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INTRODUCTORY
MUSICIANSHIP
A Workbook
SEVENTH EDITION

Theodore A. Lynn
Los Angeles Valley College

AUSTRALIA BRAZIL CANADA MEXICO SINGAPORE SPAIN


UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES
Introductory Musicianship: A Workbook, Seventh Edition
Theodore A. Lynn

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Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Unit 1: The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1a: The StaffStave(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1b: Clefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(1) G Clef (Treble Clef) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(2) F Clef (Bass Clef). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(3) C Clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
(4) Drawing the Clefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1c: Extending the Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
(1) Ledger Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1d: The Great Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
(2) Octave Sign (8va) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1e: Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
(1) Note Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
(2) Dotted Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
(3) Stems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
(4) Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
(5) Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
(6) Ties and Slurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1f: Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1g: Meter Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
(1) Accented and Unaccented Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
(2) Simple Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
(3) Compound Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
(4) Unequal Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
(5) Triplets and Duplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1h: Double Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1i: The Anacrusis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1j: Accidentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1k: Half Steps and Whole StepsChromatic or Diatonic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1l: Enharmonic Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1m: Repeat Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
(1) D.C., D.S., Coda, and Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
(2) First and Second Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1n: Keyboard Octave Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Worksheets 11 through 110. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Review Test of Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Unit 2: Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesEasy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


2a: Rhythmic Exercises: Group 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
(1) Simple Meters with No Beat Division, Using  ,  ,  , and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
(2) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

v
2b: Rhythmic Exercises: Group 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
(1) Simple Meters with Beat Division; New Material  and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
(2) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
(3) New Material 28 , 38 , 48 , and Ties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
(4) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
(5) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2c: Rhythmic Exercises: Group 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
(1) Simple Meters with Beat Subdivision; New Material, , and   . . . . . . . . . . 47
(2) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
(3) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
(4) New MaterialRests and Anacruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
(5) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
(6) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
(7) Three-Part Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2d: Melodic Exercises: Group 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
(1) Simple Meters with No Beat Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
(2) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
(3) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2e: Melodic Exercises: Group 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
(1) Simple Meters with Beat Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
(2) Two-Part Melodic Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
(3) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
(4) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
(5) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2f: Melodic Exercises: Group 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
(1) Simple Meters with Beat Division and Subdivision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
(2) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
(3) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Unit 3: Scales, Keys, and Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


3a: Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3b: Circle of FifthsMajor Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3c: Overtones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3d: Key Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3e: Tetrachords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3f: Major Scales with Sharps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3g: Major Scales with Flats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3h: Circle of FifthsMinor Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3i: Minor Scales with Sharps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3j: Minor Scales with Flats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3k: Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3l: Relative Major and Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3m: Parallel Major and Minor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3n: The Chromatic Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3o: The Church Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3p: Other Scale Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
(1) The Pentatonic Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
(2) The Whole-Tone Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
(3) Original Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

vi
3q: Twelve-Tone Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Worksheets 31 through 316 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Review Test of Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Unit 4: Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


4a: Constructing Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4b: Perfect and Major Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4c: Minor Intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4d: Diminished and Augmented Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4e: Constructing IntervalsBy Half Steps and Whole Steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4f: Constructing Intervals Downward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
(1) Method Identication and Alteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
(2) Method Counting by Whole and Half Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
(3) Method by Interval Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4g: The Tritone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4h: Simple and Compound Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4i: Hearing and Singing Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Worksheets 41 through 412 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Review Test of Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

Unit 5: Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesIntermediate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


5a: Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
(1) Compound Meters with Beat Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
(2) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
(3) Coordinated-Skill Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
(4) New MaterialDotted Notes  and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
(5) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
(6) Coordinated-Skill Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
(7) New Material 22 , 32 , 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
(8) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
(9) New MaterialThe Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
(10) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
(11) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
(12) Three-Part Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5b: Solfeggio with Major Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5c: Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
(1) Using Solfeggio Syllables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
(2) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
(3) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
(4) Eight-Measure Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
(5) New MaterialThe Triplet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
(6) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
(7) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5d: Solfeggio with Minor Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
(1) Melodic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
(2) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

vii
Unit 6: Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6a: Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
(1) Major Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
(2) Minor Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
(3) Diminished Triads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
(4) Augmented Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6b: Chord Names and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6c: Primary Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6d: Root Position Triad Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6e: Root Position and Inversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6f: Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
(1) Major Seventh Chords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
(2) Major-Minor Seventh ChordsThe Dominant Seventh Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
(3) Minor Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
(4) Half-Diminished Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
(5) Diminished Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6g: Root-Position Seventh Chord Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6h: Root Position and Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6i: Commercial Chord Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6j: Chord Symbol Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Worksheets 61 through 621 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Review Test of Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Unit 7: Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesDifcult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237


7a: Mixed Rhythmic Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
(1) Simple and Compound Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
(2) Eight-Measure Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
(3) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7b: Mixed MetersConstant Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
(1) Eight-Measure Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
(2) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
7c: Mixed MetersChanging Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
(1) Eight-Measure Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
(2) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
7d: Syncopation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
(1) Eight-Measure Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
(2) Coordinated-Skill Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
(3) Three-Part Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
7e: Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
(1) Mixed Rhythmic Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
(2) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
(3) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
(4) Mixed MetersConstant Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
(5) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
(6) Two-Part Melodic Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
(7) Mixed MetersChanging Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
(8) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
(9) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
(10) Syncopation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
(11) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

viii
(12) Two-Part Melodic Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
(13) Church Modes and Other Scale Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
(14) Coordinated Melodic-Rhythmic Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
(15) Two-Part Melodic Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Unit 8: Melodic Writing and Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272


8a: Melodic Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
8b: Transposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
(1) Shifting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
(2) Transposition by Scale Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
(3) Changing the Clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
(4) Instrumental Transposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
8c: Melodic Writing in Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Worksheets 81 through 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Review Test of Unit 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Unit 9: Chord Progressions and Harmonization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293


9a: Doubling Triads and Seventh Chords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
9b: Chord Progressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
(1) Common Tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
(2) Horizontal Line Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
(3) Parallel Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
(4) The Cadence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
9c: Harmonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
(1) Nonharmonic Tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
(2) Adding an Accompaniment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
(3) Accompaniment Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
(4) Commercial Accompaniment Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
9d: Figured Bass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
(1) Figured-Bass Symbols for Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
(2) Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
(3) Figured-Bass Symbols for Seventh Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
(4) Chromatic Alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
(5) Inversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Worksheets 91 through 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Review Test of Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

Unit 10: Appendix: Terms, Signs, and Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321


10a: General Musical Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
10b: Performance Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
(1) A Scale of Speeds (Tempos) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
(2) Terms Referring to Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
(3) Terms Referring to Variations in Tempo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
10c: Instruments of the Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
10d: Voice Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
10e: Signs and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

ix
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Preface

Introductory Musicianship, now in its seventh one- and two-part melodic exercises, valuable
edition, is a text-workbook in musical funda- coordinated melodic-rhythmic exercises, and
mentals that places particular emphasis on the rhythmic and melodic dictation examples, all of
basic skills of reading and writing music. It which include and reinforce the material in the
assumes students have no prior knowledge of text units. The students learn to count both divi-
music, and it is appropriate in either a one- or sions and subdivisions of the beat, and they learn
two-semester fundamentals course for nonma- four ways of singing the melodic exercisesby
jors or in an introductory theory course for pitch name, by scale-degree number, and by
majors. The unusual organization of the book either movable or xed solfeggio syllables. The
six text units with worksheets, alternating with sheer quantity of these exercises is one of their
three units devoted entirely to rhythmic and greatest virtues.
melodic sight-reading exercisesallows a high Many of the early examples in Unit 2 are
degree of exibility and has proved an invaluable readily adaptable to classroom dictation. For the
feature of the book. This organization remains rhythmic dictation, the instructor can rst name
intact in this edition. the note value to be used as the unit of beat,
In other respects, many changes have been establish the meter and tempo by clapping two
made to strengthen and improve the book. The or three preliminary bars, and then clap the
discussion of certain topics has been revised and exercise, with the students writing the note val-
reordered for greater clarity and simplicity. Eight ues they hear and adding bar lines. This process
new worksheets have been added and many oth- should be repeated no more than three times for
ers have been revised. The pullout Keyboard for each exercise. This approach can be similarly
Piano and Guitar located at the front of the book adapted to the melodic exercises. At rst, the
now includes major and minor guitar chords and combination of rhythmic and melodic elements
is laminated for durability. The text units present may pose too many problems. In such cases, the
notation, meter, scales, and modes, intervals, instructor may ignore meter signatures and note
triads, seventh chords, the basic principles of values, playing the melodies slowly, with an
melodic writing and transposition, and harmo- equal value for each note, and announcing both
nization and accompaniment. As with a foreign the rst note and the clef. Later, when the stu-
language, music must be experienced, not simply dents have gained ability and condence in han-
read about; therefore, the verbal explanations are dling rhythm and melody separately, instructors
brief and the musical examples are copious. can combine the two elements. The melodic
Also new to the seventh edition of Introduc- examples in Unit 2 are also appropriate for the
tory Musicianship is a CD-Rom available at no practice of transposition.
additional cost. This resource contains all of the Periodically, measures are left blank. This
text's end-of-chapter worksheets in an electronic offers students an opportunity to be more cre-
format, allowing you the ability to e-mail com- ative and, at the same time, provides a successful
pleted worksheets directly to your instructor. technique for learning to read music. After stu-
Units 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9 end with numerous dents have completed the work assigned in Unit
worksheets, keyed in the margin to the corre- 2, the instructor may place several of their ex-
sponding text sections for the students conven- amples on the board, clap or sing the examples,
ience in review. These worksheets, including an and then discuss reasons for one being more
overall review test, recapitulate the entire con- appropriate than another. The benets from
tents of each unit and offer more than enough these exercises will far outweigh the extra time
practice to give students ease and condence in class instruction they may entail.
with each theoretical concept. The organization of the book allows instruc-
Units 2, 5, and 7 present a large number of tors to introduce subjects in whatever order they
sight-reading exercises, carefully graded from wish. Each unit is planned for a exible ap-
easy to challengingly difcult. Each unit contains proach. For example, the book presents two ways
one-, two-, and three-part rhythmic exercises, of constructing scales, two ways of constructing

xi
intervals, and two ways of transposing a melody. ington College, Paula Keeler of Buena Vista Uni-
Furthermore, the book includes more material versity, Max Lifchitz of State University of New
than instructors can probably cover in most one- YorkAlbany, and Nico Schler of Southwest
semester coursessuch as the introduction to Texas State University. Thanks also to reviewers
twelve-tone technique in Unit 3, the information of previous editions for their thoughtful sugges-
about commercial chords in Unit 6, and some of tions: Wesley Abbott of Los Angeles City College,
the most difcult exercises in Unit 7. Besides its Kevin J. McCarthy of University of Colorado
obvious usefulness in the two-semester sequence, Boulder, Mark Polanka of DePaul University,
this material is included to motivate and chal- Lynn Shuntleff of Santa Clara University, Thomas
lenge students to continue their exploration of Sovik of University of North Texas, and Arthur
these subjects on their own. Unsworth of Appalachian State University.
I extend my sincere thanks to my many Thanks also go to the Thomson editorial
friends for their support; to the Los Angeles Val- group: Clark Baxter, Julie Yardley, and Emily
ley College music faculty and staff; to Los Ange- Perkins; to the production and manufacturing
les Valley College professor Richard Kahn for his group: Trudy Brown and Judy Inouye at Thom-
kind contribution; and a very special thanks for son and Bonnie Balke at A-R Editions; to Diane
my colleague and friend, Los Angeles Valley Col- Wenckebach, Executive Marketing Manager; Pat-
lege instructor Chauncey Maddren, for his in- rick Rooney, Associate Marketing Communica-
valuable contributions and time spent in prep- tions Manager; and Matt Dorsey, Executive Tech-
aration of this seventh edition. nology Project Manager, for his work on the
I also want to thank those who reviewed the CD-ROM.
manuscript of the seventh edition for their help- Most of all, Id like to thank the students who
ful comments. They are Cathy Ann Elias of have in the past helped and inspired me in the
DePaul University, Dennis R. Herrick of Hunt- development of this textbook.

xii
UNIT
The Basics
1
1a The StaffStave(s)
The staff is a series of ve lines and four spaces on which notes are written. A four-line staff is still in use
for the notation of Gregorian chant (the chant of the Roman Catholic Church), but all other conven-
tional notation always uses the ve-line staff. Lines and spaces of the staff, for identication, are num-
bered from bottom to top. The term stave is seldom used in the singular form; however, it is often used
in the plural form (e.g., one staff, two staves).

5 4
4 3
3 2
2 1
1

1b Clefs
A clef is a sign written at the beginning of the staff to indicate the pitch nameA, B, C, D, E, F, or G
for a given line. There are three clef signs, representing the pitches G, F, and C, and the shapes of the
signs are modications of the shapes of these letters. The variety of clefs and clef positions results from
the desire to avoid too many ledger lines (see 1c1). In early music notation, whenever the range of a
voice or instrument exceeded the ve-line staff, composers or music copyists would change the position
of the clef or introduce another clef. In contemporary music, the changing of the position of the clef or
introducing another clef is less common. In the following list of clefs, the arrow indicates the position of
middle C (the C nearest the middle of the piano keyboard) as it is notated in each clef.

(1) G CLEF (TREBLE CLEF)


middle C


( )

G D E F G A B C D E F G

(2) F CLEF (BASS CLEF)


middle C




( )

F F G A B C D E F G A B

1
(3) C CLEF
Although in early music the G and F clefs were movable, they are now stationary. The C clef remains
movable from one line to another, allowing the notes to remain within the staff. All ve C clefs were
commonly used until the middle of the eighteenth century, when composers gradually abandoned all
but two of the positions: the alto and the tenor. The alto clef is still used to notate music for the viola,
and the tenor clef is occasionally used for the cello, string bass, viol, bassoon, and trombone. The center
of the curved line indicates the placement of middle C.


middle C


( )

E F G A B C D E F G A
Alto C clef

middle C




( )

C D E F G A B C D E F
Tenor C clef

The following C clefs are seldom used.

middle C middle C middle C



( )

( )

( )
A G B
Baritone C clef Mezzo-soprano C clef Soprano C clef

With the availability of seven clefstreble, bass, and ve C clefsany line or space could be any of the
seven pitch names.



A B C D E F G

2
(4) DRAWING THE CLEFS

Treble Clef
Beginning with the fourth line,
complete the clef by forming an
incomplete circle in the bottom
Draw a curved line ending two spaces. The circle designates
Draw a vertical line. at the fourth line up. the note G.

Bass Clef
Beginning on the fourth line, draw a curved line Place two dots to the right of the clef above and
to the right, ending on the second line directly below the fourth line. The dots designate the
under the beginning point. note F.


C Clef
The original C clefs were literally the letter C. We now form this clef by drawing a stylized letter C that
delineates the line we wish to designate as C.

O <

1c Extending the Staff


LEDGER LINES
For notes beyond the range of the ve-line staff, small line segments called ledger lines are added above
or below the staff, so that higher or lower notes may be written. Ledger lines are spaced with the same
distance between them as that between the lines of the staff. They are just wide enough to extend


slightly to the left and right of the note.



G A B C D D C B A G B C D E F F E D C B

The note is placed on the last ledger line or in the space beyond the last ledger line. A ledger line is never


used beyond the note.


correct incorrect

3
4

1d The Great Staff

(1) The great staff (or grand staff) is a double staff with both a treble clef and a bass clef. All the most frequently used pitches can be written on this
staff. Middle C is placed between the two staves. The great staff can be considered an eleven-line staff with middle C occupying the short eleventh line,
or ledger line.
The piano keyboard is arranged in a pattern of seven white and ve black keys and is repeated seven times on the modern 88-key piano. The
black keys are in repeated patterns of two and then three. The note C is the rst white key to the left of the two black keys. Western music divides the
pitch into half steps (semitones): one key to the next closest key, white to black, black to white, and in the case of E-F and B-C, white to white. (See
1k.)

down up

C c c1 c2 c3




!
middle C


great staff E F G A B C D E F G A B C C D E F G A B C D E F G A
(2) OCTAVE SIGN (8va)
The range of the staff can be further extended with the octave sign 8va, indicating that the notes in the
bracket are to be played an octave higher or lower. An octave is the pitch with the same name eight notes
above or below the given pitch. The octave sign 15ma indicates two octaves or fteen pitches higher.
The octave sign 8va below a group of notes is not used in the treble and C clefs, and 15ma below a group
of notes is extremely rare.



8va


8va
F G F G G F G F
written sounded written sounded

1e Notes

(1) NOTE SYMBOLS


Notes are symbols indicating the relative duration and pitch when placed on a staff. Beginning with the
whole note, each succeeding note is divided by two.

double whole note (very rare)


1 whole note
equals

2 half notes
=

4 quarter notes
=
   
8 eighth notes
       
       
=

16 sixteenth notes

=
       
32 32nd notes etc.

       


       
=

64 64th notes etc.

5
(2) DOTTED NOTES
A dot after a note adds one half to the durational value of the note.

dotted whole note a equals a plus 

dotted half note  =  + 

dotted quarter note  =  + 

dotted eighth note  =  + 

dotted sixteenth note  =  +

dotted 32nd note  = +

A double dot may be added to a note. It adds one half plus one quarter to the value of the note.

double-dotted quarter note = + + 


The dot is always added to the right side of the note. If the note is on a line, the dot is placed in the space
above. If the note is in a space, the dot is placed in the same space.

(3) STEMS
As you just saw, all notes except whole notes have stems. Stems are drawn down if notes are above the
middle line of the staff, and up if notes are below the middle line. Stems drawn up are placed on the
right side of the note; stems drawn down are placed on the left side. The stem is usually an octave in
length and, in notes using ledger lines, the stem extends to the middle staff line. For the middle-line
note, stems may go up or down, but down is more usual.

6
(4) FLAGS
Flags (or hooks) denote values shorter than a quarter note; they always extend to the right of the stem.
Eighth notes have one ag, sixteenth notes have two ags, 32nd notes have three, and 64th notes have
four.

  


     
    
        
(5) BEAMS
In instrumental music, and increasingly in vocal music, it is customary to use beamshorizontal
linesin place of ags for groups of eighth, sixteenth, 32nd, and 64th notes. The number of beams cor-
responds to the number of ags: one beam for eighth notes, two for sixteenth notes, and so on. Beams
can be used with notes of different values, as long as they have values shorter than a quarter note. The
combined note value of the beamed notes will generally equal a single beat as indicated by the meter
signature (e.g., in 44 the combined beamed notes will equal one quarter note).

In beaming several notes together, place the beam above if the majority of stems would normally go
up. If the majority of stems would normally go down, the beams are placed below. If there is no major-
ity, use the direction of the note farthest from the middle line of the staff. Beams should more or less
reect, in a straight line, the overall contour of the note group.

(6) TIES AND SLURS

The tie is a curved line connecting two or more notes of the same pitch. The tie allows a note to be sus-
tained across a bar line and is frequently used to arrive at a note total that is not otherwise availablea
quarter note tied to a dotted quarter note, for example, produces a ve-eighth note. The tied notes are
not articulated but are sustained as a single note reecting the sum of the tied notes.

7
A tie is necessary if a note is held beyond a bar line or if the same note is connected across two or more
measures.


A curved line placed above or below a group of notes of different pitch is called a slur. It indicates that
the notes are to be performed legato, smoothly connected with no breaks between them.

1f Rests
Rests indicate silence. Each note value has its corresponding rest sign. The whole rest and half rest are
placed in the third space on the staff: the whole rest in the top half of the space and the half rest in the
bottom half of the space. Rests are never tied, since a succession of rests produces an uninterrupted
silence without any additional sign. Dotted rests are usually avoided. A rest for the note and an addi-
tional rest for the dot are preferred.

whole rest
dotted whole rest
or

half rest
dotted half rest
or

quarter rest dotted quarter rest or



eighth rest dotted eighth rest or


 sixteenth rest
dotted sixteenth rest
or

32nd rest
dotted 32nd rest
or

 64th rest
dotted 64th rest
or
A whole rest serves as a full measure rest in any and all meters. Double-dotted rests are possible but
rare. As with notes, the double dot adds one half plus one quarter value to the rest.

8
In ensemble music, parts may have several measures of rest at a time. A long rest sign, with a number
above, indicates the number of measures of rest. The rest sign is drawn through the center line.




8

8-measure rest

1g Meter Signatures
The meter signature (or time signature) at the beginning of a piece indicates a recurring pattern of
accented and unaccented beats (or pulses) that generally remains unaltered throughout a piece of
music. The top number of the meter signature indicates the number of beats in the pattern, and the bot-
tom number indicates the note (or rest) value of the beat. The recurring patterns are grouped into bars,
or measures, and are separated from each other on the staff by bar lines.

(1) ACCENTED AND UNACCENTED BEATS


The rst beat in each bar, often called the downbeat by musicians, receives the main accent or stress ().
Sometimes another beat or other beats in the bar receive a secondary stress (). The remaining beats are
unstressed ().

2 two beats in the bar


4 quarter note gets one beat
bar lines

.0



bars

38 three beats in the bar


eighth note gets one beat

/4         



44 four beats in the bar
quarter note gets one beat

00



Note the secondary stress in this example.

9
Meter signatures generally fall into two categories. Basically, simple meters divide the beat into two;
compound meters divide the beat into three. Further subdivision for both meter types subdivide into
multiples of two.
Following is a list of the most common simple and compound meters, with stressed and unstressed
beats indicated.

(2) SIMPLE METERS

.0



1 2 1 (2) 1 2 1 (2)

/0



1 2 3 1 (2 3) 1 2 3 1 (2 3)

 Common Metersymbol and name for 00


0

0( )

1 2 3 4 1 (2 3 4) 1 2 3 4 1 (2 3 4)

4.  



1 2 1 (2) 1 2 1 (2)

  
/


4
1 2 3 1 (2 3) 1 2 3 1 (2 3)

   
0


4

1 2 3 4 1 (2) 3 (4) 1 2 3 4 1 (2 3 4)

Cut Time (alla breve)symbol and name for ..


..( )



1 2 1 (2) 1 2 1 2

./



1 2 3 1 (2 3) 1 2 3 1 (2 3)

.0



1 2 3 4 1 (2 3 4) 1 2 3 4 1 (2) 3 (4)

10
(3) COMPOUND METERS

Compound meters, such as 86, 89, and 128 , differ from the preceding simple meters in that the beat divides
into groups of three.

24


two groups of three

count 1 2 1 2

54

three groups of three

count 1 2 3 1 2 3

-.4

four groups of three

count 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

In compound meters played at a slow tempo, or speed, the eighth note receives one beat, the quarter
note receives two beats, and the dotted quarter note receives three beats.
In a fast tempo, which is more usual for compound meters, the dotted quarter note receives one
beat, the dotted half note receives two beats, and the tied dotted half and dotted quarter receive three
beats.
But the most important thing to remember about compound meters is how they differ from simple
meters. It is easy to distinguish the two types by remembering that simple meters divide the beat into
groups of two, while compound meters divide the beat into groups of three.

compound simple

24 /0

1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3

(4) UNEQUAL METERS

In twentieth-century music, meter signatures with unequal divisions of the measure, such as 45, 85, 47,
and 87, are widely used. The stressed and unstressed beats in 85 and 87 can be clearly dened by the use of
beams.

14 41 43 43 43

The possibilities for other unequal divisions are limited only by the composers imagination.

-,4 -,4 --4 

11
(5) TRIPLETS AND DUPLETS
A triplet is a borrowed grouping of three in an otherwise normal pattern of division by two. Triplets are
indicated by a 3 placed above or below the beamed three-note group or with a bracket. Any note value
may be used to form triplets, although the eighth-note triplet is the most often used. What all triplets
have in common is that their total duration is equal to the duration of one note of the next larger value.

normal division triplet division

3 3
= = =
3
= =
3

 = 3  3
=  =
3

= =
3

The following example is written in 24 meter with triplets, and then in 86 meter. Both versions sound
exactly the same; only the notation differs. By the use of the triplet, simple meters can be made to sound
like compound meters.

.0
3 3 3
 3
 3

simple

24

 

compound

A duplet is a borrowed grouping of two in an otherwise normal pattern of division by three (compound
meters). Duplets are indicated by a bracket and a 2 over the notes. Any note value may be used to form
duplets, although the eighth-note duplet is most often used.

2
normal division duplet division
2
= = =
2
= 2 =

or =
2
= = =
2

or =
12
The following example is written rst in 86 meter with duplets and then in 24 meter. Both versions
sound exactly the same; only the notation differs. By use of the duplet, compound meters can be made
to sound like simple meters.

42
2

compound

.0

3


simple

1h Double Bars
A double bar is placed at the end of a work. It consists of a narrow bar line
and a wider bar line.

A double bar with two narrow bar lines designates the end of part of a work or
section, but not the nal close.

1i The Anacrusis
A composition does not always begin on the rst beat of the rst measure. One or several notes can
occur beforehand. These additional notes are called an anacrusis (or upbeat or pick-up note[s]). In
vocal music, an anacrusis occurs when one or more unstressed syllables appear before the rst stressed
syllable.


The / cow jumped / over the / moon.

Formerly, the number of beats or the fraction of a beat used in the anacrusis was subtracted from the
last measure of the work; in some cases, modern practice utilizes a complete nal measure.

(one ) (two )
/ 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
0

13
1j Accidentals
Accidentals are sharps, ats, or naturals introduced within the body of a workin contrast to the
sharps or ats found in the key signature (3d). An accidental is always placed in front of the note it
affects (i.e., on the same line or space as the note to which it refers).

A sharp (:) raises the pitch of a tone by a half Chromatic 1/2 steps Diatonic 1/2 steps
step. A at ( ;) lowers the pitch of a tone by a
half step. Half steps may be either chromatic
or diatonic (see 1k).

A natural ( <) is used to cancel a sharp or at


within a measure.


Except for the sharps and ats in the key sig-
nature (3d), the bar line cancels all accidentals
in a previous measure.

Except for sharps and ats in the key signature


(3d), an accidental affects a note only in the

measure in which it appears, and only on that
one line or space. For example, the second ()

note in this measure is F <, but the third note is
F :.

A double at ( ;;) lowers the pitch of a tone by


two half steps.
A double sharp (=) raises the pitch of a tone
by two half steps.

To cancel a double sharp or at within the


measure, only a single natural sign is required.


To cancel part of a double sharp or at, a nat-
ural sign and the sharp or at sign may be
used but is not necessary. A single sharp or at
is sufcient.

14
1k Half Steps and Whole StepsChromatic or Diatonic
In most Western music, the smallest interval, or distance, between two tones is a half step (semitone).
Two consecutive half steps combined make a whole step. Looking at the piano keyboard, you will
notice a black key between C and D. The distance from C up to that black key is a half step. From the
black key to D is a second half step. The two half steps combined result in a whole step. The nearest key,
black or white, above or below any other key is a half step. Therefore, the next white key above B or E,
or below C or F, is a half step.
Half steps may be either chromatic or diatonic. Chromatic half steps employ the same letter name
(e.g., F to F: or B to B;). Diatonic half steps employ adjacent letter names (e.g., F to G; or B to A:).

1 Whole Step

Half Step 2 Half Steps Half Step

Whole Step Whole Step

15
1l Enharmonic Equivalents
With the exception of G: and A;, every tone can have three different names, as shown below. Tones that
are named differently but that sound the same are called enharmonic equivalents.



C B D D F E F E G G A A C B
!

!
D B D E F F G E G F A B C
!
!

!
!
!

!
C C E D A G B A

1m Repeat Signs
(1) D.C., D.S., CODA, AND FINE

Several kinds of repeat signs are used to direct the performer to skip back or forward through a work.
These signs are used to avoid writing out long repeated passages.
D.C. (da capo)repeat from the beginning
D.S. (dal segno)repeat from the sign (B)
nethe end
D.C. al ne (da capo al ne)repeat from the beginning to the end (the word ne)
D.S. al ne (dal segno al ne)repeat from the sign (B) to the end (the word ne)
codaa section at the end of a work
D.C. al codarepeat from the beginning to the coda sign (A) and then skip to the coda
D.S. al codarepeat from the sign (B) to the coda sign (A) and then skip to the coda

16
(2) FIRST AND SECOND ENDINGS
Sometimes, when music repeats, rst and second endings are used in order to save space. The rst end-
ing, which has a repeat sign, is played only the rst time through. The second time through, the rst
ending is skipped over and the second ending is played.

/0 
1. 2.


is played

/0

Another repeat sign, frequently seen in contemporary commercial music, is a sign indicating the repeat-
ing of one or two measures. In patterns that are repeated over and over, this method proves a time-saver
for both the composer and the copyist. A one-measure repeat is represented by the sign placed inside
one measure.

/0 ' is played /0

A two-measure repeat is represented by the sign bridging two measures, with a 2 placed above the staff.


/0  /0  
2

( is played

17
18

1n Keyboard Octave Registers


The standard 88-key piano keyboard has eight A, B, and C keys and seven D, E, F, and G keys. To enable you to describe clearly which A you are dis-
cussing, each octave register (CB) has been assigned a specic letter register. Two methods of register identication are presently available.
The most recent method of register begins with the lowest C indicated as C1 and continues upward to C8. The notes below C1 are designated A0
and B0. Therefore, middle C would be C4 and ascending from there D4, E4, F4, etc.

Middle C
B0
A0

C1

C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A2 B2 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 A3 B3 C4 D4E4 F4 G4 A4 B4 C5 D5E5 F5 G5 A5 B5 C6 C7 C8

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
A0

Another method of register identication begins with one octave below middle C of the piano, lower-case letters are used for the ascending octaves
and upper-case letters for the descending octaves. In this system, middle C is c1, or one-line c, and ascending from there would be d1 e1 f1, etc.

Middle C
BBB
AAA

CC

C D E F G A B c d e f g a b c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 a1 b1 c2 d2 e2 f 2 g2 a2 b2 c3 c4 c5

CC = Contra C = Great c = small c1 = one-line c c2 = two-line c c3 = three-line c c4 = four-line c c5 = five-line c


AAA = Sub Contra
WORKSHEET 1-1 NAME

Write the name of each of the following notes below the note or place the notes on the staff above the 1b
indicated names. In examples where two notes are available within the staff, write both notes.
1c



D

E C




F G E



G

D

B




A C A



A F




B A B



D
C

G



G B

F



C G

Answer for line one.

C C E E F F D G D

19
WORKSHEET 1-2 NAME

Write the name of each of the following notes below the note or place the notes on the staff above the
indicated names.



C A B



C A B



F E E D





D E E D



F A B B A D




D A B




!
1d



20
WORKSHEET 1-3 NAME

Write and name notes one octave below the given notes. 1b

1c


(2)

C A G B



sample



Write and name notes one octave above the given notes.





D B F
sample



Add stems in the proper direction to the following note heads. 1e
(3)



sample

Stem and beam the following notes in pairs of eighth notes. 1e


(5)



sample

Stem and beam the following notes in groups of four sixteenth notes.




sample

21
WORKSHEET 1-4 NAME

Identify all the notes by octave designation. For this exercise in octave designation, use the more recent
method of uppercase lettering. See page 00.



C6


!
C5


1n
C4



sample C3
C2

For each letter name, write all the possible notes up to two ledger lines above or below the staff. The
space between the treble and bass staffs may have the same note, which can be drawn to indicate its
relationship to the treble or bass clef. In those cases write both.



1b
1c ! E
G A C
1d

sample


! D F B

22
WORKSHEET 1-5 NAME
1e
Divide the rst note in each measure into the correct number of smaller notes indicated in parentheses.
(1)
(2)

( )
 ( ) ( )

sample



( )

( )
( )


    
( ) ( ) ( )


 ( )

( ) ( )


 
( ) ( ) ( )

Write one note that is equal in length to the given notes. Use dots as necessary.

  
+ = + = + = +  =
sample

 
+ = +  = = + =


+ = += + + = =


+ = = + = + =

+ = = + += =

23
WORKSHEET 1-6 NAME

1e Give a simplied notation for the rhythms below, substituting one note, with a dot if necessary, for each
set of tied notes, as in the sample.
(6)


sample solution


1f Write the rest(s) that has (have) the same value as each of the following notes. For dotted notes, write
the equivalent rests without using dots.

 

 







24
WORKSHEET 1-7 NAME

Place correct bar lines in each of the following rhythmic exercises. All examples begin on a downbeat. 1g

.0

   
4/

/0

01

00

Add a correct meter signature to each of the following measures. In some examples more than one
meter signature will be correct.

 

 

 

25
WORKSHEET 1-8 NAME

1g Each of the following measures is rhythmically incomplete. Complete each measure by adding one note
of the proper value, as in the sample. Do not place notes between two notes tied together.

.0 .0

sample

solution

00

4.
 

40
     

.0

/0


00

.0
 

..

26
WORKSHEET 1-9 NAME

Write a note a diatonic whole step above and below the following notes. 1k


sample


Write a note a diatonic half step above and below the following notes.


sample


Write a note a chromatic half step above and below the following notes.


sample


Write the enharmonic equivalents for each of the following notes. 1l


sample


27
WORKSHEET 1-10 NAME
1d Fill in the circles on the piano keyboard with the appropriate letter names and their enharmonic equiva-
lents. (Refer to the keyboard at the end of the text.) Then write those notes on the Grand Staff below. Be
1l sure to note the placement of Middle C on the keyboard.

Middle C
D
E

D
E
F
Middle C

28
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 1 NAME

1. Write the name of each of the following notes below the note.


1b
1c






2. Divide the rst note in each measure into the correct number of smaller notes indicated in
parentheses.

1e

( ) ( )
 
( )
(1)


(2)

 
( ) ( )

( )

3. Write one note that is the durational equivalent of the note values shown. Use dots as necessary.

 
+  = ++ = = + =


+
+
=
=

+ + =
+ =

4. Write the rest(s) that has (have) the same value as each of the following notes. Do not use dotted
rests.


1f


29
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 1 NAME

1k 5. Write a note a diatonic whole step above and below the following notes.



6. Write a note a diatonic half step above and below the following notes.




7. Write a note a chromatic half step above and below the following notes.

8. Write two enharmonic equivalents for each of the following notes.

1l

30
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 1 NAME

9. Add a correct meter signature to each of the following measures. In some examples, more than one 1g
meter signature will be correct.



10. Place correct bar lines in the following rhythmic exercises.

/0

24  

.0

11. Each of the following measures is rhythmically incomplete. Complete each measure by adding one 1g
note of the proper value. Do not place notes between two notes tied together.

00

.0
 

..

31
32
UNIT
2
Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesEasy

2a Rhythmic Exercises: Group 1


The following suggestions will help you establish good practice habits in these rhythmic exercises.
1. Before beginning, establish a moderate tempo, counting out loud or tapping your foot for at least
two measures. On the metronome, a setting of 80 or 84 (that is, 80 or 84 beats per minute) will be
comfortable. If you do not have a metronome, use a watch with a second hand and tap a bit faster
than once per second. Never practice too fast; it is the downfall of all beginners.
2. Clap the strong beats louder than the weaker beats. For notes with more than one beat, clap the rst
beat aloud and silently clap the remaining beats. In 44, for example, the whole note will be clapped
aloud on one and silently clapped on two, three, and four.
3. Count out loud. For notes that last more than one beat, count the rst beat aloud and whisper the
remaining beats. In the rst few exercises, the beats that are to be silently clapped and whispered
appear in parentheses. In later exercises, write the beat numbers below the notes only if absolutely
necessary.

(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH NO BEAT DIVISION, USING  , , ., AND 

1. .0
1 (2) 1 2 1 2 1 (2)

2. /0
1 (2 3) 1 (2) 3 1 2 3 1 (2 3)

3. 00
1 (2) 3 (4) 1 (2 3) 4 1 2 3 4 1 (2) 3 (4)

4. .0
1 2 1 (2) 1 2 1 2

33
5. /0

6. /0

7. .0

8. .0

9. /0
Periodically, measures will be left blank. Compose rhythms to complete the exercise.
Rhythm could be dened as a musically satisfying arrangement of note values within a basic pulse
indicated by the meter signature.
Remember:
1. Limit note values to those found in this unit.
2. Be sure you have the combined note values indicated by the meter signature.
3. Look for rhythmic patterns that precede or follow the blank measures.
4. Compose rhythms that are consistent with the remaining measures of the exercise. In other words,
dont do something radically different from what is already there.

10. /0

11. /0

12. .0

13. /0

14. 00
34
(2) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES
The following two-hand exercises will help you develop the skill of reading and performing two rhyth-
mic patterns at the same time. On a table, desk, or your knee, tap the notes below the line with your left
hand; then tap the notes above the line with your right hand. After tapping each line separately, tap
them together. Practice slowly.

R.H.

1. /0


L.H.

2. 00

3. .0

4. /0

5. 00

6. 00

7. /0

8. .0

9. 00

35
10. .0

11. /0

12. 00

13. .0

14. 00

15. /0

16.
00

17. .0

18. 00

19. /0

36
2b Rhythmic Exercises: Group 2
(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH BEAT DIVISION;
NEW MATERIAL d AND

In counting simple meters, the division of the beat requires an additional word. Add the word and to the
second, weaker half of the beat, like this: ONE-and two-and three-and, etc. When you tap your foot, the
tap down is the beat, the motion up is and. Counting out loud will help you establish a stronger feeling
of rhythmic patterns. Practice slowly.

1. .0
1 & 2 (&) 1 (&) 2 & 1 & 2 & 1 (2)

2. /0
1 (&) 2 & 3 (&) 1 & 2 (&) 3 (&) 1 (&) 2 (&) 3 & 1 (2 3)

Sometimes the double bar with two dots is used in pairs to indicate a repeat. the measure(s) within the
repeat signs are played twice. The repeat signs always have two dots on the inside, facing the measure(s)
to be repeated. If the repeat is to the beginning of a work, a sign at the beginning is not required.

 
repeat signs

3. 00 

4. /0

5. .0  

6. .0

37
7. /0

8. .0 

9. /0  

10. 00

11. 00

12. /0  

13. .0 

14. /0

15. 00

16. /0

17. .0 
38
(2) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.

1. .0
L.H.

2. /0


3. 00

4. 00

5. /0

6. .0

7. .0

8. /0

9. 00  

10. /0

39
11. /0

12. .0

13. /0

14. 00

15. 00

16. .0 

17. /0
 

18. 00

19. .0

20. /0

40
(3) NEW MATERIAL 82, 83, 84, AND TIES

1. /0 

2. 00

3. .0

4. /0

Use one tie.

5. 00

6. .0 

7.
40


Use one tie.

8. 00

 
9. /4  

10.
4. 
41
11. .0

  
12.
4/ 

13. 00

14. /0

15.
4. 

16.
40

17. .0

18. /0  

19. 00

   
20. 04 

42
(4) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

1. /0

2. 00


In writing eight-measure rhythmic exercises there are two possible approaches. Think of the rst four mea-
sures as a question and the last four measures as an answer. The answer may be almost identical, as in
example 2, or may be contrasting, as in example 5.

3. .0

 
4.
4/

5. /0 


43
6. 00

7. .0

 
8. 04
   


9. 00
similar

or contrasting

(5) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.

1. .0
L.H.

44
2. /0

3. 00

 
4.
4/

5. 00 

6. /0

7. .0 

 
8.
40

9. .0

10. /0


11.
4/
 
45
12. 00

13. /0

14. .0  

 
15.
40

16. .0

17. 00


18. /0

19. 00

20. /0

46
2c Rhythmic Exercises: Group 3

(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH BEAT SUBDIVISION;


NEW MATERIAL e, , AND cn 

In simple meters, the subdivision of the beat requires additional words. In the division of the beat, we
added the word and. We now add the syllable eh between the beat and the word and, then the syllable ah
after the and. In the subdivision of the quarter note, the word and remains on the second half of the
beat. For an accurate performance of the dotted quarter and eighth ( cn  ), count the division of the beat,
tapping the note on the appropriate word cn  in simple meters 24, 34, 44 .
1 (& 2) &


1. .0
1 (& 2) & 1 eh & ah 2 (&) 1 (&) 2 eh & ah 1 & 2

 
2. /4

3. 00
1 eh & ah 2 & 3 (4)

4.
4. 

5.
40

 
6. .0

7. 00 

8. /0

47
9. 00

 
10. /0 

11. .0

12.
40


13. /0 

14. .0  

15. 00


16. 00

17. /0

18. .0 

48
(2) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

1. /0


2. .0
  


3. 00
Use one tie.

        
4. 04
      


   
5. .0
 
 

49
 
6. 00
 


7. /0

 

      
8. /4 

 
9. .0

10. /0

(3) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.
 
1. /0

L.H.

2. .0

50
 
3. 00

4. .0


5. /0


6. 00

    
7. /4 
      

8. .0

 

51
9. /0

10. .0

       
11. 04
  
    
    

12. .0

13. 00


52
(4) NEW MATERIALRESTS AND ANACRUSES

 
1. /0

    
2. .4

    
3.
40 

4. 00


5. .0

    
6.
4/ 

    
7. .0

 
8. 00 

   
9. /4
1 & 2 eh & ah 3 & 2 eh & ah

10. /0

11. /0 
53
 
12. 00
 

 
13. .0 

   
14. .4  

 
15. /0
 
16. 00 
  
 

   
17. .0

18. /0

          
19. 04


20. .0 
54
(5) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

  
1. /0

     

2. 00

 
3. .0
 



4. /0

 
5. 00

   
55

6. .0

 

 
7. /4
    


8. .0 
 
 

 
9. /0



10. 00

 
Use two rests.

56
(6) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

  
R.H.

1. .0

L.H.

  
00
2.

3. /0

        
4. 04


         
5. 00



.0
6.
 
 
/0
7.

8. 00

 

 
57
(7) THREE-PART RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

These exercises are for group participation, with at least one person on each line. Divide the parts
among the performers, establish a beat, and begin. Perform each exercise a second and third time, with
the performers tapping a different part each time.
You can use these exercises on your own to further develop your skill of reading multiple musical
lines. Practice lines 1 and 2, then lines 2 and 3, and then lines 1 and 3.

$ 
/0

1. /0

/0
%

$
00
2. 00
00
%

$
.0
3. .0
.0
%

$ 
/0

4. /0
/0
%
58
$
/0
5. /0
/
%0
$           
4/
       
6.
4/
        
% 4/

$  
00
 
7. 00
 
00
%
$   
.0 
 
8. .0 
  
.0 
%

$
00
9. 00
00
%
59
$ 
/0 

10. /0 

/0 
%

$ 





%

$
00
11. 00
0
%0

$



%
60
2d Melodic Exercises: Group 1
The following suggestions will help you develop good practice habits in these singing exercises.
1. Each singing example should rst be clapped as a rhythmic exercise.
2. It should then be sung, using the letter names of the notes (and singing it an octave higher or lower
if it is uncomfortable for your range as written).
3. It should then be sung again, using the number system, in which the numbers 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 are
assigned to the notes of the scale in any key (3a). For example: in the key of C, C is 1, D is 2, E is 3,
etc; in the key of F, F is 1, G is 2, A is 3, etc.
4. Some suggestions about singing:
Sit up straight or, better yet, stand while singing.
Look straight forward with relaxed jaw and, if reading from music, hold music in front of you or
place on a stand at eye level.
Sing at a moderately loud volume so that you can clearly distinguish pitches. At any extreme range,
high or low, sing softer.

(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH NO BEAT DIVISION

1. 00
sing: C D E D E F G F G A G F E D C
sing: 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1

2. /0
sing: 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1

.
3.
0
sing: 1 7 1 2 3 2 1

4. /0
sing: 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5. 00

6. /0

61
0 
7.
0

8. /0

.
9.
0

0
10. 0

/
11.
0

12. /0


0
13.
0

14. .0  

15. 00

62
/
16.
0

0
17. 0

.
18.
0

(2) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

00

1. !
0
0


00
2. !
0
0


.0
3. !
.
0
63
(3) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

Similar to the coordinated rhythmic exercises, these exercises combine two musical activitiesthis
time, singing and clapping. Learn each line separately, then combine the two skills. If possible, sing the
melodic line with pitch names or numbers, but if you nd the combination of singing and clapping too
difcult, sing the melodic line on a neutral syllable. Practice slowly.

1. /0
/0

2. .0
.0

0 
3.
0
00 


4. /0 
/0  

0
5.
0
00
64
6. 00
00

/0
7.

/0

8. .0
.0

9. /0
/0

0
10.
0
00
65
2e Melodic Exercises: Group 2
(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH BEAT DIVISION

1. /0

Periodically, chord names and roman numerals will appear above and below a given melody. These
allow a musician to add the correct chord (Units 6 and 9) accompaniment to a given melody. The letters
placed above the music, a common practice in commercial music, indicate the chord to be used for that
measure or beat. Upper-case letters are major triads (6a1). The roman numerals placed below the music,
more common in the academic study of music, indicate a chord based on the diatonic scale. The follow-
ing melody is in F Major. The F Major scale is numbered one through seven, one being F, two, G, three,
A, and so forth. In this example, I is an F chord, IV is a B ; chord, and V is a C chord.

B

F F F F

2. 00
I I I IV I


C C C F

V V V I

.
G C G C D

3.
0
I IV I IV V


G C G D G


I IV I V I

66
4. .0

/
5.
0

6. 00

/
7.
0

.
8.
0

0
9.
0

67
(2) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISE

/0
1. !
/
0

(3) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


. 
1. 0
.0 

2. /0
/0

0
3.
0
00

4. 00
00

68
/
5.
0
/0


6. .0 
.0 

/
7.
0
/0

8. 00
00

/
9.
0
/0


10. .0
.0
69
(4) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

.
D

D

D

A

1.
0
I I I V


A D A D


V I V I


2. /0



Periodically, measures will be left blank. Compose melodies to complete the exercises.
Rhythm is equal in importance to the notes chosen for the melodic line. Before you begin, review
the few simple rules for rhythms outlined on page 34.
All the following principles and rules of melodic writing are very general and many exceptions may
be found with a continued study of music. For the beginner, the understanding of these basic principles
and rules will be an introduction to the interesting mysteries of composing. More information on this
subject, including harmonization, can be found in Units 8 and 9.

Basic Principles
Most music is written in an orderly fashion and will have certain patterns of construction. These
patterns are called musical form. The smallest form is called a phrase.
Keeping in mind that there are many exceptions to these principles, phrases are usually four mea-
sures long. Two phrases combine to form a period.
The rst phrase of a period is called the antecedent phrase, the second the consequent phrase.
Similar to the rules outlined for rhythms on page 34, the two phrases may take two basic formsa
parallel period, where the rst and second phrases are nearly identical, and a contrasting period,
where the rst and second phrases are dissimilar. Example 2 is parallel in construction and
example 6 is contrasting in construction.
Melodic lines may move by scale step (conjunct motion) or outline triads (6a) and wide interval
leaps (disjunct motion).
Melodic lines have an overall architecture. Two phrases may remain rather static, the rst phrase
ascend and the second descend, the rst descend and the second ascend, or any combination of
the above.

Basic Rules
1. The rst phrase will usually end on a note other than the tonic (3a), the second almost always on the
tonic.
2. Limit the number of rhythmic patterns.
3. Make the melody singable. This is rather an abstract idea, but a good rule to follow. Sing your
melody and if it feels comfortable it is likely to be correct.
4. Constrain the tessitura, that is, the overall range of notes from the lowest to the highest, to no more
than an octave and a third.

70
.
C G C C

3.
0
I V I I


C G C G C


I V I V I

B B E B

4. /0
I IV I
I

E
B F


B

F B


IV I V I V I

.
4 
5.


 

6. 00

0    
4

   
7.


71
8. .0

. D D A D D A

9. 0
I I V I I V

D G A D


I IV V I

/0
10.

0

11.
0


12. .0

72
(5) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


1. 00
00

/
2. 0
/0


0
3.
4
40

73

.
4.
0
.0

/0
5.
/0

6. 00
00




74
/
7.
0
/0

.
8. 0
.0

0
9.
0
00


75
2f Melodic Exercises: Group 3
(1) SIMPLE METERS WITH BEAT DIVISION AND SUBDIVISION


C F C F C G C

1. 00
I IV I IV I V I


C F C F C G C

I IV I IV I V I


00 

2.






/0 
3.
 



4. .0

/
5. 0


76
F C F C

.0
6.

I V I V
B

F F C F


I IV I V I

/ 
7.
0

8. .0 


 
4/

9.

0
0  
10.
 

 
77
0
11. 0 



/ D D

D A

12. 0
I I I V

A A

A

D


V V V I

Round Form
A round requires the performers to be divided into three or four equal groups. Each group will perform
the complete work. The rst group begins at the opening phrase (1), the second, starting at the begin-
ning, enters when the rst group reaches the second phrase (2), and so on. Rounds may be repeated as
many times as you wish.

(1) (2)
.
13.
0

(3) (4)


(1) (2)

14. 00

(3) (4)

78
(2) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

.   
4  
!
.    
1.

4    


!   

   

   
4/   
!
2.

/   
4       

   

!
 

  

79
(3) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


1. /0 
/0

2. 00  
00

 

.
3.
0
.0

80
00
4.
00

/  
5. 4 
4/

. 
6.
0
.0

81

00

7.

00
 




 

8. /0
/0

.
9. 0
.0

82
UNIT
Scales, Keys, and Modes
3
3a Scales
A scale (from Italian scala, ladder) is an ordered series of pitches, going either up or down. There are
many forms of scales, but the two most commonly used in Western music since the seventeenth century
are the forms called major and minor. The major scale is represented by the white keys of the piano that
span the octave C to C. The ascending major-scale arrangement of whole steps and half steps is as fol-
lows: a whole step between the rst and second and the second and third pitches, a half step between the
third and fourth, a whole step between the fourth and fth, the fth and sixth, and the sixth and seventh
pitches, then a half step between the seventh and eighth pitches. The following major scale is repre-
sented C to C.

half step half step


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1
C D E F G A B C

Each scale step has a name that indicates its relationship to the tonic, the name of the beginning note of
the scale and main tone of the key.
tonicbeginning pitch
supertonicthe pitch above the tonic
mediantthe pitch halfway between the tonic and the dominant
subdominantthe dominant ve pitches below the tonic or the pitch below the dominant
dominantthe dominant ve pitches above the tonic
submediantthe pitch halfway between the tonic and the subdominant
leading tonehalf step below the tonic



tonic
leading tone
submediant
dominant
subdominant
mediant
supertonic
tonic

83
3b Circle of FifthsMajor Keys
A scale that follows the half-step and whole-step pattern described is called a major diatonic scale. With
this half-step and whole-step pattern kept consistent, the major scale can be transposed (moved) to all
the remaining eleven half steps within the octave. For each transposition, sharps or ats must be added
to maintain the correct diatonic pattern.
The major scales and their appropriate sharps or ats can be arranged in a sequence called the
circle of fths, shown in the diagram below. With C at the top, the fths lead clockwise to G, then to D,
and so on around the circle. The key signature indicates whether the name of the new key will be
sharped or atted, e.g., the descending fth below F is B. But the key signature, two ats, dictates that B
will be atted. Therefore the name of the new key is B . Note that the scales requiring sharps are clock-
wise ascending fths, and that the scales requiring ats are counterclockwise descending fths. Note also
that at the bottom of the circle, the scales with sharps and ats must cross. These three sets of scales,
each with two key signatures, are called enharmonic major scales. (See 1l.)

no or

G1

C

F 1


B 2
D2

E 3 A3

A 4 E4

5 7
D 6 C
G
C B
7 F
5

enharmonic keys

3c Overtones
The use of the fth in the circle of fths is not an arbitrary choice. Every pitch is a composite of sounds,
consisting of the main sound (the fundamental) plus many more. Most of these additional sounds, called
overtones, harmonics, or partials, are not distinctly heard; however, the rst overtone, which is an
octave above the fundamental, and the second overtone, which is a fth plus an octave over the funda-
mental, are clearly audible. This fth is a very dominant sound for every pitch of the scale.
To hear these two overtones, silently depress the white keys of the piano from C to C with your right
hand. With your left hand, strike the C one octave lower a hard, short blow. You will hear the tones C
and G distinctly. Then silently depress the white keys from G to G, strike the G one octave lower, and you
will hear G and D. You can continue this procedure throughout the circle of fths.

strike key silently depress keys

84
3d Key Signatures
In music based on a major or minor scale, the piece often centers on a specic tone, the rst note of the
scale. This tone is called the tonic (or keynote or key center). Playing a G major scale or a piece using this
scale means playing in the key of G major. The sharps or ats used in a particular key are grouped together
at the beginning of the staff in an arrangement called the key signature. Any sharp or at shown in the key
signature means that the corresponding note is played sharped or atted throughout a composition
although the sharp or at may be canceled with a natural sign (<) for a single measure (see 1j).
The sequence of sharps or ats in a key signature follows a specic order. The rst sharp in all sharp
key signatures, major or minor, is always F, the second sharp is always C, the third G, and so on. The rst
at in all at key signatures is always B, the second at is always E, the third A, and so on. Therefore, the
circle of fths, shown above, indicates that the key of G has 1 : and that sharp must be F. The key of F is
shown to have 1 ; and that at must be B.
Below you will nd not only the correct key signature notation but the specic order that the sharps
and ats must follow.
Please note that the sharp and at key signatures also follow the circle of fths. The sharps begin at
F (11 oclock) and move clockwise to B (5 oclock). The ats simply reverse the order and begin with B
(5 oclock) and move counterclockwise to F (11 oclock).
In notating key signatures, the sharps or ats are placed on the staff in a certain pattern that is never
altered: In the treble clef, the rst sharp, F, is always placed on the top line; in the bass clef, on the fourth
line up. In the treble clef, the rst at, B, is always placed on the middle line; in the bass clef, on the sec-
ond line up. The diagram below shows the placement of the remaining sharps and ats in the pattern
that must always be followed. In notation, allow sufcient space so that none of the sharps or ats is
directly above or below another.



F C G D A E B B E A D G C F




F C G D A E B B E A D G C F

85
3e Tetrachords
Another way to construct scales is by the use of the tetrachord, a concept that dates back to ancient
Greek music. The tetrachord is a four-note pattern of whole steps and half steps that, when com-
bined with another tetrachord, forms a one-octave scale. The tetrachord for the major scale is a pat-
tern of two whole steps followed by a half step. Starting with C, an ascending series of this pattern,
with each tetrachord separated by a whole step, will result in the twelve major scales, the last lead-
ing back to C. Any two neighboring tetrachords in this pattern will spell a major scale, as in the dia-
gram below. The minor scales and the modal scales (see 3o) can also be learned by memorizing their
individual tetrachord patterns. Except for the Lydian mode, each tetrachord pattern will be separated by
a whole step.

Major-Scale Tetrachord Series

F (G ) to C
B
E
A




! D
B(C )

G (F )

C (D )
E
F


C


D (C )
A
C (B)
G

Refer to 3o for more information on the modes.


Major scale 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8 Natural (unaltered) minor scale 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8

Dorian mode 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8 Phrygian mode 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8

Lydian mode 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8 Mixolydian mode 1 2 3 4 / 5 6 7 8

86
3f Major Scales with Sharps
Following the circle clockwise from 11 oclock (F) to 5 oclock (B) will also give you the order of sharps
found in sharp key signatures.

Key
in order
C none

G f
C
D f c F G

A f c g D

E f c g d
A
B f c g d a

F
f c g d a e
E

C
f c g d a e b
B

half step


half step


G
G



D




E



B

Another way to identify the key of the scale is to remember that in key signatures with sharps, the note
one diatonic half step above the last sharp in the key signature gives the name of the key.
87
3g Major Scales with Flats
Following the circle counterclockwise from 5 oclock (B) to 11 oclock (F) will also give you the order of
ats found in at key signatures.

Key in order
C none

F b

B
C
b e F G

E b e a D
A b e a d
A
D b e a d g

G
E
b e a d g c

C
B
b e a d g c f

half step


half step

Another way to identify the key of the scale is to remember that in key signatures with ats, the name of
the next-to-last at gives the name of the key, except in the case of F, which has only one at.

88
Below are shown three major scales, C, A, and E , and how these scales appear on the piano keyboard.


W W H W W W H

C D E F G A B C



W W H W W W H

C F G

A B D E A


W W H W W W H

E A B E

F G C D

89
3h Circle of FifthsMinor Keys
The rules that apply to the major circle also apply to the circle in minor, as shown in the diagram below.*
The natural minor scale is represented by the white keys of the piano that span the octave A to A. Half
steps appear between the second and third pitches, and between the fth and sixth. With this whole-step
and half-step pattern kept consistent by adding sharps or ats, the minor scale can be transposed to all
the remaining eleven half steps within the octave. The scales requiring sharps are clockwise ascending
fths, and the scales requiring ats are counterclockwise descending fths.
The natural minor scale can be altered by adding accidentals, to produce two other formsthe har-
monic and the melodic minor (see 3k).

no or

a e 1

d 1


g 2 b 2

c 3 f 3

f 4
c 4

5 7
b 6 a
e
a g
7 d
5
6

enharmonic keys

*The use of lower-case letters in this diagram to refer to minor keys is a well-known convention, and one this book
will use from now on. Thus, capital G in diagrams means G major and lower-case g means g minor.

90
3i Minor Scales with Sharps
Following the circle clockwise from 8 oclock (F) to 2 oclock (B) will also give you the order of sharps
found in sharp key signatures.

Key in order
a none

e f
A
b f c D E

f f c g G B

c f c g d
C
g f c g d a

d f c g d a e F

a f c g d a e b


half step


half step



e


b



f



c




g




d

91
3j Minor Scales with Flats
Following the circle counterclockwise from 2 oclock (B) to 8 oclock (f) will also give you the order of
ats found in at key signatures.

Key in order
a none

d b
A
g b e D E

c b e a G B

f b e a d
C
b b e a d g

e b e a d g c F

a b e a d g c f

half step


half step

d

92
Below are shown three minor scales, a, b, and f, and how these scales appear on the piano keyboard.



W H W W H W W

A B C D E F G A



W H W W H W W

C F

B D E G A B



W H W W H W W

A B D E

F G C F

93
3k Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic Minor
The minor scale has three formsthe natural (unaltered) form, the harmonic form, and the melodic
form. Each has its own unique characteristics. You should play and sing each form until you can recog-
nize its distinct quality.
The natural minor scale is sometimes called the Aeolian, in reference to its origin as one of the
church modes (see 3o).



natural minor

The harmonic minor scale raises the seventh pitch of the natural minor scale by one half step. This
results in a skip of a step and a half between the sixth and seventh scale steps.

one and one-half steps



harmonic minor

The ascending melodic minor scale raises by one half step the sixth and seventh pitches of the natural
minor scale. Descending, the sixth and seventh pitches are returned to their original pitches. The
descending melodic minor scale, therefore, returns to the natural minor form.




ascending melodic minor descending melodic minor (natural)

3l Relative Major and Minor


Major and minor keys with different names but with the same key signatures are called relative. To nd
the relative minor key of a major key, count down three degrees of the scale from the rst note (the
tonic) of the major scale, or count up six degrees of the scale from the tonic. To nd the relative major
key of a minor key, reverse the process: count down six degrees of the scale from the tonic, or count up
three. In the following example, the key signature with one sharp applies to the keys of both G major
and e minor.

94
Relative Major and Minor Key Signatures


e


count up 6


G
count down 3


C a C a




G e F d



D b B g



A f E c



E c A f



B g D b

95


F d G e



C a C a

3m Parallel Major and Minor


Major and minor keys with different key signatures but with the same letter name and the same tonic
are called parallel. The key signature of any parallel minor key is the same as that of its relative major.
Find it by counting up three diatonic half steps, a minor third (or by counting down nine diatonic half
steps). Counting up three, or down six, from G gives B ;, the relative major of g minor. Therefore two
ats, the key signature of B;, is also the key signature of g minor.
Another way to establish the parallel key signature is to move counterclockwise three places around
the Circle of Fifths (3b); e.g., starting on G you move three spaces counterclockwise GCFB ; to get the
key signature of the parallel minor.

Parallel Major and Minor Key Signatures



g
count up 3



G
count down 6


C c C c



G g F f

96


B b
D d



E e
A a



A a
E e



D
B b c
(spelled in its
enharmonic formc )



F f G f
(spelled in its
enharmonic formf )



C c C b
(spelled in its
enharmonic formb)

97
3n The Chromatic Scale
When any nondiatonic tones are introduced into a scale, they are called chromatic tones. The introduc-
tion of every chromatic tone results in the chromatic scale, all the twelve tones within an octave. In
general, sharps are used to notate the ascending scale; ats notate the descending scale. However,
sharps or ats found in the key signature should be accounted for. Below is the c ascending and
descending chromatic scale, also the F ascending chromatic scale and the G descending chromatic
scale.

The white-key half-step pairs (EF and BC) are always notated as natural notes.

correct

incorrect

correct

incorrect

98
3o The Church Modes
The church modes were the tonal basis of early music until roughly the end of the sixteenth century,
the end of the Renaissance. The modes are octave segments of the C major scale, each placing the tonic
on a different pitch in the scale (or white key on the piano). They appear on the staff as shown below.
The major and minor scales replaced the modes and remained prominent until the late nineteenth cen-
tury, when composers rediscovered the early church modes and also became interested in other scale
forms. The Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian modes remain in use today, the Dorian and
Mixolydian being especially popular with composers of jazz and commercial music. An easy way to con-
struct the modes is to think of them as either a major or minor scale with alterations, or as a major scale
beginning and ending on a pitch other than the tonic.

The Church Modes


half step


half step

Ionian (major)

Doriana minor scale with a raised 6th or a


major scale played from the supertonic to the
supertonic


Phrygiana minor scale with a lowered 2nd or a
major scale played from the mediant to the
mediant


Lydiana major scale with a raised 4th or a
major scale played from the subdominant to the
subdominant


Mixolydiana major scale with a lowered 7th or
a major scale played from the dominant to the
dominant


Aeolian (minor)


Locrian (very rare)a minor scale with a lowered
2nd and 5th or a major scale played from the
leading tone to the leading tone

99
Each mode may be transposed to any of the remaining half steps within the octave, and a circle of
fths can be established for each by following the same rules that apply to the major and minor scales.
For example, the Dorian mode with no sharps or ats is called D Dorian. A fth ascending is A Dorian,
with the key signature of one sharp; a fth descending is G Dorian, with the key signature of one at.
The modes may also be transposed by understanding and memorizing the tetrachord pattern for each
(see 3e).

Ionian (major)
Locrian
Aeolian (minor)
Mixolydian
Lydian
Phrygian
Dorian
Ionian (major)

Transposed to D Major



Ionian

Dorian

Phrygian

Lydian

Mixolydian

Aeolian

Locrian

Ionian

100
To give an idea of the sound of some of the different modes, the following is the well-known Christmas
song Silent Night in major, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, Dorian, and Mixolydian.

Franz Gruber
(17871863)
Major

42
 
 

Natural minor (Aeolian)

2
4  
 

Harmonic minor

42  
 






101
Melodic minor

42  
 

Dorian

42  
 

Mixolydian

42
 
 

102
3p Other Scale Forms
Many other forms of scales can be found in music, including Near Eastern and Asian scales that do not
use the half-step and whole-step patterns, scales unique to an ethnic or regional group, and original or
created scales that are created by the composer for a specic effect.

(1) THE PENTATONIC SCALE


The pentatonic scale is a scale with only ve different pitches (in contrast to the seven pitches of the
major and minor scales). Although there are many ways to construct a pentatonic scale, it can be easily
played on the piano by using the black keys only. This scale occurred in China as early as 2000 B.C.


pentatonic scale

(2) THE WHOLE-TONE SCALE


The whole-tone scale, a six-tone scale beginning on C, can be transposed only once, to C:. All other
transpositions duplicate one of the two scales. This scale was exploited by the French Impressionist
composers of the late nineteenth century because it lacks a feeling of tonic; it thus creates a vagueness
of tonality or key.

or


or


whole-tone scale

(3) ORIGINAL SCALES


A composer may create an original scale for a particular composition. The following is but one of many
possible synthetic scales.


original (synthetic) scale

103
3q Twelve-Tone Rows
In the early twentieth century, the composer Arnold Schoenberg (18741951) devised a pitch system to
replace the traditional melodic, tonal, and chordal relationships of the music of the eighteenth and nine-
teenth centuries. A composition using this system is based on an arrangement of all twelve chromatic
tones into a series, or twelve-tone row. The series usually remains unaltered throughout a work except
for the modications listed below. The composing of a series and its creative use is an advanced and
complex skill, but the basic rules can be understood by the beginning theory student:
1. The row can be used in four forms:
Oin the original form
Iin inversion (upside down, with each interval inverted)
Rin retrograde (backward)
RIin retrograde inversion (backward and upside down)
2. These four forms can be transposed to any step of the chromatic scale, allowing a possible total of
48 versions of the original row.
3. From this basic material, melodic progressions and chordal combinations can be formed. The
twelve tones are usually presented in full, arranged horizontally or vertically, before the series, in
any of its forms, is repeated.
4. Any range, clef, skip, repetition of tones, simultaneous use of tones, octave position of tones, or
enharmonic spelling of tones is allowed. Accidentals apply only to the note following.
5. Once the row is started, the preestablished note sequence is followed through all the twelve notes of
the row. You do not randomly pick notes from the row.



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
chromatic scale



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
(12) (1) (3) (9) (2) (11) (4) (10) (7) (8) (5) (6)
original (O)
the chromatic scale reordered into a twelve-tone row


inversion (I)



retrograde (R)



retrograde inversion (RI)

104
Here is part of a melody using the inverted form of the row.



Lento
/
0  

This is the row Arnold Schoenberg (18741951) used in the following example.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

SCHOENBERG, WALTZ, OP. 23, NO. 5

12
10 11


7


1 2 4 5 6 8 9

4/
!


/ 
4

8 9 10 11 4
7 2 5
12 3
6 1
by Wilhelm Hansen As, Denmark. Used by permission.

A Silent Night tone row version based on the Schoenberg row found on page 105. Compare this with
Silent Night examples found on pages 101 and 102.


42

O: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 11 11 12
R: 1

 


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
I: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8




9 10 11 12
RI: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

105
This page intentionally left blank
WORKSHEET 3-1 NAME 3a
3f
Name the major key and write the tonic on the staff for the following key signatures. If possible without 3g
ledger lines, write the tonic in two different octaves.



G
sample

Write the key signatures for the following major keys. 3d


3f
3g

E sample B F G


C F C C


A D A G


E A D B

107
WORKSHEET 3-2 NAME

3d Write the key signatures for the following major keys.


3f
3g

! ! ! C

A F

sample



! G
! G
! B


! C
! E
! D


! A
! C
! F


! E
! D
! B

108
WORKSHEET 3-3 NAME
Write the key signatures and the ascending scales for the following major keys. 3f
3g

A
C sample

D G

D C

F A

E B

E B


F A


E C


G E

109
WORKSHEET 3-4 NAME
3d
3e Identify the key and then write in the key signature for the following major key examples.

3f

.0
G sample


/0

00

/0

.0



*


. 0
0 0
*Modal example. See pp. 99100.

110
WORKSHEET 3-5 NAME

Name the minor key and write the tonic on the staff for the following key signatures. If possible without 3i
the ledger lines, write the tonic in two different octaves. 3j



c sample



3d
Write the key signatures for the following minor keys.
3i
3j


a
d sample g b

a e c g

a b e a

d c f f

111
WORKSHEET 3-6 NAME
3i
3j Write the key signatures and the ascending scales for the following minor keys. Use the natural form.


3k

b
g sample


c b


a f


f d


g a


e c


a b


f d


e c

112
WORKSHEET 3-7 NAME

Identify the key, plus the form, for the following minor key examples. Also, write the correct key signa- 3d
ture at the beginning of each example. 3i

3j
3k

d natural minor sample

.0

00

.0


/0

/0

*

0
0

.0
*Modal example. See pp. 99100

113
WORKSHEET 3-8 NAME

3i Write the ascending relative minor scales for the following ascending major scales in all forms indicated.
3j


3k


3l
C sample natural




harmonic melodic


G natural



harmonic melodic




B natural



harmonic melodic



E natural


harmonic melodic




D natural



harmonic melodic

114
WORKSHEET 3-9 NAME

Write the descending relative minor scales for the following descending major scales in all forms 3i
indicated. 3j

3k
3l
C sample natural




harmonic melodic



F natural

harmonic melodic



A natural

harmonic melodic



E natural



harmonic melodic




B natural



harmonic melodic

115
WORKSHEET 3-10 NAME

3i Using the proper key signatures, write the ascending parallel minor scales for the following major scales
in all forms as indicated.
3j


3k
3m
C sample natural


harmonic melodic



F natural


harmonic melodic


D natural


harmonic melodic



A natural


harmonic melodic




B natural


harmonic melodic

116
WORKSHEET 3-11 NAME

Using the proper key signatures, write the descending parallel minor scales for the following major 3i
scales in all forms indicated. 3j


3k
3m
C sample natural



harmonic melodic



A natural

harmonic melodic



G natural

harmonic melodic



F natural

harmonic melodic




B natural

harmonic melodic

117
WORKSHEET 3-12 NAME

3k Write key signatures and ascending scales as indicated. For minor scales, use the harmonic form.
3l

3m
sample parallel major of f relative major of e


parallel minor of B relative minor of F


parallel minor of D relative major of d


parallel minor of E relative minor of E

Write key signatures and descending scales as indicated. For minor scales, use the melodic form.



sample relative minor of A relative major of b


parallel minor of B relative minor of B


parallel minor of F relative major of f


parallel major of a parallel major of b

118
WORKSHEET 3-13 NAME

Write key signatures and ascending scales as indicated. 3k


3l
3m

sample parallel minor (harmonic) of E relative major of c


relative minor (natural) of A relative minor (harmonic) of D


parallel minor (melodic) of D parallel minor (melodic) of C


parallel minor (natural) of A relative major of f

Write key signatures and descending scales as indicated.



sample relative major of f parallel minor (harmonic) of B


relative minor (melodic) of E parallel major of g


relative major of a parallel major of g


relative minor (harmonic) of C parallel major of b

119
WORKSHEET 3-14 NAME

3k Write key signatures and ascending scales as indicated.


3l



3m
3n
sample G Major b minor
3o


d minor B Major


parallel minor (melodic) of E F Major


c minor relative minor (natural) of A

Write key signatures and descending scales as indicated.




sample d minor parallel major of b


parallel minor (harmonic) of B C Major


F Major a minor


C Dorian E Mixolydian

120
WORKSHEET 3-15 NAME

Write the scale indicated and then circle the scale degree indicated. 3d


3f
3g
3i
sample D Majormediant G Majordominant
3j


a natural minorsupertonic B Majorsubdominant


e harmonic minorleading tone F Majortonic


B Majorsubmediant f melodic minordominant


c natural minorsubdominant A Majormediant


g harmonic minorsubmediant F Majorleading tone


c melodic minorsupertonic D Majortonic


E Majormediant f natural minorsubtonic


b harmonic minorsubdominant E Majorleading tone


a melodic minorsubmediant G Majordominant

121
WORKSHEET 3-16 NAME

Write and number the original and the three remaining forms using the Schoenberg row found on
page 105.

original (O)

inversion (I)

retrograde (R)

retrograde inversion (RI)

Arrange and number the twelve chromatic tones in your own twelve-tone row, then construct its
remaining three forms.

original (O)

inversion (I)

retrograde (R)

retrograde inversion (RI)

122
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 3 NAME

1. Name the major key and write the tonic on the staff for the following key signatures.


3f
3g

2. Write the key signatures for the following major keys.

3d
3f
A C D B 3g

B F F G

3. Write the key signature and the ascending scale for the following major keys.
3d
3f
F A 3d

D F

4. Name the minor key and write the tonic on the staff for the following key signatures.


3i
3j

123
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 3 NAME

3d 5. Write the key signatures for the following minor keys.


3i
3j

g a f b


d c f a

3i 6. Write the key signature and the ascending scale for the following minor keys. Use the melodic form.
3j
3k
f g


b d

3k 7. Write key signatures and descending scales as indicated. Use the harmonic form.
3l
3m
parallel minor of C relative minor of D

8. Write key signatures and ascending scales as indicated. Use the melodic form.


relative minor of G parallel minor of F

9. Write key signatures and ascending scales as indicated.

3o
E Dorian F Mixolydian

10. Write an ascending and descending chromatic scale from A to A. Note the key signature.

3n

124
UNIT
Intervals
4
4a Constructing Intervals
An interval is the distance between two tones. All intervals have two componentsnumber size and
quality. The number size of an interval is calculated by counting the total number of letter names
between and including the two tones, either up or down, as in the examples below. Be sure to count
the starting note as one when calculating an interval.

C to D includes only two degrees of the staff, C and D, so the interval is a


second.

F to D (counting down) includes three letters of the alphabet, F, E, and


D, so the interval is a third.


A to G includes seven degrees of the staff, so the interval is a seventh.
The quality of an interval is its distinctive sound. The interval of a second, for example, always
includes two tones, but it is the number of half steps or whole steps between the two that dictates its
quality. C-D;;, C-D;, C-D, C-D:, and C-D= are all diatonic seconds, but each sounds differenteach has
its own unique quality.

4b Perfect and Major Intervals


Within a major diatonic scale, there are four perfect and four major intervals above the tonic of that
scale. In the following examples, the perfect and major intervals are named from C or A, the root (tonic)
in the scales of C or A major. In identifying the perfect and major intervals in other major keys, be sure
to keep in mind the sharps or ats in the key signature.

125
The perfect intervals are the unison, fourth, fth, and octave and are called perfect because they
are overtones that are closely connected to the fundamental tone (see 3c). Although the unisonperfect
primecannot be counted by a total of letter names between the two tones, it is nevertheless an interval.
The major intervals are the second, third, sixth, and seventh. Major means larger, as opposed to
minor, which means smaller.



C: perfect major major perfect perfect major major perfect
unison second third fourth fth sixth seventh octave
or (M2) (M3) (P4) (P5) (M6) (M7) (P8)
perfect
prime


(P1)

()

() ()

A:

4c Minor Intervals
A major interval made one half step smaller becomes a minor inter-
val. The top tone is lowered one half step, or the bottom tone is
raised one half step. Changing minor to major is the reverse.

minor M3 m3
third
(m3)

In the unaltered natural minor scale (3k) there are four perfect, three minor, and one major interval
above the tonic of the scale. In the following examples, the perfect, minor, and major intervals are
named from C or A, the root (tonic) in the scales of c and a minor.


()
()

()

c: perfect major minor perfect perfect minor minor perfect
unison second third fourth fth sixth seventh octave
or (M2) (m3) (P4) (P5) (m6) (m7) (P8)
perfect
prime
(P1)


a:

126
4d Diminished and Augmented Intervals
A minor interval made one half step smaller becomes dimin-
ished. The top tone is lowered one half step or the bottom tone
raised one half step.
diminished m3 d3
third
(d3)

(Rare) A diminished interval made one half step smaller be-


comes doubly diminished. The top tone is lowered one half

step or the bottom tone raised one half step.
dd3 d3 dd3

A perfect interval made one half step smaller becomes dimin-


ished. The top tone is lowered one half step or the bottom tone
raised one half step.
d4 P4 d4

A perfect interval or major interval made one half step larger


becomes augmented. The top tone is raised one half step or the
bottom tone lowered one half step.
augmented P4 A4
fourth
(A4)

Half
*P = Perfect +1 +2 -1 -2
steps
M = Major
m = minor P A AA d dd
d = diminished
M A AA m d
A = Augmented

Perfect Intervals Major Intervals


1, 4, 5, 8 2, 3, 6, 7
d P A d
m M A

A perfect interval made one half step A major interval made one half step
larger is augmented. larger is augmented.

A perfect interval made one half step A major interval made one half step
smaller is diminished. smaller is minor.

A major interval made two half steps


smaller is diminished.

127
4e Constructing IntervalsBy Half Steps and Whole Steps
Besides the number of letter names between the two tones, intervals can be identied and constructed
by the number of whole and half steps they encompass. For the major second and third, and for the per-
fect fourth and fth, memorize the number of whole and half steps above or below a given tone, as
shown below. For the major sixth and seventh, memorize the number of whole and half steps less than
an octave that each contains. For example, an octave above C is C; one diatonic half step below C is B. Be
sure you think diatonic. So B is a major seventh above C. Or an octave below C is C; one diatonic half
step above that C is D;, a major seventh below C. Again, it is important that you think diatonic. Once you
identify the major or perfect interval, you can alter it to minor, diminished, or augmented by the meth-
ods described in sections 4c and 4d.
In this method of interval construction, write an interval, rst observing the correct degrees of the
staff. Then alter, if necessary, being sure of the correct diatonic spelling. For example, a major third
above D (D-E-F) is F:, not G; (D-E-F-G is a fourth).

unison

or

M2


one whole step
(two half steps)
or

M3


two whole steps
(four half steps)
or

P4
two whole and one half steps
or

P5
three whole and one half steps
or

M6
one whole and one half steps less than an octave ( ) ( )
or

M7
one half step less than an octave ( ) ( )
or


P8

octave
or

128
Intervals in Order of Half Steps Intervals in Order of Names

Half Whole Half Whole


Intervals Steps Steps Intervals Steps Steps
Unison 0 0 Unison 0 0
Perfect Perfect
Prime Prime
dim 2 0 0 Aug 1 1
2
Aug 1 1
2 Prime
Prime M2 2 1
m2 1 2
1
m2 1 1
2
M2 2 1 dim 2 0 0
dim 3 2 1 Aug 2 3 112
Aug 2 3 112 M3 4 2
m3 3 112 m3 3 112
dim 3 2 1
M3 4 2
Aug 3 5 212
dim 4 4 2
P4 5 212
Aug 3 5 212
dim 4 4 2
P4 5 212
Aug 4 6 3
Aug 4 6 3
P5 7 3 2
1

dim 5 6 3
dim 5 6 3
P5 7 312 Aug 5 8 4
dim 6 7 312
M6 9 4 2
1

Aug 5 8 4 m6 8 4
m6 8 4 dim 6 7 312
M6 9 412 Aug 6 10 5
dim 7 9 412 M7 11 5 2
1

Aug 6 10 5 m7 10 5
m7 10 5 dim 7 9 412
M7 11 512 Aug 7 12 6
dim 8 11 512 P8 12 6
Aug 7 12 6 dim 8 11 512
P8 12 6 Aug 8 13 612
Aug 8 13 612

or or
Less than an octave Less than an octave

dim 6 5 212 M6 3 112


m6 4 2 m6 4 2
dim 6 5 212
M6 3 112 Aug 6 2 1
dim 7 3 112
M7 1 1
2
Aug 6 2 1 m7 2 1
m7 2 1 dim 7 3 112
M7 1 1
2 Aug 7 0 0
dim 8 1 1
2 P8 0 0
Aug 7 0 0 dim 8 1 1
2
P8 0 0

129
4f Constructing Intervals Downward
There are three methods of constructing an interval below a given tone, all of which apply to compound
as well as simple intervals:
1. by identication and alteration
2. by counting whole steps and half steps (already described in section 4e)
3. by interval inversion

(1) METHOD IDENTIFICATION AND ALTERATION


Count down the correct number of letter names without considering accidentals. Then from the bottom
tone identify the quality of the interval and, if necessary, alter the bottom tone to produce the desired
interval. (Remember: lowering the bottom tone makes an interval larger; raising the bottom tone makes
an interval smaller.)
For example: what is a major sixth below C? E is the sixth pitch below C. E-C is identied from the
bottom tone as a minor sixth. Therefore, the E must be altered down by a half step to E . The interval is
now a major sixth.







construct m6 M6
identify alter

(2) METHOD COUNTING BY WHOLE AND HALF STEPS


See section 4e for a description of this method.
For example: what is a major sixth below E? It is four whole steps plus one half step below.

( )

M6 M6

130
(3) METHOD BY INTERVAL INVERSION
If you are at ease nding intervals above a note you may nd intervals below a given note by following a
few simple rules. (1) Remember that an inverted interval adds up to ninea third above C is E and a
sixth below C is E. (2) In inversion the quality of the interval changes from major minor, augmented
diminished, and perfect perfect. For example, what is a minor third below A? A major sixth above
is F:; therefore, a minor third below A is also F:.
1. An interval and its inversion will always add up to nine.
A second inverted is a seventh. A fth inverted is a fourth.
A third inverted is a sixth. A sixth inverted is a third.
A fourth inverted is a fth. A seventh inverted is a second.

2. The quality of an interval will change when it is inverted, with the exception of the perfect intervals.

P P
A perfect interval inverted remains perfect.

M m
A major interval inverted is minor and
a minor interval inverted is major.

A d
An augmented interval inverted is diminished and
a diminished interval inverted is augmented.

AA dd
A doubly augmented interval inverted is doubly diminished and
a doubly diminished interval is doubly augmented.

Inversion of Intervals




P1 P8 M2 m7 M3 m6 P4 P5



P5 P4 M6 m3 M7 m2 P8 P1

131
4g The Tritone
When all the fourths of the major scale are arranged in order, the one built on the fourth degree of the
scale is one half step larger than a perfect fourth; therefore, it is augmented. The augmented fourth con-
tains three whole steps, so it is called the tritone, meaning three tones. In a melodic progression, the
tritone sounds awkward. In early music it was forbidden, and was referred to as the devil in music. In
certain contexts, including student work, the rule prohibiting the melodic tritone is still observed.

4h Simple and Compound Intervals


A simple interval is an interval of less than an octave. A compound interval is an interval of an
octave or greater. It is easier and more convenient to reduce the compound interval to a simple inter-
val plus an octave. Subtract seven from the compound number and it will give you a quick simple
interval equivalent.
7 from 10 is a third; a third plus an octave equals a 10th.
7 from 12 is a fth; a fth plus an octave equals a 12th.
The terms major and perfect also apply to the compound intervals. An 11th is a 4th plus an octave and is
called a perfect 11th. A 13th is a 6th plus an octave and is called a major 13th.



M9 7 from 9 = 2nd 2nd + octave = M9 M10 7 from 10 = 3rd 3rd + octave = M10



P11 7 from 11 = 4th 4th + octave = P11 P12 7 from 12 = 5th 5th + octave = P12




M13 7 from 13 = 6th 6th + octave = M13 M14 7 from 14 = 7th 7th + octave = M14

132
Compound Intervals in Order of Names

M9 P8+M2
m9 P8+m2
d9 P8+d2
A9 P8+A2
M 10 P8+M3
m 10 P8+m3
d 10 P8+d3
A 10 P8+A3
P 11 P8+P4
d 11 P8+d4
A 11 P8+A4
P 12 P8+P5
d 12 P8+d5
A 12 P8+A5
M 13 P8+M6
m 13 P8+m6
d 13 P8+d6
A 13 P8+A6
M 14 P8+M7
m 14 P8+m7
d 14 P8+d7
A 14 P8+A7
P 15 P8+P8
d 15 P8+d8
A 15 P8+A8

4i Hearing and Singing Intervals


The ability to hear and sing intervals is the single most important skill for students to master. This abil-
ity helps greatly in melodic singing and dictation, since a melody is, of course, a horizontal series of
intervals. Knowing the sound of the intervals is also indispensible in learning to hear chords, which will
be discussed in Unit 6.
The following examples are the opening phrases of familiar tunes, which include the intervals dis-
cussed in this unit (shown by brackets above the notes). Sing the tunes until you are thoroughly famil-
iar with them. They will help you to memorize the particular soundthe qualityof each interval.
Transpose the tunes to other keys as soon as you are familiar with them in C.

133

m2 00 
Other songs with an m2: Theme from Jaws or Stormy Weather

M2 .0
Other songs with an M2: Chopsticks or Silent Night or Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain

m3 /0 

Other songs with an m3: Greensleeves or The Impossible Dream

M3 00 
Other songs with an M3: Kum Ba Yah or The Marines Hymn (From the Halls of Montezuma . . .)

P4 42     
Other songs with a P4: Wagners Wedding March (Here Comes the Bride) or Taps

Maria, from West Side Story


(transposed from original key of E )

Leonard Bernstein
(19181990)

00    
3 3

A4
Other songs with an A4: Simpsons Theme (The Simp-sons)

134
P5 00
Other songs with a P5: Star Wars Theme or Superman Theme or Do You Hear What I Hear?

m6 00
Other songs with an m6: Theme from The Entertainer

M6 /0
Other songs with an M6: NBC Theme

Somewhere, from West Side Story


(transposed from original key of E major)
Leonard Bernstein

40
m7

Bali Hai, from South Pacic
Richard Rodgers
(19021979)

M7 00


Other songs with an M7: Superman Theme

Richard Rodgers

P8 00


Other songs with a P8: Over the Rainbow

135
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WORKSHEET 4-1 NAME

Complete the following by adding major seconds above the given notes.* 4b


correct incorrect


*Notation of the second requires the notes to touch,
the higher note to the right. Accidentals are placed in
front of both notes, following the same pattern as the
notes; the lower accidental to the left and the upper
accidental to the right.


sample

Complete the following by adding major thirds above the given notes.



sample

137
WORKSHEET 4-1 (continued) NAME

4b Complete the following by adding perfect fourths above the given notes. Notice that all perfect fourths
are <-<, :-:, or ;-;, except for F to B ; and F: to B.


rule exception



sample

138
WORKSHEET 4-2 NAME
Complete the following by adding perfect fths above the given notes. Notice that all perfect fths are 4b
<-<, :-:, or ;-;, except for B to F : and B ; to F.



rule exception



sample



Complete the following by adding a major sixth above the given notes.



sample



Complete the following by adding a major seventh above the given notes.



sample




139
WORKSHEET 4-3 NAME

4b Complete the following intervals by adding a note above the given note.



M3 M2 M7 M3 P4 M6 P5 P4



P5 M6 M2 M7 M3 P4 M6 P5



M7 P8 P5 M2 M7 M3 P4 M6



P5 M2 P5 M6 M2 M7 M3 P4



M3 P4 P5 M6 P4 M2 M7 M3



M3 P5 P5 M6 P4 M3 M2 M7



P4 M6 P5 M6 P4 M3 M7 M2



M7 P5 M6 P4 M3 M7 M2 M6

Answers for line one.

P4 P5 M6 P4 M3 M7 M2 M3


140
WORKSHEET 4-4 NAME

Complete the following intervals by adding a note above the given note. 4b
4c


4d


m2 d5 P5 A8 d5 M2 P8 A5




P8 d6 A2 A5 m2 P5 M3 d8



A8 M2 m6 m3 P5 A2 A7 A5



m2 m6 M6 m3 M3 M7 A2 d7



M6 m3 A6 M3 m7 A3 M2 P5



A2 A6 m7 A6 M3 A3 d4 m3



m7 A3 M6 d4 M7 m3 A5 P4



M6 m6 A7 P4 d4 M7 A4 d7

Answers for line one.

A5 P8 M2 d5 A8 P5 d5 m2





141
WORKSHEET 4-5 NAME

4b Identify the following intervals by number and quality using the abbreviations P, M, m, d, or A.
4c


4d



sample: M2



142
WORKSHEET 4-6 NAME

Identify the following intervals by number and quality using the abbreviations P, M, m, d, or A. 4b
4c
4d

! 4h


sample: P4


!


143
WORKSHEET 4-7 NAME

4f Complete the following by adding major seconds below the given notes.




sample

Complete the following by adding a major third below the given note.


sample

Complete the following by adding a perfect fourth below the given note. Notice that all perfect fourths
are <-<, :-:, or ;-;, except for B ; to F and B to F :.


sample



144
WORKSHEET 4-8 NAME

Complete the following by adding perfect fths below the given notes. Notice that all perfect fths are 4f
<-<, :-:, or ;-;, except for F to B ; and F : to B.



sample

Complete the following by adding a major sixth below the given note.



sample

Complete the following by adding a major seventh below the given note.


sample



145
WORKSHEET 4-9 NAME

4f Complete the following intervals by adding a note below the given note.



P5 M7 M3 M2 M6 P4



M7 M3 M6 M7 P5 P4



P5 M7 M2 P4 M6 M3



M6 P8 M3 M2 P4 P5


M3 P4 M3 M2 P5 M7



M2 M6 M2 M3 M7 M2



P4 M7 P4 P4 M6 P4



P5 M3 M6 P5 M6 M7

Answers for line one.


P4 M6 M2 M3 M7 P5



146
WORKSHEET 4-10 NAME

Complete the following intervals by adding a note below the given note. 4f


d8 A2 d4 M7 m6 m3


m7

d8 m6 M2

d5 A4


d5 d8 A3 m2 M3 m7


d4

m7 m2


d5

A6 m3



M6 m7 A5 d8 m2 d4


d4 d8 A5 m2 m6 M3


m6 d8 M2 A7 d5 d4

d4


M7
m3 d5 d8 m6


M6 d5 d4 A8 m2 m7

Answers for line one.

m3 m6 M7 d4 A2 d8


147
WORKSHEET 4-11 NAME

4f Identify the rst interval, invert the interval, then identify the inversion.
(3)



P4 P5
sample

Identify the interval, then invert the interval by placing the bottom note of the interval above.



sample P5 P4

148
WORKSHEET 4-12 NAME

Complete the following compound intervals by adding a note above the given note. 4h



sample P11 M13 m9 M10 d11 m10



A11 m9 P12 P11 d12 M9



M13 m9 d11 M14 m10 A12



M9 m13 P11 M10 A13 m14



A10 P12 d14 m9 d12 A14

Complete the following compound intervals by adding a note below the given note.


sample P11 M13 m9 M10 d11 m10


A11 m9 P12 P11 d12 M9



M13

m9 d11
M14

m10 A12


M9 m13 P11 M10 A13 m14



m10 P12 A14 d9 A12 d14

149
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 4 NAME

4b 1. Complete the following intervals by adding a note above the given note.
4c


4d


M3 A5 m2 d4 A8 d5



A6 d2 d7 A3 M2 d6



M7 m6 P4 A7 m3 M6

2. Complete the following intervals by adding a note below the given note.



d6 d3 m7 m2 d4 A4



M2 P4 m3 d8 d2 A3



P5 d7 A4 M7 m6 A6


3. Identify the following intervals by number and quality using the abbreviations P, M, m, d, or A.

150
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 4 NAME

4. Identify the interval, then invert the interval by placing the top note of the interval below. 4f


(3)

5. Identify the interval, then invert the interval by placing the bottom note of the interval above.



6. Identify the following intervals by number and quality using the abbreviations P, M, m, d, or A. 4b
4c

!
4d



7. Complete the following compound intervals by adding a note above the given note. 4h



A10 d12 d9 A14 M10 A11

4f
8. Complete the following compound intervals by adding a note below the given note.
4h

m13 P12 A9 d15 d14 d13

9. Identify the following intervals by number and quality using the abbreviations P, M, m, d, or A. 4h


!


151
152
UNIT
5
Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesIntermediate

Before performing the rhythmic exercises in this unit, review the rules of good practice habits (2a);
review also compound meter signatures (1g3). Compound meters involve rhythmic groupings of three
beats or divisions of a beat into three equal parts, and may be counted in either of the following ways:
count the division values as 1 2 3, 4 5 6 (7 8 9, 10 11 12) with an accent on 1, 4 (7, 10); or let the
sounds eh and ah represent the second and third division of each group of three1-eh-ah, 2-eh-ah
(3-eh-ah, 4-eh-ah). Both methods have their advantages. Try each method several times and use the
one that feels best.
Compound meter signatures convey the feeling of skipping, or of a waltz (1 2 3, 1 2 3), or of a word
or words (pineapple, riverboat, Ludwig van Beethoven). Try to develop a feeling for each meter signature
and its characteristic divisions and subdivisions. A simple word pattern or familiar tune may be very
helpful in establishing that unique feeling for a particular meter.

5a Rhythmic Exercises
(1) COMPOUND METERS WITH BEAT DIVISION


1.
42 1 (2 3) 4 (5 6) 1 (2 3 4 5 6) 1 2 3 4 (5 6) 1 (2 3 4 5 6)


2.
45 1 (2 3) 4 (5 6) 7 (8 9) 1 (2 3 4 5 6) 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (8 9) 1 (2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)


3.
42
1 eh ah 2 eh ah 1 (eh) ah 2 (eh) ah 1 eh ah 2 eh ah 1 (eh ah) 2 (eh ah)

153
4. -.4
 
5. 54
 
6.
42 
1 eh ah 2 eh ah 1 (eh) ah 2 (eh) ah 1 eh ah 2 eh ah 1 eh ah 2 (eh ah)


7. -.4

  
8.
42

9. 54

10.
42 
      
11. 24


12.
45
 

 
13. -.4
    

154
   
14. 54
    

    
15.
42 
(2) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES
Review page 34.

  
1. 24
1 2 3 4 &5 &6 1 &2 &3 4 &5 &6



     
2. 54
    

   
3. -.4
     

     
4. 54
1 &2 &3 4 &5 &6 Fine

     

7 &8 &9 & * D.C. al Fine
*(1m)
155
   
5.
42



6.
4/ 1 2 3 &


1 & 2 3

      
7.
42 1 2 & 3



      
8. 54
    

  
9. -.4
    

 

156
10.
45
     

 
11. 24

12.
45
   

   
13. -.4
Fine

 

D.C. al Fine

 
14. 24


157
(3) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.


1.
42  
L.H.


2.
4/  

    
3. 54

 
4. -.4

  
5. 54

 
6. 24
       


7. 54


158
   
8. -.4

   


9.
42   

10. 24


-.4
11.

Fine



D.C. al Fine

 
12.
42 

   
13. -.4

159
(4) NEW MATERIALDOTTED NOTES . AND .
  
For an accurate performance of the dotted eighth and sixteenth ( or ), and the dotted sixteenth
  
and 32nd ( or ), count the subdivision of the beat, tapping the note on the appropriate word.


In simple meters .0 /0 00 : 1 (eh &) ah


In simple meters 4. 4/ 04 : 1 (eh &) ah In compound meters 42 54 -.
4 : 1 (2) & 3 4 (5) & 6


1. 00
1 & ah 2 & ah

         
2. 04  
3 (4) & 1 (2) &

3. .0 
  
4. /0


5.
42 
 
6. .0
 
7. /0 
  
8. 00

160
(5) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

 
1. 00


  
2. 24
 


   
3. .0
1 & (2) &

  

4. /0

    
5. .4  
   
 

161
6. .0 

 

7. /0
Fine

   
D.C. al Fine

8. 00
 


 
9. -.4
 

 

  
10. /0

162
(6) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.
 
1. 54
 
      
L.H.

2. .0

 
3. -.4

 
   

  

 
4. /0
 
  

163
 
00
5.

 


/0  
6.




7. 00
     

 

 
8.
42 
      Fine

      
D.C. al Fine

  
.0

9.
 
   
  
164
(7) NEW MATERIAL 22 , 23 , 42

1. .. 
1 2 1 & 2 eh & ah (1) & 2 eh & 1 & 2

2.
./

3.
./    

4.
.0

5.
./
1 (2) & 3 &


6.
.0

7. ..

8. 0. 

9.
./ 

10. ..  

165
(8) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

1.
./ 
1 & ah 2 & ah 3 & Fine


D.C. al Fine

2. ..


3.
.0




4.
.0
Fine


* D.S. al Fine

5.
./

6. ..

*(1m)

166
(9) NEW MATERIALTHE TRIPLET
In simple meters, count the triplet 1-eh-ah, 2-eh-ah. Once the triplet division of the beat (three equal
notes) has been established, be sure you do not rush or speed up the subdivision (two equal notes) of the
beat.

1. 24 
3 3 3 3 3

2. .0 
3

3. /0
3 3

4.
01

  3 3 3 3
 3

5.
02

6. -.4
3

7. ..
       
/4 
3

8. 
3 3
 3 3

9. 00
     
 
3

10.
4/

167
(10) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

3 3

1. .0
3 3 3

  
2.
42
Fine



D.C. al Fine

 3
 3

3. 00

3 3 3 3

4. /0
 3  3 

3 3 3

5.
.0
3

6. 00
3 3 3

Fine D.C. al Fine

168
  3

7.
Fine

  3


D.S. al Fine
    3
  
8. 04


  3 3

    
9.
45 
Fine
  

D.C. al Fine

10.
./
3 3



  
11. -.4
 

 



12. .0

169
(11) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

  
R.H.


1.
42



   

L.H.



 
/.
2.


3 3


3
3 3

/0
3.

..
4.


3 3


 
5.
    3

3

170
3 |
6. /.  
 
3
|

Coda


D.S. al coda

54 
7.

 

 
  
    
8. 04
   
 
   3

 3     

      

9. -.4

   

171
 
00
10.

3



(12) THREE-PART RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

24
1. 24
24




 
/0 
2. /0 
 
/0 
Fine






D.C. al Fine
172
.0
3.
.0

.0




3 3
.0   
4. .0   
3
.0   




173
with foot

3
00
3

5. 00
00

3

3





3 3

3 3 3 3



3 3 3

174
5b Solfeggio with Major Keys
Solfeggio (also called solfge or solmization) is a method of sight singing using the syllables do-re-mi-
fa-sol-la-ti(si)-do. There are two systems. In the xed-do system, do is C, regardless of the key. In the
movable-do system, do moves according to the key. In the key of E;, for example, E; is do; in the key of
A, A is do. The movable-do system is best for the elementary student in the study of scales and inter-
vals while in more advanced study, with the addition of frequent chromatics and key changes, the
xed-do system offers certain advantages. Both systems are included in the following examples.
The ability to sight-read music is a must for all music students. Not developing this skill will greatly
inhibit your ability to learn and understand music literature, history, theory, and all other aspects of
music. Solfeggio is an important method in the development of your sight-reading skill.
Sing the following examples by letter names, by numbers (see 2d), and by one of the two solmiza-
tion methods. Note that ti is used in the movable-do system and is replaced by si in the xed-do system.
Also note these pronunciations:
do is pronounced doe
fa and la are pronounced fah and lah
re is pronounced ray
mi, ti, and si are pronounced mee, tee, and see

5c Melodic Exercises
(1) USING SOLFEGGIO SYLLABLES


1. .0
movable do: do do re mi mi sol do ti la sol sol
xed do: do do re mi mi sol do si la sol sol


fa mi fa re sol fa sol mi la sol la ti do
fa mi fa re sol fa sol mi la sol la si do


00 

2.

movable do: sol do do do re mi re do mi sol fa mi re do ti do mi re sol


xed do: do fa fa fa sol la sol fa la do si la sol fa mi fa la sol do




la la ti sol do re mi fa sol fa mi re do do do
re re mi do fa sol la si do si la sol fa fa fa

175
/

G G G G

3. .
I I I I

C G C G C G C D7 G


IV I IV I IV I IV *V7 I


4. 45 


5. .0

.
6.
.  


/
 
D G D A7

7. 0
I IV I
V7

D A7 D A7 D



I V7 I V7 I

*(6f)

176
/
D

A7

D

D

8.
0  
I V7 I I


A7

D
D D
A7


V7 I I I V7

D

A7 D D G A7 D

 
V7 I I IV I V7 I

Review p. 72.
70.

   
9. 42



0 
10.
4     
  

 

-.4   
 

11.


         

  
 

177

12. 4/


1. 2.

13. /0


C C F C G7

/0
14.

I I IV I V7
1. 2.
C G7 C C G7 G7 C



I V7 I I V7 V7 I

ABA Form, Ternary Form, Song Form


The D.C. al Fine creates an ABA (Ternary/Song) form. The opening A section is usually repeated. The
following B section is of contrasting material and in many cases in a different key. The D.C. returns
you to the beginning of Section A and concludes, without repeat, at the end of the A section, there-
fore it is an AABA form. This form was popular with Classic and Romantic composers and is the most
common form for our present-day pop ballad.

0
A

15.
0 

178

16. .0





2
B
E
E B  B

17.
4 
I IV IV I I
B

F7 F7


V7 I
V7

0  
0  

18.


   

(2) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

/  
0
1. !
/
0
 

!

179
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(17561791)

/
0
2. !
/
0


!

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


.0
3. !
.

0


!




Johann Sebastian Bach
(16851750)

/
0
4. !
/
0


!


180
(3) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

.
1.
0
.0

0
2.
0
00

2
3.
4



42


181
/   
4

4.


4/ 






  

.  
5. 0
.0 
 



 


01

6.


01

 

182
(4) EIGHT-MEASURE EXERCISES

0 
1. 0 
Fine



D.C. al Fine


42 
2.
    

E B 7 B 7 E

3. 4/
I V7 V7 I

E B 7 B 7 E


I V7 V7 I

2 
4. 4    





183
5. .0

(5) NEW MATERIALTHE TRIPLET

. 

3
1.
0
3



3 3



2. 42



0
0  
3
3.
3



3


3 3

/
0

4.

184

42  

5.



/0 

6.




0
 
3 3
7. 0

5
8.
4

.
3


3
9. 0 Fine
3



D.C. al Fine



10.
42


  
185
AB Form, Binary Form
The Binary form has two parts. The opening A section is repeated and the B section is usually
repeated. The opening A and closing B sections may use similar or contrasting material. This form
was popular in certain Baroque dance forms and in many early folk tunes. An example of Binary form is
The Star Spangled Banner.

A/ 
11. 0
B

3 3

3

A
F F C7 F

12. .0 

I I V7 I
B


C7 F C7 F



V7 I V7 I

(6) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES


00
3 3 3


1. !

0
0



3 3 3 3 3


!

3


3 3

186
Euphemia Allen
(18611949)

2 
4
1. 2.

 
2. ! 

2  
4  
     2. 
  
1.

!
   
    
 

1. 2.

!  
 
 

Anonymous


42   
1. 2.

3. !
2 
4  
Fine

  

!


D.C. al Fine

187
(7) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


.0   
3 3



1.

.0   
3 3



3 3 3



3 3 3 3



3
00
3
2.

3 3
00



3



3

0   
3.
0
00






188

  

  
2
4.
4     

42



2
5. 4   
  


42
 

 
  

 

 
6. 4/

4/

189
5d Solfeggio with Minor Keys
The xed-do system does not alter any syllable for chromatic alterations. In the movable-do system, the
chromatic alterations of the diatonic major scale are as shown below. There is no chromatic tone
between mi and fa or between ti and do; therefore, no altered syllables are necessary.



do (di) re (ri) mi fa () sol (si) la (li) ti do


do ti (te) la (le) sol (se) fa mi (me) re (rah) do

In the three minor forms, the syllables are altered as shown below.

()
( ) ( )

A major do re mi fa sol la ti do do re me fa sol le te do


a minor
(natural)


( ) ( )
( ) ()

do re me fa sol le ti do do re me fa sol la ti do te le sol fa me re do


a minor (harmonic) a minor (melodic)

190
(1) MELODIC EXERCISES

/
D Major

1.

0  



d minor (melodic)

/0 
2.
 

sol do re me re do sol sol le sol la ti do do




le me me le me la ti do


3. 42   
(ri) ()




Roman numerals and letters are upper-case for major chords and lower-case for minor chords (6b). For
the minor letters, a lower-case m or mi should be added.



d mi d mi A7 d mi

4. /0
i i V7 i
g mi
 d mi
 A7 d mi


iv i V7 i

191
/   
5. 4
(ti)



0 3

3
 

3
6.
.
Fine

3 3


3 3


D.C. al Fine

-. 
7.
4




8. /0







9.
(Dorian)



/
10.
0



192
 
11. 42  
()




(ri)

.
12. 0
(ti) (le)



a mi d mi a mi d mi a mi

00  
E7


13.

i iv V7 i iv i
a mi d mi a mi d mi a mi


D E7 E7



i IV iv V7 i iv V7 i


14. 2

4   

  

/
15.
0  
()


(di)

0 3 3
 3 3 3
16.
0


193
17. FOUR-PART ROUND (see page 78)
Charles Gounod
(18181893)

/
(1)

0

(2)


(3)


(4)



(2) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


42    

1.

24


   


/0


2.

/0




194
0       
0


3.

00 

   
 

 

2  
4. 4

Fine

42
  

      

D.S. al Fine

.
d mi A7 d mi
 d mi

5. 0  
i i
.0
V7

i

g mi d mi A7 d mi




iv i i
V7

195
/

3

6. 4

4/




3 3

3
3 3
 3


/0 


7.

/0

 

45  
8.



45 

196
. 3

9.
0
3

.0

3
3


10. 41

41

0
0  

11.

00






197
..
3
3
1.
.. 3 3
.. 3 3 3

3 3 3 3

3
3 3 3

1
4  

2.

41

41

  


198
.
3.
0
.0
.0




 

199
200200
UNIT
Chords
6
A chord is several tones (three or more) played at the same time. The most common chord, the kind to
be discussed in this unit, is constructed of consecutive intervals of the third. Chords can be, and are,
constructed of intervals other than thirds, the most common being chords of intervals of the fourth
(quartal harmony). You may nd it interesting to experiment with the construction and sounds of
chords of the fourth.

6a Triads
A triad is a three-tone chord combining a root and the intervals of a third and a fth above the root. The
root is the tone from which the chord is both constructed and named. All the chords in the following
examples are F chords in root position (6d).

(1) MAJOR TRIADS


When the quality of the third is major and the quality of the fth is perfect, the triad is major. A major
triad may be constructed from any pitch by building these intervals above a given root. The major triad
is the rst, third, and fth of any major scale.


root M3 P5 M3 + m3 major triad

(2) MINOR TRIADS


When the quality of the third is minor and the quality of the fth is perfect, the triad is minor. A minor
triad may be constructed from any pitch by building these intervals above a given root. The minor triad
is the rst, third, and fth of any minor scale. It is a major triad with a lowered third.


f mi


root m3 P5 m3 + M3 minor triad

201
(3) DIMINISHED TRIADS
When the quality of the third is minor and the quality of the fth is diminished, the triad is diminished.
A diminished triad may be constructed from any pitch by building these intervals above a given root. It
is a major triad with a lowered third and fth.


f dim


root m3 d5 m3 + m3 diminished triad

(4) AUGMENTED TRIADS


When the quality of the third is major and the quality of the fth is augmented, the triad is augmented.
An augmented triad may be constructed from any pitch by building these intervals above a given root. It
is a major triad with a raised fth.


F Aug


root M3 A5 M3 + M3 augmented triad

6b Chord Names and Symbols


Each scale step and its corresponding chord have a name that indicates their relationship to the tonic,
the name of the main tone of a key.
tonicthe beginning pitch
supertonicthe pitch above the tonic
mediantthe pitch halfway between the tonic and the dominant
subdominantthe dominant (ve pitches) below the tonic
dominantthe fth pitch above the tonic
submediantthe pitch a fth below the mediant
leading tonehalf-step below the tonic; the pitch that leads back to the tonic
or subtonicwhole-step below the tonic; the lowered seventh pitch in natural minor
Roman numerals are used to represent each chord constructed above the pitches of a scale. Capital
numerals are used for major chords, lower-case numerals for minor chords, lower-case numerals plus a
small circle () for diminished chords, and capital numerals plus a small plus sign (+) for augmented
chords.

Major scale degrees Chord symbols Chord names


1 I tonic
2 ii supertonic
3 iii mediant
4 IV subdominant
5 V dominant
6 vi submediant
7 vii leading tone

The triads built above the C major scale and their corresponding numbers are shown in the following
example.

C d mi e mi

F

G
a mi b dim

I ii iii IV V vi vii

202
6c Primary Triads
The three most important triads are the primary triadsthose constructed above the rst, fourth, and
fth pitches of the major or minor scale. Those constructed above the second, third, sixth, and seventh
pitches are called secondary chords. The primary triads are the three major triads in the diatonic major
scale, and they have a particularly close harmonic relationship: the dominant (V) lies a perfect fth
above the tonic, and the subdominant (IV) lies a perfect fth below the tonic.
The tonic triad (I), constructed on the rst scale degree, ranks rst in importance. Tonal musical
compositions (music with a clearly dened key) often begin and almost invariably end on the tonic
chord. The dominant triad exercises great harmonic inuence, especially with the addition of a seventh
(see 6f ). The dominant chord is second in importance, and the subdominant is third.
Below is a list of the primary triads of all the major scales. Play these triads on the piano until your
hand and ear are thoroughly familiar with them.
In the natural minor form, all of the primary triads are minor (i-iv-v). This is the least used of the
minor forms. In the harmonic minor form, the tonic and subdominant are minor and the dominant is
major (i-iv-V). In the ascending melodic minor form, the tonic is minor and the subdominant and domi-
nant are major (i-IV-V). In the descending melodic minor form, all of the primary triads are minor (the
natural minor form i-iv-v).



C: I IV V G: I IV V D: I IV V




A: I IV V E: I IV V B: I IV V





F : I IV V C : I IV V F: I IV V




B : I IV V E : I IV V A : I IV V



D : I IV V G : I IV V C : I IV V



i iv v i IV V i iv V
a: (natural minor) a: (melodic minorascending) a: (harmonic minor)

203
6d Root Position Triad Table







major







minor







diminished







augmented

6e Root Position and Inversion


When the root of a triad is in the bassthat is, when the root is the lowest tone soundedthe triad is in
root position. If any other tone is in the bass the triad is inverted. If the third of the triad is in the bass,
the triad is in rst inversion; if the fth is in the bass, the triad is in second inversion.
Root-position and inverted C major triads are shown below in two positionsclosed structure, in
which all the notes are within one octave, and open structure, in which the notes span more than an
octave.


Root positionC, on which the C major triad
is built, is the lowest tone sounded.
closed structure open structure


First inversionE, the third of the triad, is the
lowest tone sounded.
closed structure open structure


Second inversionG, the fth of the triad, is
the lowest tone sounded.
closed structure open structure

204
6f Seventh Chords
A four-tone chord combining a triad and the interval of a seventh above the root is called a seventh
chord. Like all chords, seventh chords can be constructed on any given pitch.

(1) MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS


When the quality of the triad is major and the quality of the seventh is major, the chord is called a major
seventh chord.



major M7 major
triad seventh chord
(M 7th)

(2) MAJOR-MINOR SEVENTH CHORDS


THE DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORD
When the quality of the triad is major and the quality of the seventh is minor, the chord is called a
major-minor seventh chord. Of all the seventh chords, it is the most frequently used.
This chord is called the dominant seventh chord when it is built above the fth scale degree. As we
have seen, the dominant triad (V) is second in importance only to the tonic triad; similarly, the domi-
nant seventh is harmonically a very important chord.



major m7 major-minor
triad seventh chord
(M-m 7th)

(3) MINOR SEVENTH CHORDS


When the quality of the triad is minor and the quality of the seventh is minor, the chord is called a
minor seventh chord.

Figured Bass


minor m7 minor
triad seventh chord
(m 7th)

205
(4) HALF-DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS
When the quality of the triad is diminished and the quality of the seventh is minor, the chord is called a
half-diminished seventh chord. The half-diminished seventh chord can also be considered a minor
seventh chord with its fth pitch loweredtherefore, a minor seventh, at ve.



diminished m7 half-diminished
triad seventh chord
(1/2-d 7th)

(5) DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS


When the quality of the triad is diminished and the quality of the seventh is diminished, the chord is
called a diminished seventh chord.



diminished d7 diminished
triad seventh chord
(d 7th)

6g Root-Position Seventh Chord Table










Major seventh (M 7th)


Major-minor seventh (M-m 7th)dominant seventh






minor seventh (m 7th)




diminished seventh (d 7th)







half-diminished seventh (1/2-d 7th)

206
6h Root Position and Inversion
When the root of a seventh chord is in the bassthat is, when it is the lowest tone soundedthe
seventh chord is in root position. If any other tone is in the bass, the chord is inverted. If the third of
the seventh chord is in the bass, the chord is in rst inversion. If the fth is in the bass, the chord is in
second inversion. If the seventh is in the bass, the chord is in third inversion.
Root-position and inverted major-minor seventh chords are shown below in both closed and
open structure.


Root positionThe tone on which the chord is

built is the lowest tone sounded.

closed structure open structure


First inversionThe third of the chord is the
lowest tone sounded.
closed structure open structure


Second inversionThe fth of the chord is the
lowest tone sounded.
closed structure open structure


Third inversionThe seventh of the chord is the


lowest tone sounded.

closed structure open structure

Inversions of closed-structure seventh chords will inevitably lead to the interval of the second.
According to the general rule, the top note of the second is to the right.




correct incorrect correct incorrect correct incorrect

If a stem is added, all notes must touch the stem, but the rule of the top note of the second remains.





correct incorrect correct incorrect correct incorrect

207
6i Commercial Chord Symbols
The chord symbols used in commercial music are different from those used in theory classes. The
symbols are not completely uniform in all printed commercial music, but the principles are standard.
Symbols are always placed above the staff. (For simplicity, all the examples below are notated in C.)
Upper-case letters are used for all chords, regardless of their quality.

A capital letter stands for a major triad. When


Common Less Common
the root is at or sharp, the at or sharp is
added to the letter name even if it is in the key C CMCMaCMajC
signature.

Minor, augmented, and diminished triads, re-


spectively, are indicated by adding one of the
following to the letter name: m, min, or mi; + or
Cm CmiCminC-
aug; or dim.

Caug C+

Cdim C

A 6 adds a major sixth above the root of a major


or minor triad. C6 CM6CMa6

Cm6 Cmin6Cmi6

The number 7, by itself, normally implies a



major triad with an added minor seventh.
C7 Cdom7

The number 7 preceded by the letters Ma



normally implies a major triad with an added
major seventh.
CMa7 CMaj7CM7C7


The number 7 preceded by a lower-case m
normally implies a minor triad with an added Cm7 Cmi7Cmin7C-7
minor seventh.

The number 7 preceded by the letters dim


normally implies a diminished triad with an Cdim7 C7Cd7
added diminished seventh.

208
6j Chord Symbol Chart
Please note that there are other ways to notate these seventh chords, and that there are other seventh
chord forms. This chart illustrates most of the common chords, and their typical symbols, currently
used in commercial music.

CMa7 C7 Cm7 Cm7( 5) Cdim7 Cm(Ma7) Cdim(Ma7) CMa7( 5)






C7( 5) C7( 9)
( ) ()
C7( 9) C7 9 C7 9

C7sus4 CMa9 C9


5 5

CMa9( 11) C9( 11) CMa13( 11) C13( 11)

Cm9(Ma7) Cm9 C9sus4 Cm11






( ) ( )
C13( 9)

C13sus4

C7 13
9 C7 13
9
C6
9

In commercial music, letters are placed above the staff to indicate the desired chord. Inversions of the
chord are indicated by rst the chord letter, a slash mark, and then the desired root note (bass note)
placed below. C over E would be a rst inversion, C over G a second inversion.

C/G
C7/B

C C/E C7 C7/E C7/G

209
This page intentionally left blank
WORKSHEET 6-1 NAME

Construct the indicated triads above the following notes. Please note that a majority of diminished 6a
triads above at notes will require double ats ( ). Augmented chords above a sharp note will require a
double sharp ().


In writing the required accidentals for a given note the accidentals should
be staggered from right to left to right and should not be written in a
straight vertical line. If the two upper notes alone are altered the middle
note accidental appears to the left. If the two lower notes are altered the correct incorrect
lower note accidental appears to the left.

Correct order of accidentals 2


1
3
2
1
3
2

correct incorrect correct incorrect


M m d A M m d A
sample


M m d A M m d A


M m d A M m d A


M m d A M m d A


M m d A M m d A


M m d A M m d A


M m d A M m d A

211
WORKSHEET 6-2 NAME

6a Construct major triads above the following notes.



sample



Construct minor triads above the following notes.



sample



Construct diminished triads above the following notes.


sample



Construct augmented triads above the following notes.


sample



212
WORKSHEET 6-3 NAME

Construct the following triad chords using the given note as the root of the chord. 6a



M m M d A M



M d A M m m



m A M A M d



m M d m M A



m A d A d m



d d A d d d



A m d M d A


d d M A d A



d A m A d A

Answers for line one.

M A d M m M

213
WORKSHEET 6-4 NAME

6a Construct major triads using the given note as the root of the triad.


(1)

sample





Construct major triads using the given note as the third of the triad.




sample





Construct major triads using the given note as the fth of the triad.



sample

214
WORKSHEET 6-5 NAME

6a
Construct minor triads using the given note as the root of the triad.
(2)


sample m d m d m d


m
m d m d m



d m d m d m



d m d m d m

and diminished
Construct minor triads triadsnote
using the given usingasthe
thegiven
third note astriad.
of the the third of the triad.



sample m d m d m d



d m d m d m


m d m d m d

Construct minor triads


and diminished triadsnote
using the given usingasthe
thegiven note
fth of theas the fth of the triad.
triad.




sample m d m d m d



d m d m d m



d m d m d m

215
WORKSHEET 6-6 NAME

Construct diminished triads using the given note as the root of the triad.




sample







Construct diminished triads using the given note as the third of the triad.



sample



Construct diminished triads using the given note as the fth of the triad.



sample





216
WORKSHEET 6-7 NAME

Construct augmented triads using the given note as the root of the triad. 6a
(4)


sample





Construct augmented triads using the given note as the third of the triad.



sample



Construct augmented triads using the given note as the fth of the triad.



sample

217
WORKSHEET 6-8 NAME

6c Identify the following triads.



Answers for line one.

c dim EM b m gm A aug FM

218
WORKSHEET 6-9 NAME

Identify the inversion of each of the original chords; then reduce them to single closed root-position 6d
triads. Identify each chord by name and quality.



sample: 1st inv FM



!
or





Root position CM
sample


!




!

219
WORKSHEET 6-10 NAME

6c Write the three major triadstonic (I), subdominant (IV), and dominant (V)in each of the following
major keys. Label each with the key and the proper Roman numerals.



F: I IV V
sample

6e Write the three minor triads and the one diminished triadsupertonic (ii), mediant (iii), submediant
(vi), and leading tone (vii)in each of the following major keys. Label each with the key and the proper
Roman numerals.



D: ii iii vi vii
sample

220
WORKSHEET 6-11 NAME

Write the two minor triadstonic (i) and subdominant (iv)and the one major triaddominant (V) 6c
for each of the following harmonic minor keys. Label each with the key and the proper Roman numerals.



e: i iv V
sample

Write the two diminished triadssupertonic (ii) and leading tone (vii)the augmented triad 6c
mediant (III+) and the major triad (VI)for each of the following harmonic minor keys. Label each with
the key and the proper Roman numerals.

a: ii III+ VI vii
sample

221
WORKSHEET 6-12 NAME

6f Construct the following seventh chords using the given note as the root of the chord.



M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d
sample


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d



M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d



M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d

222
WORKSHEET 6-13 NAME

Construct major seventh chords above the following notes. 6f


(1)


sample

Construct major-minor seventh chords above the following notes. 6f


(2)


sample



223
WORKSHEET 6-14 NAME

6f Construct minor seventh chords above the following notes.


(3)



sample



6f Construct half-diminished seventh chords above the following notes.
(4)


sample


6f Construct diminished seventh chords above the following notes.


(5)


sample




224
WORKSHEET 6-15 NAME

Construct the following seventh chords using the given note as the root of the chord. 6f

(1)

(2)
(3)
M-m m M-m d M m (4)
(5)

1/2-d d M M m M-m



d M 1/2-d M-m m m


1/2-d

M M-m m d d

1/2-d m d M-m M 1/2-d



1/2-d

m M-m M d M-m


1/2-d
M m M d M-m

M-m M d m 1/2-d m


d M-m 1/2-d m M d

Answers for line one.

m M d M-m m M-m

225
WORKSHEET 6-16 NAME

6f Construct the following seventh chords using the given note as the root of the chord.


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4) m M d M-m m M-m
sample
(5)


M-m m M M d 1/2-d

Construct seventh chords using the given note as the third of the chord.



m m M-m 1/2-d M d
sample


M d m M-m d 1/2-d

Construct seventh chords using the given note as the fth of the chord.



1/2-d M M-m d m 1/2-d

sample



M-m d M M-m 1/2-d m

Construct seventh chords using the given note as the seventh of the chord.



M d M-m m M-m M


sample


M-m M 1/2-d m 1/2-d d

226
WORKSHEET 6-17 NAME

Identify the following seventh chords. 6f


(6)









Answers for line one.

e m7 FM7 dm7 GM/m7 CM/m7 GM7

227
WORKSHEET 6-18 NAME

6h Identify the inversion of each of the original chords; then reduce them to single closed root-position
chords. Identify each chord by name and quality.




3rd inv d min 7
sample












!

or



1st inv CM/m7
sample


!



!

228
WORKSHEET 6-19 NAME

Construct the primary chordsI-IV-V7 for major, i-iv-V7 for harmonic minor, i-iv-v7 for natural minor, 6c
and i-IV-V7 for (ascending) melodic minorfor the following major and minor keys.
6f

(2)

a: (nat.) F :
d: (har.)
sample i iv V7


e : (nat.) G: G :



g : (mel.) D : c : (har.)


A : C: D:

A: g: (har.) c: (mel.)



E : f : (har.) C :

b: (nat.) E: C :



c: (mel.) B : a : (har.)



F: B: e: (mel.)

229
WORKSHEET 6-20 NAME

6i Identify the following chords using the commercial chord symbols found on page 208209.
6j





Answers for line one.

C m7( 5) F 7 A7sus4 Fm9 B 7( 5) E m7

230
WORKSHEET 6-21 NAME

Construct the chords above the given notes according to the commercial symbols below them. 6i
6j


Dm7 A m7( 5) FMa7 F 7 E9 C7( 5)


B dim7 Am9 Gm11 E Ma7( 5) A Ma7 B7sus4



C m(Ma7) F9 D7( 5) Bm7( 5) Gm9(Ma7) C7


EMa9 E 7( 9) B dim7 Fm7 A7( 9) F 9( 11)



C Ma9
F m(Ma7)

B7 A7 13
9 ( ) E9sus4 G7( 9)



D13( 11)

C 7 13
A Ma9 ( )
9 B 7 E 13sus4 C7 9
5()


B Ma13( 11) CMa7( 5)

D m(Ma7) Gm7 A 7sus4 E7 9()



F 7( 5) A9 F13( 9) C dim7 E 7sus4 D7( 9)

Answers for line one.

C7( 5) E9 F 7 FMa7 A m7( 5) Dm7

231
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 6 NAME

6a 1. Construct the indicated triads above the following notes. Please note that a majority of diminished
triads above at notes will require double ats ( ). Augmented chords above sharp notes will
require double sharps ().


M m d A M m d A



M m d A M m d A

6a 2. Construct the indicated triads using the given note as the root of the triad.



d m M m d A



A M A d m M

6a 3. Construct the indicated triads using the given note as the third of the triad.



d M m m A M



M m A m d M

6a 4. Construct the indicated triads using the given note as the fth of the triad.




m M A d m M


A d m M d A

232
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 6 NAME

5. Identify the following triads. 6a






6. Identify the inversion of each of the original chords; then reduce them to single closed root-position 6e
triads. Identify each chord by name and quality.


7. Construct the following seventh chords using the given note as the root of the chord. 6f


M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d



M M-m m 1/2-d d M M-m m 1/2-d d

8. Construct the following seventh chords using the given note as the root of the chord. 6f


M m M-m d 1/2 -d m



d M-m 1/2 -d M m d

233
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 6 NAME

6f 9. Construct seventh chords using the given note as the third of the chord.


d
1/2 -d
m M M-m m


M-m 1/2 -d m M d M

6f 10. Construct seventh chords using the given note as the fth of the chord.


m d M 1/2 -d m M-m



M 1/2 -d M-m d m M

6f 11. Construct seventh chords using the given noe as the seventh of the chord.



M m M-m d 1/2 -d M



m M-m d 1/2 -d M m

6f 12. Identify the following seventh chords.

(6)





234
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 6 NAME

13. Identify the inversion of each of the original chords; then reduce them to single closed root-position
chords. Identify each chord by name and quality.



6h


14. Construct the primary chordsI-IV-V7 for major, i-iv-V7 for harmonic minor, and i-IV-V7 for
(ascending) melodic minorfor the following major and minor keys.


6c
b : f : (mel.)

G:


E : d: (har.) B:

15. Identify the following chords using the commercial chord symbols found on page 208209.




6i
6j



16. Construct the chords above the given notes according to the commercial symbols below them.



EMa9 E 7( 9) B dim7 Fm7 A7( 9) F 9( 11)



C Ma9

A7 ( 13 F m(Ma7) G7( 9)
9 )
B7 E9sus4

235
236
UNIT
7
Rhythmic and Melodic ExercisesDifcult

7a Mixed Rhythmic Units


Any note may be subdivided into any number of notes. A quarter note, for example, regularly divides
into two and subdivides into four, eight, and sixteen. But a quarter note may also be subdivided into
three, ve, six, seven, nine, etc. The desired number of notes is beamed or bracketed, with a number
placed above the beam or bracket to indicate the number of notes in the group.
In simple meters, the total durational value of the triplet (division into three) is always the same as
the value of the duplet (division into two). For example, the three eighths of a quarter-note triplet have
the same total value as the two eighths of the normal division. If the number of subdivided notes
exceeds twice the number in a regular division, the irregular group uses the next smaller note value.
Thus, a quarter note subdivides into four, ve, six, or seven sixteenth notes; for eight or more subdivi-
sions, into 32nd notes; and for sixteen or more subdivisions, into 64th notes.

3 5 6 7 9


= = = = = = = =

etc.

The following examples show the same rhythmic pattern in three simple duple meters.

 3 5
 3
.4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

237
3 5 3
.0

3 5 3

..

In compound meters, the total durational value of the duplet (two) is always the same as the value of the
triplet (the rst division in compound meters). For example, the two eighths of a dotted-quarter-note
duplet have the same value as the three eighths of the normal division. If the number of subdivided
notes exceeds twice the number in a regular division, the same rule applies as in the simple duple meter.
That is, a dotted quarter note subdivides into two, three, four, or ve eighth notes; for six or more sub-
divisions, into sixteenth notes; and for twelve or more subdivisions, into 32nd notes.

2 4 5 7 8 9

= = = = = = = =

etc.

The following examples show the same rhythmic pattern in three simple triple meters.


2
  
3

4/
1 (2 3) 1 (2) & (3) 1 2 3 & 1 2 3
3
/0
2

3

2

./

238
(1) SIMPLE AND COMPOUND METERS

2 2
  2 2

1.
45
3
 3 3 3
  3 3 3

2.
01
3 3 3 3 3

3. .0
3
 3 3
  3 3

4. 00
3 3 5

5. .0
2

6.
42
 3
 6
 3 3

7. /0
3 3 3

8. .0
3 3 6 3

9. 00
3 3

239
(2) EIGHT-MEASURE RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

1. /0 
5
 3 3

 

  2 2

2.
42
2 2


3. ..
Fine

3 5
   
D.C. al Fine

 3
 3 3 3

4. /0

 3 3 3

2 4 5

5. -.4

  2 2 2

240
(3) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

2 2

1.
42
2

2 4

2

00
3 3 3 3 3

2.

3


3 3 3 3 3


3 3 3

3 3
3 3

/0
3.
Fine
3


5 5 3


D.S. al Fine

 3
 3 3

4.
01


 
3 3

241
7b Mixed MetersConstant Note Values
A form of rhythmic and metric embellishment occurs when two different meter signatures are used in
the same work. Changing meter signatures during a work serves to shift the location of the strong beat.
In the following examples of mixed meters, the note value of the beat remains constant.

 
1. /0 00 /0 00

2. .0 0/ .0

       
3. 00 01 00


4.
4/ 42 4/

 
5. 24 45 42

 
6. 54 -.4 45


54 44 43 42
7.
n n n n n n n n n n n
 
8. .. ./ .. ./

9. .0 0/ 00 01

242
(1) EIGHT-MEASURE RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

1. /0 00 /0 00

/0 00 0/



2. ..
Fine

 
 ./  ..
D.S. al Fine


3. 24 

  
54 42

4. 00 /0 00 /0

00

243
(2) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

 .0 
R.H.

1. /0   0/ .0 
L.H.

/0   .0

   
2.
42 41   42

  1 2
 4 4  

/0 .0 /0 .0
3.

/0 .0 /0


4.
42  .4 43 42
 Fine

   
4.  43   42 
D.S. al Fine

244
7c Mixed MetersChanging Note Values
If simple and compound meter signatures are combined, the composer may indicate the relationship
between note values above the staff. In the rst example below, for instance, the notes above the staff
indicate that the dotted quarter note in measure 2 equals the preceding quarter note, and that the
quarter note in measure 3 equals the preceding dotted quarter note with the fundamental pulse or beat
staying the same.

= .
 . =
1. .0 42 .0
= . . =
2. /0 45 0/
= . . =
  2
 
3. 00 45 00
= . . =
 
4. 10 -.4 01
= =
5. .0 .. .0
= . . =
6. /0 45 /0

3 3 3 3 = .

7. 00 -.4
. =
. = = .
 
8.
42 .0 45 0/

245
(1) EIGHT-MEASURE RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

3 3 = .

1. /0 42
. = 3 3
/0
. = = .

2.
42 .0 42
  

  =
3. ./
 

=

 . =
4.
42 0/
3  = .    
42

 
= .

5. 00 45
Fine

. =
00
D.C. al Fine

246
(2) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES

R.H.


1.
43
L.H.

= =
2 3
4   4
= =
2


2.
45    /0 42 
. = = . 2 2
/ 5
  0 4

3. ..

= . =
 
 42  ..
 
3 = = 3 5

00 42 00

 
4.
 
= . =
24 00
3

  
3

247
7d Syncopation
Syncopation is, generally speaking, a deliberate displacement of the normal pulse or beat of the meter.
Our sense of rhythm depends on the recurrence of groups of two or three equal beats each, with an
accent on the rst beat of each group. Any shifting of the accent to the normally weak beat(s) of the
measure is syncopation. The following examples show the same syncopated rhythmic pattern in three
simple duple meters.


4.
1 & 2 & (1) & (2) & (1) & (2) & (1) & 2

.0

The following examples show the same syncopated rhythmic pattern in three simple triple meters.

     
4/
1 2 (3) (1) 2 (3) (1) 2 3 (1) 2 (3)

/0

./

 
1. 00

2.
.0
    
3.
42
248
 
4. 24

 
5. -.4

6.
42

       
7. .0

8. 00

 
9. 54


10. 14

11. ..

     
12. /0

249
(1) EIGHT-MEASURE RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

  
1. 00

2. 24
Fine


D.C. al Fine

3 3 3

3.
./

 3
 
4. /0

 3
 

250
(2) COORDINATED-SKILL EXERCISES


R.H.
  
00


1.
L.H.    

  





 

 
2.
01

   


3 3

3.
Fine




D.S. al Fine

    
54 
4.
      

  

    

251
(3) THREE-PART RHYTHMIC EXERCISES
These exercises are for group participation, with at least one person on each line. Divide the parts
among the performers, establish a beat, and begin. Perform each exercise a second and third time, with
the performers tapping a different part each time.
A real test of your coordinated skills is to practice the exercises by yourself, tapping the bottom line
with your foot, the middle line with your left hand, and the top line with your right hand.

 2

42
 2

1.
42
 2

24
   

2
   

2



00   
     *h
2. 00    h
  
00   

 /   0  
nn 0 0 nn
 / h  0
nn 0 0 nn
hh
nn  /
0  0
0 nn
*See page 291.
*See page 327.

252
    
34     

  
3.
43  
   
34     
n n n n n n n

44  43 
n n n

44  43 
n n n
44  43 

/.
3

4. /.

3

./
Fine


D.C. al Fine

253
 / 1 
= =

43 0 4
= =

5.
43 /0 41
=  =
/0
43 41

42 43


42 43
 
42 43

  = =
24
/0 43
  = = 

42 /0 43
= =

42 /0 43

  



254
7e Melodic Exercises

(1) MIXED RHYTHMIC UNITS

/ 3 3

0 

1.



3 3 3 3

3 3
3

2. 


3
3 3

2  
2 2 2
4 

3.

 

2



F C F C G7 G7 C
/
5 5 5
4. 0
IV I IV I V7 V7 I


F C F C G7 C


3 3


IV I IV I V7 I

255

d mi d mi G d mi A7

5. 00
3
3
 


i i IV i V7

g mi
d mi d mi A7 d mi A7 d mi


3

3 3 3 3 3

i iv i V7 i V7 i

5   

4
4

6.



4

. 3
7. 0
3

3

3

/   
0
3 3



8.

 3
3 3

256
(2) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

.  
0
3 3
1.

.0

3 3 3
3

3 3

00 
3
2.

00 3

  
3



3


3
3.
3 3 3

3
3

3 3 3 3
1  3  3 3 

3 3
0 

4.

01
 3  3

3 3 3 3


257
(3) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

Stephen Foster
(18261864)

.
3 3

.
1. !
.
3 3


3

3


!

3

3

3

3


3

! 3


3
3
3 3

.
0
2. ! 5 5 6

.
5

0 3


3 3

!
5 5


3


5

258
(4) MIXED METERSCONSTANT NOTE VALUES


00  /0  00  /0 

1.


  00

2  5 2 5
2. 4  4  4 4

/ 2  5
4 4  4 

3  / 3
 /
4
3.
4 4 4

3  2 3 
4 4 4


01  
/
0

4.

/0 
01  

259
(5) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

0   

0
3 3 3
1.

00
/
Fine

0 
3
3

/0
D.C. al Fine

2. 2
4 40 42 40
0 2 0
42  4 4  4

42 40 42 
0 2
42  4 4 
/  0
0   0 /0 
3
3.

/0 00 /0
0  /
  0 0
3

00 /0


24 0
4.
4
24 40

2 0 2
4 4 4
40 42
42
260
(6) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISE

18th Century Melody

/ /0 .0
0 .0
1. !
/
0
.0 /0 .0

/ .0 /0 .0
0
!
/
0 .0 /0 .0

/ .0 /0 .0
0
!
/ .0 /0 .0
0
/0

!
/0

261
(7) MIXED METERSCHANGING NOTE VALUES

/ = = =
1. 0 42 /0 42 
Fine


43
D.C. al Fine

2 =
/
=
2  

4 0
4
2.

= =

 /0 42

= =
/0
3 3
3.


= =
/0
3 3

2 . 2 .
= = . . =
4. 4 0 4 0

=
=

2 . 2 =
.
4 0 4 0

262
(8) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

. =
 = =
1. 0 4/ .0 4/  .0
.0 4/ .0 4/ .0
. = =
/  .0
= =
/
0 4 4

.0 4/ .0 /4
= . =
2. /0 42
. 0
0 0
/0
42 .0 00
=
0 2= . .
0 4 0
00
42 .0
1 =
.
=
1
=
. /
3.
4 0 4 0 0
. 41 .0
41 0 
/0

/ . 1= =
0 0 4 /0
/0 .0 41 /0
   
2
=
-
=
2
=
.
4. 4 0 4 0

42 0- 42 .0
Fine


=
1= -=
4 0

41 0-
D.C. al Fine

263
(9) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

. = =

=
0 42 .0 42
5

1. !
. 2 . 2
0 4 0 4
 = = =
 .0 42
.
!   0
.0 24

.0
3

Leonard Bernstein
(19181990)
= = =

42 /0 42 /0
2. !
42 /0 42 /0


= = = =
2 / 2 /
4 0 4 0 
!
42 /0 42 /0 

264
(10) SYNCOPATION

/0    

1.

()

 






2. 42  
 

   

0 
0 

3.


 

. 3

3


3 3
4. 0

265
1
4 

5.


 

5
4 

6.


/0  


7.

. 
8. 0

266
(11) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES

.    
1. 0
.0 

     

 
 
2.
/
3

0
3

3 3 3

/0

3
3 3 3

3
1
3 3

4

3.

41  
 
 



./
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4.

/.
3 3


267
(12) TWO-PART MELODIC EXERCISES

Robert Schumann
(18101856)

.   
0 
1. !
. 
0  


!

 

Traditional Folk Melody

 
00 
!

2.

0
0  


!




!





268
(13) CHURCH MODES AND OTHER SCALE FORMS
The solfeggio system (see 5b) can also be used for sight singing music in the church modes (see 3o). In
examples 15 below, the syllables indicated are for the movable-do and xed-do systems. In singing
these examples either system may be used, or use la as a substitute for solfeggio or letter names.

/ 
(A Dorian)

1.
0
movable: (do do re me)


xed: (la

la si do)
q

(sol la te do)


(C Phrygian)

42



2.

movable: (sol) (rah)



xed: (sol) (re)


.(C Lydian)
3.
0  

movable: (do)

xed: (do)


3


24     
(G Mixolydian)


 
4.

movable: (do)


xed: (sol)
q
  


  
Aeolian (natural)

5. 2
4   
movable: (do)


xed: (la)

 
  

269
(14) COORDINATED MELODIC-RHYTHMIC EXERCISES


Phrygian

1. 41 40 41 40
14 04 14 0
4
 

41 40 41 40
41  40   41  40

/
Lydian

2.
0     
/0


 


 

  

3

3 3

Dorian

3
3.

3 3 3 3

3
3 3

3

270
0
00 
Mixolydian

0  .0 .0 00
 
4.

00 .0 00 .0 00
   
0    .
0  .0

00
0
00 .0 00 .
0 
(15) TWO-PART MELODIC EXAMPLES

Igor Stravinsky
(18821971)

/0
1. !



/0


!



Bela Bartok
(18811945)


Phrygian

..
2. !
..


!

271
UNIT
8
Melodic Writing and Transposition

8a Melodic Writing
Writing melodies is a goal of most beginning students of music theory. Composing the great melody is
as much luck as it is a skill, but some very general rules may help you begin this rather personal and
complex task. Remember that some of the most memorable melodies are the simplest and most direct
in form.
1. Melodic lines are divided into periods, comparable to a sentence of written prose. A completed
melody will be made up of several periods, usually of even numbers, 2, 4, or 8.
2. A period will be four, eight, or possibly 16 measures in length.
3. Each period has two or sometimes more phrases. Phrases are usually structured in a question
(antecedent)answer (consequent) format. The rst phrase (antecedent) ends on a pitch other than
the tonic (see 6b) and the second phrase (consequent) ends on the tonic.

.0
antecedent consequent

4. A period may be parallel in form (rst and second phrases are similar) or contrasting in form (rst
and second phrases are not similar).

.
0
antecedent consequent
parallel


.0
antecedent consequent
contrasting

272
5. Melodic lines have an overall architecture. A few possible shapes are: an undulating line, an arch-
ing line, a falling line, and a rising line. Differing shapes can be combined and the possibilities of
differing shapes and combinations are extensive.

Undulating Line:

.

0

Arching Line:

2  
4 
      

Falling Line:

/
0

Rising Line:

.
.  
 

 


273
6. A melody is made up of two componentspitch and rhythm. Many times the strength of a melody
lies in a repeated rhythmic pattern, or a unique pattern of pitches or intervals, but most often, a
combination of both.

  
/0
rhythm



pitch
 
/0

combined

7. Melodic lines may move by (a) scale steps with few interval skips (conjunct motion), (b) outlined
chords, or (c) wide interval leaps (disjunct motionmore common in instrumental music than in
vocal), or in combination. The overall range (lowest to highest note) of a melody will be dictated by
the instrument or voice for which you are writing. The vocal range (tessitura) of the untrained voice
is at maximum approximately an octave and a fth.

Ludwig van Beethoven


(17701827)

0
(a) from Symphony No. 9 (conjunct motion)

0  
Joseph Haydn
(17321809)
(b) from Symphony No. 94 (outlined chords)

.0 


Sergei Prokoev

0
(c) from Romeo and Juliet (ballet) (disjunct motion) (18911953)

274
8. Ascending musical lines generate more energy and drama, descending musical lines less energy and
a sense of repose.

.
0
tension relaxation

8b Transposition
To transpose a melody or composition is to rewrite or perform it in a different key than the original.
Transposition is an essential skill for singers who wish to perform a piece in a more comfortable range,
and it is a skill required for accompanists, conductors, composers, and some instrumentalists.

(1) SHIFTING NOTES ON THE STAFF


There are three methods of transposition. The rst, and most common, is the shifting of notes on the
staff to the new key. For example, if you wanted to transpose a melody from C to E major (up a minor
third), you would write every note up a minor third and add the new key signature (three ats), as in
the example below. Note that you could also write every note down a major sixth, in accordance with
the principles of interval inversion (see 4f3).

Melody to Be Transposed

00

original key: C

00
to E : up a minor third

0
0
to E : down a major sixth

It is easy to check your work in this method of transposition by remembering that the movable-do
solfeggio syllables and the scale-degree numbers of the transposed melody will always be the same
as those of the original key. In the example above, the melody begins do-re-mi-re-mi-fa-sol-fa
(1-2-3-2-3-4-5-4) in both C and E , and in whatever other key you transpose the melody toif you have
moved the notes correctly.

275
(2) TRANSPOSITION BY SCALE DEGREES
A second method of transposition is through the use of scale degrees; exchanging the appropriate
scale degree of the original key with the scale degree of the new one.



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

For example, in the melody below, the rst scale degree (tonic) of the original key is exchanged for
the rst scale degree of the new one, the fth scale degree (dominant) of the original key is exchanged
for the fth scale degree of the new one, and so on.



1 1 5 5 etc.



1 1 5 5 etc.

(3) CHANGING THE CLEF


A third method of transposition is to change the clef instead of the notes on the staff. In this method, to
change a melody, you would simply alter the clef sign and add the new key signature. This method,
which is used in some conservatories, has the advantage of not requiring the complete rewriting of a
melody or piece, but you must be familiar with all seven clefs (see 1b).


Pitch: A B C D E F G


Clef: Tenor Treble Alto Bass Mezzo - Baritone Soprano
Soprano

276
(4) INSTRUMENTAL TRANSPOSITION
There are a number of orchestral instruments that transpose. These instruments, for historical and
acoustical reasons, were written in keys other than that of their actual sound. The clarinet, French horn,
trumpet, and saxophone are transposing instruments. Their given key, based on their individual over-
tone series (see 3c), is the pitch they play if they play the note C. The B clarinet is a B instrument. If the
B clarinet plays C it will sound B , a major 2nd lower. Therefore, if you write for the B clarinet you
must transpose up a major 2nd. If the F French horn plays C it will sound F, a perfect 5th lower. There-
fore, if you write for the F French horn you must transpose up a perfect 5th.
Instruments that sound their actual pitch are nontransposing, concert-pitched, or C instruments.
The violin, viola, cello, ute, oboe, bassoon, trombone, and tuba are nontransposing. The piccolo and
string bass are also C instruments. The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written and the string
bass sounds one octave lower than written.
Following is a list of the transposing instruments. For each, the note C is given and the actual sound-
ing pitch is also given.

B Clarinet F French Horn B Trumpet


written sounds written sounds written sounds

M2 lower P5 lower M2 lower

E Alto Saxophone B Tenor Saxophone E Baritone Saxophone


written sounds written sounds written sounds

P8+M6 lower
M6 lower M9 lower


example: C concert part F French Horn

/0


B Clarinet E Alto Saxophone
/
0
B Trumpet
B Tenor Saxophone

/
0
Please note that the baritone saxophone is a bass instrument but is written in the treble clef. The
saxophones are all written in treble clef to allow the performer to play all of the instruments without
the need of clef changes.

/
E Baritone Saxophone

example: C concert part

0
277
In this excerpt from Gtterdmmerung (Twilight of the Gods) by Richard Wagner (18131883), French
horns and trumpets vary transpositions throughout the work. The different transpositions are indicated
separately throughout the score. The tenor (B ) and bass (F) tubas sound an octave lower plus the B and
F transpositions. (All transpositions are below the given note.) The string bass sounds an octave lower
than written.

$ Massig langsam.
1.
02
\
Flutes 3 gr. FLOTEN

2.u.3.
% 02 \
$
1. 02
[
Oboes 3 HOBOEN.
2
2.u.3.
% 0 [

English Horn (F) P5 ENGLISCHES HORN. 02
$ \
1.(B.) 02
[
Clarinets (B ) M2 3 CLARINETTEN.
2
2.u.3.(B.)
% 0
[
\
Bass Clarinet (B ) M2 2
1 BASS-
0
\
CLARINETTE.(B)

$
02 [
(F)
1.u.2.
French Horns (F)
4 HORNER.

3.u.4.
% 02 [
$
1.u.2. 02
Bassoons (Tenor and Bass Clefs) \
3 FAGOTTE.

3.
% 02 \
$
Tenor Tuba (B ) M9 2 Tenor.(B) 02
\\
4 TUBEN.

Bass Tuba (F) P12 2 Bass.(F.)
% 02 \\
2
Double Bass Tuba 1 CONTRABASS-
0
\\
TUBA.(C.)

$
1.(Es.) 02
Trumpets

3 TROMPETEN.
2.u.3.(Es.)
% 02

Bass Trumpet 02 [
1 BASS-TROMPETE.
(Es.)
$
1. 02
Tenor Trombones (Tenor and Bass 3 TENOR-BASS-POSAUNEN.

Clefs) 2.u.3.
% 02
2
Bass Trombone 1 CONTRABASS-
POSAUNE.(C) 0
$
16 erste 02
Violins 32 VIOLINEN.

16 zweite
% 02
Violas (Alto Clef) 12 BRATSCHEN. 02
\
$
Celli 12 VIOLONCELLE. 02
\
2
String Basses 8 CONTRABASSE.
% 0
Massig langsam.

278
8c Melodic Writing in Modes
Music before approximately 1600 utilized a system of eight modes. The modes were numbered one to
eight. The modes discussed in this text (see 3o), Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian, were paired
with modes called hypomodes, i.e., Hypodorian, Hypophrygian, Hypolydian, Hypomixolydian. The
Dorian mode, d to d, implies a range as well as a beginning and closing note. The Hypodorian utilizes
the same notes of the Dorian but implies its range as well as its beginning and closing notes, beginning
on the fourth below, a to a.


Dorian I Hypodorian II





Phrygian III Hypophrygian IV





Lydian V Hypolydian VI




Mixolydian VII

Hypomixolydian VIII



Some of these scales might seem similar to our modern scales, e.g., the Hypodorian is similar to the
modern minor (Aeolean) and the Hypolydian is similar to the modern major (Ionian). But, the major
and minor modes did not become prevalent until the Baroque period (16001750).
In addition to being a system of scales, the modes were thought to have psychological and emotional
effects. It was believed that listening to the music of certain modes could inuence a persons behavior
and character. For example, the Dorian was thought to have a calming effect, whereas the Phrygian was
thought to create excitement.
In modern practice, each mode may be transposed to any of the remaining half-steps of the octave.
Today, the most frequently used modes are the Dorian and Mixolydian. There are two simple rea-
sons for their use: one is that they sound melodically less predictable and the other is that they alter the
primary chords.

C Major C Mixolydian


C

F

G

C

F

g mi


I IV V I IV v
d minor D Dorian

G

d mi g mi a mi d mi a mi

i iv v i IV v

279
A modern way of thinking about the modes might be to think of them as altered major or minor scales.
For example, the Dorian might be thought of as a minor scale with a raised 6th scale degree, or the
Mixolydian as a major scale with a lowered 7th.
When writing using the modes, it is important to emphasize those aspects of the mode which make
it unique and different from the major or minor scale. For example, the raised 4th of the Lydian makes
it sound different from the major scale. This raised 4th should be exploited in any melody written in this
mode. Below are some examples of modal writing.

DIES IRAE
Dorian I

The Dies irae has been used as a thematic element in a great number of works in the last two centuries.
For example, Hector Berliozs (18031869) Symphonie Fantastique and more recently many of the
orchestral works of Sergei Rachmaninov (18731943) have used this melody.

THEME FROM EXODUS


Ernest Gold
(19211999)
Dorian I

280
WORKSHEET 8-1 NAME

1. Complete the following periods in parallel form. 8a


/0

.
0
2. Complete the following periods in contrasting form.


00


/0
3. Write an opening phrase for the following periods in parallel form.


.0


00 

4. Write an opening phrase for the following periods in contrasting form.


/0


.0

281
WORKSHEET 8-2 NAME

8a 1. Write two phrases based on the given rhythmic pattern in undulating lines.
 
00

00
B :



2. Write two phrases based on the given rhythmic pattern in arching lines.

  
.
42
42
a min:


3. Write two phrases based on the given rhythmic pattern in falling lines.


/0
/
0
A:

4. Write two phrases based on the given rhythmic pattern in rising lines.

..
.
.
f min:



282
WORKSHEET 8-3 NAME

1. Write a period with antecedent and consequent phrases in undulating lines. 8a

.
0
b min:

2. Write a period with antecedent and consequent phrases in arching lines.


42
E :

3. Write a period with antecedent and consequent phrases in falling lines.

.
0
e min:

4. Write a period with antecedent and consequent phrases in rising lines.

42
F:

283
WORKSHEET 8-4 NAME

8b In the following exercises, establish the new key signature and transpose the notes up or down as
indicated.
(1)
(2)
00
1. Transpose up from C to E.


2. Transpose down from C to F.


3. Transpose up from C to A .


4. Transpose down from C to D.


5. Transpose up from C to G.


6. Transpose down from C to B.


7. Transpose up from C to A.


8. Transpose down from C to E.

284
WORKSHEET 8-5 NAME

In the following exercise, establish the new key signature and transpose the notes up or down as 8b
indicated.
(1)
(2)

/0


1. Transpose up from B to E.

2. Transpose down from B to F.

3. Transpose up from B to C.

4. Transpose down from B to D.

285
WORKSHEET 8-6 NAME

8b In the following exercise, establish the new key signature and transpose the notes up or down as
indicated.
(1)
(2)
.0
!
.

0
1. Transpose up from F to G.


!

2. Transpose down from F to B.


!

3. Transpose up from F to A.


!

4. Transpose down from F to E.

286
WORKSHEET 8-7 NAME

In the following instrumental transpositions, establish the new key and transpose the notes as required. 8b
(4)

1. /0
B Clarinet


42  
2.
  
B Trumpet

.
3. 0
E Baritone Saxophone

42  
4.

F French Horn


00

5.

B Tenor Saxophone

287
WORKSHEET 8-8 NAME

8c Identify the following modes by letter name and beginning note.


3o


sample Dorian A Phrygian Dorian Lydian



Phrygian Lydian Phrygian Dorian



Lydian Mixolydian Phrygian Mixolydian


Mixolydian Dorian Lydian Mixolydian

8c Write the key signature for the following modes.


3o


sample G Lydian C Mixolydian C Dorian E Phrygian


F Phrygian D Mixolydian B Lydian B Dorian


E Mixolydian D Dorian F Phrygian G Mixolydian


A Phrygian A Dorian D Lydian C Dorian

288
WORKSHEET 8-9 NAME

Identify the mode and then write the key signature for the following modal key examples. 8c
3o
.0

sample E Dorian


/0

00

/0


00

24   
 

10


..

/0

24    


289
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 8 NAME

8b 1. In the following exercises, establish the new key signature and transpose the notes up or down as
indicated.
(1)
(2)
/ 
0
Transpose up from G to B .

.
0
Transpose down from g mi to a mi.

8b 2. In the following instrumental transpositions, establish the new key and transpose the notes as
required.
(4)

2 

4  

E Alto Saxophone


.0
B Trumpet

290
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 8 NAME

3. Identify the following modes by letter name and beginning note. 8c



3o

Dorian Phrygian Dorian Mixolydian


Lydian Mixolydian Lydian Phrygian

4. Write the key signature for the following modes. 8c


3o

E Lydian F Phrygian C Mixolydian B Dorian

E Mixolydian F Phrygian C Dorian D Lydian

5. Identify the mode and then write the key signature for the following modal key examples. 8c


3o




/0 .0

00 24   
 
291
292
UNIT
9
Chord Progressions and Harmonization

9a Doubling Triads and Seventh Chords


Traditional harmony is usually framed in four parts: bass, tenor, alto, and soprano; therefore, doubling a
note in a triad will be necessary. There are good reasons why certain doublings in both traditional and
commercial music are preferable. The following generally apply to triads:
1. A triad in root position doubles the root. In the root position it is not unusual to triple the root and
exclude the fth. This tripling of the root is allowable because the second overtone (3c), the perfect
fth above the root, is so powerful that its presence is easily heard.
2. A triad in its rst inversion doubles the soprano note.
3. A triad in its second inversion doubles the fth.
4. In seventh chords there is no need for doubling; however, the fth of the root position seventh chord
may be excluded and the root doubled for the same reason that the root may be tripled in the root-
position triad.
5. Avoid doubling the leading tone (3a) and the seventh of any seventh chord.
6. In traditional four-part writing, spacingdistance between notesis generally greater between the
lower two notes and closer in the upper notes. Intervals larger than an octave are common between
the two lowest notes, but should be avoided between the tenor and alto, alto and soprano.


Triad in root position


!



Triad in rst inversion


Triad in second inversion


!

293
Chord spacing
weak

strong

weak

strong

9b Chord Progressions
Moving from one chord to another, a progression, is best accomplished with but a few basic rules. These
rules represent traditional practices, but one may nd many exceptions in music literature.

(1) COMMON TONES


When common tones are found between adjoining chords, it is best to maintain them from one chord to
the other.



!



I IV IV6 V7

(2) HORIZONTAL LINE MOVEMENT


For a better melodic line, it is preferable to move voices smoothly, avoiding large intervallic leaps. How-
ever, the lowest voice may frequently move by larger intervals. Outer voices should move in contrary
motion.


weak

strong


!


I V7 I V7

294
(3) PARALLEL MOVEMENT
Avoid parallel fths and parallel octaves.


weak

strong


!

I IV I IV

(4) THE CADENCE


A cadence is the last two chords found at the end of (2) phrase(s) or a period (8a). The three most com-
mon cadences are the authentic cadence, half cadence, and plagal cadence.

Authentic Cadence

The last two chords of a work. The chords in root position are dominant to tonic.

cadence

V I

The authentic cadence is perfect if the tonic tone, in the nal tonic chord, is in the soprano (top voice).
The cadence is imperfect if, in the nal tonic chord, the soprano note is the third or fth of the chord.

perfect imperfect imperfect


authentic authentic authentic


! ! !


C: V I C: V I C: V I

295
Half Cadence

A half cadence ends on any chord other than the tonic. This cadence is frequently found at the end of
the rst phrase of a period or the end of a rst ending (1m2), and most commonly is tonic to dominant.

half cadence

I V
half cadence


1. 2.

I V

The dominant chord is an active chord demanding an answer or forward motion. Placing the dominant
at the end of the rst phrase or rst ending creates a feeling of a continuation of the musical line (i.e.,
like a comma in a sentence). Half cadences are not perfect or imperfect.

Plagal Cadence

In the plagal cadence the chord progression is from subdominant to tonic. This is not a frequently seen
cadence but is added to the end of a hymnthe amen cadence.

plagal
cadence

V I IV I

Similar to the authenic cadence, the plagal cadence is perfect if the tonic tone in the nal chord is in the
soprano. The cadence is imperfect if in the nal tonic chord the soprano note is the third or fth of the
chord.

perfect imperfect imperfect


plagal plagal plagal


!
! !


C: IV I C: IV I C: IV I

296
9c Harmonization
Adding an accompaniment, or musical background, to a melody is called harmonization. Most
melodies can be harmonized simply, using only the primary triads I, IV, and V (see 6c). Being able to
improvise an accompaniment to a song or folk tune is fun, and you need not be an expert pianist to
learn to do it. The following guidelines are very general, but they will help you to establish the key of a
melody and to decide which chord or chords you will use in each measure.
1. Establish the key of the melody in any or all of the following three ways:
a. Look at the key signature.
b. Look at the rst and the last tones of the melody.
c. See if the implied chords at the beginning of the rst full measure and at the end of the last
measure are the same. Generally they are, and this chord is the tonic (I).
2. Once you have veried the key, establish the primary chords (I, IV, V, or V7) in that key.
3. The accompaniment chords should contain the tones found in the melody. Tones on strong beats are
more important than tones on weaker beats (see 1g).
4. Some tones in the melody may not belong to the accompaniment chords. These are nonharmonic
tones, which are discussed in the following section.

(1) NONHARMONIC TONES


Nonharmonic tones are any tones in a melody that are not included in the underlying chord (or har-
mony). There are many kinds of nonharmonic tones. Seven of the most important are discussed here.

(a) Passing Tones


Passing tones occur stepwise between two chord tones. In the examples below, the passing tones are
circled. In each case, they pass from one tone of the C major triad to another tone of the triad. All the
passing tones in these examples are unaccented passing tones, since they occur on the weak part of the
beat.

Accented passing tones occur on the strong part of the beat, as in the following examples.


(b) Neighboring Tones
Neighboring tones, or auxiliary tones, occur stepwise above or below a repeated chord tone. A neighbor-
ing tone may be diatonic or chromatic, unaccented or accented. In the following example, (a) shows
upper neighboring tones and (b) shows lower neighboring tones. All are unaccented.

(a) (b)


upper diatonic upper chromatic lower diatonic lower chromatic

297
In examples (c) and (d) below, the neighboring tones are accented, occuring on the strong part of the
beat.

(c) (d)


upper diatonic upper chromatic lower diatonic lower chromatic

Escape
(c) Tones
Escape Tones
An escape tone is a nonharmonic note approached by step that resolved by leap; the resolution is usually
in the opposite direction.


(d) Appoggiatura
Appoggiatura
An appoggiatura is a note approached by a leap and resolved by a step, usually in the opposite direction.



(e) Anticipation
An anticipation is a nonharmonic note that anticipates a harmonic note of the following chord.


(f) SuspensionRetardation
A suspension is a harmonic note that has been suspended into the following chord and is resolved
stepwise down. A retardation is similar but resolves stepwise up.


suspension retardation

(g) Pedal Point


A pedal point is a note, generally in the bass, that is sustained while other parts have changing
harmonies.



!


Pedal Point Inverted Pedal

298
Examples of Music with Nonharmonic Tones
UPT unaccented passing tone E escape tone
APT accented passing tone App appoggiatura
UN upper neighboring (auxiliary) tone A anticipation
LN lower neighboring (auxiliary) tone S suspension
R retardation
Johann Sebastian Bach

q (16851750)


UPT


!
 UPT

w
F: * I I V6 V 42 /V IV 6 V V6 I IV

q
UPT
S


!
S

S

UPT
S




w
6 6
q
I vii I V I I V 65 /V V vi iii

q

S

!
UPT







w w
vi 65 V/V V I vii 6 I6 iik 65 V I

Ludwig van Beethoven


(17701827)




App LN S LN E



E

!



G: I V 65 I V7 I 64 V
* The Roman numerals and Arabic numbers below the music are gured bass symbols and will be covered later in this unit. (9d)

299
S
App

LN UPT
LN UPT



!


I V7/IV IV 64 ii 65 I6 IV I 64 V7 I

(2) ADDING AN ACCOMPANIMENT


An accompaniment consisting only of root-position primary chords is dull to listen to and awkward to
play. For these reasons, the most common accompaniment progression is root-position tonic,
second-inversion subdominant, and rst-inversion dominant seventh. For further ease in performance,
the fth of the dominant seventh is usually omitted. This progression is shown below in all major keys,
in circle-of-fths order. (The starred progressions are enharmonic equivalents.) Although the progres-
sion is generally played with the left hand, it can readily be played with the right hand if the melody is
in the bass. Left-hand ngerings are included in the rst example, and the same ngerings should be
used in every key.
Practice this pattern until you are comfortable with it in all major keys. You should also practice it
throughout the minor circle of fths.



1 1 1 1 1
3 2 3 2 3
5 5 5 5 5

C G D



A E B




C * F G *








C D* A





E B F

300
The following two-hand progression is useful in accompanying an instrumental or vocal soloist or
group. This progression is shown in all major keys, in circle-of-fths order. (The starred progressions
are enharmonic equivalents.) Practice until you are comfortable in all major keys; then also practice it
throughout the minor circle of fths.



!
5
2
1
5
3
1
5
2
1
4
2
1
5
2
1







1 1
4
1
5

C I IV I V7 I G D



!



A E B



!


C * F G*



!



C D* A




!




E B F

301
(3) ACCOMPANIMENT PATTERNS
The following patterns are just a sampling of the almost endless possibilities for varying the primary
chords. Experiment and devise other patterns; also try using more than one pattern in a single
accompaniment. The patterns are easily adaptable to other meters.

.
C
F/C G7/B
C
0
1
3
5
1
2
5 21
5
1
3
5

IV 64 V 65

I I
.
1.
0

.
2.
0
(Alberti bass)

2
3.
4      
2
4.
4

42 
5. !
2 
4  


(1950s Rock and Roll)

302
(4) COMMERCIAL ACCOMPANIMENT PATTERNS
The following 16-measure rhythmic exercises can be the basis of a complete catalog of patterns found
4
within a 4 measure beginning with a dotted quarter note.
First, clap through the complete exercise until you are comfortable. Then, return to the beginning
adding chords as shown below. At rst, do not do the whole exercise at one time. Begin with the rst
four measures, practicing until you are comfortable; then add four more measures and continue this
pattern until you can complete the full 16 measures.

00
C7 C7 C7 C7

    

F7 F7 F7 F7

      

C7 C7 C7 C7

     

G7 G7 F7 F7

     

C7 F7 G7


!

I7 IV7 V7

Below is one way of applying these patterns to a twelve-bar blues with chords placed in the right hand.
The rst four measures are tonic (I), the next two are subdominant (IV), then two more of tonic (I), fol-
lowed by one measure of dominant (V), one measure of subdominant, one measure of tonic (I), and one
nal measure of dominant (V). This will force you to return to the beginning and start the full twelve-bar
blues chord progression again. You are free to use any of the sixteen rhythmic patterns to be included in
the twelve-bar blues. In commercial music, it is common to add the minor 7th to the I-IV and V chords.

C7 F7 C7 G7 F7 C7 G7


00

4 measures 2 measures 2 measures 1 m. 1 m. 1 m. 1 m.


! 
0
0
303
The rhythms below are the same as on the previous page, but with typical jazz articulations (see 10e).
Sustained notes are indicated by the dash () and short notes are indicated by the dot (.).

00 m l m l m C7m m m m l m
C7 C7 C7

    
m l m m l m m m m m m m m m m
F7 F7 F7 F7

    
m l l m m l m m m m l l m l m m m
C7 C7 C7 C7

      
m m m m l m m m l m m m l m m m m m m m l 
G7 G7 F7 F7

     

C7 F7 G7


!



I7 IV7 V7

These same rhythmic patterns with articulations can be applied to a twelve-bar blues as on the previous
page, but with chords in the left hand.

C7 F7 C7 G7 F7 C7 G7
4 measures 2 measures 2 measures 1 m. 1 m. 1 m. 1 m.

00 
!
0



0
* I7 IV 43 I7 V 43 IV 43 I7 V 43

*The Roman numerals and Arabic numbers below the music are gured bass symbols and will be covered later in this unit. (9d)

304
9d Figured Bass
Figured bass (or thorough bass) is a numerical method of indicating the chords to be played above a
given bass line. In the Baroque period (roughly 16001750), keyboard players improvised their parts
from these guresthat is, their part was not written out in their score; it consisted only of the bass
line of the composition with gures for the chords beneath it. These gured-bass symbols are still
extensively used in the early stages of the study of music theory.
The gures are simple indications of the intervals above the bass tone of a chord. Not every interval
is indicated in the gured bass, which is abbreviated for ease of reading. For example, a bass tone with-
out any gures indicates a triad in root position, and the other gures that are in parentheses in the
examples below are also generally omitted. Chromatic alterations are indicated by the symbols shown.

(1) FIGURED-BASS SYMBOLS FOR TRIADS



6 6
4

(5) root-position triad; 6 rst inversion of the triad; 6 second inversion of a triad;
(3) the bass tone is the (3) the bass tone is the third 4 the bass tone is the fth of
root of the triad of the triad the triad

(2) REALIZATION
Translating the Arabic numbers into the correct notes above the given bass line is simple, but in perfor-
mance practice can be very difcult. In realization, the performer uses the gured bass only as an out-
line for a more complex improvised accompaniment that complements the overall musical work.



realization
.
0
C: 6 6 6 6
4 4
realization

.0
!


.
0
C: 6 6 6 6
4 4

305
(3) FIGURED-BASS SYMBOLS FOR SEVENTH CHORDS



7 6
5

7 6
root-position seventh chord; the bass tone is 5
rst inversion of a seventh chord; the bass
(5)
(3) the root of the chord (3) tone is the third of the chord



4 4
3 2

(6) (6)
4 second inversion of a seventh chord; the 4
third inversion of a seventh chord; the bass
3 bass tone is the fth of the chord 2 tone is the seventh of the chord

realization
.
0
G: I V65 I vii6 I I V65 I vii6 I


realization

.0
!
.
0
G: I V65 I vii6 I I V65 I vii6 I

306
(4) CHROMATIC ALTERATIONS


ii I+

6
4
3
the chord is a diagonal line through
diminished or a number raises the tone
+ augmented one half step




7 6 6
4
6
53

when used alone, these accidentals affect the when preceding a number, these accidentals
third of a root-position chord indicate a corresponding alteration of the tone
  represented by that number

(5) INVERSIONS
In the study of music theory, the gured bass is used to indicate if a chord is root position or an inver-
sion. In commercial music, letters are placed above the staff to indicate the desired chord. Inversions of
the chord are indicated by rst the chord letter, a slash mark, and then the desired root note (bass note)
placed below. C over E would be a rst invesion, C over G a second inversion.


C7/B

C C/E C/G C7 C7/E C7/G



6 6 7 6 4 4
4 5 3 2

307
This page intentionally left blank
WORKSHEET 9-1 NAME

In the following examples, circle and label the nonharmonic tones. 9c


UPT unaccented passing tone E escape tone (1)
APT accented passing tone App appoggiatura
UN upper neighboring (auxiliary) tone A anticipation
LN lower neighboring (auxiliary) tone S suspension
R retardation


.0
I V7 I V7 I

0
0
I V7 I IV I IV I V7 I V7 I

2
4   
I
 V7 V7 I V7
 V7 I

/
0
I IV I IV V7 I


.0
I IV V7 I

/
0
I V7 V7 I IV V7 I

/

0
I
 V7 V7 I IV I

2
4   
I I V7 I V7 V7 I

0
0   
I IV V7 I

309
WORKSHEET 9-2 NAME

9c In the following melodies, establish the correct primary chords, circle and label the nonharmonic tones,
and then write two possible accompaniment patterns.
(1)
(2)
example UPT LN UPT LN UN UPT

00
1. !
0

0
I I V65 I

00
!
0
0

/0
2. !
/
0

/0
!
/
0

310
WORKSHEET 9-2 (continued) NAME


00
9c

3. ! (1)
(2)
0
0
0
0
!
0
0

00
4. !
0
0

00
!
0
0

/0 
5. !
/
0

/0 
!
/
0
311
9d WORKSHEET 9-3 NAME
(1)
Construct appropriate chords above the following gured-bass symbols. Label the chords to indicate
their root-position name and quality.



sample 6 GM 5 6 6 6
4 4



6 6 6 6
4 4



6 6 6
6 4 4



6 6
64 63


6 6
6 4

9d Note the key in each of the following exercises, then label the chords by Roman numerals and add
Arabic numbers to indicate the inversion.
(1)






F: IV64 iii V6 ii6 f :


sample


B:
C:






E : c :



E: C:

312
WORKSHEET 9-4 NAME

Construct appropriate chords above the following gured-bass symbols. Label the chords to indicate 9d
their root-position name and quality.
(3)


sample 6 b1/2-dim 7 6

7 7 4
5 3

6
6 4 7 4 7

5 3 2 5



4
2
4
3 75 6
5
4
3 42


4 6 6
6 75 3 75 5
53
53 3


6 6 6
5 75 7
4
4
43 3
2

Note the key in each of the following exercises, then label the chords by Roman numerals and add
Arabic numbers to indicate the inversion.


9d
(3)
D: IV I6 V65 vi64 e: (4)


sample


D : B:







G: a:






c: A :

313
WORKSHEET 9-5 NAME

9d Write the bass line from the gured bass given.


C: I I6 IV V I I V 64 I6 IV I


sample

G: I V V 42 I6 I I V 65 I IV I


B : I IV I6 I 64 V I I IV 64 I V7 I


A: IV 6 I 64 IV V I V I IV 6 IV V7 I

9d Using only the I-IV-V7 chords, write the correct gured bass numbers. In some examples, there may be
more than one correct answer.



C: I I6 IV V7 I


sample


E :



F:



D:

314
WORKSHEET 9-6 NAME

Fill in the inner voicesalto and tenoraccording to the gured bass given.



!
9
a


C: I V6 I I G: I IV V I F: IV I 64 V I
sample



!


B : I IV 64 I V D: V V 42 I6 I A: I6 V 43 I V

Each of the following chord progressions contains one or more errors. Find the error(s) and re-write
the progression using correct voicing and voice leading.



!
9
a


b

C: I V6 I V6 F: I IV V
sample


!







D: V I E : I V6 I

315
WORKSHEET 9-7 NAME

Analyze the following examples using Roman numerals and Arabic numbers below the staff as well as
commercial chord symbols above the staff (6ij).

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


(17561791)



C G7/D


!
9
d
6 1.


i

C: I V 43

Johann Friedrich Burgmuller

(18061874)

.   
0 
2. !



.
0


 
!




Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky


(18401893)

. 
0 
3. !



.
0  

316
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 9 NAME

1. In the following examples circle and label nonharmonic tones. 9c


/

(1)
0
 
I V7 I V7 I
2 
4     
I V7 I IV V7 I

2. In the following melodies, establish the correct primary chords, circle and label the nonharmonic
tones, and write an accompaniment.

2    
4
!
9c
  (1)

42
(2)


.0

!
.0
3. Note the key given, then label the chords by Roman numerals and Arabic numbers to indicate the
inversion.






9d
(1)
E :

G: a: (3)



(4)

c : F: b:

4. Construct appropriate chords above the following gured-bass symbols. Label the chords and
indicate their root-position name and quality.


5 6 9d
(1)
6 4 (3)

2


(4)

6 6 4 6
5 4 3

317
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 9 NAME

5. Write the bass line from the gured bass given.

9d
G: I IV I6 V I D: V I IV V I


B : I IV I 64 V7 I F: I V V 42 I6 I

6. Using only the I-IV-V7 chords, write the correct gured bass numbers. In some examples, there may
be more than one correct answer.


9d

7. Fill in the inner voicesalto and tenoraccording to the gured bass given.



!
9
a
b


I IV 64 I I 64 V I I IV V I6 V 43 I V

8. Each of the following chord progressions contains an error. Find the error and re-write the progres-
sion correctly with correct voicings and voice leading without changing the bass.




!
9
a
b



V I I V

318
REVIEW TEST OF UNIT 9 NAME

9. Analyze the Bach chorale below. Circle and label all nonharmonic tones.

Johann Sebastian Bach


(16851750)



!
9c (1)
9d




a:

319
320
UNIT
10
Appendix: Terms, Signs, and Symbols
The following lists are necessarily not comprehensive. You should consult the Contents for terms and
concepts dened and discussed in the text, and one of the standard music dictionaries for other terms,
instruments, and symbols not included here.

10a General Music Terms


a cappella (It., in chapel style) for unaccompa- clef a sign written at the beginning of the staff to
nied voices indicate the pitch name for a given line
accidental a sharp, at, or natural introduced coda a strongly conclusive nal section of a move-
within a workin contrast to the sharps or ment or composition; codetta: a small coda
ats found in the key signature common time () 44 time
Alberti bass a keyboard accompaniment played compound interval an interval greater than an
by the left hand, in which chord tones alter- octave
nate in a xed pattern consonance a stable combination of tones that
alla breve (cut time, ) simple duple meter with does not require resolution
the half note as the beat contrapuntal pertaining to counterpoint
anacrusis upbeat or pick-up counterpoint music consisting of two or more in-
aria song from opera or oratorio with instrumen- dependent lines
tal accompaniment cut time see alla breve
arpeggio see Signs and Symbols (10e) deceptive cadence the harmonic progression V-VI
asymmetric meter a meter such as 85 or 74, with un- (instead of V-I) at the end of a phrase
equal division of the measure so that accents diatonic a term describing the notes of the major
occur irregularly or natural minor scale, excluding all chroma-
atonal without tonality; not in a key tic alterations
augmentation increasing, usually doubling, the diminution decreasing, usually halving, the length
length of a note or passage of a note or passage
authentic cadence the harmonic progression V7-I dissonance an unstable combination of tones that
used at the end of a phrase or composition requires resolution
basso continuo same as gured bass (see 9d) doppio double
beam a horizontal line, in place of ags, for downbeat the rst beat of a measure
groups of notes shorter than quarter notes duplet a group of two notes in compound meter
cadence a point of repose at the end of a phrase, equal to three of the same notes
section, or composition enharmonic equivalents tones that are named dif-
cadenza a solo passage in improvisatory style ferently but sound the same
chord a group of notes sounding simultaneously equal temperament a system of tuning in which
chromatic any nondiatonic tone introduced into the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals
a scale gured bass numerical indication of intervals
chromatic scale a scale including all twelve tones above a bass tone
within an octave ag or hook a small ag added to a stem for notes
clavier any keyboard instrument shorter than a quarter note

321
grace note see Signs and Symbols (10e) plagal cadence the harmonic progression IV-I (the
Great Staff a double staff with both a treble clef amen cadence)
and a bass clef polychord a combination of two or more different
ground bass a phrase continuously repeated in chords
the bass polyphony see counterpoint
half cadence an incomplete cadence, usually on polytonality the simultaneous use of two or more
dominant harmony tonal centers or keys
homophony music in which a melody, usually in primary triads triads above the rst, fourth, and
the highest voice, is supported by a chordal fth pitches of a major or minor scale
accompaniment prime perfect unison
interval distance between two notes resolution the progression of a dissonant interval
intonation accuracy of pitch in singing or playing or chord to a consonant (stable) interval or
tones chord
key signature one or more sharps or ats grouped root the lowest note of a chord
at the beginning of the staff indicating what scale an ordered series of pitches going either up
notes are to be altered throughout the piece or down
ledger line a small line for notes added above or scherzo (It., joke) a brusque or humorous com-
below the staff position in triple meter; a scherzo is some-
maggiore major times used in symphonies, sonatas, etc., in
meter signature the two numbers at the beginning place of a minuet
of a piece indicating a recurring pattern of ac- segno sign
cented and unaccented beats. The top number sequence the immediate duplication of a tonal
indicates the number of beats grouped into pattern in the same part(s) at a different pitch
each measure; the bottom number indicates simple interval an interval of an octave or less
the note value of the beat slur a curved line connecting two or more notes
metronome a pendulum or electronic device used of different pitch. Indicates that the notes are
to determine and regulate tempo to be played smoothly connected
minore minor staff a series of ve lines and four spaces on
mode any scale form; before about 1600, usually which notes are written
one of the church modes; after about 1600, stem a vertical line added to the note head on all
usually major or minor notes except the whole note
modulation change of key in the course of a tempo the rate of speed of a musical composition
composition thorough bass same as gured bass (see 9d)
monophony music consisting of a single unac- tie a curved line connecting two notes of the
companied melody same pitch
opus (op.) a musical composition (usually accom- timbre tone color or quality
panied by a number); the works of a composer tone row same as twelve-tone row (see 3q)
are numbered consecutivelyop. 1, op. 2, tonic the name and beginning pitch of a major or
etc.in order of composition or publication minor scale
ostinato (It., obstinate) a gure or phrase con- transposition performance in a key other than the
tinuously repeated throughout a passage or original
composition triad a three-note chord combining a root and the
ottava (8, 8va) octave intervals of a third and a fth above the root
pentatonic ve-pitch scalein contrast to the triplet a group of three notes in simple meter
seven-pitch major and minor scales equal to two of the same notes
pianoforte the original, unabbreviated name for tritone an interval of three whole stepsA4 or d5
the piano
pitch a musical sound as measured by how low or
high it is within a scale

322
10b Performance Terms
accelerando (accel.) increasing in tempo hold same as fermata (see Signs and Symbols, 10e)
adagio leisurely, slow; adagietto: a little faster than largo broad; very slow; larghetto: slightly faster
adagio than largo; larghissimo: the slowest tempo
ad libitum (ad lib.) at will; at the performers indication
discretion legato (leg.) very smooth, with no separation be-
affrettando (affrett.) hurrying tween notes (see Signs and Symbols, 10e)
agitato in an agitated or excited manner lento slow, but not as slow as largo
al ne (repeat) to the end listesso tempo the same tempo
allargando (allarg.) decreasing in tempo loco as written (used after allottava)
allegro fast; allegretto: slightly slower than allegro maestoso majestically
allottava (8va---) when above the notes: play an marcato (marc.) marked; stressed
octave higher; when below the notes: play an marziale martially
octave lower meno mosso, meno moto with less movement;
andante moderately slow: andantino: slightly slower
faster than andante mezzo half; moderately
animato with animation mezzo forte () not as loud as forte; mezzo piano
a piacere at pleasure; without measured tempo (): not as soft as piano
appassionata passionately misterioso mysteriously
arco bow; with the bow M.M. (Maelzel metronome) used with a number
assai very to indicate tempo; the number indicates beats
a tempo return to the rst tempo per minute
attacca proceed to the next section or movement moderato moderate (tempo)
without pause molto very
brio re; vigor morendo (mor.) dying away; fading
calando (cal.) decreasing in tempo and loudness mosso, moto motion
cantabile (cantab.), cantando, cantante in singing non not
style ossia otherwise; indicates another way of per-
con with forming a passage
crescendo (cresc.) increasing in loudness pesante (pes.) heavily
da capo (D.C.) (repeat) from the beginning piano ( ) soft; pianissimo (  ): very soft
dal segno (D.S.) (repeat) from the sign pi more
decrescendo (decresc.) decreasing in loudness pi mosso, pi moto with more movement; faster
diminuendo (dim., dimin.) decreasing in loudness pizzicato (pizz.) plucked (instead of bowed, in
divisi (div.) divided; an indication that a vocal or string parts)
instrumental section is to divide and perform poco little; a little
two or more parts presto very fast; prestissimo: faster than presto;
dolce (dol.) sweetly the fastest tempo indication
doloroso sadly; plaintively quasi in the manner of
energico with energy rallentando (rall.) gradually slowing
espressivo (espr., espress.) expressively rinforzando (rf., rfz., rinf.) reinforced; suddenly
fermata see Signs and Symbols (10e) stressed
ne the end; the concluding point after a return ritardando (rit., ritard.) gradually slowing
to the beginning or to a sign ritenuto holding back; immediately slower
forte ( ) loud; fortissimo ( ): very loud rubato with rhythmic freedom
forte-piano ( ) loud, then immediately soft scherzando playfully
forza re; forcefulness secco dry; drily
giocoso playfully segue follows; continues in the same way
giusto strict; exact sempre (sem., semp.) always; throughout
glissando a sliding-pitch effect senza without
G.P. (grand pause) silence; a rest for the entire or- sforzando (, z) with force; with an explosive
chestra or ensemble accent
grave slow; solemnly, seriously simile similarly; in the same way
grazioso gracefully sordino mute

323
sostenuto (sost.) sustained tenuto (ten.) held; sustained for full value
sotto under; below tremolo (trembling) the rapid repetition of one
staccato (stacc.) detached; separated (see Signs note or the rapid alternation of two notes
and Symbols, 10e) troppo too much
stringendo (string.) accelerating markedly; una corda (u.c.) a piano indication of the use of
hastening the soft pedal
subito suddenly vibrato (vib.) slight uctuation of pitch or
tacet silent; a part so marked is silent for the intensity
entire section or movement vivace spirited, lively; vivacissimo: very spirited,
tanto much; so much very lively
tempo I, tempo primo return to the rst tempo vivo lively

(1) A SCALE OF SPEEDS (TEMPOS)


Largo Lento Andantino Allegretto Prestissimo
Larghissimo Grave Adagio Andante Moderato Allegro Vivace Presto
SLOWER FASTER

(2) TERMS REFERRING TO TEMPO


larghissimo very slow moderato moderately, in moderate tempo
largo slow allegretto moderately fast (diminutive of allegro)
grave slow and solemn allegro rapid, lively, a brisk rate of movement
lento slow, but not dragging vivace fast, vivaciously
adagio slow, leisurely, a slow rate of movement presto very fast, quickly, rapidly
andante a moderately slow rate of movement, prestissimo very quickly, as fast as possible
with the feeling of moving along or owing
andantino moderately slow, but with a little more
motion than andante (diminutive of andante)

(3) TERMS REFERRING TO VARIATIONS IN TEMPO


a tempo in time, return to the previous tempo ritardando (rit. or ritard.) a gradual slowing of
after a deviation or relaxation tempo
tempo primo (tempo I mo) return to the original ritenuto a holding back of the tempo, but without
tempo of the piece a continuous slowing down
accelerando (accel.) a gradual quickening of allargando (allarg.) gradually slower and louder,
tempo with a sense of increasing power
stringendo (string.) hastening, accelerating the morendo gradually slower and softer, dying away
movement, usually suddenly and rapidly with
a crescendo

324
10c Instruments of the Orchestra
English Name Italian Name French Name German Name
Flute Flauto Flte Flte
Oboe Oboe Hautbois Oboe (or Hoboe)
Clarinet Clarinetto Clarinette Klarinette
Bassoon Fagotto Basson Fagott
Horn Corno Cor Horn
Trumpet Tromba Trompette Trompete
Trombone Trombone Trombone Posaune
Tuba Tuba Tuba Tuba (or Bass tuba)
Timpani (or kettledrums) Timpani Timbales Pauken
Harp Arpa Harpe Harfe
Violin Violino Violon Geige (or Violine)
Viola Viola Alto Bratsche (or Viole)
Violoncello (or cello) Violoncello Violoncelle Violoncello
Double Bass (or contrabass) Contrabasso Contrebasse Kontrabass

10d Voice Types


Soprano high female voice Tenor high male voice
Mezzo-soprano medium female voice Baritone medium male voice
Alto low female voice Bass low male voice
Contralto lowest female voice

10e Signs and Symbols


accent  or  either mark, placed above or below a note, indicates that empha-
sis should be added to the affected note.

n m m
n
legato slur a curved line placed over or under several different notes. The
slur indicates that the notes should be played very smoothly.
Legato is the opposite of staccato (see below).


staccato dot  a dot placed above or below a note. Staccato dots indicate that
the affected note should be shortened and detached from the
other notes.

l l l l
325
appoggiatura a nonharmonic, ornamental tone that precedes a chord tone.
Unlike the grace note (see below), the appoggiatura is subject to
a strict beat.


sounds

grace note  a nonharmonic, ornamental tone that precedes a chord tone.


The grace note is not subject to a strict beat.

 
g

sounds

breath mark
 indicates that the notes should be separated, as for a breath.

arpeggio the wavy line indicates that the notes should be played from bot-
tom to top in rapid succession.


!
777777777777777

326
measured tremolo a single slash above or below a note indicates a subdivision into
eighth notes; a double slash indicates sixteenth notes; and a triple
slash indicates either thirty-second notes or that the note(s)
should be played as fast as possible.

00 h
is played

.0 h
is played


.0
is played

trill  the abbreviation , with or without a wavy line following it, indi-
cates a rapid alternation with the diatonic second (or chromatic
second if an accidental is included) above a written note. Perfor-
mance practices and styles vary, but in general, seventeenth- and
eighteenth-century trills begin on the diatonic step above and the
modern trill begins with the note indicated.

`7777
.0
is played

fermata  indicates that a note should be held for longer than its normal
value.

327
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Index
AB (Binary) form, 186 Contrasting period, 70 Intermediate rhythmic and melodic
ABA (Ternary/Song) form, 178 Cut time (alla breve), 10 exercises, 153199
Accent, 9 Interval inversions, 131
Accidentals, 14 D.C. (da capo), 16 Intervals
Accompaniment, 300301 D.C. al coda, 16 constructing, 125133
Accompaniment, patterns of, 302304 D.C. al ne, 16 constructing by half and whole steps,
Aeolian scale, 94, 99 D.S. (dal segno), 16 128129
Alla breve, 10 D.S. al coda, 16 constructing downwards, 130131
Anacrusis, 13 D.S. al ne, 16 dened, 125
Antecedent phrase, 70 Diatonic half steps, 15 diminished and augmented, 127
Anticipation, 298 Diminished intervals, 127 minor, 126
Appoggiatura, 298 Diminished seventh chords, 206 perfect and major, 125126
Asian scales, 103 Diminished triads, 202 simple and compound, 132133
Augmented intervals, 127 Disjunct motion, 70 tritone, 132
Augmented triads, 202 Dominant, 83, 202 Inversions
Authentic cadence, 295 Dominant seventh chord, 205 root-position and, of seventh chords,
Dorian scale, 99 207
Bar lines, 9 Dotted notes, 6 root-position and, of triads, 204
Baroque period, gured bass in, 305 Dotted rests, 8 Inverted interval, 131
Bars, 9 Double bar, 13 Ionian scale, 99
Bass clef, 1 Double at, 14
Beams, 7 Double sharp, 14 Key signatures, 85
Beats, 9 Downbeat, 9 Key signatures, accidentals in, 14
Binary (AB) form, 186 Duplets, 1213 Keyboard, 4, 18
Keys. See Key signatures; Major keys;
C clef, 2 Easy rhythmic and melodic exercises, Minor keys
C instruments, 277 3382
Cadence, 295296 Eighth notes, 5 Leading tone, 83, 205
Chords, 201209 Endings, rst and second, 17 Ledger lines, 4
cadence and, 295296 Enharmonic equivalents, 16 Locrian scale, 94
commercial symbols, 208209 Enharmonic major scales, 84 Lydian scale, 99
gured bass, 305307 Escape tones, 298
names and roman numerals, 66 Major intervals, 125126
names and symbols of, 202 F clef (bass clef), 1 Major keys
seventh, 205207 Figured bass, 305307 circle of fths and, 84
triads, 201204 Fine (end), 16 parallel major and minor, 9697
Chromatic alterations, in gured bass, Fixed-do system, 175, 190 relative major and minor, 9496
307 Flags (hooks), 7 solfeggio with, 175
Chromatic half steps, 15 Flats, 14 Major scales
Chromatic scale, 98 major scales with, 88 enharmonic, 84
Church modes, 99 minor scales with, 92 with ats, 88
Circle of fths with sharps, 87
major keys, 84 G clef (treble clef), 1 Major triads, 201
minor keys, 90 Grand staff. See Great staff Major-minor seventh chords, 205
Clefs, 13 Great staff (grand staff), 4 Measures, 9
drawing, 3 Mediant, 83
transposition of, 276 Half cadence, 296 Melodic exercises. See Rhythmic and
Coda, 16 Half notes, 5 melodic exercises
Commercial chord symbols, 208209 Half steps, 15 Melodic lines, composing, 70
chart of, 209 constructing intervals by, 128 Melodic minor, 90, 94, 203
Common meter, 10 Half-diminished seventh chord, 206 Melodic writing, 70, 272275
Composing, 70 Harmonic minor, 90, 94, 203 Meter signatures, 911
Compound intervals, 132133 Harmonics, 84 compound, 11
Compound meters, 11 Harmonization, 297304 simple, 10
Concert-pitched instruments, 277 unequal meters, 11
Conjunct motion, 70 Instrumental transposition, 277278 Minor intervals, 126
Consequent phrase, 70 Instruments of orchestra, listing of, 325

329
Minor keys Primary triads, 203 Simple intervals, 132
circle of fths and, 90 Prime, perfect, 126 Simple meter, 10
key signatures, 91 Pulses in meter, 10 Sixteenth notes, 5
parallel major and minor, 9697 Sixty-fourth notes, 5
relative major and minor, 9496 Quarter notes, 5 Slurs, 8
solfeggio with, 190 Solfeggio
Minor scales Realization of gured bass, 305307 with major keys, 175
natural, harmonic, and melodic, 94 Relative major and minor keys, 9496 with minor keys, 190
with ats, 92 Repeat signs, 1617 Song (ABA/Ternary form), 178
with sharps, 91 Retardation, 298 Speeds (tempos), scale of, 324
Minor seventh chord, 205 Rhythm, dened, 34 Staff, 1
Minor triads, 201 Rhythmic and melodic exercises great staff, 4
Mixed meters composition of, 70 transposition of notes on, 275
changing note values, 245247 compound meters with beat division, Stems, 6
constant note values, 242244 153159 Steps, half and whole, 15
Mixed rhythmic units, 255256 difcult, 237271 constructing intervals by, 128
Mixolydian scale, 99 easy, 3382 Stress, in meter, 9
Modes, church, 99 eight-measure exercises, 4344, 49 Subdominant, 83, 202
Movable-do system, 175, 190 50, 5556, 7072, 155157, 161162, Submediant, 83, 202
166, 168169, 183184, 240, 243, Subtonic, 202
Natural minor scale, 94, 203 246, 250 Supertonic, 83, 202
Naturals, 14 intermediate, 153199 Suspension-retardation, 298
Near Eastern scales, 103 rests and anacruses, 5355 Symbols, 325327
Neighboring tones, 297298 simple meters with no beat division, chord, 202, 208209
Nondiatonic tones, 98 3746 gured bass, 305307
Nonharmonic tones, 297300 three-part, 5860, 172174, 252254 Syncopation, 248254
anticipation, 298 triplet, 167, 184185
appoggiatura, 298 two-part, 63, 68, 79, 179180, 186187, Tempos
pedal point, 298 258, 261, 264, 268, 271 scale of, 324
suspension-retardation, 298 Rhythmic units, mixed, 237241 terms related to, 324
Note values Root position and inversion of triads, variation-related terms, 324
mixed meters and changing, 245247 204 Terms
mixed meters and constant, 242244 Root-position seventh chords, table of, general music, 321322
Notes 206 performance, 323324
anacrusis (pick-up), 13 Root-position triad table, 204 tempo-related, 324
beams on, 7 Round form, 78 Ternary (ABA/Song) form, 178
dotted, 6 Rows, twelve-tone, 104105 Tessitura, 70
ags on, 7 Tetrachords, 86
irregular division of, 237 Scales, 83. See also Major scales; Minor Thirty-second notes, 5
pick-up (anacrusis), 13 scales Ties, 78
stems on, 6 Asian, 103 Tones
transposition on staff, 275 chromatic, 98 escape, 298
church modes, 99 neighboring, 297
Octave registers, 18 Near Eastern, 103 nonharmonic, 297300
Octave sign 8va, 5 original, 103 passing, 297
Orchestra, instruments of, 325 pentatonic, 103 Tonic, 83, 202
Overtones, 84 tritone and, 132 Transposition, 275278
twelve-tone rows, 104105 Treble clef, 1
Parallel major and minor keys, 9697 whole-tone, 103 Triads, 201204
Parallel period, 70 Schoenberg, Arnold, 104 gured-bass symbols for, 305
Partials, 84 Secondary triads, 203 primary, 203
Passing tones, 297 Semitones, on piano keyboard, 4 root-position table, 204
Pedal point, 298 Seventh chords, 205207 secondary, 203
Pentatonic scales, 103 gured-bass symbols for, 306 Triplets, 12
Perfect intervals, 125126 Sharps, 14 exercises with, 167, 184185
Perfect prime, 126 major scales with, 87 Tritone, 132
Performance terms, 323324 minor scales with, 91 Twelve-tone rows, 104105
Period, 70 Sight reading, solfeggio and, 175
melodic writing and, 272 Signatures Unequal meters, 11
Phrases, 70 key, 85 Upbeat, 13
melodic writing and, 272 meter, 911
Phrygian scale, 99 parallel major and minor, 9697 Whole notes, 5
Piano keyboard relative major and minor, 9496 Whole steps, 15
arrangement of, 4 Signs, 325327 constructing intervals by, 128
octave registers on, 18 at, 14 Whole-tone scale, 103
Pick-up notes, 13 natural, 14 Writing, melodic, 70, 272275
Pitch, division of in Western music, 4 octave, 5
Plagal cadence, 296 sharp, 14

330