5 views

Original Title: Loop Quantum Gravity and the Meaning of Diffeomorphism Invariance

Uploaded by John Bird

- 3-SSH2673-Discrete_Mathematics.pdf
- gt12
- Graph Theory
- Antiferromagnetism
- Term Symbols
- Group Theory
- Magnetic Microscopy of Layered Structures
- Fields w Siegel 9912205
- 2017 Fall 122
- Science 2015 McGuinness 1073 4
- Combinatorial Group Theory PDF
- 1007.0027
- 47. Geometric Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV on SE(3)
- Why is Schr¨odinger’s Equation Linear
- CombinatorialGroupTheory
- Sadurni. Discrete symmetry in graphene the Dirac equation and beyond.pdf
- Quantum
- Local Causality and Completeness-Bell vs. Jarrett - Travis Norsen Copy
- mathgen-1774123944
- Untitled

You are on page 1of 28

Institut fur Theoretische Physik

Universitat Innsbruck

arXiv:1704.08622v1 [cond-mat.str-el] 27 Apr 2017

Materials: Experiments and Theory, Forschungszentrum Julich (2016)

Abstract

Tower of States analysis is a powerful tool for investigating phase transitions in condensed

matter systems. Spontaneous symmetry breaking implies a specific structure of the energy

eigenvalues and their corresponding quantum numbers on finite systems. In these lecture

notes we explain the group representation theory used to derive the spectral structure for

several scenarios of symmetry breaking. We give numerous examples to compute quantum

numbers of the degenerate groundstates, including translational symmetry breaking or spin

rotational symmetry breaking in Heisenberg antiferromagnets. These results are then com-

pared to actual numerical data from Exact Diagonalization.

Contents

1 Introduction 2

2 Tower of states 3

2.1 Toy model: the Lieb-Mattis model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Symmetry analysis 6

3.1 Representation theory for space groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.2 Predicting irreducible representations in spontaneous symmetry breaking . . . 9

4 Examples 10

4.1 Discrete symmetry breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

5 Outlook 22

1 INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is amongst the most important and fundamental concepts in

condensed matter physics. The fact that a ground- or thermal state of a system does not obey its

full symmetry explains most of the well-known phase transitions in solid state physics like crys-

tallization of a fluid, superfluidity, magnetism, superconductivity and many more. A standard

concept for investigating spontaneous symmetry breaking is the notion of an order parameter. In

the thermodynamic limit it is non-zero in the symmetry-broken phase and zero in the disordered

phase.

Another concept to detect spontaneous symmetry breaking less widely known but equally pow-

erful is the tower of states analysis (TOS) [1, 2]. The energy spectrum, i.e. the eigenvalues of

the Hamiltonian, of a finite system has a characteristic and systematic structure in a symmetry

broken phase: several eigenstates are quasi-degenerate on finite systems, become degenerate

in the thermodynamic limit and possess certain quantum numbers. The TOS analysis deals

with understanding the spectral structure of the Hamiltonian and predicting quantum numbers

of the groundstate manifold. Also on finite systems spontaneous symmetry breaking mani-

fests itself in the structure of the energy spectra which are accessible via numerical simulations.

Most prominently, the Exact Diagonalization method [3, 4] can exactly calculate these spectra,

including their quantum numbers, on moderate system sizes. Different well-established nu-

merical techniques like the Quantum Monte Carlo technique also allow for performing energy

level spectroscopy to a certain extent [5]. The predictions of TOS analysis are highly nontrivial

statements which can be used to unambiguously identify symmetry broken phases. Thus TOS

analysis is a powerful technique to investigate many condensed matter systems using numerical

simulations. The goal of these lecture notes is to explain the specific structure of energy spec-

tra and their quantum numbers in symmetry broken phases. The anticipated structure is then

compared to several actual numerical simulations using Exact Diagonalization.

These lecture notes have been written at the kind request of the organizers of the Julich 2016

Autumn School on Correlated Electrons [6]. The notes build on and complement previously

available lecture notes by Claire Lhuillier [2], by Gregoire Misguich and Philippe Sindzingre [7]

and by Karlo Penc and one of the authors [8].

The outline of these notes is as follows: in Section 2 we introduce the tower of states of con-

tinuous symmetry breaking and derive its scaling behaviour. We investigate a toy model which

shows most of the relevant features. Section 3 explains in detail how the multiplicities and quan-

tum numbers in the TOS can be predicted by elementary group theoretical methods. To apply

these methods we discuss several examples in Section 4 and compare them to actual numerical

data from Exact Diagonalization.

2

2 TOWER OF STATES

2 Tower of states

We start our discussion on spontaneous symmetry breaking by investigating the Heisenberg

model on the square lattice. Its Hamiltonian is given by

X

H=J Si Sj (1)

hi,ji

and is invariant under global SU(2) spin rotations, i.e. a rotation of every spin on each site with

the same rotational SU(2) matrix. Therefore the total spin

!2

X

S2tot = Si = Stot (Stot + 1)

i

is a conserved quantity of this model and every state in the spectrum of this Hamiltonian can

be labeled via its total spin quantum number Stot . The Heisenberg Hamiltonian on the square

lattice has the property of being bipartite: The lattice can be divided into two sublattices A and

B such that every term in Eq. (1) connects one site from sublattice A to sublattice B. It was

found out early [1] that the groundstate of this model bears resemblance with the classical Neel

state

|Neel class.i = | i

where the spin-ups live on the A sublattice and the spin-downs live on the B sublattice. The

total spin Stot is not a good quantum number for this state. From elementary spin algebra we

know that it is rather a superposition of several states with different total spin quantum numbers.

For example the 2-site state

|i |i |i + |i

|i = + = |Stot = 0, m = 0i + |Stot = 1, m = 0i

2 2

is the superposition of a singlet (Stot = 0) and a triplet (Stot = 1). Therefore if such a state were

to be a groundstate of Eq. (1) several states with different total spin would have to be degenerate.

It turns out that on finite bipartite lattices this is not the case: The total groundstate of the

Heisenberg model on bipartite lattices can be proven to be a singlet state with Stot = 0. This

result is known as Marshalls Theorem [911]. So how can the Neel state resemble the singlet

groundstate? To understand this we drastically simplify the Heisenberg model and investigate a

toy model whose spectrum can be fully understood analytically.

By introducing the Fourier transformed spin operators

N

1 X ikxj

Sk = e Sj

N j=0

3

2.1 Toy model: the Lieb-Mattis model 2 TOWER OF STATES

X

H=J k Sk Sk (2)

kBZ

where k = cos(kx ) + cos(ky ) and the sum over k runs over the momenta within the first

Brillouin zone (BZ). Let k0 = (, ) be the ordering wavevector which is the dual to the

translations that leave the square Neel state invariant. We now want to look at the truncated

Hamiltonian

HLM = 2J S2(0,0) Sk0 Sk0

(3)

where we omit all Fourier components in Eq. (2) except k = (0, 0) and k0 = (, ). This model

is called the Lieb-Mattis model [10] and has a simple analytical solution. To see this we notice

that Eq. (3) can be written as

4J X

HLM = Si Sj (4)

N iA,jB

in real space, where A and B denote the two bipartite sublattices of the square lattice and each

spin is only coupled with spins in the other sublattice. The interaction strength is equal regard-

less of the distance between the two spins. Thus this model is not likely to be experimentally

relevant. Yet it will serve as an illustrative example how breaking the spin-rotational symmetry

manifests itself in the spectrum of a finite size system. We can rewrite Eq. (4) as

!

4J X X X

HLM = Si Sj Si Sj Si Sj

N i,jAB i,jA i,jB

4J 2

= (Stot S2A S2B )

N

This shows that the Lieb-Mattis model can be considered as the coupling of two large spins SA

and SB to a total spin Stot .

We find that the operators S2tot , Stot

z

, S2A and S2B commute with this Hamiltonian and therefore

the sublattice spins SA and SB as well as the total spin Stot and its z-component mtot are good

quantum numbers for this model. For a lattice with N sites (N even) the sublattice spins can be

chosen in the range SA,B {0, 1, . . . , N/4} and by coupling them

mtot {Stot , Stot + 1, . . . , Stot }

can be chosen1 . A state |Stot , m, SA , SB i is thus an eigenstate of the systems with energy

4J

E(Stot , m, SA , SB ) = [Stot (Stot + 1) SA (SA + 1) SB (SB + 1)] (5)

N

independent of m, so each state is at least (2Stot + 1)-fold degenerate.

1

This set of states spans the full Hilbertspace of the model.

4

2 TOWER OF STATES 2.1 Toy model: the Lieb-Mattis model

Tower of states We first want to consider only the lowest energy states for each Stot sector.

These states build the famous tower of states and collapse in the thermodynamic limit to a

highly degenerate groundstate manifold, as we will see in the following.

For a given total spin Stot the lowest energy states are built by maximizing the last two terms in

Eq. (5) with SA = SB = N/4 and

4J N

E0 (Stot ) = E(Stot , m, N/4, N/4) = Stot (Stot + 1) J( + 1) (6)

N 4

The groundstate of a finite system will thus be the singlet state with Stot = 0 2 . On a finite

system the groundstate is, therefore, totally symmetric under global spin rotations and does not

break the SU (2)-symmetry. In the thermodynamic limit N , however, the energy of all

these states scales to zero and all of them constitute to the groundstate manifold.

The classical Neel state with fully polarized spins on each sublattice can be built out of these

states by a linear combination of all the Stot levels with mtot = 0 [2]. All other Neel states

pointing in a different direction in spin-space can be equivalently built out of this groundstate

manifold by considering linear combinations with other mtot quantum numbers. In the thermo-

dynamic limit, any infinitesimal small field will force the Neel state to choose a direction and

the groundstate spontaneously breaks SU (2)-symmetry.

The states which constitute the groundstate manifold in the thermodynamic limit can be readily

identified on finite-size systems as well, where their energy and spin quantum number are given

by Eq. (6). These states are called the tower of states (TOS) or also Anderson tower, thin

spectrum and quasi-degenerate joint states [1, 1214].

Excitations The lowest excitations above the tower of states can be built by lowering the spin

of one sublattice SA or SB by one, see Eq. (5). Let us set SA = N/4 and SB = N/4 1 which

implies that Stot {1, 2, . . . , N/2 1}. We can directly compute the energy E1 (Stot ) of these

excited states for each allowed Stot . The energy gap to the tower of states

is constant3 . Hence, the lowest excitations of the Lieb-Mattis model are static spinflips. The

next lowest excitations are spinflips on both sublattices, SA = SB = N/4 1 with excitation

energy Eexc2 = 2J and Stot {0, 1, . . . , N/2 2}. We observe that only the energy gap of the

TOS levels vanishes in the thermodynamic limit, so the TOS indeed solely contributes to the

groundstate manifold.

Quantum Fluctuations When we introduced the Lieb-Mattis model Eq. (3) from the Heisen-

berg model Eq. (2) we neglected all Fourier components except of k = (0, 0) and k = k0 . This

2

The groundstate of the Heisenberg model Eq. (1) on a bipartite sublattice with equal sized sublattices is also

proven to be a singlet state Stot = 0 by Marshalls Theorem [11, 9, 10].

3

This is an artifact of the infinite-range interaction in the Lieb-Mattis model. In the original Heisenberg model

these modes become gapless magnon excitations.

5

3 SYMMETRY ANALYSIS

was a quite crude approximation and it is not guaranteed that all results for the Lieb-Mattis

model will survive for the short-range Heisenberg model. To get some first results regarding

this question, we can introduce small quantum fluctuations on top of the Neel groundstate of

the Lieb-Mattis model and perform a perturbative spin-wave analysis in first order4 . This ap-

proach does not affect the scaling of the tower of states levels, but it has an important effect on

the excitations. They are not static particles anymore, but become spinwaves (magnons) with

a dispersion, which is linear around the ordering-wave vector k = k0 and k = (0, 0). On a

finite-size lattice the momentum space is discrete with a distance proportional to 1/L between

momentum space points, where L is the linear size of the system. The energy of the lowest

excitation above the TOS, the single magnon gap, therefore scales as Eexc J/L to zero5 .

As the scaling is, however, slower for d > 1-dimensional systems than the TOS scaling, these

levels do not influence the groundstate manifold in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the

excitation of two magnons results in a two-particle continuum above the magnon mode.

The properties of the TOS and its excitations are summarized in Fig. 1. The left figure shows the

general properties of the finite-size energy spectrum which can be expected when a continuous

symmetry group is spontaneously broken in the thermodynamic limit. The right figure depicts

the energy spectrum for the Heisenberg model on a square lattice with N = 32 sites, obtained

with Exact Diagonalization. One can clearly identify the TOS, the magnon dispersion and the

many-particle continuum. The existence of a Neel TOS was not only confirmed numerically

for the Heisenberg model on the square lattice, but also with analytical techniques beyond the

simplification to the Lieb-Mattis model [1, 13, 14]. The different symbols in Fig. 1 represent

different quantum numbers related to the space-group symmetries on the lattice. In the next

section we will see that the structure of these quantum numbers depends on the exact shape of

the symmetry-broken state and we will learn how to compute them.

3 Symmetry analysis

In the analysis of excitation spectra from Exact Diagonalization on finite size simulation clusters

the TOS analysis is a powerful tool to detect spontaneous symmetry breaking. As we have

seen in the previous chapter explicitly for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet, symmetry breaking

implies degenerate groundstates in the thermodynamic limit. On finite size simulation clusters

this degeneracy is in general not an exact degeneracy. We rather expect a certain scaling of the

energy differences in the thermodynamic limit. We distinguish two cases:

Discrete symmetry breaking: In this case we have a degeneracy of finitely many states

in the thermodynamic limit. The groundstate splitting on finite size clusters scales as

exp(N/), where N is the number of sites in the system.

4

A more detailed discussion can be found in [2].

5

In the thermodynamic limit the single magnon mode is gapless and has linear dispersion around k = k0 and

k = (0, 0). It corresponds to the well-known Goldstone mode which is generated when a continuous symmetry is

spontaneously broken.

6

What are the finite size manifestations of a continuous symmetry breaking ?

3 Low-energy

SYMMETRY dynamics of the order parameter

ANALYSIS

Theory: P.W. Anderson 1952, Numerical tool: Bernu, Lhuillier and others, 1992 -

Continuum

Energy

Magnons

Tower of

States

1/N 1/L

S(S+1)

Fig. 1: (Left): Schematic finite-size energy spectrum of an antiferromagnet breaking SU(2)

spin-rotational symmetry. The TOS levels are the lowest energy levels for each total spin S and

scale with 1/N to the groundstate energy. The low energy magnon excitations are seperated

from the TOS and a continuum of higher energy states and scale with 1/L. (Right): Energy

spectrum for the Heisenberg model on a square lattice from ED. The TOS levels are connected

by a dashed line. The single magnon dispersion (green boxes) with Stot {1, 2, . . . } are well

separated from the TOS and the higher multi-particle continuum. The different symbols repre-

sent quantum numbers related to space-group symmetries and agree with the expectations for a

Neel state (See section 3).

finitely degenerate. The states belonging to this degenerate manifold collapse as 1/N

on finite size clusters as we have seen in section 2. It is important to understand that these

states are not the Goldstone modes of continuous symmetry breaking. Both the degen-

erate groundstate and the Goldstone modes appear as low energy levels on finite size

clusters but have different scaling behaviours.

The scaling of these low energy states can now be investigated on finite size clusters. More

importantly also their quantum numbers such as momentum, pointgroup representation or total

spin can be predicted [2, 7, 15]. The detection of correct scaling behaviour together with cor-

rectly predicted quantum numbers yields very strong evidence that the system spontaneously

breaks symmetry in the way that has been anticipated. This is the TOS method. In the fol-

lowing we will discuss how to predict the quantum numbers for discrete as well as continuous

symmetry breaking. The main mathematical tool we use is the character-formula from basic

group representation theory.

Lattice Hamiltonians like a Heisenberg model often have a discrete symmetry group arising

from translational invariance, pointgroup invariance or some discrete local symmetry, like a

spinflip symmetry. In this chapter we will first discuss the representation theory and the charac-

ters of the representations of space groups on finite lattices. We will then see how this helps us

to predict the representations of the degenerate ground states in discrete as well as continuous

symmetry breaking.

7

3.1 Representation theory for space groups 3 SYMMETRY ANALYSIS

For finite discrete groups such as the space group of a finite lattice the full set of irreducible

representations (irreps) can be worked out. Let us first discuss some basic groups. Lets con-

sider a n n square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and a translationally invariant

Hamiltonian like the Heisenberg model on it. In the following we will set the lattice spacing to

a = 1. The discrete symmetry group we consider is T = Zn Zn corresponding to the group

of translations on this lattice. This is an Abelian group of order n2 . Its representations can be

labeled by the momentum vectors k = ( 2i n

, 2j

n

), i, j {0, , n 1} which just correspond

to the reciprocal Bloch vectors defined on this lattice. Put differently, the vectors k are the re-

ciprocal lattice points of the lattice spanned by the simulation torus of our n n square lattice.

The character k of the k-representation is given by

k (t) = eikt

where t T is the vector of translation. This is just the usual Bloch factor for translationally

invariant systems.

Let us now consider a (symmorphic) space group of the form D = T PG as the discrete

symmetry group of the lattice where PG is the pointgroup of the lattice. For a model on a

n n square lattice this could for example be the dihedral group of order 8, D4 , consisting of

fourfold rotations together with reflections. The representation theory and the character tables

of these point groups are well-established. An example for such character tables can be found in

Tabs. 1 and 4 for the cyclic group C4 and the dihedral group D6 6 . Since D is now a product of

the translation and the point group we could think that the irreducible representations of D are

simply given by the product representations (k ) where k labels a momentum representation

and an irrep of PG. But here is a small yet important caveat. We have to be careful since

D is only a semidirect product of groups as translations and pointgroup symmetries do not

necessarily commute. This alters the representation theory for this product of groups and the

irreps of D are not just simply the products of irreps of T and PG. Instead the full set of irreps

for this group is given by (k k ) where k is an irrep of the so called little group Lk of k

defined as

Lk = {g PG; g(k) = k}

which is just the stabilizer of k in PG. For example, all pointgroup elements leave k = (0, 0)

invariant, thus the little group of k = (0, 0) is the full pointgroup PG. In general, this does

not hold for other momenta and only a subgroup of PG will be the little group of k. In Fig. 4

we show the k-points of a 6 6 triangular lattice together with its little groups as an example.

The K point in the Brillouin zone has a D3 little group, the M point a D2 little group. Having

discussed the represenation theory for (symmorphic) space groups we state that the characters

6

We follow the labeling scheme for point group representations according to Mulliken [16].

8

3 SYMMETRY ANALYSIS 3.2 Predicting irreducible representations

(k,k ) (t, p) = eikt k (p)

where t T , p PG and k denotes the character of the representation k of the little group

Lk .

ing

Spontaneous symmetry breaking at T = 0 occurs when the groundstate |GS i of H in the

thermodynamic limit is not invariant under the full symmetry group G of H. We will call a

specific groundstate |GS i a prototypical state and the groundstate manifold is defined by

i

VGS = span |GS i

i

where |GS i is the set of degenerate groundstates in the thermodynamic limit. This groundstate

manifold space can be finite or infinite dimensional depending on the situation. For breaking a

discrete finite symmetry, such as in the example given in section 4.1.2, this groundstate mani-

fold will be finite dimensional, for breaking continuous SO(3) spin rotational symmetry7 as in

section 4.2 it is infinite dimensional in the thermodynamic limit. For every symmetry g G

we denote by Og the symmetry operator acting on the Hilbert space. The groundstate manifold

becomes degenerate in the thermodynamic limit and we want to calculate the quantum numbers

of the groundstates in this manifold. Another way of saying this is that we want to compute the

irreducible representations of G to which the groundstates belong to. For this we look at the

action of the symmetry group G on VGS defined by

:G Aut(VGS ) (7)

i j

g 7 hGS |Og |GS i i,j

This is a representation of G on VGS , so every group element g G is mapped to an invertible

matrix on VGS . In general this representation is reducible and can be decomposed into a direct

sum of irreducible representations M

= n

These irreducible representations are the quantum numbers of the eigenstates in the ground-

state manifold and n are its respective multiplicities (or degeneracies). Therefore these irreps

constitute the TOS for spontaneous symmetry breaking [2]. To compute the multiplicities we

can use a central result from representation theory, the character formula

1 X

n = (g) Tr( (g)) (8)

|G| gG

7

The actual symmetry group of Heisenberg antiferromagnets is usually SU(2). For simplicity we only consider

the subgroup SO(3) in these notes which yields the same predictions for the case of sublattices with even number

of sites (corresponding to integer total sublattice spin).

9

4 EXAMPLES

where (g) is the character of the representation and Tr( (g)) denotes the trace over the

representation matrix (g) as defined in Eq. (7). Often we have the case that

1 if O | 0 i = | i

0 g GS GS

hGS |Og |GS i =

0 otherwise

With this we can simplify Eq. (8) to what we call the character-stabilizer formula

1 X

n = (g) (9)

|Stab(|GS i)|

gStab(|GS i)

where

Stab(|GS i) {g G : Og |GS i = |GS i}

is the stabilizer of a prototypical state |GS i 8 . We see that for applying the character-stabilizer

formula in Eq. (9) only two ingredients are needed:

We want to remark that in the case of G = D C where D is a discrete symmetry group such

as the spacegroup of a lattice and C is a continuous symmetry group such as SO(3) rotations for

Heisenberg spins the Eqs. (8) and (9) include integrals over Lie groups additionally to the sum

over the elements of the discrete symmetry group D. Furthermore also the characters for Lie

groups like SO(3) are well-known. For an element R SO(3) the irreducible representations

are labeled by the spin S and its characters are given by

sin (S + 21 )

S (R) =

sin 2

where [0, 2] is the angle of rotation of the spin rotation R. We work out several exam-

ples for this case in section 4.2 and compare the results to actual numerical data from Exact

Diagonalization.

4 Examples

4.1 Discrete symmetry breaking

In this section we want to apply the formalism of section 3 to systems, where only a discrete

symmetry group is spontaneously broken but not a continuous one. In this case, the ground-

state of the system in the thermodynamic limit is described by a superposition of a finite number

8

In some cases, the orbit of the prototypical state G. |GS i = {g G : Og |GS i} does not span the full set

i

of degenerate groundstates |GS i. In this case, we have to find a set of prototypical states with different orbits,

such that the union of these orbits spans the full groundstate manifold. Then, Eq. (9) has to be applied to each

prototypical state, individually, and the final multiplicity is the sum of the individual results.

10

4 EXAMPLES 4.1 Discrete symmetry breaking

of degenerate eigenstates with different quantum numbers. On finite-size systems, however, the

symmetry cannot be broken spontaneously and a unique groundstate will be found. The other

states constituting to the degenerate eigenspace in the thermodynamic limit exhibit a finite-size

energy gap which is exponentially small in the system size N , eN/ . The quantum

numbers of these quasi-degenerate set of eigenstates are defined by the symmetry-broken state

in the thermodynamic limit.

In section 2 we have seen that the classically ordered Neel state is a candidate to describe the

groundstate of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model Eq. (1) with J > 0 in the thermody-

namic limit on a bipartite lattice. The energy expectation value of this state on a single bond is

eNeel = J/4.

The state which minimizes the energy of a single bond is, however, a singlet state |S = 0i

formed by the two spins on the bond with energy eVB = 3J/4, called a valence bond (VB) or

dimer. A valence bond covering of an N -site lattice can then be described by a tensor product

of N/2 VBs, where each site belongs to exactly one VB9 . Another possible candidate for the

thermodynamic groundstate of Eq. (1) is then a superposition of all possible VB coverings with

only nearest neighbour VBs. Such states do not break the SU (2) spin-rotational symmetry as

Stot = 0 and are in general not eigenstates of the Hamiltonian: Acting with the operator Si Sj

between sites i and j belonging to two different VBs changes the VB configuration.

This manifold of VB coverings is highly degenerate. As the VB coverings are in general not

eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, they encounter quantum fluctuations. The energy corrections

due to these fluctuations are typically not equivalent for different coverings, although the bare

energies are identical. The VB coverings with the largest energy gain are selected by the fluc-

tuations as the true groundstate configurations. If this order-by-disorder mechanism [19, 20]

selects regular patterns of VB coverings, the discrete lattice symmetries can be spontaneously

broken in the thermodynamic limit, and a valence bond solid (VBS) can be formed. Fig. 2

and Fig. 3 show two different VBS states on the square lattice. VBSs show no long-range spin

order, but long-range dimer-correlations h(Sa Sa0 )(Sb Sb0 )i where a, a0 and b, b0 label sites

on individual dimers. In section 4.1.2 we will see how different VBS states can be identified

and distinguished by the quantum numbers of the quasi-degenerate groundstate manifold on

finite-size systems.

The groundstate of the Heisenberg model Eq. (1) on the square lattice is not a VBS but a Neel

state, which has a lower variational energy already on the classical level. Nevertheless, several

models featuring VBS groundstates are known in 1- and 2-D [2125]. Interestingly, in [26]

a model was proposed, which shows a direct continuous quantum phase transition between a

Neel state and a VBS. This transition exhibits very exotic, non-classical behaviour and is called

deconfined quantum critical point [27].

9

The set of all possible valence bond coverings with arbitrary length spans the full Stot = 0 sector of the models

Hilbert space and is overcomplete [17, 18].

11

4.1 Discrete symmetry breaking 4 EXAMPLES

Fig. 2. Four equivalent states can be found, indicating that there will be a four-fold quasi-

degenerate groundstate manifold. A cVBS breaks the translational and point-group symmetries

of an isotropic SU(2)-invariant Hamiltonian on the lattice spontaneously but not the continuous

spin symmetry group since it is a singlet and thus invariant under spin rotations.

Fig. 2: The four columnar VBS coverings of a square lattice. Valence bonds (spin singlets) are

indicated by blue ellipses.

In the following we use Eq. (9) to compute the symmetry sectors of the groundstate manifold.

The discrete symmetry group we consider is

G = D = T PG

vectors

t1 = (0, 0), tx = (1, 0), ty = (0, 1), txy = (1, 1)

and PG = C4 denotes the point-group of four-fold lattice rotations10 . To compute the ground-

state symmetry sectors we do not need to consider the full symmetry group G but only the

stabilizer Stab(|cV BS i), leaving one of the states in Fig. 2 unchanged. Without loss of gener-

ality we choose the first covering as prototype |cV BS i. The stabilizer is given by

where C2 denotes the rotation about an angle around the center of a plaquette.

The irreducible representations (irreps) of the group of lattice translations T can be labelled by

the allowed momenta k

k (t) = eikt .

The irreps (called A, B and E, see [16]) and characters for the point-group C4 are tabulated in

Tab. 1.

10

The dihedral group D4 is also a symmetry group of the model. For the sake of simplicity we decided to only

consider the subgroup C4 in this section.

12

4 EXAMPLES 4.1 Discrete symmetry breaking

C4 1 C4 C2 (C4 )3

A +1 +1 +1 +1

B +1 -1 +1 -1

Ea +1 +i -1 -i

Eb +1 -i -1 +i

Using the character-stabilizer formula Eq. (9) we can now reduce the representation induced

by the state |cV BS i to irreducible representations to get the quantum numbers of the quasi-

degenerate groundstate manifold. Let us explicitely consider k = (0, 0) as an example:

1 X

n(0,0)A = n(0,0)B = A (d)k=(0,0) (d)

|Stab(|cV BS i)|

dStab(|cV BS i)

1

1 eik(0,0) + 1 eik(0,0) + 1 eik(0,1) + 1 eik(0,1) = 1

=

4

1 X

n(0,0)Ea = n(0,0)Eb = B (d)k=(0,0) (d)

|Stab(|cV BS i)|

dStab(|cV BS i)

1

1 eik(0,0) + (1) eik(0,0) + 1 eik(0,1) + (1) eik(0,1) = 0

=

4

Eventually, the cVBS covering will be described by a four-fold quasi-degenerate groundstate

manifold with the following quantum numbers11 .

VBS states are a superposition of spin singlets on the lattice, therefore the spin quantum number

for all levels in the groundstate manifold must be trivial, Stot = 0.

Staggered valence-bond solid The columnar VBS is not the only regular dimer covering of

the square lattice. Another possible regular covering is the staggered VBS (sVBS), where again

four equivalent configurations span the groundstate manifold. One of these configurations is

shown in Fig. 3.

Similarly, also the sVBS spontaneously breaks the translational and point-group symmetries

of an isotropic Hamiltonian, but not the spin-rotational symmetry. Following the same steps

as before we can compute the quantum numbers of the four quasi-degenerate groundstates for

the sVBS. The stabilizer turns out to be different to the case of the cVBS and thus also the

decomposition into irreps yields a different result:

11

The little group k for the momenta k = (0, ) and k = (, 0) is only the subgroup C2 of 2-fold roations

of the symmetry group C4 considered in this example. The irrep called A therefore denotes the trivial irreducible

representation of C2 for these momenta. When computing the multiplicities for these momenta one should also

note, that two prototype states have to be considered to span the full groundstate manifold under the symmetry

elements of C2 .

13

4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking 4 EXAMPLES

Fig. 3: One of the four identical staggered VBS coverings on the square lattice.

Tab. 2 shows a comparison of the irreducible representations in the groundstate manifold of the

cVBS and sVBS states.

(0, 0) A 1 1

(0, 0) B 1 1

(, 0) A 1 0

(0, ) A 1 0

(, )Ea 0 1

(, )Eb 0 1

manifolds of the columnar and staggered VBS on a square lattice.

By a careful analysis of the quasi-degenerate states and their quantum numbers on finite systems

it is thus possible to identify and distinguish different VBS phases which spontaneously break

the space group symmetries in the thermodynamic limit.

In this section we give several examples of systems breaking continuous SO(3) symmetry. We

discuss the introductory example of the square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, calculate the

irreps in the TOS and compare this to actual energy spectra from Exact Diagonalization on a

finite lattice in section 4.2.1. In section 4.2.2 we discuss three magnetic orders on the triangular

lattice and an extended Heisenberg model where all of these are stabilized. We present results

from Exact Diagonalization and compare the representations in these spectra to the predictions

from TOS analysis. Finally, we introduce quadrupolar order and show that also this kind of

symmetry breaking can be analyzed using the TOS technique in section 4.2.3.

We now give a first example how the TOS method can be applied to predict the structure of the

tower of states for magnetically ordered phases. We look at the Neel state of the antiferromagnet

on the bipartite square lattice with sublattices A and B. A prototypical state in the groundstate

14

4 EXAMPLES 4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking

manifold is given by

|i = | i

where all spins point up on sublattice A and down on sublattice B. The symmetry group G =

D C of the model we consider is a product between discrete translational symmetry D =

Z2 Z2 = {1, tx , ty , txy } and spin rotational symmetry C = SO(3). We remark that we restrict

our translational symmetry group to D = Z2 Z2 instead of D0 = Z Z because the Neel

state transforms trivially under two-site translations (tx )2 , (ty )2 . Thus, only the representations

of D0 trivial under two-site translations are relevant; these are exactly the representations of D.

Put differently we only have to consider the translations in the unitcell of the magnetic structure

which in the present case can be chosen as a 2-by-2 cell. Furthermore, we will for now neglect

pointgroup symmetries like rotations and reflections of the lattice to simplify calculations. At

the end of this section we give results where also these symmetry elements are incorporated.

The groundstate manifold VGS we consider are the states related to |i by an element of the

symmetry group G, i.e.

VGS = {Og |i ; g G}

The symmetry elements in G that leave our prototypical state |i invariant are given by two sets

of elements:

No translation in real space or a diagonal txy translation together with a spin rotation

Rz () around the z-axis with an arbitrary angle .

a z perpendicular to the z-axis.

The representations of the discrete symmetry group can be labeled by four momenta k

{(0, 0), (0, ), (, 0), (, )} with corresponding characters

k (t) = eikt

where t denotes the translation vector corresponding to t. The continuous symmetry group

we consider is the Lie group SO(3). Its representations are labeled by the total spin S. The

character of the spin-S representation is given by

sin (S + 21 )

S (R) =

sin 2

where [0, 2] is the angle of rotation of the element R SO(3). We see that spin rotations

with different axes but same rotational angle give rise to the same character. The representations

15

4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking 4 EXAMPLES

of the total symmetry group G = D C are now just the product representations of D and C.

Therefore also the characters of representations of G are the product of characters of D and C.

We label these representations by (k, S) where k denotes the lattice momentum and S the total

spin. To derive the multiplicities of the representations (k, S) in the groundstate manifold, we

now apply the character-stabilizer formula, Eq. (9). In the case of the square antiferromagnet

this yields

Z2 Z2

1 1

n(k,S) = eik0 dS (Rz ()) + eik(ex +ey ) dS (Rz ())

4 |Rz ()| 4 |Rz ()|

0 0

Z2 2

1 1

Z

+ eikex daS (Ra ()) + eikey daS (Ra ())

4 |Ra ()| 4 |Ra ()|

0 0

We compute

Z2

|Rz ()| = |Ra ()| = d = 2

0

Z2 Z2 Z2 S

sin (S + 21 )

1 1 1 X

dS (Rz ()) = d = d eil = 1 (10)

2 2 sin 2 2 l=S

0 0 0

and

Z2 Z2

sin (S + 12 )

1 1

daS (Ra ()) = da = (1)S (11)

2 2 sin 2

0 0

Putting this together gives the final result for the multiplicities of the representations in the tower

of states

(

1 1 if S even

1 1 + 1 1 + 1 (1)S + 1 (1)S =

n((0,0),S) =

4 0 if S odd

(

1 0 if S even

1 1 + 1 1 1 (1)S 1 (1)S =

n((,),S) =

4 1 if S odd

1

1 1 1 1 + 1 (1)S 1 (1)S = 0

n((0,),S) =

4

1

1 1 1 1 1 (1)S + 1 (1)S = 0

n((,0),S) =

4

Tab. 3 lists the computed multiplicities of the irreducible representations where additionally the

D4 point group was considered in the symmetry analysis. These irreps and their multiplicities

exactly agree with the irreps and multiplicities in the TOS of the square lattice Heisenberg

model from ED in Fig. 1. The spectroscopic predictions together with the numerical data thus

constitute a firm and solid evidence of Neel order.

16

4 EXAMPLES 4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking

S .A1 M .A1

0 1 0

1 0 1

2 1 0

3 0 1

Table 3: Multiplicities of irreducible representations in the TOS for the Neel Antiferromagnet

on a square lattice.

On the triangular lattice several magnetic orders can be stabilized. The Heisenberg nearest

neighbour model has been shown to have a 120 Neel ordered groundstate where spins on

neighbouring sites align in an angle of 120 [28,29]. Upon adding further second nearest neigh-

bour interactions J2 to the Heisenberg nearest neighbour model with interaction strength J1 it

was shown that the groundstate exhibits stripy order for J2 /J1 & 0.18 [30]. Here spins are

aligned ferromagnetically along one direction of the triangular lattice and antiferromagnetically

along the other two. Interestingly, it was shown that a phase exists between these two magnetic

orders whose exact nature is unclear until today. Several articles propose that in this region

an exotic quantum spin liquid is stabilized [3134]. In a recent proposal two of the authors

established an approximate phase diagram of an extended Heisenberg model with further scalar

chirality interactions J Si (Sj Sk ) [35] on elementary triangles. The Hamiltonian of this

model is given by

X X X

H = J1 Si Sj + J2 Si Sj + J Si (Sj Sk ) (12)

hi,ji hhi,jii i,j,k4

Amongst the already known 120 Neel and stripy phases an exotic Chiral Spin Liquid and a

magnetic tetrahedrally ordered phase were found. Here we will only discuss the magnetic

orders appearing in this model. The non-coplanar tetrahedral order has a four-site unitcell where

four spins align such that they span a regular tetrahedron. In this chapter we discuss the tower

of states for the three magnetic phases in this model.

First of all Fig. 4 shows the simulation cluster used for the Exact Diagonalization calculations

in [35]. We chose a N = 36 = 6 6 sample with periodic boundary conditions. This sample

allows to resolve the momenta , K and M , amongst several others in the Brillouin zone.

The K and M momenta are the ordering vectors for the 120 , stripy and tetrahedral order.

Furthermore, this sample features full sixfold rotational as well as reflection symmetries (the

latter only in the absence of the chiral term, i.e. J = 0). Its pointgroup is therefore given by

the dihedral group of order 12, D6 . The little groups of the individual k vectors are also shown

in Fig. 4. For our tower of states analysis we now want to consider the discrete symmetry group

D = T D6

where T is the translational group of the magnetic unitcell. The full set of irreducible represen-

tations of this symmetry group is given by the set (k k ) where k denotes the momentum and

17

4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking 4 EXAMPLES

Fig. 4: (Left): Simulation cluster for the Exact Diagonalization calculations. (Center): Brillouin

zone of the triangular lattice with the momenta which can be resolved with this choice of the

simulation cluster. Different symbols denote the little groups of the corresponding momentum.

(Right): TOS for the 120 Neel order on the triangular lattice. The symmetry sectors and

multiplicities fulfill the predictions from the symmetry analysis (See Tab. 5). One should note,

that the multiplicities grow with Stot for non-collinear states.

k is an irrep of the little group associated to k. The points , K and M give rise to the little

groups D6 , D3 and D2 (the dihedral groups of order 12, 8, and 4), respectively. For the stripy

and tetrahedral order we can choose a 2 2 magnetic unitcell, and a 3 3 unitcell for the 120

Neel order. The spin rotational symmetry gives rise to the continuous symmetry group

C = SO(3)

We can therefore label the full set of irreps as (k, k , S) where S denotes the total spin S

representation of SO(3). Similarly to the previous chapter we now want to apply the character-

stabilizer formula, Eq. (9), to determine the multiplicities of the representations forming the

tower of states. The characters of the irreps (k, k , S) are given by

sin (S + 21 )

ikt

(k,k ,S) (t, p, R) = e k (p)

sin 2

where again [0, 2] is the angle of rotation of the spin rotation R. The characters of

D6 1 2C6 2C3 C2 3d 3v

A1 1 1 1 1 1 1

A2 1 1 1 1 -1 -1

B1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1

B2 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1

E1 2 1 -1 -2 0 0

E2 2 -1 -1 2 0 0

18

4 EXAMPLES 4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking

Fig. 5: (Left): TOS for the stripy phase on the triangular lattice. The multiplicities for each

even/odd Stot are constant for collinear phases. (Right): TOS for the tetrahedral order on the

triangular lattice.

the pointgroup D6 are given in Tab. 4. We skip the exact calculations which follow closely

the calculations performed in the previous chapter, although now pointgroup symmetries are

additionally taken into account. The results are summarized in Tab. 5. We remark that the

S .A1 .B1 K.A1 .A1 .E2 M.A .A .E2a .E2b M.A

0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

2 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

3 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 2

Table 5: Multiplicities of irreducible representations in the Anderson tower of states for the

three magnetic orders on the triangular lattice defined in the main text.

tetrahedral order is stabilized only for J 6= 0 where the model in Eq. (12) does not have

reflection symmetry any more since the term Si (Sj Sk ) does not preserve this symmetry.

Therefore we used only the pointgroup C6 of sixfold rotation in the calculations of the tower of

states for this phase.

If we compare these results to Figs. 4,5 we see that these are exactly the representations appear-

ing in the TOS from Exact Diagonalization for certain parameter values J2 and J . This is a

strong evidence that indeed SO(3) symmetry is broken in these models in a way described by

the 120 Neel, stripy and tetrahedral magnetic prototype states.

It is worth noting, that the sum of the multiplicities is constant with Stot for collinear phases,

e.g. the stripy order shown here, whereas it is increasing for non-collinear orders.

All examples of continuous symmetry breaking we have discussed so far spontaneously broke

SO(3) symmetry but exhibited a magnetic moment. In the following we will show examples

19

4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking 4 EXAMPLES

of phases that do not exhibit any magnetic moment but break spin-rotational symmetry anyway

and discuss the influences on the tower of states. We will restrict our discussion to quadrupolar

phases in S = 1 models here, a broader introduction to nematic and multipolar phases can be

found in [8].

Quadrupolar states We denote the basis states for a single spin S = 1 with S z = 1, 1, 0

as |1i , |1i , |0i. In contrast to the usual S = 1/2 case not each basis state can be obtained by

a SU(2) rotation of any other basis state. The state |0i, for example cannot be obtained by a

rotation of |1i or |1i as it has no orientation in spin-space at all, h0|S |0i = 0 [8]. The state |0i

can, however, be described as a spin fluctuating in the x y plane in spin space as

We can thus assign a director d along the z-axis to this state. SU(2) rotations change the

director of such a state, but not its property of being non-magnetic. These states are identified

as quadrupolar states as they can be detected by utilizing the quadrupolar operator [8]

2

Q = S S + S S S(S + 1)

3

To study the possible formation of an ordered quadrupolar phase on a lattice, where the direc-

tors of the quadrupoles on each lattice site follow a regular pattern, we consider the bilinear-

biquadratic model with Hamiltonian

X

H= J Si Sj + Q (Si Sj )2 (13)

hi,ji

and S = 1. The second term in Eq. (13) can be rewritten in terms of the elements of Q which

can be rearranged into a 5-component vector Q such that

4

Qi Qj = 2(Si Sj )2 + Si Sj (14)

3

The expectation value of Eq. (14) for quadrupolar states on sites i and j is given in terms of

their directors di,j [8]:

2

hQi Qj i = 2 (di dj )2

3

Therefore, the second term in Eq. (13) favours regular patterns of the directors of quadrupoles.

When such states are formed, they spontaneously break SU(2) symmetry without exhibiting

any kind of magnetic moment. The first term in Eq. (13), on the other hand, favours magnetic

spin ordering as we have already discussed in previous sections.

The phase diagram of Eq. (13) on the triangular lattice shows extended ferromagnetic, antifer-

romagnetic (120 ), ferroquadrupolar (FQ) and antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) ordered phases. In

the FQ phase quadrupoles on each lattice site are formed with all directors pointing in a single

direction, whereas the directors form a 120 structure in the AFQ phase. In the following, we

will show that the FQ and AFQ phases can be identified and distinguished from the spin ordered

phases using the TOS analysis on finite clusters.

20

4 EXAMPLES 4.2 Continuous symmetry breaking

TOS for quadrupolar phases The TOS for the FQ and AFQ phases can be expected to show

similar behaviour as the TOS for magnetically ordered states as both spontaneously break the

spin-rotational symmetry. If we identify the symmetry-broken quadrupolar phases with their

directors pointing in any direction in spin-space we can perform the symmetry analysis of the

TOS levels in a very similar manner as for spin-ordered systems in the previous sections. There

is, however, one important thing to consider: The directors should not be considered to be

described with vectors, but with axes; a quadrupole is recovered (up to a phase) by rotations

about an angle around any axis a in the xy-plane:

a

eiS |0i = |0i (15)

Thus, the stabilizer in Eq. (9) is different for quadrupolar phases and the TOS shows a different

structure. This property makes it possible to distinguish, e.g., a magnetic 120 phase from its

quadrupolar counterpart, the AFQ phase using TOS analysis.

A prototype |i for the FQ phase is a product states of quadrupoles with directors in z-direction.

This state does not break any space-group symmetries, so only the trivial irreps of the space

group, k = = (0, 0), A1, will be present in the TOS. The remaining stabilizer of the spin-

rotation group is a rotation around the z-axis about an arbitrary angle and a rotation about an

angle around any axis lying in the xy-plane,

Stab(| i) = {Rz (), Ra ()}

The multiplicities in the TOS can then be computed as

Z 2 Z 2

1 1 N 1

nS = dS (Rz ()) + (1) daS (Ra ())

2 |Rz ()| 0 |Ra ()| 0

1

1 + (1)N (1)S

=

2

where the integrals have already been computed in Eqs. (10) and (11). The system size depen-

dent factor (1)N is imposed from Eq. (15). To sum up, the TOS for the FQ phase has single

levels for even (odd) S with trivial space-group irreps and no levels for odd (even) S sectors

when N is even (odd)12 . The absence of odd (even) S levels is caused by the invariance of

quadrupoles under -rotation and distinguishes the TOS for a FQ phase from a usual ferromag-

netic phase. In Fig. 6 the computed TOS for the model Eq. (13) in the FQ phase is shown on the

left. It shows the expected quantum numbers and multiplicities in the TOS and also an easily

identifiable magnon branch below the continuum.

The symmetry analysis for the AFQ phase can be performed in a similar manner and shows

a similar structure to the magnetic 120 -Neel phase, but again levels are deleted for the AFQ.

In this case, however, not all odd levels are deleted but some levels in both, odd and even, S

sectors. Tab. 6 shows the multiplicities of irreps in the TOS of the AFQ model in comparison to

the magnetic 120 -Neel state for even N . Fig. 6 shows the simulated TOS for the AFQ phase

for the bilinear-biquadratic model Eq. (13). The symmetry sectors and multiplicities agree with

the predictions.

12

For the simple case of the FQ phase one can also easily calculate the decomposition of a state |S = 1, m = 0i

|S = 1, m = 0i . . . into states |Stot , m = 0i with the use of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients.

21

5 OUTLOOK

Fig. 6: Tower of states for the ferroquadrupolar (left) and antiferroquadrupolar (right) states on

a triangular lattice with N = 12 sites from Exact Diagonalization. The single-magnon branch

for the FQ phase is highlighted with green boxes.

S .A1 .B1 K.A1 .A1 .B1 K.A1

0 1 0 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 1 1

2 0 0 1 1 0 2

3 0 1 0 1 2 2

Table 6: Irreducible representations and multiplicities for the AFQ phase compared to the mag-

netic 120 -Neel phase.

5 Outlook

In the previous sections we have discussed prominent features of the energy spectrum for states

which spontaneously break the spin-rotational symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. We have

seen that on finite-size systems the energy spectra of such states exhibit a tower of states (TOS)

structure. The tower of states scales as Stot (Stot + 1)/N and generates the groundstate manifold

in the thermodynamic limit N , which is indispensible to spontaneously break a sym-

metry. The quantum numbers of the levels in the TOS depend on the particular state which is

formed after the symmetry breaking and can be predicted using representation theory.

As a generalization to the SU(2)-symmetric Heisenberg model, Eq. (1), one can introduce SU(n)

Heisenberg models with n > 2. Such models can experimentally be realized by ultracold mul-

ticomponent fermions in an optical lattices. When the on-site repulsion is strong enough, the

Hamiltonian can be effectively described by an SU(n) symmetric permutation model on the

lattice [36]. If the exchange couplings are antiferromagnetic, SU(n) generalized versions of the

Neel state might be realized as groundstates, which then spontaneously break the SU(n) sym-

metry of the Hamiltonian. On finite systems this becomes again manifest in the emergence of

a tower of states, where the scaling is found to be proportional to C2 (n)/N [3740, 36]; C2 (n)

22

5 OUTLOOK

denotes the quadratic Casimir operator of SU(n)13 . The symmetry analysis of the levels in the

TOS can in principle be performed similar to the case of SO(3) discussed in these notes but the

symmetry group and its characters have to be replaced with the more complicated group SU(n).

On the other side, it can be also interesting to study models where the continuous symme-

try group is smaller. In real magnetic materials, the isotropic Heisenberg interaction is often

accompanied by other interactions which, when they are strong enough, might reduce the sym-

metry group of spin rotations to O(2); only spin rotations around an axis are a symmetry of the

system and can be spontaneously broken in the thermodynamic limit. This symmetry group is

also interesting in the field of ultracold gases, as BECs spontaneously break an O(2) symmetry

by choosing a phase. Tower of states can also be found in this case and the quantum numbers

and multiplicities of the TOS levels can be computed in a similar fashion [15].

= i - Square = 12 + 3

2 i - Triangular

16

14

12

N /c

10

(E E0)

6

Z2 even, ED/QMC

4

Z2 odd, ED/QMC

2 Z2 even, -exp

Z2 odd, -exp

0

0 1 2 2 5 0 1 3 2

Fig. 7: Universal torus spectrum for a continuous quantum phase transition in the 3D Ising uni-

versality class. Full symbols denote numerical results while empty symbols denote -expansion

results. The dashed line shows a dispersion with the speed of light.

We have seen, that the energy spectrum of Hamiltonians on finite lattices may contain a lot of

information about the system. One can identify groundstates which will spontaneously break

discrete as well as continuous symmetries in the thermodynamic limit and by imposing a classi-

cal state as symmetry broken state one can even predict the quantum numbers and multiplicities

of the levels in the tower of states or in the quasi-degenerate groundstate manifold. When we

impose an additional interaction to a system with spontaneously broken groundstate, e.g. a mag-

netic field, it is possible that a continuous quantum phase transition (cQPT) from the ordered

state to a disordered state appears for some critical ratio of the couplings. Such cQPTs are inter-

esting as they can be described by universal features which do not depend on most microscopic

details of the model. Interestingly, the energy spectrum on finite systems can even be used to

identify and characterize cQPTs. It is given by universal numbers times 1/L, where L = N

13

For n = 2 the quadratic Casimir operator C2 = Stot (Stot + 1).

23

5 OUTLOOK

is the linear size of the lattice. The quantum numbers of the energy levels show universal fea-

tures and are qualitatively related to the operator content of the underlying critical field theory,

although the relation between them is not yet fully understand for non-flat geometries, like a

torus [41, 42]. The critical spectrum for the transverse field Ising model on a torus is shown in

Fig. 7. It is a fingerprint for the 3D Ising cQPT.

24

REFERENCES REFERENCES

References

[1] P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 86, 694 (1952). doi:10.1103/PhysRev.86.694

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.86.694

http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0502464

Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp. 481511. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10589-0 18

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-10589-0_18

[4] A. W. Sandvik, A. Avella, and F. Mancini: In AIP Conf. Proc. (2010), Vol. 1297, pp. 135

338. doi:10.1063/1.3518900

http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.3281

[5] H. Suwa and S. Todo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 080601 (2015). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.

115.080601

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.080601

[6] E. Pavarini, E. Koch, J. van den Brink, and G. Sawatzky: Quantum Materials: Experi-

ments and Theory, Modeling and Simulation, Vol. 6 (Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich,

2016)

http://juser.fz-juelich.de/record/819465

[7] G. Misguich and P. Sindzingre, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 145202 (2007). doi:10.1088/

0953-8984/19/14/145202

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/19/14/145202

[8] K. Penc and A. M. Lauchli: Spin Nematic Phases in Quantum Spin Systems

(Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp. 331362. doi:10.1007/

978-3-642-10589-0 13

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-10589-0_13

[9] W. Marshall, Proc. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 232, 48 (1955). doi:

10.1098/rspa.1955.0200

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/

rspa.1955.0200

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jmp/3/4/10.

1063/1.1724276

Contemporary Physics (Springer New York, New York, NY, 1994). doi:10.1007/

25

REFERENCES REFERENCES

978-1-4612-0869-3

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4612-0869-3

[12] T. A. Kaplan, W. von der Linden, and P. Horsch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 4663 (1990). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.42.4663

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.42.4663

[13] P. Hasenfratz and F. Niedermayer, Zeitschrift fr Phys. B Condens. Matter 92, 91 (1993).

doi:10.1007/BF01309171

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01309171

[14] P. Azaria, B. Delamotte, and D. Mouhanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2483 (1993). doi:10.1103/

PhysRevLett.70.2483

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2483

[15] I. Rousochatzakis, A. M. Lauchli, and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. B 77, 094420 (2008). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.77.094420

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.77.094420

[17] S. Liang, B. Doucot, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 365 (1988). doi:10.1103/

PhysRevLett.61.365

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.365

[18] C. Lhuillier and G. Misguich: In C. Lacroix, P. Mendels, and F. Mila (Eds.) Introd. to

Frustrated Magn. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), Springer Series

in Solid-State Sciences, Vol. 164, pp. 2341. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10589-0

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-10589-0_2

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.2056

[21] J. Fouet, P. Sindzingre, and C. Lhuillier, Eur. Phys. J. B 20, 241 (2001). doi:10.1007/

s100510170273

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s100510170273

[22] A. Lauchli, S. Wessel, and M. Sigrist, Phys. Rev. B 66, 014401 (2002). doi:10.1103/

PhysRevB.66.014401

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.66.014401

[23] A. Lauchli, J. C. Domenge, C. Lhuillier, P. Sindzingre, and M. Troyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,

137206 (2005). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.137206

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.137206

26

REFERENCES REFERENCES

[24] M. Mambrini, A. Lauchli, D. Poilblanc, and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. B 74, 144422 (2006).

doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.74.144422

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.74.144422

[25] A. Gelle, A. M. Lauchli, B. Kumar, and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. B 77, 014419 (2008). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014419

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014419

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.227202

303, 1490 (2004). doi:10.1126/science.1091806

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1091806

[28] T. Jolicoeur, E. Dagotto, E. Gagliano, and S. Bacci, Phys. Rev. B 42, 4800 (1990). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.42.4800

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.42.4800

[29] A. V. Chubukov and T. Jolicoeur, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11137 (1992). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.

46.11137

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.46.11137

[30] P. Lecheminant, B. Bernu, C. Lhuillier, and L. Pierre, Phys. Rev. B 52, 6647 (1995). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.52.6647

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.52.6647

[31] Y. Iqbal, W.-J. Hu, R. Thomale, D. Poilblanc, and F. Becca, Phys. Rev. B 93, 144411

(2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.93.144411

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.144411

[32] R. Kaneko, S. Morita, and M. Imada, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 093707 (2014). doi:10.7566/

JPSJ.83.093707

http://journals.jps.jp/doi/10.7566/JPSJ.83.093707

[33] W.-J. Hu, S.-S. Gong, W. Zhu, and D. N. Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403 (2015). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403

[34] Z. Zhu and S. R. White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105 (2015). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.

041105

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105

[35] A. Wietek and A. M. Lauchli, Phys. Rev. B 95, 035141 (2017). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.

95.035141

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.035141

27

REFERENCES REFERENCES

[36] P. Nataf and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 127204 (2014). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.

127204

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.127204

[37] K. Penc, M. Mambrini, P. Fazekas, and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. B 68, 012408 (2003). doi:

10.1103/PhysRevB.68.012408

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.68.012408

[38] T. A. Toth, A. M. Lauchli, F. Mila, and K. Penc, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 265301 (2010).

doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.265301

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.265301

[39] P. Corboz, A. M. Lauchli, K. Penc, M. Troyer, and F. Mila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 215301

(2011). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.215301

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.215301

[40] P. Corboz, M. Lajko, K. Penc, F. Mila, and A. M. Lauchli, Phys. Rev. B 87, 195113 (2013).

doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.195113

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.195113

[41] M. Schuler, S. Whitsitt, L.-P. Henry, S. Sachdev, and A. M. Lauchli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117,

210401 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.210401

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.210401

[42] S. Whitsitt and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. B 94, 085134 (2016). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.94.

085134

http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.085134

28

- 3-SSH2673-Discrete_Mathematics.pdfUploaded byelijah
- gt12Uploaded byFernanda Zamorano
- Graph TheoryUploaded byAnonymous bkxc5ZX
- AntiferromagnetismUploaded byDeep Joshi
- Term SymbolsUploaded byMaria Anwar
- Group TheoryUploaded bydrew
- Magnetic Microscopy of Layered StructuresUploaded byZvezdanaKapija
- Fields w Siegel 9912205Uploaded bydrjoaom9225
- 2017 Fall 122Uploaded byKushagraSharma
- Science 2015 McGuinness 1073 4Uploaded byKyle Thomsen
- Combinatorial Group Theory PDFUploaded byCarlos
- 1007.0027Uploaded bySeverian
- 47. Geometric Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV on SE(3)Uploaded bynaderjsa
- Why is Schr¨odinger’s Equation LinearUploaded bycapitaotaylor
- CombinatorialGroupTheoryUploaded byShu Shujaat Lin
- Sadurni. Discrete symmetry in graphene the Dirac equation and beyond.pdfUploaded byAlex Peter Mundaca Malca
- QuantumUploaded byMimi Ryn
- Local Causality and Completeness-Bell vs. Jarrett - Travis Norsen CopyUploaded byEmileMD
- mathgen-1774123944Uploaded bymdp anon
- UntitledUploaded byRajneesh Perhate
- Maths III Transform & Disrete.pdfUploaded byDeepak sharma
- FLT6Uploaded byapi-26401608
- chap. twoUploaded byجابر الطوكي
- fields.utoronto.ca Blaise Pascal: David Hilbert's Problems.Uploaded byMark Richard Hilbert(Mark Richard Rossetti)
- Ozan Sabahattin Sariyer- Quantum Phenomenon in Anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg Spin Chains with Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Interactions: Renormalization-Group CalculationUploaded byPo48HSD
- [Weinberg, Witten] Limit on Massless ParticlesUploaded byjavoxmg
- v03a16Uploaded byDyvison Pimentel
- CFTUploaded byAdnan Ahmed
- Possible worldsUploaded byAditya Sinha
- whatBleep.pdfUploaded byRajesh Kumar

- Canonical Quantum Gravity and the Problem of Time.pdfUploaded byJohn Bird
- Differential Calculus on Manifolds with a Boundary. Applications.pdfUploaded byJohn Bird
- Geometry of Black Hole SpacetimesUploaded byJohn Bird
- Programmable DC Electronic Load 6310 Series - Operation & Programming ManualUploaded byJohn Bird
- The Detection of Gravitational Waves With LIGOUploaded byJohn Bird
- Spacetime and Fields, a Quantum Texture.pdfUploaded byJohn Bird
- Cosmology, Inflation, And the Physics of NothingUploaded byJohn Bird
- Obey 4 - User ManualUploaded byJohn Bird
- Convergent and Divergent Series in PhysicsUploaded byJohn Bird
- Canonical Quantum Gravity and the Problem of Time.pdfUploaded byJohn Bird
- Quantum Fluctuation RelationsUploaded byJohn Bird
- Obey_6_UM_Rev1_WO.pdfUploaded byIvan Dvorsty
- Spacetime and Fields, A Quantum TextureUploaded byJohn Bird
- Dynamical Casimir Effect and Surprises With Loop Corrections to ItUploaded byJohn Bird
- Solar, Supernova, And Atmospheric NeutrinosUploaded byJohn Bird
- Internal Constitution of Neutron and Strange StarsUploaded byJohn Bird
- Quantum Magnetism Approaches to Strongly Correlated ElectronsUploaded byJohn Bird
- Physical Processes in the Interstellar MediumUploaded byJohn Bird
- Lectures on the Bethe AnsatzUploaded byJohn Bird
- Computational Studies of Quantum Spin SystemsUploaded byJohn Bird
- Symmetries and Motions in ManifoldsUploaded byJohn Bird
- The Very Basics of Higher-Spin TheoryUploaded byJohn Bird
- A Short Introduction to Heavy-ion PhysicsUploaded byJohn Bird
- The Strange Spin of the NucleonUploaded byJohn Bird
- History of Spin and StatisticsUploaded byJohn Bird
- The Connection Between Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Field TheoryUploaded byJohn Bird
- Relativistic Quantum Theory With Fractional Spin and StatisticsUploaded byJohn Bird
- An Introduction to Spin Dependent Deep Inelastic ScatteringUploaded byJohn Bird
- Transistor - MOSFET Constant Current DriverUploaded byJohn Bird

- Turning Moment diagram & Flywheel.pptUploaded byAshishAgarwal
- Using Rbi Grade 81 a Comparative Study of Black Cotton Soil and Lateritic SoilUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- s0020-1693-2803-2900136-1Uploaded byRajan Panda
- Omnisens.comUploaded bymedesarrollo
- Worded ProblemsUploaded byNeill Sebastien Celeste
- Vvvf Inverter Mfc 20 30 Teil2 ThyssenUploaded byWorldtech Ascensores
- Input Impedance Analysis of Single-phase PFC ConvertersUploaded byCem Caneren
- Wilf Zeilberger PairUploaded byyossi1234
- 1228-1729-1-PBUploaded byGeraldo Eky
- Art Aviation Ah an 00 Brew GoogUploaded byviorelcroitoru
- BarbourUploaded byJae Senn
- Automatic License Plate RecognitionUploaded byCengiz Kaya
- Compresion DesignUploaded byFar Han
- Instrument Abbreviations Used in Instrumentation DiagramsUploaded byajayikayode
- Chapter 5Uploaded byOnkar Terkar
- Bingham Fluid Flow in a Plane Narrow slabUploaded byrachma tia
- eb01.pdfUploaded byBradCruise
- DocumentUploaded byDrizzle Ventura
- OdeUploaded byBob Cross
- Algebra Extra Credit Worksheet--Rotations and TransformationsUploaded byGambit King
- حلول سكشن 4.3.pdfUploaded bysaleh
- 2007-Ch-146Uploaded byAmna Rehman
- CAD CAM Question BankUploaded byrsdeshmukh
- CHM142L Experiment 2 Final ReportUploaded byLara Melissa Orense
- Solar Receiver AbstractsUploaded byBharath Subramaniam
- Washburn Thesis Chapter4Uploaded byhi
- (DEsign Manual) Hollow Section Structural StabilityUploaded byShaileshRastogi
- 2115.pdfUploaded byMahmood Mufti
- A Frictio: A frictional study of uncoated EBT steel sheets in a bestending under tension friction testnal Study of Uncoated EBT Steel Sheets in a Bending Under Tension Friction TestUploaded bymirzoti
- Crude OilUploaded byOscar Ramirez