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VIB LAB

PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS:

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

AIM: - To verify the relation L
T = 2
-------
g

Where T = Periodic time in sec. L = Length of pendulum in cms.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:-

For conducting the experiment, a rubber ball is supported by radio tuning thread into chuck. It is possible to change the length of pendulum by drawing the thread through link. This makes it possible to study the effect of variation of length on periodic time. A small ball may be substituted for larger ball to illustrate that the period of oscillation is independent of the mass of the ball.

PROCEDURE:-

1. Attach the rubber ball to one end of thread.

2. Allow the ball to oscillate and determine the periodic time T by knocking the time for say 5 oscillations.

3. Repeat the experiment by changing the length.

4. Complete the observation table given below.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 Sl. L, length No. of Time for “n” Osc, Secs ‘t’ T = t/n Sec ‘n’ (Expt) T = Remarks No. of cord Osc. “n” Theoretical cms

:2:

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:- L
T = 2
------
g
For L = 40 cm. 40
981

T (Theoretical) = 2

------- = 1.26 sec.

t

T exp = ------

n

where t = time for no. of oscillations n =No. of oscillations

EXPERIMENT NO.2 :-

 AIM:- i) To determine the radius of gyration ‘K’ of given pendulum. K 2 + (OG) 2 ii) To verify the relation T = 2 ------------------------ g x (OG) Where T = Periodic time in secs. K = Radius of gyration about Centre of gravity in ( C.G.) cm. OG = Distance from the centre of rod from support. = 375 mm L = Total length of bar. = 800 mm

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP

The compound pendulum consists of 16mm diameter steel bar. The bar is supported by the knife edge. It is possible to change the length of suspended pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes.

PROCEDURE:

1. Support the rod in any one of the holes.

2. Note the length of suspended pendulum and determine OG.

3. Allow the bar to oscillate and determine T by knowing the time for say 10 oscillations.

4. Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension.

5. Complete the observation table given below.

 Sl. L No Of Time for “n” T= T= t/n No. cm Osc “n” Osc in “t” Sec Theoretical Experimental

CALCULATIONS :

i) Find TTheoretical from the relation K 2

------------------------ g (OG)

+

(OG) 2

T = 2

K = theoretical

L = -------------
2
3

T = Experimental

t

= ------

n

where t = time for no. of oscillations n =No. of oscillations

EXPERIMENT NO.3:-

AIM:- To determine the radius of gyration of given flat using Bifilar suspension.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP A uniform rectangular section flat is suspended from the pendulum support frame by two parallel cords. Top ends of the cords pass through the two small hooks fitted at the top. Other ends secured in the bifilar flat. It is possible to adjust the length of the cord.

The suspension may also be used to determine the radius of gyration of any body. In this case the body under investigation is bolted to center. Radius of gyration of the combined flat and body is then determined.

PROCEDURE:-

1. Suspend the bar from hook, and adjust the length of the cord ‘L’ conveniently.

2. Note the suspension length of each cord must be the same.

3. Allow the bar to oscillate about the vertical axis passing through the centre and measure the periodic time ‘t’ by knowing the time for say 10 oscillations.

4. Repeat the experiment by mounting the weights at equal distance from the centre

(d/2)

5. Complete the observation table given below.

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

 Sl. L “t” Secs Nos of Osc Periodic Time T =Experimental t/n T No. cms For “n” Osc “n” =Theoretical

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:- For bi-filer suspension.
K L
T = 2
-------------
a g

Where K

= Radius of gyration about Centre of gravity in ( C.G.) cm.

 For L = length of cord from the suspension. a = Distance from centre flat to centre of cord in cm. K = Theoretical = L

t

Texp = ------

n

2 3

where t = time for no. of oscillations n =No. of oscillations

EXPERIMENT NO.4:-

AIM:

theoretically and experimentally.

To study the longitudinal vibrations of helical spring and to determine the frequency by

DESCRIPTION OF APPRATUS:-

One end of open coil spring is fixed to the screw engages with screwed end. The screw can be adjusted vertically in any convenient position and the clamped to upper beam by means of lock- nut. Lower end of the spring is attached to the platform carrying the weights. The platform is guided in the lower beam. The whole unit can be clamped at any horizontal position by using the upper end lower clamping nuts. Thus the design of the system incorporated vertical and lateral positioning of the unit to suit convenience.

PROCEDURE:-

1. Fix one of the ends of helical spring.

2. Determine free length.

3. Put some weight to platform and note down the deflection.

4. Stretch the spring through some distance and release.

5. Count the time required (in sec) for some say 10, 25 oscillations.

6. Determine the actual period.

7. Repeat the procedure for different weights .

OBSERVATION TABLE

 Obser Wt attached in Kg + Wt of plate form Deflection No. of Time Periodic vation of Spring Oscillation Required Time = T cm,  ‘n’ ‘t’ experimental = t/n

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

1. Find ‘T’ theoretical by using equation:

T Theoretical

=

2 W
--------------
ks x g

where

 W = weight of pan and weight on the pan Ks = Stiffness of the spring

= Weight applied + pan weight

/ Final height of spring - initial height of spring

2. Check with experimental value ‘T’ expt

 T = Time for number of osc = _t_ No. of osc n

Theoretical frequency

1

= ----------------- T (Theoretical )

1

= cycles /sec

Experimental frequency = -------------- = cycles /sec T(exp)

EXPERIMENT NO.5

AIM : To study the undamped free vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP

It is designed to study free, forced damped and undamped vibrations. It consists of M.S. rectangular beam supported at one end by a trunnion pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing Housing is fixed to the side member of the frame. The other end of the beam is supported by the lower end of helical spring. Upper end of spring is attached to the screw.

The exciter unit can be mounted at any position along the beam additional weights may be added to the weight platform under side of the exciter.

PROCEDURE:

 1. Support one end of the beam in the slot of trunnion and clamp it by means of screw. 2. Attach the other end of beam to the lower end of spring. 3. Adjust the screw to which the spring is attached such that beam is horizontal in the above position. 4. Weigh the exciter assembly along with discs and bearing and weight platform. 5. Clamp the assembly at any convenient position. 6. Measure the distance L 1 of the assembly from pivot. Allow system to vibrate freely. 7. Measure the time for any 10 Osc. And find the periodic time and natural frequency of vibrations. 8. Repeat the experiment by varying L 1 and by also putting different weights on the platform. Note: It is necessary to clamp the slotted weights to the platform by means of nut so that

weights do not fall during vibrations.

OBSERVATION TABLE

 Weight of Length No of “n” osc Time for “n” Periodic Time Natural pan + L 1 “n” osc sec “t” Experimental Frequency added = T= t/n Experimental weight = W

W

= Wt of exciter assembly including flat (punched on flat )

L 1 = Distance from centre of pivot to centre of exciter assembly

L = Distance from centre of pivot to spring centre

K = Stiffness of Spring (kg/m)

Note:- Deflection = Final length of spring Initial length of spring

T (Theoretical) = 2

t

T exp = ------

n

W

---------

g

x L
1
--------
L

x

l

-------

K

1/2

Where t = time for no. of oscillations n =No. of oscillations

EXPERIMENT NO.6

AIM : To study the forced vibrations (damped)of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP:

It is designed to study free, forced damped vibrations. It consists of M.S. rectangular beam supported at one end by a trunnion pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing Housing is fixed to the side member of the frame. The other end of the beam is supported by the lower end of helical spring. Upper end of spring is attached to the screw.

The exciter unit is coupled to D.C. variable speed motor. Speed of the motor can be varied with the dimmerstat provided on the control panel. Speed of rotation can be known from the speed indicator on control panel. It is necessary to connect the damper unit to the exciter. Amplitude record vibration is to be obtained on the strip-chart recorder.

PROCEDURE:

1. Support one end of the beam in the slot of trunnion and clamp it by means of screw.

2. Attach the other end of beam to the lower end of spring.

3. Adjust the screw to which the spring is attached such that beam is horizontal in the above position.

4. Weigh the exciter assembly along with discs and bearing and weight platform.

5. Clamp the assembly at any convenient position.

6. Connect the exciter to D.C. Motor.

7. Start the motor and allow the system to vibrate.

8. Wait for 1 to 2 minutes for the amplitude to build for particular forcing frequency.

9. Adjust the position of strip-chart recorder. Take the record of amplitude Vs. time on strip chart starting recording motor. Press the recorder platform on the pen gently. Pen should be wet with ink. Avoid excisable pressure to get good record.

10. Take record by changing forcing frequencies.

11. Repeat the experiment for different damping. Adjusting the holes on the piston of the damper can change damping.

12. Plot the graph of amplitude Vs frequency for various damping conditions.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Forcing frequency c.p.s. (cycles per sec)

Amplitude

mm

Prepare similar observation tables tables for various damping conditions.

CALCULATIONS:

Plot the graph of amplitude vs. frequency for each setting.

EXPERIMENT NO.7:-

AIM:- To study the Torsional vibration (undamped) of single Rotor shaft system.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:

One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy disc free to rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft.

The bracket in fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any convenient position along the beam. Thus length of shaft can be varied during the experiments. Chuck is used for clamping the end of the shaft. The ball bearing support to the flywheel provides negligible damping during experiment. The bearing housing is fixed to side member of the main frame.

PROCEDURE:

1. Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam.

2. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck.

3. Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft.

4. Twist the rotor through some angle and release.

5. Note down the time required oscillations.

6. Repeat the procedure for different lengths of shaft.

a.

b.

c. Wt. Of the disk= W = 3.92 kg

d. Modulus of rigidity of shaft, G = 0.34 x 10 6 kg/cm 2 .

Shaft dia. Dia of Disk

d = 4mm

= = D = 230 mm

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 Obs Length of Shaft L. cm Nos of oscillations “n” Time Sec For “n” osc Periodic Time No (Expt) T

SPECIMEN CALCULATIONS :-

Determine T (Theoretical) = 2

Kt =

I p =

Where

G I p

-------------

L

d 4

--------

32

Where

I = mass moment of inertia I
-----
Kt

I =

W

------ x

g

.

2 D
-------
2

in kg m/sec 2

 Kt = torsional stiffness of shaft W = weight of disc D =– diameter of disc G = modulus of rigidity of shaft = 0.34 x 10 6 kg /cm 2 (Brass)

I p = polar moment of inertia of shaft

L = length of the shaft from disc drill chuck to other supporting end of the drill chuck

d= diameter of shaft

Determine T expt.

=

Time for n osc t ------------------------------- Sec No. of oscillations “n”

Theoretical frequency

1

= -----------------

T (Theoretical )

1

= cycles /sec

Experimental frequency = -------------- = cycles /sec T(exp)

EXPERIMENT No.8 :-

AIM : To study the free vibrations of two rotor system and to determine the frequency of vibration theoretically and experimentally.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP :- Two disks having different mass moment of inertia are clamped one at each end of shaft by means of chucks. Mass moment of inertia of any Disk can be changed by attaching the cross lever with weights. Both disks are free to oscillate in the ball bearings. This provided negligible damping during experiment.

PROCEDURE :

1. Fix two disks to the shaft and fit the shaft in bearings.

2. Deflect the Disks in opposite direction by hand and release.

3. Note down time required fornnumber of oscillations.

4. Fit the cross arm to one of the disks and again notes down time.

5. Repeat the procedure with different equal masses attached to the ends of cross arm and note down the time.

OBSERVATIONS: -

 1. Diameter of big Disk D A = 2. Diameter of small Disk 3. Weight of big disk = W A = D B

4. Weight of small disk W B =

5. Weight of cross arm weight

6. Length of the cross arm.

7. Diameter of shaft = d = 4 mm

8. Length of shaft between rotors = L = to be measured

= (punched) = to be measured

OBSERVATION TABLE :

 Obs No. of oscillations “n” Time required t for “n” osci T (Expt) T (Theo) secs t/n

SPECIMENT CALCULATIONS :-

T = Theoretical

= 2

1/2 I A
x
I B
I A
I B
--------------
=
2
Kt (I A + I B )
--------------
Kt (I A + I B )
 2 W A D A Where I A = ------  ------- g 2 2 W B D B I B = ------  ------- g 2

Where

Kt =

G Ip

-------------

L

I p

d 4

= -----

32

 I A = Mass moment of inertia of big disc I B = Mass moment of inertia of small disc W A = Weight of the big disc D A = Diameter of the big disc W B =Weight of small disc D B = Diameter of small disc K t = Torsional stiffness of shaft
 g = modules of rigidity of shaft I P = polar moment of inertia of shaft L = Length of shaft from big disc chuck to small disc chuck d = Diameter of Brass rod t = time for number of oscillations n = no of oscillations

Determine T expt.

=

Time for n osc t ------------------------------- Sec No. of oscillations “n”

Theoretical frequency

1

= ----------------- T (Theoretical )

1

= cycles /sec

Experimental frequency = -------------- = cycles /sec T(exp)

EXPERIMENT NO.9 :-

AIM :To study the damped Torsional oscillations and determine the damping coefficient.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP :

It consists of a long elastic shaft gripped at the upper end by the chuck in the bracket. The bracket is clamped to the upper beam of the main frame. A heavy steel Disc is clamped at the lower end of the shaft that suspends from the bracket. Damping drum is fixed to the lower face of the disc. This drum is immersed in the oil, which provides damping. Oil container can be taken up and down for varying the depth of immersion of damping drum. Depth of immersion can be read from the scale.

Recording drum is mounted to the upper face of the Disc paper is to be wrapped around the recording drum. Oscillations are recorded on the paper with help of specially designed piston on dash pot. The piston carries the attachment for fixing the sketching pen.

PROCEDURE:

1. With no oil in the container allow the flywheel to oscillate and measure the time for some (say 10) oscillations.

2. Put thin mineral oil SAE 20/40 in the drum and note the depth of immersion.

3. Put the sketching pen in its bracket.

4. Oscillate the disc by hand

5. Allow the pen to descend. See that the pen always makes contact with the paper.

6. Measure the time for some oscillations by means of stopwatch.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

Sl.

No.

Depth of Immersion

cm

No of

Osc ‘n’

Time

in secs

‘t’

CALCULATIONS :-

G

I p

Kt = -------------

I p

L

d 4

= ------

32

 1 Xo Deflection = = --------- Log ------ 5 X 5 Where K t = Torsional stiffness of shaft G = modulus of rigidity of shaft = 0.34 x 10 6 kg/cm 2 for brass I P = polar moment of inertia of shaft d = diameter of shaft L = distance from top to drill chuck to end of disc (shaft)

Measure amplitude of vibration for 5 concentric cycle Measure height of amplitude of first cycle and last (5 th ) cycle

Amplitude ratio X = Xo/ X 5

Where

Xo = amplitude of first cycle

X 5 = amplitude of 5 th cycle

2

(damping factor)

Also Deflection == ------------------------------------

1 ( ) 2

= 2 

=

= / 2

Damping co-efficient C

C = 2 K t m

N-sec/cms (N-cm -1 -sec)

Where

= 2

m = mass of whole assembly (punched) K t = Torsional stiffness

= damping factor

EXPERIMENT NO.10 :-

AIM : To verify the Dunker ley’s Rule for concentrated load

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP :-

A rectangular section bar is supported in trunnion fittings at each end. Each trunnion is pivoted in a ball bearing carried in housing. Each bearing housing is fixed to the vertical frame member. The beam carries at its centre a weight platform.

PROCEDURE :

1. fix the flat with plate form in trunnion

2. Attach weight on the pan

3. Pull the platform and release it to set the system in to natural vibration.

4. Find periodic time ‘t’ and frequency of vibration ‘f’ by measuring time for some osc.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

 Sl. Wt Attached No. of Osc Time For “n” Osc Frequency of Osc F = n/t No. Kg n Secs “t”

m x g x (l 1 l 2 ) 2

Theoretical deflection = --------------------

 3 E I (l 1 + l 2 ) As l 1 = l 2

m x g x (l 1 ) 4

 = -------------------- 3 E I

b x t

I = --------

12

4.987

frequency T = -----------

 

From Experimentally T

=

Time for n osc t ------------------------------- Sec No. of oscillations “n”

EXPERIMENT NO .11

AIM: To study the forced lateral vibration of the beam for different damping

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP:

Rectangular section bar is supported at both ends in trunnion fittings. Exciter unit with the platform can be clamped at any convenient position along the beam. Exciter unit is connected to the damper which provided the necessary damping.

PROCEDURE:

1. fix the exciter assembly to flat

2. Connect the exciter to D.C. Motor.

3. Start the motor and allow the system to vibrate.

4. Wait for 1 to 2 minutes for the amplitude to build for particular forcing frequency.

5. Adjust the position of strip-chart recorder. Take the record of amplitude Vs. time on strip chart starting recording motor. Press the recorder platform on the pen gently. Pen should be wet with ink. Avoid excisable pressure to get good record.

6. Take record by changing forcing frequencies.

7. Repeat the experiment for different damping. Adjusting the holes on the piston of the damper can change damping.

8. Plot the graph of amplitude Vs frequency for various damping conditions.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Forcing frequency c.p.s.

Amplitude

mm

Prepare similar observation tables for various damping conditions.

Graph:

Plot the graph of amplitude vs. frequency for each setting.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

VIBRATION TABLE WITH RECORDER

AIM: (I) To study the undamped vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:

The arrangement is shown in the equipment. It is designed to study, forced undamped vibrations. It consists of M.S. rectangular beam supported at one end by a turn union pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing Housing is fixed to the side member of the frame. The other end of the beam is supported by the lower end of helical spring. Upper end of spring is attached to the screw.

The exciter unit can be mounted at any position along the beam.

PROCEDURE:

1. Support one end of the beam in the slot of turn union and clamp it by means of Screw.

2. Attach the other end of beam to the lower end of spring.

3. Adjust the screw to which the spring is attached such that beam is horizontal in the Above position.

4. Weigh the exciter assembly along with discs and bearing and weight platform.

5. Clamp the assembly at any convenient position.

6. Measure the distance L1 of the assembly from pivot, Allow system to vibrate freely.

7. Measure the time for any 10 osc. And find the periodic time and natural frequency of vibrations.

OBSERVATION TABLE

 Weight Length No of “n” osc “n” Time for “n” osc sec “t” Periodic Time Natural L1 (Expt) T Frequency f.n.r (Expt)

: 2 :

…2

 W = Wt of exciter assembly. M = mass of exciter assembly. L1 = Distance of w from pivot L = Distance of spring from pivot = Length of beam. Neglecting M.I. of beam.

T (Theoretical) = 2

= 2

W

--------- x

g me
-------
K

2 L1
--------
L

1/2

Where me = equivalent mass at the spring = m

x

l

-------

K L1
--------
L

=

2 1/2
L1
W
--------
--------
L
gK

AIM: (II) To study the forced vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP:

The arrangement is as shown in the equipment. It is similar to that described for the above expt. the exciter unit is coupled to D.C. variable speed motor through the belt drive. Speed of the motor can be varied with the dimmerstat provided on the control panel. Speed of rotation can be known from the speed indicator on control panel. Amplitude record vibration is to be obtained on the strip-chart recorder.

PROCEDURE:

1.Arrange the set up as described above. 2.Connect the exciter to D.C. Motor through belt. 3.Start the motor and allow the system to vibrate. 4.Wait for 1 to 2 minutes for the amplitude to build for particular forcing frequency

: 3 :

5.Adjust the position of strip-chart recorder.

3

6.Take the record of amplitude Vs. time on strip chart starting recording motor.

7.Press the recorder platform on the pen gently. Pen should be wet with ink.

8.Avoid excessible pressure to get good record.

9.Take record by changing forcing frequencies.

10.Plot the graph of amplitude Vs frequency for various damping conditions.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Forcing frequency c.p.s.

Amplitude

mm

CALCULATIONS:

Plot the graph of amplitude Vs. frequency for each setting.

**********

EXPERIMENT ON SIMPLE PENDULUM

AIM: - To verify the relation L
-------

g

T = 2

Where T = Periodic time sec.

L = Length of pendulum cms.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:-

For conducting the experiment, a rubber ball is supported by radio tuning thread into chuck. It is possible to change the length of pendulum by drawing the thread through chuck. This makes it possible to study the effect of variation of length on periodic time. A small ball may be substituted for larger ball to illustrate that the period of oscillation is independent of the mass of the ball.

PROCEDURE:-

5. Attach the rubber ball to one end of thread.

6. Loosen the nut at the top of chuck and draw the thread to adjust the length.

7. Allow the ball to oscillate and determine the periodic time T by knocking the time for say 5 oscillations.

8. Repeat the experiment by changing the length.

9. Complete the observation table given below.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 Sl. Mass of L No. of Time for “n” T = t/n Sec ‘n’ (Expt) T Remarks No. the Ball cms Osc. “n” Osc, Secs ‘t’ Theoretical :2: 2/-

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:- L
T = 2
------
G
For L = 40 cm. - 40
981

T (Theoretical) = 2

------- = 1.26 sec.

t

Texp = ------

n

EXPERIMENT ON COMPOUND PENDULUM

AIM:-

iii) To determine the radius pf gyration ‘K’ of given pendulum.

iv) To verify the relation T = 2 K 2
+
G
X

(OG)

(OG) 2

------------------------

Where T

= Periodic time sec.

OG = Distance of the C.G. of rod from support.

L = Length of bar.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP :

The compound pendulum consists of 16mm diameter steel bar. The bar is supported by the knife edge. It is possible to change the length of suspended pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes.

PROCEDURE:

6. Support the rod in any one of the holes.

7. Note the length of suspended pendulum and determine OG.

8. Allow the bar to oscillate and determine T by knowing the time for say 10 oscillations.

9. Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension.

10. Complete the observation table given below.

Sl.

L

OG

No Of

Time for “n”

T (Expt)

K t/n (Expt)

K (Theoretical)

 No. cm Osc “n” Osc “t” Sec

CALCULATIONS :

:2:

ii) Fine ‘K’ experimental from the relation K 2
+
(OG) 2
T = 2
------------------------
g
(OG)

K(exp) =

L

K theoretical = = -------------

3 3

ii) Verify the relation

T = 2 K 2
+
(OG) 2
------------------------
g (OG)

Put K =

L

------------- And find T theoretical, compare it with experimental.

2 3

2/-

EXPERIMENT ON SINGLE ROTOR SYSTEM

AIM:- To study the Torsional vibration (undamped) of single Rotor shaft system.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:

One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy disc free to rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft.

The bracket is fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any convenient position along the beam. Thus length of shaft can be varied during the experiments. Specially designed chuck is used for clamping the end of the shaft. The ball bearing support to the flywheel provides negligible damping during experiment. The bearing housing is fixed to side member of the main frame.

PROCEDURE:

2. Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam.

3. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck.

4. Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft.

5. Twist the rotor through some angle and release.

6. Note down the time required fornoscillations.

7. Repeat the procedure for different lengths of shaft.

8. Make the following observations:-

 a. Shaft dia. = d. b. Dia of Disk = D. c. Wt. Of the disk= W e. Module of rigidity for l shaft g = 0.34 x 10 6 kg/sq. cm.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 Obs Length of Shaft L. Cm Nos of oscillations “n” Time Sec For “n” osc Periodic Time No (Expt) T

SPECIMEN CALCULATIONS

3. Determination of Torsional stiffness Kt.

 T G I P ------------- d 4 1 Kt = -------- = = (0.34 x 10 6 ) ------- X ------ kg.c  L 32 L d 4 IP = Polar M.I. of shaft = -------- 32 2 W D I ----- Kt 2. Determine T Theoretical = 2 when I = ------ 9  ----- 2 kg cm sec. 1/2 = 2 I ---- Kt 3. Determine T expt. = Time for n osc t ------------------------------- Sec No. of oscillations “n” RESULTS :- Obs Length of Kt T (Expt) T (Theo) F (Theo) F (Expt) No shaft T secs secs c.p.s. c.p.s.       EXPERIMENT ON TWO ROTOR SYSTEM

AIM : To study the free vibrations of two rotor system and to determine the frequency of vibration theoretically and experimentally.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP :- Fig. Shows the general arrangement for carrying out the experiment. Two disks having different mass moment of inertia are clamped one at each end of shaft by means of collects. Mass moment of inertia of any Disk can be changed by attaching the cross lever with weights. Both disks are free to oscillate in the ball bearings. This provided negligible damping during experiment.

PROCEDURE :

6. Fix two disks to the shaft and fit the shaft in bearings.

7. Deflect the Disks in opposite direction by hand and release.

8. Note down time required for n number of oscillations.

9. Fit the cross arm to one of the disks and again note down time.

10. Repeat the procedure with different equal masses attached to the ends of cross arm and note down the time.

OBSERVATIONS: -

1. Dia of Disk

2. Dia of Disk

3. Wt. Of Disk

4. Wt. Of Disk

5. Wt. Of arm (with nut bolts)

6. Length of the cross arm.

7. Dia of shaft

=

= A = WA = B = WB = = = =

B

A

= DA

= DB

d

=

8. Length of shaft between rotors = L =

OBSERVATION TABLE :

 Obs I A I B No. of oscillations “n” Time required t for “n” osci T (Expt) T (Theo) secs t/n

:2:

SPECIMENT CALCULATIONS :-

1. find ‘kt’ of shaft as follows :

2/-

 G I P d 4 1 Kt = ------------- = 0.34 X 10 6 ------ ----- Kg – cm L 32 L

Where G = Module of rigidity of shaft d 4

IP

= -----

32

2

 W D Where I = ------  ------- = G 2 D = shaft diameter L = Length of shaft. T Experimental = Time for ‘n’ osc ---------------------------- = No. of Oscillation ‘n’ Sec RESULTS : IA kg/cm 2 IB kg/cm 2 T (Theo) F (Theo) T (Expt) sec F (Expt) Sec c.p.s. c.p.s.      LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS OF HELICAL SPRING (SDF)

AIM:

theoretically and experimentally.

To study the longitudinal vibrations of helical spring and to determine the frequency by

DESCRIPTION OF APPRATUS:-

One end of open coil spring is fixed to the screw engages with screwed end. The screw can be adjusted vertically in any convenient position and the clamped to upper beam by means of lock- nut. Lower end of the spring is attached to the platform carrying the weights. The platform is guided in the lower beam. The whole unit can be clamped at any horizontal position by using the upper end lower clamping nuts. Thus the design of the system incorporated vertical and lateral positioning of the unit to suit convenience.

PROCEDURE:-

1.

Fix one of the ends of helical spring.

2. Determine free length.

3. Put some weight to platform and note down the defection.

4. Stretch the spring through some distance and release.

5. Count the time required (in sec) for some say 10, 25 oscillations.

6. Determine the actual period.

7. Repeat the procedure for different weights .

OBSERVATION TABLE

 slno Wt attached in Kg + Wt of plate form Deflection No. of Time Periodic of Spring Oscillation Required Time = T cm  ‘n’ ‘t’ experimental = t/n

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

 1. Find ‘T’ theoretical by using equation: T Theoretical = 2 W -------------- ks x g where W = weight of pan and weight on the pan Ks = Stiffness of the spring

= Final height of spring - initial height of spring / weight applied + pan weight

 T = Time for number of osc = _t_ No. of osc n

Theoretical frequency

1

= ----------------- T (Theoretical )

1

= cycles /sec

Experimental frequency = -------------- = cycles /sec T(exp)

UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION APPARATUS

AIM : To study the undamped free vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP :

Expt .1 It is designed to study free forced damped and undamped vibrations. It consists of M.S. rectangular beam supported at one end by a turn union pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing Housing is fixed to the side member of the frame. The other end of the beam is supported by the lower end of helical spring. Upper end of spring is attached to the screw.

Expt. 2.The exciter unit can be mounted at any position along the beam additional weights may be added to the weight platform under side of the exciter.

PROCEDURE:

9.

Support one end of the beam in the slot of turn union and clamp it by means of screw.

10. Attach the other end of beam to the lower end of spring.

11. Adjust the screw to which the spring is attached such that beam is horizontal in the above position.

12. Weigh the exciter assembly along with discs and bearing and weight platform.

13. Clamp the assembly at any convenient position.

14. Measure the distance L1 of the assembly from pivot. Allow system to vibrate freely.

15. Measure the time for any 10 osc. And find the periodic time and natural frequency of vibrations.

16. Repeat the experiment by varying L1 and by also putting different weights on the platform.

Note:

weights do not fall during vibrations.

It is necessary to clamp the slotted weights to the platform by means of nut so that

OBSERVATION TABLE

 W + P.form Length No of “n” osc Time for “n” osc sec “t” Periodic Time Natural W L1 “n” (Expt) T Frequency f.n.r (Expt) W = Wt of exciter assembly along with we. Platform. M = mass of exciter assembly along with we. Platform. L1 = Distance of w from pivot L = Distance of spring from pivot = Length of beam. neglecting M.I. of beam.

T (Theoretical) = 2

W

---------

g

X

2 L1 --------

L

X

l

-------

K

= 2 me
-------
K

1/2

Where me = equivalent mass at the spring = m L1
--------
L

2

= 1/2
L1
W
--------
--------
L
gK

DUNKER LEY’S RULE

AIM : To verify the Dunker ley’s Rule for concentrated load

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP :-

A rectangular section bar is supported in trunnion fittings at each end. Each trunnion is pivoted in a ball bearing carried in housing. Each bearing housing is fixed to the vertical frame member. The beam carries at its centre a weight platform.

PROCEDURE :

1. fix the flat with plate form in trunnion

2. Attach weight on the pan

4.

Find periodic time ‘t’ and frequency of vibration ‘f’ by measuring time for some osc.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

 Sl. Wt Attached No. of Osc Time For “n” Osc Frequency of Osc F = n/t No. Kg n Secs “t”

m x g x (l 1 l 2 ) 2

Theoretical deflection = --------------------

 3 E I (l 1 + l 2 ) As l 1 = l 2

m x g x (l 1 ) 4

 = -------------------- 3 E I

b x t I = --------

12

4.987

frequency T = -----------

 

From Experimentally T

=

Time for n osc t ------------------------------- Sec No. of oscillations “n”

AIM : To study the damped forced vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SET UP:

It is similar to that described for expt. No.5 the exciter unit is coupled to D.C. variable speed motor.Speed of the motor can be varied with the dimmerstat provided on the control panel. Speed of rotation can be known from the speed indicator on control panel. It is necessary to connect the damper unit to the exciter. Amplitude record vibration is to be obtained on the strip- chart recorder.

PROCEDURE:

1. Arrange the set up as described for expt. No.5.

2. Connect the exciter to D.C. Motor.

3. Connect the damped unit to the exciter assemblys

5.

Wait for 1 to 2 minutes for the amplitude to build for particular forcing frequency.

6. Adjust the position of strip-chart recorder. Take the record of amplitude Vs. time on strip chart starting recording motor. Press the recorder platform on the pen gently. Pen should be wet with ink. Avoid excisable pressure to get good record.

7. Take record by changing forcing frequencies.

8. Repeat the experiment for different damping. Adjusting the holes on the piston of the damper can change damping.

9. Plot the graph of amplitude Vs frequency for various damping conditions.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Forcing frequency c.p.s.

Amplitude

mm

Prepare similar observation tables tables for various damping conditions.

CALCULATIONS:

Plot the graph of amplitude vs. frequency for each setting.