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Direct Shear Test

375. A series of direct shear tests was performed on a soil sample. Each test was carried out until the
specimen sheared (failed). The laboratory data for the tests are tabulated as follows.

Specimen No. Normal Stress (kPa) Shearing Stress (kPa)


1 200 450
2 400 520
3 600 590
4 1000 730

a. Compute for the cohesion of soil.


b. Compute the angle of internal friction.
c. Compute the shear strength of the soil at a depth of 4 m below the ground surface if it has a unit
weight of 15.8 kN/m3.

Solution:

Cohesion of soil:
450 520
200
= 400
c = 380
730 590
= c = 380
1000 600

Angle of friction:
450 450380
tan = 200
= 200
= 19.3

Shear strength of soil at a depth of 4 m:

= +

= = 15.8 4 = 63.2
2

= 380 + 63.2 tan 19.3 = 402.13


379. The foil results were obtained from drained shear box tests on specimens of sandy clay. The
cross section of the shear box was 60 mm x 60 mm

Normal load (N) 200 400 800


Shearing force at failure (N) 204 260 356

If a specimen of the same soil is tested in triaxial compression with a cell pressure of 100 kPa.

a. Find the cohesion of the sandy clay.


b. Find the angle of shearing resistance.
c. Find the total axial stress at which failure will be expected to occur.

Solution:
Cohesion of sandy clay:

Test No. Normal Stress Shear Stress


1 200 204
= 56 = 57
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

2 400 260
= 111 = 72
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

3 800 356
= 222 = 99
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

99 - c
72 - c
57 - c

C = 41.73
56
x = 153.04 111
222

57 72
=
56 111
6327 11 = 4032 56
55 = 2295
= 41.73
Angle shearing resistance:
5741.73
tan = 56

= 15.25
Total axial stress at which failure will occur:
41.73
tan 15.25 =

= 153.06

sin 15.25 =
153.06+100+

sin 15.25 (253.06 + ) =


66.56 = 0.737
= 90.32
1 = 100 + 2(90.32)

1 = 280.64

CD Test

427. In a tri-axial test for a normally consolidated soil, the normal stress at failure is equal to 475 kPa
and the shear stress at failure is equal to 350 kPa.

a. Compute the angle of friction.


b. Compute the angle of the failure plane with the major principal axis.
c. Compute the maximum principal stress at failure.

Solution:

Angle of friction:
350
tan = 475

= 36.38
Angle that the failure plane makes with the major principal axis:

= 45 + 2
36.38
= 45 +
2

= 63.19
Maximum principal stress at failure:

. = 475 + +
1 = 475 + +
350
cos 36.38 =

= 434.73

tan 36.38 =
350
= 257.85
1 = 475 + 257.85 + 434.73
1 = 1167.58
425. A cohesive soil specimen has a shearing resistance equal to 28 and a cohesion of 30 kPa. If the
maximum shearing stress of the soil sample is equal to 70 kPa.

a. Compute the lateral pressure in the cell for a failure to occur.


b. Compute the maximum principal stress to cause failure.
c. Compute the normal stress at the point of maximum shear.

Solution:

Lateral pressure in the cell:


30
tan 28 =

= 56.42
70
sin 28 =
56.42 + 3 + 70
3 = 22.68
Maximum principal stress to cause failure:

1 = 3 + 70 + 70
1 = 22.68 + 140
1 = 163.68
Normal stress at the point of maximum shear:

= 3 + 70
= 22.68 + 70
= 92.68
CU Test

450. The table shows the result of consolidated undrained tri-axial tests with pore water
measurements for two samples at failure.

Sample Confining Pressure (3) Total vertical pressure Pore Pressure


(1)
1 10 kPa 50 kPa -4 kPa
2 40 kPa 100 kPa 10 kPa

a. Compute the drained angle of friction.


b. Compute the value of drained cohesion.
c. Compute the undrained angle of friction.
d. Compute the value of undrained cohesion.

Solution:

Drained angle of friction:


10
sin =
26
= 22.62
Value of drained cohesion:
20
sin 22.62 =
+ 34
= 18

tan 22.62 =
18
= 7.5
Undrained angle of friction:
10
sin =
40
= 14.48
Value of undrained cohesion:
20
sin 14.48 =
+ 30
= 50

tan 14.48 =
50
= 12.91
UU Test

471. During an unconsolidated-undrained tri-axial test on a clayey soil specimen, the minor and
major principal stresses at failure were 100 kPa and 180 kPa respectively.

a. Find the angle of friction for the UU triaxial test.


b. Find the cohesion for the similar specimen if subjected to an unconfined compression test.
c. What will be the axial stress at failure if a similar specimen is subjected to an unconfined
compression test?

Solution:

Angle of friction:

= 0
Cohesion for the unconfined compression test:

2 = 180 100
2 = 80
= 40
= 40
Axial stress at failure:

1 = 80