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Fundamentals of Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics Agenda Topics

How to characterize structural How does my structure How to validate simulation


behavior? naturally want to move? models?
Fundamentals Modal Analysis Modal Correlation
Natural Frequencies, Resonances, Curve fitting, data quality checks Modal Assurance Criteria, Modal
Damping (MAC), mode shapes Contribution, Updating
structure-
structure-borne air-
air-borne

structure-
structure-borne

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Why are structural dynamics important?

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Product Development Process
Troubleshoot

Validate
Cost of Change

Engineer

Concept Detail Prototype Production Field


Drawing Failure

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Why identify structural resonance?
Durability Performance/Perceived Quality Safety
Pains

Field failure Noise & Vibration problem Product Certification

Increasing speed causes: - Steerling wheel shake - Structural integrity


- Component breakdown - Driver seat vibration - Ground Vibration Testing
- Machine failure - Noise at Drivers & - Reduce vibration dose value
- Poor precision Passengers Ears - Flutter phenomena
- Inconsistent product quality
What ?

Excessive vibration problems


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Aircraft Flutter

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Tacoma Bridge Collapse

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Natural frequency of a traffic signal

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What is a natural frequency?

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Natural Frequency

Natural frequency is the frequency at which a system naturally vibrates once it has
been forced into motion

f(t)

x(t)

k c

ground

Single Degree of Freedom System

k
n natural frequency (rad/sec)
m
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Natural Frequency

11 copyright LMS International - 2005


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Resonant Frequency
Resonance is the buildup of large amplitude that occurs when a structure
is excited at its natural frequency

Amplitude

f = 0.4 f = 1.01 f =1.6 n = 1.0 Frequency

3 Single Degree of Freedom Systems with


same mass, stiffness and damping
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Structural Damping

Damping is any effect that tends to reduce the oscillations in a system

c
d n 1 2
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2 km
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Siemens PLM Software
How do we determine the resonant
behavior of a structure?

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Frequency Response Functions
Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measure the systems output in
response to known an input signal

o u tp u t
FRF
input
RESPONSE

FORCE

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Frequency Response Functions
Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measure the systems output in
response to known an input signal

o u tp u t
FRF
input
RESPONSE

FORCE
-50.00
N2/Hz
dB

-100.00
0.00 Hz 1024.00
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What can an FRF tell you?
1.6
Resonant Frequency 1.4 Curve 135.31 Q (/) (%) Hz
1.52 g/N
1.2 14.04 3.56
0.48 g/N
1.0

Imag
g/N
0.7

0.5

Damping 0.3

0.1
-0.1
1 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900
Real
g/N

Mode Shape
-700e-3 135.31
Requires Multiple FRFs 10 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 950
Hz

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Quality Factor
1
Q
Q-factor describes whether a system is heavily or lightly damped
2

fo
Q
f2 f1
Half Power (3 dB) Method
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Other Damping Terms

19 copyright LMS International - 2005


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DEMONSTRATION: Test.Lab Cursor Calculations
FRF (Acceleration/Force)
0.70e-3

0.60e-3 0.62e-3

Curve 18.44 27.19 49.69 55.63 58.75 (%) Hz


0.50e-3 0.10e-3 0.62e-3 0.09e-3 0.16e-3 0.09e-3 23.08 | 0.93 | 0.93 | 1.13 | 5.72 (m/s)/N

0.40e-3

0.30e-3

0.20e-3
(m/s)/N
Imag

0.16e-3

0.10e-3
0.10e-3 0.09e-3 0.09e-3

0.00

-0.10e-3

-0.20e-3

-0.30e-3

-0.40e-3 18.44 27.19 49.69 55.63 58.75


15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Hz

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FRFs determine mode shapes

1st Bending Mode

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FRFs determine mode shapes

1st Torsional Mode

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Experimental Modal Analysis
The process of identifying the dynamic behavior of a system (structure) in terms of
its modal parameters

Modal parameters
Frequency Troubleshooting
Simulation and prediction
Damping
Optimization
Mode Shape Diagnostics and health monitoring

f(t)
k
x(t) n
m m

k c d n 1 2
ground
c

Single Degree of Freedom System 2 km
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Experimental Modal Analysis Process
24
20

16
Curve Fit to Estimate Modal Parameters
(m/s2)/N
Amplitude

14

10
8

0
0 25 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Hz

Measure the Frequency Response Functions

Response

Frequency
Damping
Mode Shapes

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Input Input
Page 24 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Fundamentals of structural dynamics review

Why are resonant frequencies important?

How can I get realistic damping values?

What is the significance of Frequency Response Functions and


how can they help me?

What can I learn from a mode shape?

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Experimental Modal Acquisition and Analysis

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Measurement Techniques

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Measurement Equipment
Excitation
Laboratory
(shakers, hammer, force cell, )
Operational excitations
(road simulation, flight simulation, wind
excitation, )
Unusual excitations
(loudspeaker, gun shot, explosion, )

Response
(Accelerometers, Laser,)

Measurement system
FFT analyzer (2-4 channels)
PC & data-acquisition
front-end (2-1000 channels)
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Excitation Techniques

Impact Testing Shaker Testing

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Impact Testing
Minimal equipment Time Frequency
Easy and fast
Good for wide range of structures

Input
Limited frequency range
Typically: fixed response accelerations -
roving impact location

Response
FRF

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Impact Testing

Shorter impact time Wider freq range

1000 Hz 1000 Hz

Soft Tip Correct Tip

Blue Line Hammer Input Autopower


Red Coherence
Black - FRF

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Huge Impact Test

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Exponential Window for Response
Exponential Window

Exponential Window Increases Apparent Damping Values When Applied.


Avoid Applying The Exponential Window Unless Absolutely Necessary.

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Coherence
Coherence

Coherence is a value from 0 to 1 that shows how much of the


output is really due to the input

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Coherence

1.00
Coherence differs from 1 in case of:
Non-Linearity
Unmeasured sources
Antinodes
Frequency range of excitation
Other noise
Real
/

F Coherence DRV:1:+X
F Coherence DRV:2:+X
F Coherence ENG:1:+Y
F Coherence FUSL:5:+X

0.00
0.00 Hz 100.00

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Pretrigger
Pretrigger

Pretrigger is the amount of buffer time measured before the impulse

Lose initial part of the input signal

Use a pretrigger to avoid distorted FRF

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DEMONSTRATION: Modal Impact Test

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Shaker Testing
Time Consuming to setup Time Frequency
Control frequency range
Control Force Amplitude
Better for larger structures

Input
Typically fixed excitation point, multiple
response points - measured in batches

Response

FRF

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Shaker Testing: Excitation Signals

Random Burst Random

Window Required No Window Needed

Generally, Burst Random is better

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Effect of not using a window on excitation signal

Burst Random
Amplitude (g/N)

Random

Frequency (Hz)
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Understanding leakage and windows

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Joseph did help us a lot
4

-1

-2

-3 Joseph Fourier
-4
(1768 - 1830)
Thorie analytique de la chaleur (1822)

Fouriers law of heat conduction


2.5

1.5

0.5

u 2u 2u
-0.5

-1

k 2 2
-1.5

-2

t x y
-2.5

Any signal can be described as Analyzed in terms of infinite mathematical


a combination of sine waves of series
Useful by-product
different frequencies
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Fourier Transform

Transforms from Time Domain to Frequency Domain


Fourier: Any signal can be described as a unique combination of sine
waves of different frequencies and amplitudes
Complicated signals become easier to understand
No information is lost when converting!

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

Frequency
Time
(Hz)
(seconds)
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What is Leakage?

When the spectral content of your signal does not correspond


to an available spectral line
f 1 Hz
5 V Sine Wave - 3 Hz 5 V Sine Wave - 2.5 Hz

5v 5v

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Hz Hz
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Non Periodic Signals DSP Errors (Leakage)

3.00
F AutoPow er Point1
3.00

Smaller amplitude

Amplitude
V
Amplitude
V

Smearing of
spectral content 0.20
96.00 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108.00
Hz

0.00
0.00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 200.00
Hz

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Periodic Signals

T T = N t

YES!
Are these signals the same?

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Non-Periodic Signals

T T = N t

Are these signals


the same?
NO!

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Finite Observation Side Effect

No Leakage
1.00

2.5 Linear scale

Amplitude
(m/s 2)
2

1.5

0.5

0 0.00
-0.5
0.00 Hz 100.00
-1

-1.5 0.00
-2 Log scale
-2.5

(m/s 2)
dB
2.5

2 -60.00
1.5
0.00 Hz 100.00
1

0.5

Leakage
-0.5 1.00
-1

-1.5
Linear scale

Amplitude
(m/s 2)
-2

-2.5

0.00
2.5 2.5 0.00 Hz 100.00
2 2

1.5 1.5
0.00
1

0.5
1

0.5
Log scale
(m/s 2)
dB
0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5
-60.00
-2 -2

-2.5 -2.5 0.00 Hz 100.00

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Leakage Amplitude Uncertainty

Periodic observation A-periodic observation


100% of amplitude 63% of amplitude

Boss, this system is giving me


something between 6 and 10g

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How can we minimize the effects of
leakage?
A: Windows

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Window Types Specific
Characteristics
Rectangular, uniform Hanning Flat top
Time domain

AKA No Window
Freq. domain

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Window Types Specific
Characteristics

Windows distort the amplitude and total energy


content of the data.
They also smear the frequency content.
This smearing cannot be corrected.
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Windows
Windows limit spectral resolution

Hanning: 1.5 f Flattop: 3.4 f


Up to 15% amplitude Up to 0.02% amplitude

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Amplitude Errors

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Energy Errors

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Examples of Windows

Uniform
No Window

Hanning
General Purpose

Flattop
Single Tone Frequencies

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Page 63 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Exponential Window for Response
Exponential Window

Exponential Window Increases Apparent Damping Values When Applied.


Avoid Applying The Exponential Window Unless Absolutely Necessary.

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Page 65 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Tips for modal testing

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Boundary Conditions What are your goals?

Real boundary conditions Free-free suspension

Flexibility of fixtures In practice: almost free-free


Soft spring, elastic cord
Added damping, stiffness, mass
Pneumatic suspension
Environmental Conditions
Correlation with FEM
Can Obtain Rigid Body Modes
Verification of Channel Setup (Sensor
Direction)

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Rigid Body Modes Rigid Body Properties
Free-Free Boundary Condition
Approximation of a true Free System (FEM)
Rigid Body Modes Are No Longer Zero Negligible Effect on
Flexible Mode

Rigid body mode frequency < 10 % of first flexible mode


68 copyright LMS International - 2005
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Boundary Conditions
Some Practical Examples Simulating Free-Free

Elastic cords Pneumatic suspension

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Page 69 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Frequency Response Function - Considerations

Time invariance
Will I get the same measurement
tomorrow?
Is the measurement repeatable?
Is the system linear?

Different force levels can have an effect

(i.e. rubber bushing).

Does reciprocity hold true?

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Page 71 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Driving Point FRF

Driving Point FRF is when the excitation point equals the response point

Anti-resonances occur between


Magnitude Real every resonance

Phase is combination of SDOF


systems with phase information
pointing in same direction

At least 1 driving point necessary for


modal scaling
Phase Imaginary

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Page 72 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Driving Point FRF

Selection and verification of excitation locations


Are all modes present in driving point FRF ?
At nodal point: mode is not excited
Spatially separated

Good
excitation
point

Bad
excitation
point

Measure Driving Points for a number of positions and compare FRFs

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Page 73 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Linearity of the FRF

1.00 0.10

)
g/N

Log
(
Log
N2

FRF DRV:1:+X/FOR:1:+X
FRF DRV:1:+X/FOR:1:+X (1)
FRF DRV:1:+X/FOR:1:+X (2)
F AutoPow er FOR:1:+X
F AutoPow er FOR:1:+X Hz
F AutoPow er FOR:1:+X 10.0e-6 0.00 Linear 100.00
180.00 0.00 Linear 100.00
Hz
Phase

1.00e-6 -180.00
0.00 Hz 100.00 0.00 Hz 100.00

3 different excitation levels

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Page 74 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Measuring of Frequency Response Functions

Excitation Degrees of Freedom (DOF) Natural Modes of vibration

1 2 1 2 3
3

Mode 1
Response DOF

1
Mode 2

3
Mode 3
Driving point FRFs

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Page 75 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
DEMONSTRATION: Modal Impact Test

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SDOF Peak Picking
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Calculation of mode shape

1st Bending Mode

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Calculation of mode shape

1st Torsional Mode

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Experimental Modal Analysis

How do we know we have enough


measurement points for our test?

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Page 80 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
DEMONSTRATION: SDOF Peak Picking on Plate (6
points)

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Why are rigid body modes seen at
high frequencies?
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Modal Assurance Criterion
Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) describes how similar the shapes are for a given
mode pair using a scale of 0 to 1 (e.g. 0% to 100%)

.5

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MAC Example

MAC = 100% correlation


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MAC Example

MAC = 0.015 (1.5% correlation)


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MAC Example

6 Points

764 Unrestricted
Hz and 385 Hz - MAC = 0.96 (96% correlation)
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MAC Example

15 Points

764Unrestricted
Hz and 385 Hz - MAC = 0.03 (3% correlation)
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MAC for flat plate with 6 DOFs

.5

Spatial Aliasing not enough response points


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MAC for flat plate with 15 DOFs

.5

No High Off Diagonal Correlations


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DEMONSTRATION: SDOF Peak Picking on Plate
(15points)

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MDOF Curve Fitting
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Structure with High Modal Separation

SDOF peak picking is


only suitable for data
with well-separated
modes
Amplitude

No influence from
surrounding
modes

Frequency

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Structure with Low Modal Separation

MDOF curve fitter is


required to separate
closely-spaced
modes
Amplitude

Large influence
from surrounding
modes

Frequency

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Modal Parameter Estimation

Goal of modal parameter estimation


0.10

n
H () vi liT

v l
*
i i
H

*
i 1j i j i
What is the model order?
How many modes to curve-fit?

(m/s2)/N
Log
Solutions
Stabilization diagram
Mode indicator functions

10.0e-12 24.09 42.72


0.00 Hz 80.00

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Modal Parameter Estimation Assuming 1 Mode

f1 = 50 Hz

d1 = 20 %
Amplitude

25 50 75 Frequency

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Modal Parameter Estimation Assuming 2 Modes

f1 = 25 Hz f2 = 75 Hz

d1 = 10 % d2 = 10 %
Amplitude

25 50 75 Frequency

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Page 96 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Modal Parameter Estimation Assuming 3 Modes

f1 = 25 Hz f2 = 50 Hz f3 = 75 Hz

d1 = 5 % d2 = 5 % d3 = 5 %
Amplitude

25 50 75 Frequency

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Modal Parameter Estimation - Stabilization Diagram
Compare modal parameters at current order with previous order
Increase the model order until modes stabilize

Stability
o : new pole
Amplitude

f : frequency

Model Order
d : damping
s : all

0
Frequency

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Page 98 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
DEMONSTRATION: MDOF Curve Fitting on Flat Plate

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Page 99 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Mode Indicator Function
Mode Indicator Function (MIF) helps identify the modes for a system where
multiple reference FRFs were measured
commonly used to detect the presence of repeated roots

Double dip
indicates two
modes at same
frequency

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Polymax MDOF Curve Fitting
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LSCE versus LMS PolyMAX
LSCE LMS PolyMAX

-For smaller models +Large number of responses

-High computational load +Fast, efficient computation

-High damping is a problem +High damping no problem

-High modal density +High modal density

-Not for broadband analysis +Broadband analysis

-Unclear stabilization diagram +Crystal-clear stabilization diagram

Not all MDOF curve fitters are created equal !


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Modal Parameter Estimation LSCE

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Page 103 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Modal Parameter Estimation LMS PolyMAX

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DEMONSTRATION: PolyMAX Modal Analysis

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PolyMAX Validation Studies

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Validation Study of PolyMAX Algorithm

FE model of a full trimmed car body


Synthesized a set of FRFs to use for curve fitting
FRFs generated for 780 DOF / 2 references
0.125 Hz frequency resolution
300 modes in 0-100 Hz band, including local modes

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PolyMAX Validation
Identifying Modes

Number of modes found


PolyMAX: 189/300 modes
LSCE(Time MDOF): 101/300 modes

0 60 Hz band
PolyMAX: 90/105 modes
LSCE: 70/105 modes

Possibly more modes found if more FRFs used (local modes)

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PolyMAX Validation
Mode Shapes Comparison

MAC matrix MAC matrix

LSCE (X) FE (Y) PolyMAX (X) FE (Y)

PolyMAX yields good correlation to higher frequency


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PolyMAX Validation
Noisy FRFs

1.00 1.00

)
(m/s2)/N

Log
(
Amplitude
/

Hz
10.0e-6 4.00 Linear 20.00
180.00 4.00 Linear 20.00
Hz

Phase

F Coherence w ing:vvd:+Z/Multiple
F Coherence back:vde:+Y/Multiple

0.05 -180.00
Hz Hz

Multiple Coherence FRFs

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Page 110 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
PolyMAX Validation
Noisy FRFs

LSCE
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PolyMAX Validation
Noisy FRFs

LMS PolyMAX
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Page 112 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
PolyMAX Validation
FRF Synthesis with PolyMAX
0.10 10.0e-3
)

)
g/N

Log

g/N

Log
(

(
Hz Hz
100e-6 4.00 Linear 20.00 1.00e-6 4.00 Linear 20.00
180.00 4.00 Linear 20.00 180.00 4.00 Linear 20.00
Hz Hz
Phase

Phase

-180.00 -180.00
Hz Hz

Left wing Back of the plane

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Page 113 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
PolyMAX Validation
Lightly-damped structures

Stabilization FRF synthesis

1.00

)
(m/s2)/N

Log
(
Hz
10.0e-6 10.00 Linear 64.00
180.00 10.00 Linear 64.00
Hz

Phase

-180.00
10.00 Hz 64.00

PolyMAX alleviates the need to use a different curve fitter


algorithm for heavy and lightly damped structures

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Page 114 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
#1 Automatic Mode Expansion

Test Mesh

STL File
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116 copyright LMS International - 2010
Page 116 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
DEMONSTRATION: Modal Expansion

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Page 117 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Quiz

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What can an FRF tell you?
16.0

Resonant Frequency 14.0


13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0

(m/s2)/N
9.0

Amplitude
8.0
7.0
6.0

Damping 5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
Hz
0.0 10.00 Linear 950.00
180 10.00 Linear 950.00
Hz
Phase

Mode Shape
-180
Requires Multiple FRFs
10 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 950
Hz

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Page 119 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
What is this?
10.4

ss sv s s s s s s s f s d 32
ss sv s s s o s s d v f s d 31
ss sd s s s s s s s f s d 30
ss sv s s s s s s s v s d 29
ss sv s s s s s d s v s d 28
ss sf s s s s s df f s o 27
ss os s s s s s ss o s 26
ss s s s s s s s s s 25
ss fs s s s s s s f s 24
ss s s s s s s ss s 23
ss s s s s s s dv s 22
ss s s s s s s df s 21
ss s s s s s s ss s 20
Amplitude

ss s s s s s s sv s 19
g/lbf

ss s s s s s s f o s 18
ss s s s s s s d s 17
ss s s s s s s s d 16
df s v v s s s d f 15
sd s ov s s s v d 14
dd s o v s s s d f 13
df s v s s s f f 12
f s s s s s s f 11
df s o v s o o o 10
f s o o d o o 9
o o f o o 8
f s o 7
o o 6
o 5

63.3e-3
85.1 Linear 837
Hz

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Page 120 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
What is MAC abbreviation for?

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Page 121 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
What is MAC abbreviation for?

Modal Assurance Criterion

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Page 122 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
What is MAC abbreviation for?

Modal Assurance Criterion

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Page 123 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
IS THIS A
GOOD
MAC?

124 copyright LMS International - 2005


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Page 124 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Advanced Processing and Analysis Techniques

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How to ensure consistency when picking modes?

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Automatic Modal Parameter Selection

Observe several
experienced engineers

Knowledge and skills


of experts

Rules of Automatic Modal


Parameter Selection

Validated rules with


benchmark study

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Page 128 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Automatic Modal Parameter Selection

Vehicle body-in-white
2 inputs and 2005 DOFs

Experienced modal analysts


Analyze in many small bands
Found 233 modes
Took a couple hours

AMPS
Analyze in 4 bands
Model size = 100
Found 173 modes
Less than a minute

LMS PolyMAX & AMPS select


173 of 233 poles in several
seconds !
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Page 129 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Experimental Modal Analysis
The benefits of modal analysis are:

Identify structural dynamics properties

Visualize how a system naturally wants to respond

Provide insight for root-cause analysis of vibration or fatigue problems

Determine if natural frequencies are in-line with operational frequencies

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Page 132 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Importance of Correlation
Vibration Loads
Evaluate
Design

Finite Element
Simulation

Durability Acoustics

Design
Refinement

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Page 134 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Old Product Design Cycle
Product Design Process

TIME

Functional Activities
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Page 135 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Modern Product Design Process Goal

Product Design Process

Simulate product
performance before
prototypes are
available
TIME
Use single
prototype & testing
for validation

Functional Activities
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Page 136 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Pretest & Correlation: Process Improvement

Product 1 Product 2

TIME TIME
Correlation Correlation

Pretest Pretest
Analysis Analysis

FE Modeling
Process Improvement
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Page 137 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Virtual.Lab Pretest & Correlation: Motivation
COST !
Minimize Failures
FEA accuracy degrades as mode order increases
Simulation results are used for design decisions in Acoustics, NVH,
Durability, Loads, etc

Reduce Warranty Issues


Improve customer satisfaction

Shorten Product Design Cycle


Single prototype for validation

Achieve Design Right First Time

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Page 138 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
DEMONSTRATION: Flat Plate

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Page 139 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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PreTest

How many points?


6 or more?

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Page 141 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 142 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Correlation

Viewing mode shapes side-by-side?

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Page 143 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 144 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Correlation

MAC
But is there something else?

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Page 145 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 146 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Why the frequency difference?

All test modes higher frequency than FE


Need to raise frequency of FE modes
What to change?

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Page 147 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 148 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Exhaust System

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Page 149 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Exhaust Mode at 15 Hz

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Page 150 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Exhaust Mode at 15 Hz

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Page 151 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Exhaust Modes at 15 and 130 Hz

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Page 152 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Exhaust Modes at 15 and 130 Hz

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Page 153 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 154 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
6 Exhaust Modes up to 137 Hz

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Page 155 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 1: Use FE model to pick some initial accelerometer locations

Supported FEA Software:


NASTRAN
ANSYS Initial Accel locations
Abaqus
IDEAS
Elfini/GPS
Universal File Format

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Page 156 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 2: Use MAC to assure that accelerometer locations are
sufficient to uniquely identify all modes from FEM Normal Modes
Analysis

MAC: Modal Assurance Criterion A


measure of how well mode shapes are
correlated.

In this case, the MAC diagram


shows large off-diagonal terms, indicating
that several modes are non-uniquely
identified.

Thus, more accelerometers are


required to guarantee a good test.

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Page 157 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 3: Use LMS Pretest to automatically locate additional
accelerometers to meet requested MAC criterion.

5 accelerometers have been


Additional Accels
added to the exhaust model as
shown to reach the target off-
diagonal MAC of <0.15

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Page 158 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 3: Use LMS Pretest to automatically locate additional
accelerometers to meet requested MAC criterion.

New MAC diagram shows all


modes uniquely identified. This is
indicated by reduction of off-
diagonal terms.

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Page 159 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 160 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 4: Use LMS Pretest to show optimum locations of shakers or
impact to excite all structural modes during the test.

DPR (Driving Point Residue)


algorithm is used to locate
optimum shaker location and
orientation. DPR indicates how
well all modes are excited by a
potential reference location.

Practical considerations
sometimes lead to selecting
excitation locations other than the
most optimum. In this case,
several points can excite the
structure sufficiently.
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Page 161 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Pretest Analysis
Step 5: Create wireframe geometry for Modal Test and export to LMS
Test.Lab software.

A Test.Lab project file is created


containing the exhaust geometry,
as well as the FE mode shapes &
frequencies.

Reduced FE modes provide the


test engineer with the ability to
visually check the shapes.

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Page 162 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Modal Test
Perform the modal test on the physical structure.

The test engineer mounts


accelerometers, and collects modal
data by exciting the structure with
shakers or an impact hammer in
the locations as indicated by
Pretest.

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Page 163 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 1: Use the LMS Correlation Manager to import the Test and FE
Models, and define correlation parameters.

Parameters:
MAC threshold value for matching
of FE/Test mode pairs

Coordinate system translations and


rotations

Frequency range for both FE and


Test

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Page 164 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 2: Use Correlation Tools to evaluate how well FE and Test
models correlate.

Global MAC plot shows:


Good mode shape:
correlation of modes 1-8

Mode swapping between


modes 11 and 13 for FE and
Test models

MAC <0.75 for modes 9-13

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Page 165 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 2: Use Correlation Tools to evaluate how well FE and Test
models correlate.

Relative Frequency Difference plot


shows:

Small frequency
differences

< 6% for modes 1-9

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Page 166 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 2: Use Correlation Tools to evaluate how well FE and Test
models correlate.

Mode Pair Table:


Shows absolute
frequency/damping
differences for matching
FE/Test modes

In this case:
Good frequency correlation
of modes 1-9

Large frequency difference


for mode pair 13, 11 (>14%)

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Page 168 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
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Page 169 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Are results close enough?
Although initial inspection might lead us to assume this is good
correlation, further analysis yields a different conclusion
Correlation of fundamental modes does not guarantee correlation
throughout operating frequency band

Higher order modes are relevant to acoustic, vibration, and durability


performance they are well within the operating frequency range

Ignoring higher order mode correlation could lead to bad engineering


decisions, for example:
- Poor Exhaust Hangar locations leading to Noise and Vibration Issues
- Vibration fatigue due to Engine or Road excitation at resonant
frequencies

CONCLUSION: All modes in operating frequency band should be correlated!

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Page 170 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 2: Use Correlation Tools to evaluate how well FE and Test
models correlate.

MAC Contribution Display:


Shows DOFs making
most negative contribution
to MAC

In this case:
9 DOFs can be removed
to improve MAC from 85%
to 95% for Mode Pair 1, 1

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Page 171 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 3: Use LMS post processing tools to identify physical causes for
poor correlation.

Post Processing Tools:


Side by side
FE/Test animation

MAC Contribution
Plots

FRAC Plots

CoMAC Plots

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Page 172 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Correlation
Step 3: Use LMS post processing tools to identify physical causes for poor
correlation.

Local stiffness differences


are indicated by lower
frequency of FE model for
mode pair 11

Animation provides further


evidence of this

Consideration of physical
exhaust system leads
engineer to consider effect
of weld on this junction
(ignored in the FE model)

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Page 173 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Updating

Step 4: Sensitivity Analysis and FE Model Updating

Sensitivity Analysis:
Sensitivity Analysis within
LMS Virtual.Lab verifies that
outlet junction area has
dominant influence for mode
pair 11
FE Model Updating:
Manual updating
Element thickness increased
locally in weld location
Amount of thickness
increase guided by MAC and
Frequency correlation

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Page 174 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Sensitivity &
Updating
Sensitivity: Ranks the contribution of various parameters of the FE
model to its modal behavior.
Updating: Changing the FE model to improve its correlation to Test
results.

Sensitivity & Updating Options:


Manual inspection & manual
updating using correlation indicators

VL Design Sensitivity Analysis &


Nastran SOL200 FE Model updating

Optimus Sensitivity Analysis and


Updating with ANY FE Solver

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Page 175 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Updating

Step 5: Updating

Design variables are selected


from the Nastran bulk data deck.

Shell thickness for the muffler,


catalytic converter, pipe, and
welds were selected as design
variables.

Constraints and design


variables selected to avoid
unrealistic changes

Optimizer only changed the


welds significantly (other
parameters changed by < 1%).
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Page 177 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Results
MAC Correlation
Improved from 0.69 to 0.8

Mode swapping eliminated

Frequency Correlation
Improved from max 15%
error to 6%

Improved from max 23 Hz


error to only 8 Hz

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Page 179 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Application Case: Summary
Pretest Analysis was used to ensure reliable Modal Test results:
Automated wireframe creation
Optimized accelerometer/exciter locations
FE mode visualization

Correlation Analysis leveraged Modal Test results to obtain a reliable


Finite Element Model
Full frequency and mode shape correlation
Insight was provided into physical parameters of model causing
correlation issues
FE Model was Updated to improve reliability
Critical Design decisions (exhaust hangar location, fatigue life estimation,
etc.) were made based on complete and correct information

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Page 180 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Virtual.Lab Pretest & Correlation:
Conclusions
Design Right First Time is critical in competitive markets
Time to Market must be accelerated
Product failure, warranty costs must be eliminated

Finite Element Models must guide product design


Performance simulation for Acoustics, Vibration, Durability eliminates expensive,
time-consuming prototypes
Reliability of FE Models depends on modeling assumptions (weld representation,
boundary conditions, etc.)

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Page 181 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software
Virtual.Lab Pretest & Correlation:
Conclusions
Modal Tests must validate product designs
Reliability of test results depend upon accelerometer and shaker/impact
placement

FE/Test Correlation is Key to Design Right First Time


Fundamental mode correlation is not enough
Higher order modes are most difficult to correlate

LMS Virtual.Lab Pretest & Correlation Increases Reliability of FE


Models and Test Results
FE Models accurate over entire operating frequency range
Test results capturing all modes uniquely
Design decisions based on the complete and correct information

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Page 182 11-11-2013 Siemens PLM Software