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Chapter 5:

Business Software
Objectives
Explain the difference between application
software and system software
Enumerate the different generations of
programming languages and explain how
they differ
Cite the latest major developments in
application and system software
Identify and explain the roles of Web
programming languages
Objectives (continued)
Explain the types and uses of Web site
design tools
Clarify the differences between proprietary
software and open source software
List characteristics that are important in
evaluating packaged software applications
for business use
Understand the problem of software piracy
and how it affects businesses and
consumers
Software: Instructions to the
Hardware
Applications: computer programs that
contribute to productivity
Software: a series of instructions to a
computer to execute processes
Two major categories of software:
Application software: enables task
completion
System software:
Enables applications to run on a computer
Manages components and devices
Programming Languages
and Software Development Tools
Programs are needed for every computer
operation
Programming: process of writing programs
Machine language: the only language that
hardware understands
Consists of long strings of 0s and 1s
Assembly language: easier to program than
machine language because it uses words for
commands
High-level programming languages: use
English-like statements
Programming Languages and
Software Development Tools
(continued)
Software development tools: develop software
with little knowledge of programming languages
Third-generation languages (3GLs): known as
procedural languages
Programmer must detail logical procedure
Includes languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN,
BASIC, RPG, Pascal, and C
One 3GL statement = five to 10 assembly language
statements
Programming Languages and
Software Development Tools
(continued)
Fourth-generation languages (4GLs):
use more English-like statements
Speed up the development process
Built around database management systems
Include many preprogrammed procedures
One 4GL statement = several 3GL statements
Debugging: process of locating and fixing
program errors
Programming Languages and
Software Development Tools
(continued)
Visual Programming
Visual programming languages: create
graphical screen objects by selecting icons from
a palette
Common visual programming languages include:
Microsoft Visual Basic
Borland Delphi
Micro Focus COBOL
ASNA Visual RPG
Visual C++
Developer can still work at the code level
Visual Programming (continued)
Object-Oriented Programming
Object-oriented programming (OOP):
modular approach to programming
Advantages:
Ease of maintenance
Efficiency in application development
Object: contains data elements (data
members) and the methods to manipulate
that data
Data members can only be accessed through
the objects methods
Object-Oriented Programming
(continued)
Objects are reusable and are combined to create
complex programs
Popular OOP languages include Smalltalk, C++,
Object Pascal, and Java
Increasing amount of software developed for the
Web using languages such as Java, JavaScript,
J2EE, and PHP
Applet: code produced by a Web programming
language
Runs same way on different operating systems
Object-Oriented Programming
(continued)
Language Translation:
Compilers and Interpreters
Source code: program as originally
written by the developer
Object code: program in machine
language that can be run by the computer
Procedural languages need programs to
translate source code to object code
Two types of language translators:
Compilers
Interpreters
Language Translation:
Compilers and Interpreters
(continued)
Compiler: translates entire source code to
object code but does not execute the code
Scans for syntax errors
Generates error messages if syntax errors found
Interpreter: scans one statement at a time
If error-free, interprets and executes the statement
Goes through the program until an error or end of
program is encountered
Language Translation:
Compilers and Interpreters
(continued)
Application Software
Application software allows nonprogrammers to
develop their own tools
Application-specific software: programs
designed to perform specific jobs
General-purpose application software:
programs that serve multiple purposes
Usually comes as packaged software
Packaged software: software that is ready to
install from external storage media such as CDs
Office Productivity Applications
Productivity tools: assist normal office work
Include word processors, spreadsheets, presentation
tools, file/database software, graphics programs,
desktop publishing tools, and project management
applications
Word processors: used to create text
documents
Spreadsheets: store numbers and perform
complex mathematical, statistical, and financial
analysis functions
Office Productivity Applications
(continued)
Presentation tools: develop impressive
presentations quickly
File/database management tools: create and
manipulate local or shared databases
Graphics programs: create intricate graphical
images and manipulate digital photographs
Desktop publishing tools: develop items for
publication, such as pamphlets, newsletters,
cards, calendars, etc.
Office Productivity Applications
(continued)
Project management tools: help plan
projects and track progress
Suite: collection of various applications
that perform multiple interrelated functions
Includes Microsoft Office, Lotus SmartSuite,
OpenOffice.org, ThinkFree
Hypermedia and Multimedia
Hypermedia: a feature that enables users
to access information by clicking text or
graphics
Web page authoring tools: enable
hypermedia features
Often part of other applications such as word
processors and presentation tools
Hypermedia and Multimedia
(continued)
Multimedia software: handles many
different types of data
Often used in:
Education: lessons presented in multimedia
Training exercises
Compiling and integrating data for business
situations
Mashups
Mashup: an integrated application
containing some or all features from
several applications
Provides enhanced features for the end user
Web site design tools: used to change
the content of Web pages
Includes FrontPage, SharePoint Designer,
Expression Web from Microsoft, Adobe
Dreamweaver, and GoLive
Groupware
Groupware: an application that enables
workers to collaborate in real time over
Web
Integration of multimedia technology and Web
technology
Allows for remote collaboration
Eliminates travel times and facilitates
expression and exchange of ideas
Virtual Reality
Virtual reality (VR): an application that
mimics sensory reality using software
Simulates sight, hearing, and touch
Uses equipment such as goggles, gloves,
earphones, and moving bases
VR devices provide two elements:
Immersion: user senses that she/he is
surrounded by the simulated environment
Interaction: allows users to simulate changes
in the environment using VR devices
Virtual Reality (continued)
VR environment senses movement, responds to
signals, and provides feedback to user
Businesses use VR to decrease cost of planning
buildings, machines, and vehicles
Avatar: an imaginary figure used to represent
real person
VR on the Web includes public gathering
applications
Second Life: an imaginary world using avatars to
allow real people to meet and communicate
3D Geographic Software
Similar to virtual reality
Used to develop three-dimensional models
of geographic locations
Models are created from land and aerial
photographs
Helps with navigation when tied to global
positioning system software
Useful for city planners, service agencies,
tourism, and travel agencies
System Software
System software: deals with essential
operations between the user and
computer such as:
Loading, copying, and deleting files
Managing memory resources
Operating peripheral equipment
Encompasses compilers and interpreters
Applications must be compatible with
system software
Operating Systems
Operating system (OS): most important
program on the computer
Recognizes input from keyboard and mouse
Sends output to computer display
Keeps track of files and directories
Runs applications
Manages memory
Usually developed using low-level programming
languages such as assembly languages
Also known as platforms
Operating Systems (continued)
Application program interfaces (APIs):
software included in the OS that can be
used by application program developers
Utilities: perform other OS functions such
as:
Hardware diagnostics
Disk check
File sorting
Operating Systems (continued)
OSs position in logical operation of the
computer:
User interacts with user interface using
menus, icons, and application commands
Application converts user input into OS
commands
OS commands the CPU to carry out the
operation
Operating Systems (continued)
Operating Systems (continued)
OS must manage the system by allocating
hardware resources to applications
OS provides several services, including:
User interface
Memory allocation, including the use of
virtual memory (hard disk used as an
extension of RAM)
Plug-and-play (PnP): recognize and run a
device as soon as it is physically attached
Operating Systems (continued)
Driver: software that enables OS to
control a device
Additional OS services include:
Database management
Networking
Security
Different computers and types of
microprocessors use different OSs
Operating Systems (continued)
Popular PC operating systems
Windows XP and Windows Vista
Linux
Mac OS
Popular network OSs that are compatible with
DOS, Windows, and MAC clients include:
Netware
Windows Server
Linux: a free OS based on UNIX
Operating Systems (continued)
Other System Software
Other types of system software include:
Compilers and interpreters
Communications software
Utilities
Database management systems
Communications software: supports
transmission and reception of data across
computer networks
Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and
antispyware/antiadware programs
Open Source Software
Proprietary software: sold/licensed for profit
Source code is private and not available
Developer retains all rights to the software; user
purchases a license to use the software
Open source software: free source code
Developed through voluntary collaboration of
programmers
Fewer bugs because many programmers review the
code
Popular open source software includes Mozilla
Firefox, Thunderbird, MySQL, and PERL
Open Source Software (continued)
Not all free software is open source
Microsoft Internet Explorer is free but
proprietary
Linux: best known open source OS
Includes free versions and versions that
charge for support and additional features
Popular because of its versatility, but has
limited number of applications that run on it
Runs on mainframes, PCs, handhelds, and
electronic devices
Software Licensing
Software is usually licensed
Licensed software: provides limited
permission to use the software
Time-limited license requires annual fees
Several licensing models
Permissive model: anyone can use and sell
modified versions of the software
General public license (GPL): anyone can
use and make modified versions, but cannot
sell modified versions for profit
Considerations for Packaged
Software
Many goals and custom requirements are
considered during development process of
in-house software
Factors when purchasing large software
packages are more complex, including:
Cost
Time to implement
Cost of interrupting operations
Modification costs to customize the software
Summary
Software: a collective term for computer
programs
Two categories of software: system or application
Programming languages and software
development tools are used to develop software
Increasing amount of software is linked to the
Internet
Code written in non-machine language must be
translated by compilers or interpreters
Summary (continued)
Some application programs are custom
designed, and many are packaged
Office productivity tools such as word
processors and spreadsheets help
improve worker efficiency
Hypermedia and multimedia technology
are useful for training, education,
research, and business
Summary (continued)
Groupware combines hypermedia and
multimedia with Web technologies for
collaboration
Virtual reality tools help build models of
products and structures
Three-dimensional geographic software
helps model maps and locations
Many applications support Web services
and access to information on the Web
Summary (continued)
Most important system software is operating
system
Open source software is distributed freely via the
Web
Software is either purchased or licensed
Purchase decisions should evaluate suitability,
ease of learning, ease of use, vendor reputation,
expected quality of vendor support
Software piracy is still a significant problem
Array introduction
Used to process a collection of data all of
which is of the same type.
Behaves like a list of variables with a
uniform naming mechanism that can be
declared in a single line of simple code.