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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 1

2. Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
Now that we have discussed a companys cost function, learned
how to identify its fixed and variable costs. We will now discuss a
manner in which a company can use that information in order to
make strategic decisions.

Understanding the relationship between a firms costs, profits and


its volume levels is very important for strategic planning. When you
are considering undertaking a new project, you will probably ask
yourself, How many units do I have to produce and sell in order to
Break Even? The feasibility of obtaining the level of production
and sales indicated by that answer is very important in deciding
Breaking Even? whether or not to move forward on the project in question.

Similarly, before undertaking a new project, you have to assure yourself that you can
generate sufficient profits in order to meet the profit targets set by your firm. Thus, you
might ask yourself, How many units do I have to sell in order to produce a target
income? You could also ask, If I increase my sales volume by 50%, what will be the
impact on my profits? This area is called Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis.

In this discussion we will assume that the following variables have the meanings given
below:

P = Selling Price Per Unit


x = Units Produced and Sold
V = Variable Cost Per Unit
F = Total Fixed Costs
Op = Operating Profits (Before Tax Profits)
t = Tax rate

Break-Even Point

Your Sales Revenue is equal to the number of units sold times the price you get for
each unit sold:
Sales Revenue = Px

Assume that you have a linear cost function, and your total costs equal the sum of your
Variable Costs and Fixed Costs:

Total Costs = Vx + F

When you Break Even, your Sales Revenue minus your Total Costs are zero:

Sales Revenue Total Costs = 0

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 2

This is the Operating Income Approach described in your book. If you move your
Total Costs to the other side of the equation, you see that your Sales Revenue equals
your Total Costs when you Break Even:

Sales Revenue = Total Costs

Now, solve for the number of units produced and sold (x) that satisfies this relationship:

Revenue = Total Costs


Px = Vx + F
Px - Vx = F
x(P - V) = F
__F__
x = (FORMULA "A")
(P -V)

Formula "A" is the Contribution Margin Approach that is described in your book. You
can see that both approaches are related and produce the same result.

Break-Even Example

Assume Bullock Net Co. is an Internet Service Provider. Bullock


offers its customers various products and services related to the
Internet. Bullock is considering selling router packages for its
DSL customers. For this project, Bullock would have the
following costs, revenues and tax rates:

P = $200
V = $120
F = $2,000
Tax Rate (t) = 40%

Using Formula A, we can compute the Break-Even Point in units:

2,000
x = (200 - 120)

x = 2,000
80
x = 25 units

Sometimes, you see the (P-V) replaced by the term "Contribution Margin Per Unit"
(CMU):

__F__
x = (FORMULA "A")
CMU

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 3

This is way that your textbook presents Formula A.

This makes sense if you think about it. Every time that you sell a unit, you earn the
Contribution Margin per unit. The Contribution Margin per unit is the portion of the
Sales Price that is left after paying the Variable Cost per unit. It is available to pay the
Fixed Costs. If every time you sell a unit you earn $80 to help pay your Fixed Costs of
$2,000, how many units do you need to sell in order to pay off the $2,000 completely?

2,000
x = = 25
80

Break-Even Point In Sales Dollars

Taking Formula "A," you can multiply both sides of the equation by P:

_F_
x =
(P-V)

FxP
Px =
(P-V)

Recall what you do when you have a fraction in the denominator of a fraction:

_a_ (a)x(c)
=
b/c b

This works backwards as well:

(a)x(c) _a_
=
b b/c

We can rewrite this equation:

__F__
Px = (P-V) (FORMULA "B")
P

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 4

Formula B gives you the Sales Revenue that you need in order to Break Even. The
Denominator [(P-V)/P] is referred to as the Contribution Margin Ratio. It tells you, what
percentage of every dollar of Sales Revenue goes to help pay off the Fixed Costs. You
can see this if you break up the Contribution Margin Ratio:

(P-V)/P
P/P - V/P
1 - V/P

V/P gives you the percentage of the Sales Price that goes to pay off the Variable Costs
(the Variable Cost Ratio or Variable Margin). Thus, one minus the Variable Cost Ratio
gives you the percentage of the Sales Price that is available to help pay the Fixed
Costs.

Sometimes Formula B is rewritten by replacing [(P-V)/P] with the Contribution Margin


Ratio (CMR):

__F__
Px = (FORMULA "B")
CMR

This is the way Formula B is presented in your book

Break-Even Point In Sales Dollars Examples

Let us continue using the Bullock example. Using Formula B, we can compute the
Break-Even Point in Sales Revenue:

__2,000__
(200 - 120)
Px =
200

Px = 2,000
.40
Px = $5,000

So, what is the big deal? We already knew that Bullock needed to sell 25 units to Break
Even by using Formula A. We also know that each unit sells for $200. We therefore
know that selling the 25 units will produce Sales Revenue of $5,000. Why do we need
a separate formula? We have the two formulas because sometimes you might not have
enough information to use Formula A, but you will have enough information to use
Formula B.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 5

For example, Cuba Radio Co produces portable sports radios.


It has released the following Variable Costing Income
Statement. This is the only financial information that we have
regarding the Cubas operations:

Sales Revenue: $100,000 (Px)


Less Variable Costs: -30,000 (Vx)
Contribution Margin: $ 70,000 (Px Vx)
Less Fixed Costs: -50,000 (F)
Operating Profit: $ 20,000 (Px - Vx F)

What is the Break-Even point for Cuba? We do not know the number of units that Cuba
sells in a year. We do not know the Price or the Variable Cost per unit. For all we
know, Cuba sells one radio for $100,000 each (or 100,000 radios for $1 each). So, we
cannot use Formula A. Although you do not know the price or the Variable Cost per
unit, you are still able to calculate the Contribution Margin Ratio.

Contribution Margin Px - Vx (P-V)x (P-V)


= = =
Sales Revenue Px Px P

Thus, we can use Formula B. The Contribution Margin Ratio is .70 (70,000/100,000),
and the Break-Even Point in Sales Revenue is:

Px = F/CMR = 50,000/.70 = $71,428.57

Keep in mind that the reason that Cubas Sales Revenue is lower than it was before is
because Cuba sold fewer units. Cubas price and Variable Cost per unit remained
unchanged. Let's check if Cuba Breaks Even at this Sales Revenue figure:

Sales Revenue: $ 71,428.57 P[.7142857(old unit volume)]


Less Variable Costs (30%): -21,428.57 -V[.7142857(old unit volume)]
Contribution Margin: $50,000 .7142857 (old Contribution Margin)
Less Fixed Costs: -$50,000
Operating Profit: $0

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 6

Profit Targets

You can use this same analysis to figure out how many units you need to sell in order to
generate a target before-tax profit (Operating Profits).

Operating Profits are determined as follows:

Operating Profits = Revenue - Costs


Op = Px - Vx - F

If you move the costs to the other side of the equation, you end up with:

Px = Vx + F + Op

If you solve for x, you will see how many units you need to produce and sell in order to
generate your target Operating Profits:

Px = Vx + F + Op
Px - Vx = F + Op
x(P - V) = F + Op
x = (F + Op)
(P - V) Modified Formula A

Or x = (F + Op)
CMU

As was true with Formula B, we can multiply both sides of Modified Formula A by
price to produce the formula that gives the Sales Revenue that is necessary to produce
the target Operating Profits:

x = (F + Op)
(P - V)
Px = (F + Op)P
(P - V)
Px = _(F + Op)_
(P - V) Modified Formula B
P
Or Px = (F + Op)
CMR

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 7

Profit Target Example

Assume that Bullock Net Co. has established a target Operating Profits figure of
$40,000. Using Modified Formula A, you can determine the number of units that
Bullock will need to sell in order to generate this target:

(2,000 + 40,000)
x = (200 - 120)
42,000
x = 80
x = 525 units

If you think about it, it makes sense to add the Fixed Costs and the Target Operating
Profits together and then divide by the Contribution Margin. If you make $80 every time
you sell a unit, then you have to sell 25 units to Break Even (2,000/80). After you Break
Even, you make $80 of profits every time that you sell a unit, and you have to sell 500
units in order to generate Operating Profits of $40,000 (40,000/80).

Using Modified Formula B, you can determine the Sales Revenue that Bullock will
need in order to generate Operating Profits of $40,000:

(2,000 + 40,000)
x = (200 - 120)
200
42,000
x = .4
x = $105,000

After-Tax Profit Targets

The Operating Profits to which we have been referring do not include tax expense.
Once you subtract your tax expense from your Operating Profits, you have your Net
Income.

If you want to know how many units that you need to produce and sell in order to
generate a target Net Income (or after-tax profit), just convert the after-tax number into a
before-tax number. You can then substitute the before-tax profit figure in the above
formulas.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 8

For example, if you are told that you want to generate a Net Income (after-tax) of
$50,000 and your tax rate is 40%, then you can convert the $50,000 after-tax, Net
Income into the before-tax, Operating Profits that you need in order to produce Net
Income of $50,000:

Operating Profits - Taxes = Net Income


Op - .4 (Op) = 50,000
.6 (Op) = 50,000
Op = 50,000/ .6
Op = 83,334

You can check this:

Operating Profits: $83,334


Taxes (40%): -33,334
Net Income: $50,000

Targeted Income As A Percent Of Sales Revenue

What if you are given a before tax target income, which is equal to a percentage of
Sales Revenue? Just plug a formula for the target (e.g., .1Px for 10% of Sales
Revenue) into the formula in place of "Op" (instead of a dollar figure). For example,
assume that Bullock Net Co. desires a target Operating Profits that are equal to 10% of
its Sales Revenue:

Px = (2,000 + .1 Px) / [(200 - 120)/200]


Px = 2,000 + .1 Px / .40
.4 Px = 2,000 + .1Px
.3 Px = 2,000
Px = 2,000/.3
Px = $6,667

Multiple-Product Analysis

What if you are interested in performing a CVP analysis, but you have more than one
product? You can perform this analysis in the same manner as we described above if
you assume that your sales mix is fixed.

You use the same formulas that are described above, but you substitute a composite
Contribution Margin (for the entire product line) in place of the Contribution Margin for
one product that we used above. When using a version of Formula B, you need to
calculate the Contribution Margin Ratio for all of your products.

Assume that you have a Company that sells two models, Good and Better::

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 9

Good Better
Price: $60 $80
Variable Costs: 44 56
Units Sold: 1800 600

Total fixed expenses are $39,600

Construct an income statement for the company:

Sales: (1800 x60=108K)+(600x80=48K) $156,000


Variable Costs: (1800 x44=79.2K)+(600x56=33.6K) -112,800
Contribution Margin: 43,200
Fixed Costs: -39,600
Operating Profits: -$8,400

The Contribution Margin Ratio for the Company is 27.6923% (43,200/156,000)

You can also get the Contribution Margin Ratio for the Company by calculating the
individual Contribution Margin Ratios for each product:

Colonial Early American


Price: $60 $80
Variable Costs: -44 -56
Contribution Margin: $16 $24
Contribution Margin Ratio: 26.67% 30%

What you have to remember, however, is that the product mix (when calculating
Contribution Margin Ratios) is based on relative sales revenue of the product (not the
relative units sold):

Colonial Early American


Product Sales Revenue: $108K $48K
Total Sales Revenue: 156K 156K
Product Mix: 69.23% 30.77%

Weighted Average Contribution Margin Ratio:


.6923(.2667) +..3077(.30)= .18463641 +..09231=.2769461
The difference between the two Contribution Margin Ratios for the Company is
due to rounding.

Using Formula B, you get the Break Even point in Dollars


PX = F/CMR = $39,600/.276923 = $143,000

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 10

If you use a version of Formula A, you have to come up with composite Contribution
Margin per Unit that represents the entire product line. In constructing the composite
Contribution Margin Per Unit, the sales mix is based on the relative number of UNITS
sold of each product (not the relative dollar sales revenue).

There are two methods that are commonly used to develop the needed composite
variables: (i) Basket (Package) Method, and (ii) Weighted Average Contribution Margin
Method.

A major competitor of Carmens Banana Business, Inc. is


Woodys Bananas, Ltd. Competition between Woody and
Carmen has become so fierce on the Banana front that
Woody has been suspected of engaging in guerilla tactics.
(This suspicion could just be based on the CEOs strange
fashion statements.) Unlike Carmen, who specializes in
various banana products, Woody only sells raw fruit.
Woodys main emphasis is Bananas, but it also sells
Oranges. Woody sells 3 Bananas for each Orange that it sells
(The sales mix is 75% Bananas and. 25% Oranges).
Bananas Oranges
Price: $2 $4
Variable Cost per Unit: $1 $2
Contribution Margin per Unit: $1 $2
Common Fixed Costs: $2,000

With the Basket Method, you create a Basket that


reflects Woodys sales mix (75%:25%). Assume that
each basket contains 3 Bananas and 1 Orange. What
is the Contribution Margin of that Basket?
CMbasket = 3 CMbanana + 1CMorange
CMbasket = 3 (1) + 1 (2)
CMbasket = 3+2
CMbasket = 5

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 11

Now, you plug the Contribution Margin for the Basket into the Formula that you wish to
use. The Break-Even point in Baskets is:

Baskets = F/CMbasket
Baskets = 2,000/ 5
Baskets = 400 Baskets

You now describe the units of fruit contained in the Baskets:

Bananas: There are 3 Bananas in every Basket, so we need to sell 3 x 400 Baskets
= 1200 Bananas in order to Break-Even.
Oranges: There is one Orange in every Basket, so we need to sell 400 Oranges in
order to Break-Even.

With the Weighted Average Contribution Margin Method, we calculate the Weighted
Average Contribution Margin for one unit of fruit, using the given sales mix.

CMwa = .75 CMbanana + .25 CMorange


CMwa = .75 (1) + .25 (2)
CMwa = .75 + .5 = $1.25

The Break-Even Point in units is:

x = F/CMwa
x = 2,000/ 1.25
x = 1600 units

Since we know that the total units of fruit sold should be 1600, and we know the sales
mix is 75%:25%:

Bananas: .75 (1600) = 1200 Bananas


Oranges: .25 (1600) = 400 Oranges

Margin of Safety

The "Margin Of Safety" is the amount of sales (in dollars or units) by which the actual
sales of the company exceeds the Break-Even Point. We know that Bullocks Break-
Even Point is 25 units or $5,000. If Bullock really sells 40 units (Sales Revenue of
$8,000), then its Margin Of Safety is 15 units (40-25) or $3,000 ($8,000 - $5,000).

Operating Leverage

If you take the total Contribution Margin and divide it by the Operating Profits, this gives
you the Operating Leverage (or degree of Operating Leverage).

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 12

For example, if Bullock Net Co had actual sales of 40 units, its Operating Profits would
be calculated as follows:

Revenue: $ 8,000 (200x40)


Variable Costs: -$4,800 (120x40)
Contribution Margin: $ 3,200
Fixed Costs: -$2,000
Operating Profits: $1,200

The Operating Leverage is calculated as follows:

Contribution Margin $3,200


= = 2.67
Operating Profits $1,200

The Operating Leverage of 2.67 indicates that if Bullock can increase its sales by 50%,
then its Operating Profits will increase by 2.67 x 50% or 133%. Thus, the Operating
Profits of $1,200 will increase by $1,600 (1.33 x $1,200) to $2,800. This calculation
assumes that the Price, Variable Cost per Unit, and the Fixed Costs do not change.
You are assuming that the increase in sales is caused by a 50% increase in the number
of units sold (x):

OLD NEW
Revenue: $ 8,000 (200x40) $12,000 (200 x 60)
Variable Costs: -$4,800 (120x40) -$7,200 (120 x 60)
Contribution Margin: $ 3,200 $4,800 (80 x 60)
Fixed Costs: -$2,000 -$2,000
Operating Profit: $1,200 $2,800

Questions

E-1. Rider Company sells a single product. The product has a selling price of $40 per
unit and variable expenses of $15 per unit. The company's fixed expenses total
$30,000 per year. The company's break-even point in terms of total dollar sales
is:
A) $100,000.
B) $80,000.
C) $60,000.
D) $48,000.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 13

Use the following to answer questions E-2 and E-3:

Weiss Corporation produces two models of wood chairs, Colonial and Early
American. The Colonial sells for $60 per chair and the Early American sells for
$80 per chair. Variable expenses for each model are as follows:

Early
Colonial American
Variable production cost per unit ....... $35 $48
Variable selling expense per unit ....... 9 8

Total fixed expenses are $39,600 per month. Expected monthly sales are:
Colonial, 1,800 units; Early American, 600 units.

E-2. The contribution margin per chair for the Colonial model is:
A) $51.
B) $16.
C) $35.
D) $25.

E-3. If the sales mix and sales units are as expected, the break-even in sales dollars
is closest to:
A) $132,000.
B) $148,500.
C) $143,000.
D) $139,764.

Use the following to answer questions E-4 and E-5:

Southwest Industries produces a sports glove that sells for $15 per pair. Variable
expenses are $8 per pair and fixed expenses are $35,000 annually.

E-4. The break-even point for Southwest industries is:


A) 8,000 pairs.
B) 5,000 pairs.
C) 4,375 pairs.
D) 2.333 pairs.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 14

E-5. The contribution margin ratio is closest to:


A) 46.7%.
B) 53.3%.
C) 33.3%.
D) 42.9%.

The answer is a.

CMR = (P-V)/P = ($15 - $8)/$15 = 46.667%

Use the following to answer questions E-6 through E-8:

Budget data for the Bidwell Company are as follows:

Fixed Variable
Sales (100,000 units)..................... $1,000,000
Expenses:
Raw materials............................. $300,000
Direct labor ................................ 200,000
Overhead .................................... $100,000 150,000
Selling and administrative.......... 110,000 50,000
Total expenses ............................... $210,000 $700,000 910,000
Net operating income .................... $ 90,000

E-6. Bidwell's break-even sales in units is:


A) 30,000 units.
B) 91,000 units.
C) 60,000 units.
D) 70,000 units.

E-7. The number of units Bidwell would have to sell to earn a net operating income of
$150,000 is:
A) 100,000 units.
B) 120,000 units.
C) 112,000 units.
D) 145,000 units.

E-8. If fixed expenses increased $31,500, the break-even sales in units would be:
A) 34,500 units.
B) 80,500 units.
C) 69,000 units.
D) 94,500 units.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 15

Use the following to answer questions E-9 and E-10:

Henning Corporation produces and sells two models of hair dryers, Standard and
Deluxe. The company has provided the following data relating to these two
products:

Standard Deluxe
Selling price ......................................................... $40 $55
Variable production cost ...................................... $10 $16
Variable selling and administrative expense ....... $15 $12
Expected monthly sales in units........................... 600 1,200

The company's total monthly fixed expense is $13,800.

E-9. The break-even in sales dollars for the expected sales mix is (rounded):
A) $36,800.
B) $30,000.
C) $28,105.
D) $31,222.

Standard Deluxe
Price: $40 $55
Variable Production Cost: -10 -16
Variable Selling Expense: -15 -12
Contribution Margin: $15 $27
Contribution Margin Ratio: 37.5% 49.09%

Sales Mix 33% 67%

E-10. If the expected monthly sales in units were divided equally between the two
models (900 Standard and 900 Deluxe), the break-even level of sales would be:
A) lower than with the expected sales mix.
B) higher than with the expected sales mix.
C) the same as with the expected sales mix.
D) cannot be determined with the available data.

P-1 The controller of Miller Company is preparing data for a conference concerning
certain independent aspects of its operations. Prepare answers to the following
questions for the controller:

1. Total Fixed Costs are $1,440,000 and a unit of product is sold for $12 in
excess of its unit Variable Cost. What is break-even unit sales volume?

2. The company will sell 60,000 units of product each having a unit Variable
Cost of $22 at a price that will enable the product to absorb $600,000 of
Fixed Cost. What minimum unit sales price must be charged to break even?

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 16

3. An Operating Profit of $320,000 is desired after covering $1,200,000 of Fixed


Cost. What minimum Contribution Margin Ratio must be maintained if total
Sales Revenue is to be $3,800,000?

4. Operating Profit is 10% of Sales Revenue, the Contribution Margin Ratio is


30%, and the break-even dollar sales volume is $640,000. What is the
amount of total Sales Revenue?

5. Total Fixed Costs are $1,000,000, Variable Cost per unit is $30, and unit
sales price is $80. What dollar sales volume will generate a net income of
$84,000 when the income tax rate is 40%?

P-2. Jensen Company has recently leased facilities for the manufacture of a new
product. Based on studies made by its accounting personnel, the following data
are available: Estimated annual sales: 40,000 units

Estimated Costs Amount Unit Cost

Direct Materials $696,000 $17.40


Direct Labor 584,000 14.60
Manufacturing Overhead 376,000 9.40
Administrative Expenses 187,200 4.68

Selling expenses are expected to be 10% of Sales Revenues, and the selling
price is $64 per unit. Ignore income taxes in this problem.

1. Compute a break-even point in units. Assume that Manufacturing Overhead


and Administrative Expenses are fixed but that other costs are variable.

2. How many units must be sold to earn an Operating Profit of 10% of sales?

P-3. Kenton Company manufactures and sells the three products below:

Economy Standard Deluxe


Unit Sales 10,000 6,000 4,000
Unit Sales Price $48 $56 $68
Unit Variable Cost $30 $32 $36

Assume that total fixed costs are $339,000.

Compute the number of each kind of unit necessary to sell in order to break
even, assuming that the sales mix is fixed.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 17

P-4. The following information relates to financial projections of Big Co. 2003:

Project Sales $60,000


Projected Variable Costs $2.00 per unit
Projected Fixed Costs $50,000 per year
Projected Unit Sales Price $7.00

Big Cos tax rate is 20%.

a. How many units would Big Co. need to sell in 2003 to earn a profit before
taxes of $10,000?
b. How many units must it sell to earn a net income of $12,500?

P-5. Signal Co. manufactures a single product. For 2002, the company had sales of
$90,000, variable costs of $50,000, and fixed costs of $30,000. Signal expects
its cost structure and sales price per unit to remain the same in 2003, however
total sales are expected to jump by 20%. If the 2003 projections are realized,
operating profits in 2003 should exceed operating profits in 2002 by what
percentage?

P-6. Diversified Corp. manufactures and sells two products: X and Y. Fixed Costs are
$9,000. The operating results of the company for 2002 follow:

Product X Product Y
Sales in units 2,000 3,000
Sales price per unit $10 $5
Variable Costs per unit $7 $3

Assume that the product mix remains the same.

a. How many total units would the company have needed to sell to breakeven in
2002?
b. If the company would have sold a total of 6,000 units in 2002, consistent with
CVP assumptions how many of those units would you expect to be Product
Y?

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 18

Solutions

E-1. The answer is d.

CMR = (P-V)/P = ($40 - $15)/$40 = 62.5%


Px = F/ (CMR)
Px = $30,000/.625 = $48,000

E-2. The answer is b.

CM = P-V = $60 - $35 - $9 = $16.

E-3. The answer is c.

Construct an income statement for the company:

Sales (1800 x60=108K)+(600x80=48K) $156,000


VC (1800 x44=79.2K)+(600x56=33.6K) -112,800
CM 43,200
Fixed Costs: -39,600
Oper. Profits: -$8,400

The Contribution Margin Ratio for the Company is 27.6923%

You can also get the Contribution Margin Ratio for the Company by calculating
the individual Contribution Margin Ratios for each product:

Colonial Early American


Price: $60 $80
Variable Costs: -44 -56
Contribution Margin: $16 $24
Contribution Margin Ratio: 26.67% 30%

What you have to remember, however, is that the product mix (when calculating
Contribution Margin Ratios) is based on relative sales revenue of the product (not
the relative units sold):

Colonial Early American


Product Sales Revenue: $108K $48K
Total Sales Revenue: 156K 156K
Product Mix: 69.23% 30.77%

Weighted Average Contribution Margin Ratio:

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 19

.6923(.2667) +..3077(.30)= .18463641 +..09231=.2769461


The difference between the two Contribution Margin Ratios for the Company is
due to rounding.

Using Formula B, you get the Break Even point in Dollars


PX = F/CMR = $39,600/.276923 = $143,000

In this question, you had enough information to use Formula A. For example,
using the Weighted Average Method:

Weighted Average Contribution Margin: .75(16) + .25(24) = 12+6 = $18


X = F/CMU = $39,600/$18 = 2,200 units

Colonial Sales Revenue: .75(2,200) = 1,650 x $60 = $99,000


Early American Revenue: .25(2,200) = 550 x $80 = 44,000
$143,000

E-4. The answer is b.

X = F/(P-V) = $35,000/($15-$8) = 5,000


E-5. The answer is a.

CMR = (P-V)/P = ($15 - $8)/$15 = 46.667%

E-6. The answer is d.

Contribution Margin For Company: Sales Revenue Variable Costs


$1,000,000 - $700,000 = $300,000

Contribution Margin Per Unit = $300,000/100,000 = $3

X = F/CMU = $210,000 / 3 = 70,000 units

E-7. The answer is b.

X = F + Operating Profit/ CMU = $210,000 +$150,000 / 3 = 120,000 units

E-8. The answer is b.

X = F/CMU = ($210,000 + $31,500) / 3 = 80,500 units

E-9. The answer is b.

Weighted Average Contribution Margin Ratio:

Sales: $90,000 ($40x600)+(55x1200)

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 20

VarCosts: $48,600 (25x600)+(28x1200)


Contrib.Marg. $41,400
CMR: 46% ($41.500/$90,000)

Px = F/CMR = $13,800/.46 = $30,000.

Weighted Average Contribution Margin: .33(15) + .67(27) = 5+18 = $23


X = F/CMU = $13,800/23 = 600

Standard: .33(600) = 200 x $40 = $8,000


Deluxe: .67(600) = 400 x $55 = 22,000
$30,000
E-10. The answer is b.

If the sales mix was 50%-50%, the weighted average contribution margin would
be smaller, and dividing a smaller number into the same fixed cost would
produce a higher break even point.

Weighted Average Contribution Margin: .5(15) + .5(27) = 7.5+13.5 = $21


X = F/CMU = $13,800/21 = 657 units

P-1.
1.
__F__ $1,440,000
x = = = 120,000 units
(P-V) 12

2.
F + Op
x = (P-V)
$600,000
60,000 = P -22
$600,000
P - 22 = 60,000
P - 22 = 10
P = 32

3.
__F + Op__
Px = _(P-V)_
P
1,200,000 +
$3,800,000 = 320,000
CMR
CMR = 1,200,000 +

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 21

320,000
$3,800,000
CMR = .4

4. You have two unknowns, Sales Revenue and Fixed Costs. So you just
can't plug in the known variables. You are given the Sales Revenue to
break-even (here we want income as well). If we use the break even
formula, then there is only one unknown (the Fixed Costs).

___F___
Px = (P-V)
P
_F_
$640,000 = .3
640,000 x.3 = F
$192,000 = F

Now that you know the fixed costs, you can plug it into the formula to find the
sales revenue you need in order to generate the target income.

__F + Op__
Px = _(P-V)_
P
192,000 + .1Px
Px = .3
.3 Px = 192,000 +.1Px
.2 Px = 192,000
192,000
Px = .2
Px = $960,000

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 22

5. Net Income is an after-tax term. First convert the after-tax, Net Income into
a before tax, Operating Profit:

I - t (Op) = Net Income


1 - .4 (Op) = $84,000
.6 (Op) = $84,000
$84,000
Op =
.6
Op = $140,000

Plug the Operating Profit into the formula.

__F+Op__
Px = (P-V)
P
1,000,000 + 140,000
Px = 80 - 30
80
Px = $1,824,000

P-2
1. Fixed Costs: $376,000 + $187,200 = $563,200

Variable costs include the selling expenses. On one unit, the sales
expenses would be $6.40 (.1 x $64).

Variable Costs: $17.40 + $14,60 + $6.40 = 38.40

F + Op
x = (P-V)
_563,200_
x = 64 -38.40
x = 22,000 units

2.

F + .1Px
x = (P-V)
563,200 + .1(64)x
x = 25.60
25.60x = 563,200 + 6.4x
19.2x = 563,200

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 23

x = 29,333 units

P-3 Basket Method:

A basket contains 5 Economies, 3 Standards, and 2 Deluxes.

Econom Standar Delux


y d e
Price 48 56 68
Variable 30 32 36
Costs
Contributi 18 24 32
on
Margin:

The Contribution Margin of a Basket is 5(18) + 3(24) + 2 (32) =$226

__F__
x = (P-V)
$339,000
x = 226
x = 1500 Baskets

Economy = 1500 (5) = 7,500


Standard = 1500 (3) = 4,500
Deluxe = 1500 (2) = 3,000
15,000

Weighted-Average Method:

The Weighted-Average Contribution Margin is : .5 (18) + .3 (24) + .2 (32) = 22.6

__F__
x = (P-V)
$339,000
x = 22.6
x = 15,000 Units

Economy = 15,000 (.5) = 7,500


Standard = 15,000 (.3) = 4,500
Deluxe = 15,000 (.2) = 3,000
15,000

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 24

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 25

P-4 (a)

Revenue = Costs + Profit


Px = Vx + F + Op
Px Vx = F+ Op
(P-V)x = F + Op

x = (F + Op)/(P-V)

x = ($50,000 + $10,000)/($7 - $2)


x = ($60,000)/($5)
x = 12,000

(b)

Before Tax Income Taxes = After Tax Income


Op - .2Op = $12,500
.8Op = $12,500
Op = ($12,500)/.8
Op = $15,625

Revenue = Costs + Profit


Px = Vx + F + Op
Px Vx = F+ Op
(P-V)x = F + Op

x = (F + Op)/(P-V)

x = ($50,000 + $15,625)/($7 - $2)


x = ($65,625)/($5)
x = 13,125

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 26

P-5
Old 20% Increase
Numbers in Sales
Sales (Px) $90,000 $108,000 P*(x *1.2)
V Costs (Vx) -50,000 -60,000 V* (x*1.2)
Contribution Margin $40,000 $48,000 (P-V)(x*1.2)
F Costs (F) -30,000 -30,000 F
Oper. Profits $10,000 $18,000

This is an 80% increase.


Operating Leverage:

Contribution Margin / Operating Profit


$40,000/$10,000 = 4

CM increase(20%) x Operating Leverage (4) = Op Increase (80%)

Old 20% Increase


Numbers in Sales
Sales (Px) $90,000 $108,000 P*(x *1.2)
V Costs (Vx) -50,000 -60,000 V* (x*1.2)
CM 40,000 48,000 CMU (x 1.2)
F Costs (F) -30,000 -30,000 F
Oper. Profits $10,000 $18,000

P-6 Sales Mix

Product X = 2,000 units / 5,000 total units = 40% of sales


Product Y = 3,000 units / 5,000 total units = 60% of sales

Contribution Margin

CM = P - V
CMProduct X = $10 - $7 = $3
CMProduct Y = $5 - $3 = $2

Blended Contribution Margin

CM average = .4($3) + .6($2) = $1.2 + $1.2 = $2.4


CM basket = 2($3) + 3($2) = $6 + $6 = $12

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Page 27

(a)

Weighted Average Method

Revenue = Costs
Px = Vx + F
Px Vx = F
(P-V)x = F

x = (F)/(P-V)

x = ($9,000)/($2.4)
x = 3,750 total units

Basket Method

Revenue = Costs
Px = Vx + F
Px Vx = F
(P-V)x = F

x = (F)/(P-V)

x = ($9,000)/($12)
x = 750 baskets

Each of these basket has five units.


Total Units = 750 x 5 = 3750

(b)

Product Y is 60% of Sales


Product Y Units = 6,000 x .6 = 3600 units

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