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First law of Thermodynamics

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed although it may be converted from one
form to another or The total energy of the universe remains constant, although it
may undergo transformation from one form to the other or The energy of the
isolated system is constant.

U=q+w
U = Change in internal energy
q=Heat absorbed
w=work done on the system
where q is positive if system absorbs heat and negative if system dissipate heat.
w is positive if work is done on system and negative if work is done by system.

Change in Internal energy is zero if there is no change in temperature. w is zero if


change in volume of gas is zero. q is zero if no heat is given or taken out from system
or if system is isolated.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Example 1. When 1 mol gas is heated at constant volume, temperature is raised from
298 to 308 K. Heat supplied to the gas is 500 J. Then U=..........
Solution: 500J
heat absorbed at constant volume means no work done ,w=0
U=q+w
q=U=500J

Example 2. Find the change in internal energy of the system when a system absorbs
2 kilocalorie of heat and at the same time does 500 joules of work :
Solution : 7900 J
According to first law of thermodynamics U=q+w
Now, 2000 calorie will be equal to 8400 joules .(1 calorie=4.2 J)
q = 8400 J , w= -500 J
Substituting back in the equation will give change in internal energy to be 7900
joules.

Example 3. A system is provided 50 kJ energy and work done on the system is 100 J.
The change in internal energy is
Solution : 50.1 J
A system is provided 50 kJ energy and work done on the system is 100 J. The change
in internal energy is 50.1 kJ.
U=q+(W) where W is work done on the system
U=(50+0.1)kJ = 50.1kJ

Example 4. 110 Joules of heat are added to a gaseous system, whose change in
internal energy is 40 J; then the amount of external work done is :
Solution: 70 J
According to first law of thermodynamics we have,
U=q+w
40 = 110 + w
W= -70J

Example 5. A system absorbs 10 kJ of heat and does 4 kJ of work. The internal energy
of the system.
Solution : Increases by 6 kJ
By 1st law of Thermodynamics-
U=q+w
where q is positive if system absorbs heat and negative if system dissipate heat.
w is positive if work is done on system and negative if work is done by system.
U=(10-4)KJ
U=6KJ
EXERCISE

Q 1. If the heat of 110J is added to a gaseous system, whose change in internal


energy is 40J, then the amount of external work done is ...
(a) 80 J
(b) -70 J
(c) 114 J
(d) -140 J
Ans. b)
Heat is added to system hence it positive, According to first law of thermodynamics
U=q+w
40 = 110 + w
W= -70 J

Q 2. When the amount of work done is 300 J and change in internal energy is 100 J,
then the heat supplied is..
(a) 400 J
(b) 350 J
(c) 200 J
(d) 150 J
Ans. a)
According to first law of thermodynamics
U=q+w
q=U - w = 100 - (-300) = 400 J

Q 3. A gas absorbs 250J of heat and expands from 1 litre to 10 litre at constant
temperature aganst external pressure of 0.5 atm. The value of q , w and E will be
respectively
(a) 250 J, 455 J, 710 J
(b) 250J, -455J, -205 J
(c) -250 J, -455 J, - 205 J
(d) -250 J, 455 J, 205 J
Ans. b)
q=250J, w=- P(V)=-0.5 9=4.5 L atm
w=4.5 L atm=4.5 101 J =455 J
U=q + w=250 - 455=-205J

Q 4. For an adiabatic process, which of the following is correct?


(a) PV=0
(b) q= +W
(c) U=q
(d) q=0
Ans. d)
For an adiabatic process, q=0
U=q+w U=0+w=w

Q 5. The heat absorbed in a reaction at constant temperature and volume is equal to


(a) U of the reaction
(b) Hof the reaction
(c) -U of the reaction
(d) -H of the reaction
Ans. a)
heat absorbed at constant volume means no work done ,w=0
from first law of thermodynamics
U=q+w
U=q

Q 6. In a closed insulated container a liquid is stirred with a paddle to increase the


temperature. Which of the following is true ?
(a) E=W 0, q=0
(b) E=W=q 0
(c) E=0, W=q 0
(d) W=0, E=q 0
Ans. a)
As temperature is increased and system is insulated, i.e. q=0
Hence E=q +W=W

Q 7. Under which of the following condition, work is a state function?


(a) Adiabatic process
(b) Isothermal process
(c) Constant pressure
(d) None of these
Ans. a)
In adiabatic process q=0.
Hence E=q+w gives E=w.
As E is state function, w become state function

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