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Functions

Angle

When a ray OA starting from its initial position OA rotates about its end point 0 and takes the

final position OB, we say that angle

AOB (written as AOB) has been formed. The amount of rotation from the initial side to the

terminal side is Called the measure of

the angle.

moves in an anti-clockwise or a clockwise direction, respectively.

Measurement of Angles

In this system, a right angle is divided into 90 equal parts, called degrees. The symbol 1 is

used to denote one degree. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes and one

minute is divided into 60 equal parts, called seconds. Symbols 1 and 1 are used to denote one

minute and one second, respectively.

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1 = 60

1 = 60

In this system, a right angle is divided into 100 equal parts, called grades. Each grade is

subdivided into 100 min and each minute is divided into 100 s.

1g = 100

1 = 100

A radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc, whose length is equal to the

radius of the circle.

The number of radians in an angle subtended by an arc of circle at the centre is equal to

arc/radius.

Relationships

or 1 radian (180/)= 571622

where, = 22/7 = 3.14159

(iii) If D is the number of degrees, R is the number of radians and G is the number of grades in

an angle , then

(iv) = l/r where = angle subtended by arc of length / at the centre of the circle, r = radius of

the circle.

Trigonometric Ratios

Relation between different sides and angles of a right angled triangle are called trigonometric

ratios or T-ratios

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Let XOX and YOY be the coordinate axes. Taking 0 as the centre and a unit radius, draw a

circle, cutting the coordinate axes at A,B, A and B, as shown in the figure.

(i) cos = x

(ii) sin = y

(iii) sec = 1/x, x 0

(iv) cosec = 1/y, y 0

(v) tan = y/x, x 0

(vi) cot = x/y, y 0

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|sin | 1, |cos | 1, |sec | 1, |Cosec | 1 for all values of 0, for which the functions are

defined.

Trigonometric Identities

An equation involving trigonometric functions which is true for all those angles for which the

functions are defined is called trigonometrical identity. Some identities are

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Two angles are said to be allied when their sum or difference is either zero or a multiple of 90.

The angles , 90 , 180 , 270 + , 360 etc., are angles allied to the angle , if

is measured in degrees.

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A function f(x) is said to be periodic, if there exists a real number T> 0 such that f(x + T)= f(x)

for all x. T is called the period of the function, all trigonometric functions are periodic.

The algebraic sum of two or more angles are generally called compound angles and the angles

are known as the constituent angle. Some standard formulas of compound angles have been

given below.

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Transformation Formulae

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10 | P a g e

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11 | P a g e

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