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In applications of linear algebra, subspaces of Rn typically arise in one of two

situations: 1) as the set of solutions of a linear homogeneous system or 2) as

the set of all linear combinations of a given set of vectors. In this section, we

will study, compare and contrast these two situations. We will nish the section

with an introduction to linear transformations.

Denitions and Elementary Remarks and Examples

In previous section, we have already seen that the set of solutions of a homo-

geneous linear system formed a vector space (theorem 271). This space has a

name.

the set of all solutions to the homogeneous equation Ax = 0. Written in set

notation, we have

N ull A = fx : x 2 Rn and Ax = 0g

elements of N ull A are vectors in Rn if we are working with an m n matrix.

Remark 344 We know that N ull A 6= ; since it always contain 0, the trivial

solution. The question is can it have nontrivial solutions?

Remark 349 The kind of elements N ull A contains (which vector space they

belong to) depends only on the number of columns of A.

We now look at specic examples and how to nd the null space of a matrix.

Examples

Usually, when one is trying to nd the null space of a matrix, one tries to nd

a basis for it. So, when asked to "nd the null space" of a matrix, one is asked

to nd a basis for it. The examples below illustrate how to do this.

148 CHAPTER 4. VECTOR SPACES

2 3

3 6 1 1 7

Example 350 Find N ull A for A = 4 1 2 2 3 1 5

2 4 5 8 4

First, let us remark that the elements of N ull A will be elements of R5 . We

are

2 nding the solution set of Ax 3 = 0. The augmented matrix of the 2 system is 3

.. ..

6 3 6 1 1 7 . 0 7 6 1 2 0 1 3 . 0 7

6 .. 7 6 . 7

6 1

4 2 2 3 1 . 0 7 5

, the reduced row-echelon form is: 6 0 0 1

4 2 2 .. 0 75

.

.. ..

2 4 5 8 4 . 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 . 0

>

> x1 = 2r + s 3t

>

>

< x2 = r

The solutions of the system are x3 = 2s + 2t which can be written as

>

>

>

> x4 = s

:

x5 = t

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3

x1 2 1 3

6 x2 7 6 1 7 6 0 7 6 0 7

6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7

6 x3 7 = r 6 0 7 + s 6 2 7 + t 6 2 7. N ull A is the subspace spanned

6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7

4 x4 5 4 0 5 4 1 5 4 0 5

x5 0 0 1

2 3 2 3 2 3

2 1 3

6 1 7 6 0 7 6 0 7

6 7 6 7 6 7

by fu; v; wg where u = 6 0 7, v = 6 2 7 and w = 6

6 7 6 7 7

6 2 7. It should

4 0 5 4 1 5 4 0 5

0 0 1

be clear that this set is also linearly independent. So, it is a basis for N ull

A.2 Hence,

8 3 2 N ull3A2has dimension

39 3 and it is the subspace of R5 with basis

>

> 2 1 3 > >

>

> 7 6 0 7 6 0 7>

<6 1

6 7 6 7 6 7=

>

6 0 7;6 2 7;6 2 7 .

> 6 7 6 7 6 7

>

> 4 5 4 1 5 4 0 5> >

>

> 0

: >

;

0 0 1

2 3

2

2 1 0 1

6 1

1 2 3 1 7

Example 351 Find N ull A for A = 6 4

7

1

1 2 0 1 5

0

0 1 1 1

5

First, let us remark that the elements of N ull

A will be elements

2 of R . To nd 3

2 2 1 0 1 0

6 1 1 2 3 1 0 7

N ull A, we solve the system Ax = 0. The augmented matrix is 6

4 1

7.

1 2 0 1 0 5

0 0 1 1 1 0

2 3

1 1 0 0 1 0

6 0 0 1 0 1 0 7

Its reduced row-echelon form is 6 7

4 0 0 0 1 0 0 5. So, the solutions are

0 0 0 0 0 0

4.6. NULL SPACE, COLUMN SPACE, ROW SPACE 149

2 3 2 3

8 x1 = t s 1

< x1 + x2 + x5 = 0 6 x2 = t 7 6 0 7

6 7 6 7

x3 + x5 = 0 that is 6 x3 = s 7which can be written as x = s 6

6 7

6 1 7

7+

: 4 5 4

x4 = 0 x4 = 0 0 5

2 3 x5 = s 82 31 2 39

1 >

> 1 1 >

>

6 1 7 >

>6 0 7 6 7>

>

6 7 <6 7 6 1 7=

t6 7 5 6

6 0 7. Thus N ull A is a subspace of R , of dimension 2 with basis >6 1

7;6

7 6 0 7

7>

4 0 5 >

>4 0 5 4 0 5>

>

>

: >

;

0 1 0

.

Indeed, if A is invertible, then Ax = 0 only has the trivial solution. We state it

as a theorem.

mations to solve a system. In particular, we saw that performing elementary

row operations did not change the solutions of linear systems. We state this

result as a theorem.

A.

Denition 354 The nullity of a matrix A, denoted nullity (A) is the dimen-

sion of its null space.

2 3

2 2 1 0 1

6 1 1 2 3 1 7

Example 355 From the previous examples, we see that if A = 6

4 1

7

1 2 0 1 5

2 3 0 0 1 1 1

3 6 1 1 7

then nullity (A) = 2 and if B = 4 1 2 2 3 1 5 then nullity (B) =

2 4 5 8 4

3.

Denitions and Elementary Concepts

150 CHAPTER 4. VECTOR SPACES

2 3

a11 a12 a13 a1n

6 a21 a22 a23 a2n 7

6 7

6 a31 a32 a33 a3n 7

Denition 356 Consider an m n matrix 6 7.

6 .. .. .. .. 7

4 . . . . 5

am1 am2 am3 amn

1. The vectors r1 = a11 ; a12 ; a13 ; ; a1n , r2 = a21 ; a22 ; a23 ; ; a2n ,

:::, rm = am1 ; am2 ; am3 ; ; amn in Rn obtained from the rows

of A are called the row vectors of A.

2 3 2 3 2 3

a11 a12 a1n

6 a21 7 6 a22 7 6 a2n 7

6 7 6 7 6 7

6 7 6 7 6 7

2. The vectors c1 = 6 a31 7, c2 = 6 a32 7, :::, cn = 6 a3n 7 in Rm

6 .. 7 6 .. 7 6 .. 7

4 . 5 4 . 5 4 . 5

am1 am2 amn

obtained from the columns of A are called the column vectors of A.

We now turn to the main denitions of this section.

Denition 357 Let A be an m n matrix.

n

1. The subspace of R spanned by the row vectors of A is called the row

space of A.

2. The subspace of Rm spanned by the column vectors of A is called the

column space of A.

In this subsection, we will try to answer the following questions:

1. How does one nd the row space of a matrix A?

2. How does one nd the column space of a matrix A?

3. Is there a relationship between them?

4. Is there a relationship between them and the null space of a matrix A?

5. Since matrices are closely related to solving systems of linear equations,

is there a relationship between the row space, column space, null space of

a matrix A and the linear system Ax = b?

2 3

x1

6 x2 7

6 7

With the notation already introduced, and letting x = 6 . 7 we see that

4 .. 5

xn

we can write

Ax = x1 c1 + x2 c2 + ::: + xn cn

Thus, solving Ax = b amounts to solving x1 c1 +x2 c2 +:::+xn cn = b. So, we see

that for the system to have a solution, b must be in the span of fc1 ; c2 ; :::; cn g.

We state this a a theorem.

4.6. NULL SPACE, COLUMN SPACE, ROW SPACE 151

if b is in the column space of A.

We now look at some important results about the column space and the row

space of a matrix.

Theoretical Results

First, we state and prove a result similar to one we already derived for the null

space.

Theorem 359 Elementary row operations do not change the row space of a

matrix A.

Proof. Suppose that A is m n with rows r1 ; rn ; :::; rm . Let B be obtained

from A by one of the elementary row operations. Suppose that the rows of B

are r01 ; r0n ; :::; r0m . We divide the proof according to the kind of elementary row

transformation being applied. We do the proof by showing that every vector in

the row space of B is in the row space of A and vice-versa. In other words, we

prove inclusion both ways; a standard technique to show two sets are equal.

Row interchange. This case is easy. A and B will still have the same row

space since they will have the same rows.

Replacing a row by a multiple of another or by itself plus a multiple of

another. This can be generalized by saying that one or more of r0i are

linear combinations of the rj s. Thus the vectors r01 ; r0n ; :::; r0m lie in the

row space of A. Since a vector space is closed under linear combinations,

any linear combination of r01 ; r0n ; :::; r0m will also be in the row space of A.

But thats precisely what the row space of B is, linear combinations of

r01 ; r0n ; :::; r0m . Thus the row space of B is in the row space of A.

Since every elementary row transformation has an inverse transformation,

we can transform B into A. Using the same argument as above, we will

prove that the row space of A in in the row space of B.

Remark 360 This result, unfortunately, does not apply to the column space of

A. Only its row space is preserved under elementary row operations. However,

we do have the following results: The next two theorems are given without proof.

Theorem 361 Let A and B be two matrices which are row equivalent (one is

obtained from the other with elementary row operations).

1. A given set of column vectors of A is linearly independent if and only if

the corresponding column vectors of B are linearly independent.

2. A given set of column vectors of A form a basis for the column space of A

if and only if the corresponding column vectors of B form a basis for the

column space of B.

152 CHAPTER 4. VECTOR SPACES

The following theorem makes it easy to nd a basis for the row and column

space of a matrix. We will use it in the examples.

Theorem 362 If a matrix R is in row-echelon form then:

1. The row vectors with the leading 10 s form a basis for the row space of R.

2. The column vectors with the leading 10 s of the row vectors form a basis

for the column space of R.

Let us make some remarks about this theorem.

Remark 363 Combining theorems 361 and 362, we see that to nd a basis for

the row space of a matrix of a matrix, we put it in row-echelon form and extract

the row vectors with a leading 1.

Remark 364 Since row elementary row operations do not preserve the column

space, to nd the column space of a matrix will be a little more di cult. But

not too much. Let A be a matrix and B be the row-echelon form of A. If we call

c1 ; c2 ; :::; cn the columns of A and c01 ; c02 ; :::; c0n the columns of B. We look at the

columns of B which have a leading 1 of the rows of B. A basis for the column

space of A will be the vectors ci for the values of i for which c0i has a leading 1

of the rows of B. This sounds complicated but it is not. We will illustrate this

with examples.

Finally, we give a theorem which relates the null space of A and solutions of

Ax = b.

Theorem 365 If x0 is any solution of Ax = b and v1 ; v2 ; :::; vr form a basis

for the null space of A, then any solution of Ax = b can be written as

x = x0 + c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr (4.1)

and conversely, any vector written this way for any scalars c1 ; c2 ; :::; cr is a

solution of Ax = b.

Proof. We prove both ways.

Assume x0 is any solution of Ax = b and v1 ; v2 ; :::; vr form a basis for the

null space of A. We must prove that any solution of Ax = b can be written

as x = x0 + c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr . If x is any solution of Ax = b then

we have Ax0 = b and Ax = b that is Ax0 = Ax or A (x x0 ) = 0. Thus,

x x0 is in the null space of A, that is there exists scalars c1 ; c2 ; :::; cr such

that x x0 = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr or x = x0 + c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr .

Conversely, suppose that for any scalars c1 ; c2 ; :::; cr , x = x0 + c1 v1 +

c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr , where x0 is a solution of Ax = b we must show that x

is a solution of Ax = b.

Ax = (x0 + c1 v1 + c2 v2 + ::: + cr vr )

= Ax0 + c1 Av1 + c2 Av2 + ::: + cr Avr

= b + 0 + 0 + ::: + 0

since the vi0 s are a basis for N ull A. Thus we see that Ax = b.

4.6. NULL SPACE, COLUMN SPACE, ROW SPACE 153

We now see how these results help us nding the column space and the row

space of a matrix.

Examples

We begin with very easy examples.

2 3

1 2 5 0 3

6 0 1 3 0 0 7

Example 366 Consider the matrix in row-echelon form A = 6 4 0

7.

0 0 1 0 5

0 0 0 0 0

Find a basis for the row space and column space.

Since the matrix is in row-echelon form, we can apply theorem 362 directly.

Row Space: A basis is the set of row vectors with a leading 1, that is

1 2 5 0 3 ; 0 1 3 0 0 ; 0 0 0 1 0 . Hence

the row space has dimension 3.

82 3 2 3 2 39

>

> 1 2 0 >

>

<6 7 6 1 7 6 0 7=

0

Column Space: A basis is 6 4 0

7;6 7 6

5 4 0 5;4 1

7 . Hence the column

5>

>

> >

: ;

0 0 0

space has dimension 3.

2 3

1 3 4 2 5 4

6 2 6 9 1 8 2 7

Example 367 Find bases for the row space and column space of A = 6

4 2

7.

6 9 1 9 7 5

2 1 3 3 4 2 5 4

1 3 4 2 5 4

6 0 0 1 3 2 6 7

6

We begin by nding the row-echelon form of A. It is 4 7.

0 0 0 0 1 5 5

0 0 0 0 0 0

Row Space: A basis is the set of row vectors with a leading 1, that is

1 3 4 2 5 4 ; 0 0 1 3 2 6 ; 0 0 0 0 1 5 .

Hence the row space has dimension 3.

Column Space: The columns with a leading 1 from the row vectors are 1,

3, and 5. Hence, a basis for the8column

2 3space

2 are3columns

2 1,93, and 5

3

>

> 1 4 5 >

>

<6 6 9 7 6 8 7=

6 2 77 6 7 6 7

from the original matrix that is 4 ; ; . Hence

>

> 2 5 4 9 5 4 9 5> >

: ;

1 4 5

the column space has dimension 3.

Remark 368 In the two examples above, we see that the row space and column

space have the same dimension. This was not an accident. We will see that

indeed they do have the same dimension.

154 CHAPTER 4. VECTOR SPACES

A transformation is the linear algebra term of a concept studied in calculus

which was then called a function. Another dierence is that a transformation

works on vectors. Its input values are vectors, its output values are also vectors.

The input and output values may not be from the same vector space. Like

functions, a transformation assigns to each input value a unique output value.

In this section, we only look at a special kind of transformations called linear

transformations. We now give a precise mathematical denition.

a vector space V to another vector space W is a rule which assigns to each vector

x in V a unique vector T (x) in W , such that:

Remark 370 The two conditions which have to be satised is what make the

transformation a linear transformation.

W.

It is easy to see that T is a linear transformation from the properties of matrices.

T (x + x0 ) = A (x + x0 )

= Ax + Ax0

= T (x) + T (x0 )

and

T (cx) = A (cx)

= cAx

= cT (x)

Example 373 Let V be the vector space of real valued functions with continuous

rst derivatives dened on an interval [a; b] and let W be the space of continuous

functions on [a; b]. Consider the transformation D : V ! W dened by D (f ) =

f 0 . It is easy to see that D is indeed a linear transformation.

0

D (f + g) = (f + g)

= f 0 + g 0 (sum rule for di erentiation)

= D (f ) + D (g)

4.6. NULL SPACE, COLUMN SPACE, ROW SPACE 155

and

0

D (cf ) = (cf )

= cf 0

= cD (f )

When dealing with linear transformation, there are two concepts of impor-

tance, dened below.

Denition 374 Let T : V ! W be a linear transformation.

1. The kernel of T , denoted ker (T ) is the set of vectors v in V such that

T (v) = 0.

2. The range of T is the set of all vectors in W of the form T (x) for some

x in V .

Example 375 If the linear transformation is as in example 373, then ker (D)

is the set of functions f such that D (f ) = 0 that is f 0 = 0. So, it is the set of

constant functions.

Remark 376 If T is as in example 372, then the kernel of T is simply the null

space of A and the range of T is simply the column space of A.

2 3

1 3 4 2 5 4

6 2 6 9 1 8 2 7

Example 377 Let T : R ! R be dened by T (x) = Ax where A = 6

6 4

4 2

7.

6 9 1 9 7 5

1 3 4 2 5 4

Find the kernel and the range of T .

Kernel of T : As noticed in the remark, nding the kernel of T amounts to

nding the null space of A. So, we 2need to solve the system Ax = 0. The 3

1 3 4 2 5 4 0

6 2 6 9 1 8 2 0 7

augmented matrix of the system is 6 4 2

7.

6 9 1 9 7 0 5

1 3 4 2 5 4 0

2 3

1 3 0 14 0 37 0

6 0 0 1 3 0 4 0 7

Its reduced row-echelon form is 6

4 0 0 0

7. Thus,

0 1 5 0 5

8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

< x1 3x2 14x4 37x6 = 0

the solutions are x3 + 3x4 + 4x6 = 0 , or written in paramet-

:

8 x5 + 5x 6 =20 3 2 3 2 3

>

> x1 = 3s + 14t + 37u x1 3 14

>

> 6 x2 7 6 1 7 6 0 7

>

> x2 = s 6 7 6 7 6 7

< 6 7 6 7 6 7

x3 = 3t 4u x3 7 6 0 7 + t6 3 7 +

ric form: or 66 7 = s 6 7 6 7

>

> x4 = t 6 x4 7 6 0 7 6 1 7

>

> 4 5 4 5 4

>

> x5 = 5u x5 0 0 5

:

x6 = u x6 0 0

156 CHAPTER 4. VECTOR SPACES

2 3

37

6 0 7

6 7

6 4 7

u6

6

7. So, we see that the dimension of ker (T ) is 3.

7

6 0 7

4 5 5

1

Range of T : As noticed in the remark, it is the column space of A. We

already computed it in a8previous

2 3 example

2 3and2 found

39that it was the sub-

>

> 1 4 5 >

>

<6 7 6 7 6 7 =

4 6 2 7 6 9 7 6 8 7

space of R with basis 4 ; ; . Hence the range

>

> 2 5 4 9 5 4 9 5> >

: ;

1 4 5

of T has dimension 3.

4.6.4 Problems

1. Do # 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16 on pages 277, 278

2. Suppose that T : V ! W is a linear transformation.

(b) Prove that the range of T is a subspace of W .

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