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- Basics of Strength of Material
- Brief Tutorial on MDSolids for Beam Analysis
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- B.E Question Papers
- Paper
- NORMAL AND SHEAR STRESSES IN OPEN SECTIONS
- 4 - Qualitative Analysis.pdf
- casa_lab
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4 BEAMS

These loads can be treated as parallel forces and it can be

What beams have to do shown that the resultant of these loads pass through the

Be strong enough for the loads centroid of the load diagram. The magnitude of the

Not deflect too much resultant load is given by the area of the load diagram.

Suit the building for size, material, finish, fixing etc

Schodek p53-62 and p210; CGW p41-43 and 5.1-5.4; Wyatt The reaction pressure on a foundation may also be

Ch 7 uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. The position of

Columns and beams are the fundamental units of most the resultant of the loads on the footing will dictate the

linear structural systems. To carry its load safely position of the resultant of the reaction pressure from

between its supports, a beam has to resist bending and the foundation.

shear, which are structural requirements.

The most common distributed loads are uniform, but they

We are also interested in limiting its deflection, which is may be triangular or other shapes.

a serviceability requirement. In describing distributed loads, we must be clear whether

we mean the total load in kN, or the load per unit length

in kN/m.

Loads on beams

Point loads, from concentrated loads or other

beams What the loads do

Distributed loads, from anything continuous The loads bend the beam, and try to shear through

Distributed

it

Load Point Load

Reactions

W

Loads

W W W

Reactions Hinge

R Several point loads R If we made a beam with a hinge in the middle of

it, it would collapse. Why? Because the loads

and reactions are combining to try to bend it. The

w per unit length, total = wL beam is fighting back and trying not to bend.

A B A bending moment is the moment resulting from external

length, L

Uniformly distributed load forces acting on a beam and causing it to bend. The

Max = w per unit length, total = wL/2 bending moment is resisted by internal

actions within the beam.

A length, L B

Shear is the effect of sliding one part of the material over

Resultant at 2/3 L the other.

Triangularly distributed load

Schodek p231-6; Wyatt p71-3, 103-7

Loads coming from other beams, or columns, or

concentrated pieces of equipment, are point loads. Loads

coming directly from floors, or continuous walls, are

Vertical shear

distributed loads. Many small and equal loads, such as

joists supported on a bearer, can be considered as

equivalent to a distributed load.

Linear structural elements, such as beams, usually support Horizontal shear

loads that are distributed along the length of the

member. These loads are specified in terms of their

intensity, which is defined as the magnitude of the load

distributed over a unit length.

DESC 1004 Building Principles page 23

Use the freebody idea to isolate a little bit of the

beam

See what vertical force is needed at the cut, for

Shear forces acting on the equilibrium

element shown in both beams This part removed

Vertical shear can be visualised in the same way as V supplied by

shearing through a sheet of paper with scissors (or the missing part

through a sheeps wool with comb and cutter, if you

prefer).

Horizontal shear can be imagined by taking the pages

of a book, holding them together to form a thick slab,

Local effects of bending

and bending it. If you release the grip a little, the pages Use the freebody idea to isolate a little bit of the

will slide over each other, and will bend much more beam

easily. See what moment is needed at the cut, for

Vertical and horizontal shear always co-exist at the same equilibrium

This part

point. Failure may occur in one of these directions, or removed M supplied by

in materials like concrete, it occurs as tension at 45 to the missing part

these directions.

Timber, being easy to split with the grain, has a low

resistance to horizontal shear.

Steel is equally strong in all directions. It has no

preference between horizontal and vertical shear, and The Bending Moment is an internal action acting at all

because it does not have the directional weakness of points along the beam. It is resisted by internal stresses

timber, it can be used in sections with very thin webs. in the beam, forming the moment of resistance.

If we take the whole beam as a freebody, it is in

equilibrium and the sum of the moments about any point

How we quantify the effects is zero. To find the bending moment at a point within

the beam, we have to look at part of the beam.

First, find ALL the forces (loads and reactions)

Make the beam into a freebody (cut it out and It is simple to start with a cantilever (see diagram). The

artificially support it) beam shown has a single point load of 2kN at the end.

Find the reactions, using the conditions of The reaction at the left end consists of a vertical force of

equilibrium 2kN, and a moment of (2 x 5) = 10 kNm. A cantilever

always has a moment reaction - otherwise it would fall

down.

1m

W = 2kN

M

L = 5m

Loading diagram

M = 2 kNm 2 kN

The shearing effect is greatest near the ends

Freebody diagram

We can plot its variation along the beam M max

The bending effect is generally greatest near the = -W.L M = Wx

= -10 kN m = 2 kN m

middle

We can plot its variation along the beam

Bending moment diagram

Varying values along

beam

the length of the beam Suppose we now make an imaginary cut in the beam 1m

from the end, and consider the part to the right as a

freebody. What are the actions exerted on that part by the

remainder of the beam, that cause the end part to be in

equilibrium?

Page 24 DESC 1004 Building Principles

The shear force diagram for this beam is a constant 2 kN Sign convention. In a normal beam, the shear force is

for the whole length. The shear force means that each called positive on the left and negative on the right. It

part is exerting a vertical force of 2 kN on the part next doesnt really matter, except for consistency. There is no

to it. practical difference between positive and negative shear

(unlike tension and compression).

The load and the shear force form a couple acting on the

freebody. To restore equilibrium, there must also be a In a beam with a uniformly distributed load, the shear force

moment of (2kN x 1m) = 2 kNm acting at the cut diagram reduces constantly (it slopes down, rather than

section. If we move the cut section back a distance x having a series of steps). The rate of decrease is the same

from the right-hand end, the internal moment is Wx at as the intensity of load per unit length.

each point. That gives us the Bending Moment

The shape of the shear force diagram is always

Diagram as shown.

one order greater than the shape of the

loading diagram.

Details of shear force diagrams It can be shown that Shear = (loading) dx with

appropriate constants of integration.

To plot a diagram, we need a sign convention

The opposite convention is equally valid, but this

one is common

There is no difference in effect between positive Plotting the shear force diagram

and negative shear forces Starting at the left hand end, imitate each force you

Positive shear effect Negative shear effect

meet (up or down)

W1 W2 W3

R1 Diagram of loading R2

W W1

R1

W2

Cantilever

R2

W3

W Shear force

di

Shear force diagram

W W W

Shape of the shear force diagram

Point loads produce a block diagram

R W

Distributed loads produce triangular diagrams

Uniformly distributed load

R

Shear force diagram

W Diagrams of loading

R

Shear force diagrams

Shear force diagram R

Wyatt p 73

Shear force in a beam is caused by the imposed loads and

the reactions. The simplest example is a cantilever beam What shear force does to the beam

with a point load at the end. There is a constant shear Although the shear forces are vertical, shear

force throughout the beam, equal to the load. stresses are both horizontal and vertical

A shear force diagram is a graphical way of showing how Timber may split horizontally along the grain

the shear force varies along the length of the beam. (In Shear is seldom critical for steel

this first example, it shows how the shear force doesnt Concrete needs special shear reinforcement

vary!)

In a beam with a support at each end, the shear force near

Split in timber beam Reo in concrete beam

the support is equal to the reaction. As we move along

the beam, the shear force reduces as each load is

encountered. At the other end it is equal to the other

reaction. How to calculate the shear stress

It depends on the beam cross-section

DESC 1004 Building Principles page 25

for rectangular sections, 1.5 x (shear force) / (area of Sagging bending moment is POSITIVE

Top is in compression (squashed)

section) Bottom is in tension (stretched)

For I-beams, (shear force) / (area of web)

b

fv = d bw fv =

d V/bw .d

1.5 V/bd A positive moment is also called a sagging moment

because of the deflected shape.

A negative moment is also called a hogging moment.

Schodek p 235

The average shear stress in a rectangular beam is simply

the shear force divided by the cross-sectional area. -

However, the stress is not uniform. It is greater at the

centre of the section, and reduces in a parabolic shape, to

+

zero at the top and bottom surfaces. The maximum Sign convention for moments: A moment causing

shear stress occurs at mid-depth and is given by compression at the top of a beam is positive.

fv = 1.5 V/bd, where fv = shear stress The bending moment in a cantilever is negative. In a

V= shear force normal simply supported beam, it is positive.

b and d = dimensions of section.

vmax

b

Where to draw the bending moment

diagram

d

Shear stress are divided about this)

Section

distribution

++

d

+

bw This way mimics the This way is normal

beams deflection coordinate geometry

distribution

Sign convention for diagrams: In these notes I have

In a steel I section, the shear is resisted mostly by the drawn positive bending moments below the horizontal

thin web. Although it also varies a little, we usually line. Many textbooks draw them this way, to imitate the

work with the average value, which is given by shape of the deflected beam. Other textbooks draw them

the other way, as for normal graphs.

f v = V / bw d, where bw = thickness of the web.

Both these conventions are fairly common, and most

In a structural steel UB section, bw is typically about 6% people will understand you if you follow either of them.

of the total width of the section. Therefore the shear Of course you could do your own calculations using

stress is very much higher than it would be in a whatever convention you like, if you stick to it. You

rectangular section. This is achievable because the shear could take your own lecture notes in Esperanto, too, if

strength of steel is only a little less than its strength in you wanted to.

bending. In timber and concrete, the shear strength is

much less than the strength in bending.

Positive and negative moments

Cantilevers produce negative moments

What to do with the shear stress Simple beams produce positive moments

Codes give maximum allowable stresses Continuous beams have both, with negative over

Timber, depending on grade, can take around 1 the supports

MPa - -

Steel can take around 90 MPa + +

Simple beam Built-in beam

Using Codes comes later in the course

- -

Cantilevers

Details of bending moment diagrams

To plot a diagram, we need a sign convention

This convention is almost universally agreed

Page 26 DESC 1004 Building Principles

Plotting the bending moment diagram Consider a beam with a uniformly distributed load (UDL)

totalling W. (UDLs are sometimes given as total,

Using the freebody idea, find the bending moment sometimes per unit length).

at significant points

Join them up, knowing the shape you expect Each reaction is equal to half the total load (=W/2).

This part

removed M supplied by Take an imaginary cut at the centre. The shear force at the

the missing part centre is zero (see Shear Force section). The vertical

forces are the reaction (W/2 upwards) and the UDL acting

on the freebody (W/2 downwards), which are in

equilibrium vertically. The moment required to restore

Find the value of M at

each load point in turn equilibrium is (Reaction x L/2) - (W/2 x L/4) = WL/8.

W = 10 kN

Note that we must consider only the loads acting on the

part that is our freebody. Only the left-hand half of the

UDL is considered. It is equivalent to a single load

L=4m acting at its centre.

Loading diagram

If we make cuts at other points along the beam, the

2m V = 5 kN reaction remains W/2, but the amount of UDL on the

M freebody reduces as we get closer to the left end. The

5 kN

diagram does not vary uniformly, but parabolically.

Freebody

diagram W = 2 kN/m = 8 kN total

2 2 2 2

10 kN m

L=4m

Bending Moment Diagram Loading diagram

Consider a simple beam with a central point load. Each Load = 4 kN

2m

reaction is half the load. Make an imaginary cut just V=0

2 2

alongside the load and consider the part to one side as a M

freebody. 4 kN

Freebody

The shear force in the left-hand half is 5 kN. The actions diagram

acting on our imaginary cut are the shear force, plus a 4 kNm

bending moment to counteract the moment of the vertical

forces: M = 5 kN x 2m = 10 kNm. Bending Moment Diagram

At any other point along the left-hand half, distant x from The bending moment for a UDL is

the left support, the moment is R.x where R is the

reaction force. This gives rise to the bending moment WL/8 or w L 2 /8,

diagram as shown. (It is symmetrical on the right hand

side.) where W is the total load or w is the load per unit length.

The maximum value occurs in the centre, under the load. Note the difference between big W and

little w.

Since R = W/2, and the distance to the support = L/2, the

maximum bending moment in this type of beam is The shape of the bending moment diagram is always one

order higher than the shear force diagram. It can be

M = WL/4. shown that Bending moment = (shear) dx =

Note that this formula (M = WL/4) is only true (loading)dxdx with appropriate constants of

for a point load in the centre of the span. integration.

It follows that the shear force is the differential

coefficient of the bending moment. Therefore the

Shape of the bending moment maximum bending moment occurs where the

diagram shear force is zero.

Point loads produce triangular diagrams Finding Bending Moments from the Shear Force

Distributed loads produce parabolic diagrams Diagram

Uniformly distributed load

4 kN

2 m

Diagrams of loading

B di t di

DESC 1004 Building Principles page 27

This is an alternative method of finding bending moments. Bending moment diagram for a beam with

Some people have already learnt it at school, and for cantilevers at both ends. The cantilevers help the

some people it is just easier. midspan beam to carry its load.

Schodek p65; CGW Fig 4.6.7

Because the bending moment diagram is the integral of the Cowan: Handbook of Architectural Technology, p153-5

shear force diagram, the value of the bending moment at A cantilever has a negative bending moment at its support.

any point can be found by calculating the area If it forms part of a beam across an adjoining span, that

under the shear force diagram on one side of the negative moment is resisted by (and applied to) the

point under consideration. adjoining beam. This reduces the maximum positive

The diagram at the left shows part of the shear force bending moment in the beam.

diagram for the beam above, with a UDL of 2kN/m over In the example above, the maximum positive bending

a span of 4m. moment is reduced from 4 to 3 kNm because of the

To find the BM at the midpoint, find the area of the part of negative moments of -1 kNm at the ends.

the Shear Force diagram to one side of it (shaded): To take advantage of this effect, we can rely on only the

Area of triangle = 4kN x 2m /2 = 4 kNm. dead load component on the cantilevers.

Notice that we multiply the units as well as the values. Note that the total height of the parabolic diagram for

the 4m span beam is the same as for a simply-supported

The units for a moment are always (Force) x (distance). beam.

diagram

Usually no re-entrant angles 2 m

We are mainly concerned with the maximum values Part shear force diagram for the beam above

As before, we calculate the area of the shaded part of the

shear force diagram. The part below the line is regarded

Diagrams of loading

as opposite sign to the part above the line.

The area of the triangles is:

Maximum value

This shouldnt happen (1/2) x [(4kN x 2m) - (2kN x 1m)] = 3 kNm.

Continuous and built-in beams

Total load = W

Can we reduce the maximum values?

We have seen that a cantilevered end reduces the L

positive bending moment Load diagram

Built-in and continuous beams also have lower +

- -

maximum BMs and less deflection Deflected shape and

sign of curvature

Simply supported

-WL/12

+WL/24

Schodek p305-318;

Beams with cantilevers Cowan: Handbook of Architectural Technology, p154-5

2 kN 8 kN 2 kN When a beam is built-in at the supports, or continuous

over several spans, the effect is the same as applying a

restraining moment at the ends.

included in this course, but the principles are important.

-1 kNm A continuous beam always has reduced deflections, and

usually has reduced bending moments, compared to a

4 kNm series of simple beams over the same spans.

+3 kNm

The largest values of bending moments are usually the

negative ones at the supports.

Page 28 DESC 1004 Building Principles

is WL/8 which is the same as for a simply supported

beam. The negative moments at the supports merely What bending moment does to the

move the baseline. beam

Reinforced concrete is usually poured in place and is Causes compression on one face and tension on

therefore automatically continuous. If you want to make the other

it simply-supported you have to specially detail non- Causes the beam to deflect

rigid joints. How much

compressive stress?

Timber and steel are made in straight pieces. The joints

are not rigid unless specifically designed to transfer

moment.

How much

How much deflection? tensile stress?

Standard BM coefficients

Use the standard formulas where you can How to calculate the bending stress

Total load = W

(w per metre length) It depends on the beam cross-section

W We need some particular properties of the section

L L

we are using as a beam?

Central point load Uniformly distributed load

Max bending moment Max bending moment

= WL/4 = WL/8 or wL 2/8

where W = wL

What to do with the bending stress

Tables of BM coefficients can be found: Codes give maximum allowable stresses

Wyatt p117;

CGW p 45-49; Timber, depending on grade, can take 5 to 20 MPa

Cowan: Handbook of Architectural Technology , p.156-159 Steel can take around 165 MPa

Schodek p65 shows some diagrams

Use of Codes comes later in the course

Coefficients for their bending moments are listed in

textbooks and handbooks.

So now we need to find the

properties of the section

Standard BM coefficients for

cantilevers

Total load = W

W (w per metre length)

L L

Max bending moment Max bending moment

= -WL = -WL/2 or -wL2 /2

where W = wL

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