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Preliminary Chemistry- Dot Points on Metals

Metals -Describe the use of common alloys including steel,

brass, and solder and explain how these relate to their
1. Metals have been extracted and used for many
thousands of years.

-Outline and examine some uses of different Alloy Properties Uses

metals through history, including contemporary
uses, as uncombined metals and alloys. Mild Soft and malleable Car bodies, roofing,
Steels pipes, nuts and bolts
Copper Age (3200 - 2300 BC): Copper was the first
metal to be extracted from its ore. Molten copper Structural High tensile Beams, girders,
Steels strength, hard railways, concrete
was used to make ornaments and utensils. Its MP
was very high and its products were soft.
Brass Lustrous gold Plumbing, musical
Bronze Age (2300 1200 BC): Heating copper with
appearance, hard, instruments,
tin produces bronze. Bronze was much harder than easily machined decorations
copper and had a lower MP and was used for
making tools and weapons. Bronze Hard, resists Casting statues,
corrosion, easily shipping propellers
Iron Age(1200 BC 1AD): Iron was more reactive cast
than copper so it required a higher temperature to
extract. Hematite (Fe2O3) was mixed with charcoal Solder Low MP, adheres Joining metals
firmly to other together
and heated in a primitive furnace to obtain a high
temperature. It replaced bronze for making
weapons as it had a higher tensile strength and was -Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a
harder than bronze. metal from its ore

Modern Age (1 AD present): The modern age was In order to break the chemical bonds in the compounds,
characterized by the extraction and use of many energy such as heat or electricity is required to
other metals such as aluminum, chromium, and
alloys. Although iron and its alloys are still the most break these bonds and extract the metal.
widely used metal today, many other metals have
come into common use due to advancements in -Identify why there are more metals available for
extraction technology. people to use then there were 200 years ago.

Many metals are available because of advancement in

extraction techniques and lower cost of electricity
generation. Two hundred years ago, the extraction
technology was not as advanced and this resulted in
less metals able to be extracted and made available for

2. Metals differ in their reactivity with other

chemicals and this influences their uses.

-Describe observable changes when metals react

with dilute acid, water, and oxygen.

By Peter Huynh
Preliminary Chemistry- Dot Points on Metals
Reactions with oxygen: Most metals will react with Metals with a low reactivity such as gold and silver are
oxygen in the air at room temperature to form metal used in jewellery because of their shiny lustre and the
oxides. When metals react with gases to form new fact that they do not tarnish easily.
substances, this is called corrosion. Corrosion causes
the metal to become weaker. Magnesium, on the other hand, is highly reactive. It is
used to protect less reactive metals from corrosion.
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide Magnesium is also highly reactive when burnt in oxygen
and is used in flares and some fireworks.
Reactions with water: Most metals combine with water
to form hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. -Outline the relationship between the relative
activities of metals and their position on the Periodic
Metal + Water Hydrogen + Metal Hydroxide Table.

Reactions with acids: During a reaction, the metal The most reactive metals are in the first group, furthest
dissolves as electrons are lost and cations are formed. to the left. Because of their valency, they will easily
Hydrogen ions from the acid gain these electrons and react with other elements in order to lose electrons.
form hydrogen gas. This is called a redox reaction.
Generally, the further the metal is to the right of the
Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen periodic table, the less reactive it is. This is because the
metal tends to want to keep its electrons more.
-Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals
into an order of activity based on their ease of -Identify the importance of first ionization energy in
reactions with oxygen, water, and dilute acids. determining the relative reactivity of metals.

The reactivity of metals can be listed in sequence. The first ionization energy is the energy needed to
Metals on the bottom or further to the left tend to be remove the first electron from an element in the
most reactive. gaseous state.

-Identify the reactions of metals with acids as requiring The less energy required removing the first electron
the transfer of electrons. from an element, the more reactive it is. This is because
it is easier for the electron to give electrons to another
During a reaction, the metal dissolves and gives up
electron and becomes positively charged. The hydrogen
ions gain electrons to form hydrogen gas. Because the 3. As metals and other elements were discovered,
reaction involves the transfer of electrons, it is called a scientists recognized that patterns in their physical and
redox (reduction oxidation) reaction. OILRIG chemical properties could be used to organize the
elements in the periodic table.
-Outline examples of the selection of metals for
different purposes based on the reactivity, with a -Identify an appropriate model that has been
particular emphasis on current developments in the developed to describe the atomic structure
use of metals.
Bohrs model: The nucleus is in the centre of the atom
Metals are used for different purposed depending on and contains protons and neutrons. The electrons are
many factors such as abundance, ease of extraction, around the nucleus orbiting in electrons shells
hardness, and reactivity. represented by circles.

By Peter Huynh
Preliminary Chemistry- Dot Points on Metals
-Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Conductivity elements get
Table including its origins, the original data used to less metallic
construct it and the predictions made after its
Ionization Increases as Decreases as
Energy elements get electrons further
less metallic from nucleus
1800s: Around 30 elements were known. Antoine
Lavoiser classifies the elements into metals and non- Atomic Radius Decreases as the Increases as
metals. nucleus gets there are more
more positive shells
1829: Dobereiner, a German scientist, recognizes
physical and chemical similarities among groups of 3 MP/BP Increases from Decreases from
elements. He calls these groups Triads. group I to IV but group I to IV but
then decreases then increases
1864: About 40 elements had been discovered. John
Valency Decreases as Increases
Newlands proposes law of octaves where elements
elements get
were ordered according to atomic weight. less metallic

1869: Russian chemist Mendeleev proposes the Electronegativity Increases Decreases

periodic law where elements are ordered according to
atomic weight. Reactivity Decreases Increases

1914: British chemist Henry Mosely proposed a Electronegativity: Tendency of an atom to attract
modified version of Mendeleevs law where elements electrons
were ordered according to their atomic numbers.
4. For efficient resources use, industrial chemical
-Explain the relationship between the position of reactions must use measured amounts for each
elements in the Periodic Table and: reactant.

*Electrical Conductivity -Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly

12g of carbon-12.
*Ionization Energy
A mole is simply a number of atoms. That number is
*Atomic Radius known as Avogadros number and its value is the exact
number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12: 6.02 x .
*Melting/Boiling Point
-Compare mass changes in sample of metals when
*Valency they combine with oxygen.

*Electronegativity The total mass of the system remains constant in a

chemical reaction. When metals react with oxygen in
the air, they generally form metal oxides. The oxygen
combines with the metal and adds mass to the original

Property Trend going Trend going -Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the
across down understanding of the gaseous reactions and apply this
to an understanding of the mole concept.
Electrical Decreases as Increases
By Peter Huynh
Preliminary Chemistry- Dot Points on Metals
Gay-Lussac contributed to the understanding of gaseous -Location: If the ore is in a remote place, the cost of
reactions by discovering that gases always combine in extraction would be greater and therefore the price
whole number ratios. would increase.

-Recount Avogadros law and describe its importance -Explain why ores are non-renewable resources.
in developing the mole concept.
Ores were formed during the evolution of the universe
Avogadro stated that Equal volumes of all gases, and planets and are therefore non-renewable
measured of the same temperature and pressure, resources.
contain equal numbers of molecules.
-Describe the separation processes, chemical
-Distinguish between empirical and molecular equations and energy considerations involved in the
formulae. extraction of copper from its one of ores.

The molecular formula is exactly how many of each 1) Mining, crushing, and grinding (physical change)
element are present in a molecule whereas the
empirical formula is a simple whole number ratio of the 2) Froth floatation- The copper minerals adhere to the
elements in a molecule. solution and rise to the top and are collected. (physical
5. The relative abundance and ease of extraction of
metals influences their value and breadth of use in the 3) Roasting and smelting- The copper is roasted in air.
2CuFeS2s + 4O2g Cu2 Ss + 2FeOs + 3SO2g
-Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to
economic and non-economic deposits of natural The mixture is then heated with sand to a sufficiently
resources. high temperature. This produces two immiscible liquids.

Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances of FeOs + SiO2s FeSiO3l

a metal found in the Earths crust.
The liquid FeSiO3 is removed. The copper (I) sulfide
is then heated on its own to a higher temperature
Ores are a deposit of minerals considered to be
while air is bubbled through it. This reduces sulfide
economically worth mining for the extraction of one or
to copper metal and sulfur dioxide is produced.
more metals.
CuSl + O2g 2Cul + SO2g
-Describe the relationship between the commercial
prices of common metals, their abundances, and The liquid copper is left to cool and solidify.
relative costs of production.
-Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminum.
The commercial price of a metal depends on many
factors such as: 1. Recyclable materials collected from homes,
businesses etc.
-Abundance: Greater abundance means higher supply
which means lower price. 2. Materials transported to a central processing plant.

-Cost of extraction: More reactive metals are more 3. Aluminum is obtained through melting the recyclable
expensive since it takes more energy to extract them. materials and is put into ingots to be reused.

By Peter Huynh