthestatusbaris:

Maximum Total Displacement = 0.022 m

Comparethiswiththemaximumdisplacementafterthefinal(second)
stage,whichwas0.067.Basedonthesenumbersonly,theproportionof
thedisplacementtakingplaceinthefirststageis.022/0.067=about
33%.Thisisingoodagreementwithourloadsplitof30/70.Better
agreementthanthisshouldnotbeexpected,sinceouranalysisisplastic,
andweareonlycomparingasinglenumber.Itisonlymentionedto
furtherillustratethesignificanceofusingtheloadsplitoptioninRS2.
Alternative methods to Load Splitting

Forthesimulationof3dimensionaleffectsintunnelsupportdesign,
othermethodsareavailableinRS2whicharemoreaccuratethanthe
loadsplitmethod.Theseinvolvematerialsofteningandcore
replacement,asdescribedinTutorials18and24:

Tutorial183DTunnelSimulationUsingCoreReplacement

Tutorial24TunnelLiningDesign

Pleaseseethesetutorialsfordetails.Thematerialsoftening/core
replacementapproachisnowtherecommendedmethodofsimulating
3dimensionaltunnelingeffectswithRS2andhassupersededtheload
splitmethod.

Additional Exercise

OnefinalexerciseintheSupportTutorialwillbelefttotheuserto
complete,ifsodesired.

Thusfarwedidnotdiscussthenatureoftheboltsweinstalled,however,
basedonthemodulusof200,000MPawecaninferthatwehavebeen
usingsolidsteeldowels.Letschangetheboltmodulusto75,000MPa,as
anestimatedstiffnessofasevenstrandsteelcable.Reruntheanalysis,
withthisonechange,keepingallothermodelparametersthesame(asin
theloadsplitexample).

Youshouldfindthatthestrengthfactoranddisplacementresultsare
nearlyidenticalascomparedtotheresultsusingthe200,000MPabolts.
Thebigdifferenceisthatboltyieldinghasbeengreatlyreduced,as
summarizedinthefollowingtable.

Bolt Modulus

200,000 MPa

75,000 MPa

Theconclusionthatcouldbesuggestedisthatsolidsteeldowelsmaybe
toostiffforthisveryweakandhighlystressedrockmass.Thehigh
stiffnessofthereinforcementisnotcompatiblewiththelargeplastic
strainswhichoccurneartheexcavationboundaryandwhichresultin
overstressingofthedowel/groutbond.Thelessstiffcablesprovidean
almostidenticalsupportload(intermsoftheextenttowhichtheplastic
zoneisrestrictedandthedeformationsarelimited)tothegrouted
dowels,butthecable/groutbondisnotoverstressedtonearlythesame
extentasforthedowels.